Translation: from latin

used by rustics to measure the depth of furrows

  • 1 clepsydra

        clepsydra ae, f, κλεψύδρα, an instrument for measuring time by water, water-glass, waterclock, clepsydra ; used to measure the time of a speaker; hence, cras ergo ad clepsydram, by the clock (of exercises in declamation): ad clepsydram latrare docere, to rant.
    * * *
    water-clock; (used for timing speakers); time of one clock (20 minutes)

    Latin-English dictionary > clepsydra

  • 2 quinaria

    Latin-English dictionary > quinaria

  • 3 ciconia

    cĭcōnĭa, ae, f., a stork, Plin. 10, 23, 32, § 63; Hor. S. 2, 2, 49; Ov. M. 6, 97; Juv. 14, 74 al.; at Praeneste called conia, Plaut. Truc. 3, 2, 23.—
    II.
    Meton.
    A.
    A derisory bending of the fingers in the form of a stork ' s bill, Pers. 1, 58; Hier. prol. in Sophon. Ep. 125, n. 18.—
    B. C.
    A transverse pole, moving upon a perpendicular post, for drawing water, etc. (syn. tolleno), Isid. Orig. 20, 15, 3.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > ciconia

  • 4 ad

       ad praep. with acc.    [cf. Eng. at].—Of approach (opp. to ab, as in to ex).    I. In space, to, toward: retorquet oculos ad urbem: una pars vergit ad septentriones, Cs.: tendens ad sidera palmas, V. —Fig.: ad alia vitia propensior, more inclined to. —Esp., ad dextram, sinistram, or laevam, to or on the right or left: ito ad dextram, T.: alqd ad dextram conspicere, Cs.: non rectā regione... sed ad laevam, L.—Designating the goal, to, toward: ad ripam convenire, Cs.: vocari ad cenam, H.: ad se adferre: reticulum ad narīs sibi admovebat (cf. accedit ad urbem, he approaches the city; and, accedit provinciae, it is added to the province).— Ad me, te, se, for domum meam, tuam, suam (in T. freq.): eamus ad me, T. — With gen., ellipt.: ad Dianae, to the temple of, T.: ad Castoris currere. — Used for dat: litteras dare ad aliquem, to write one a letter (cf. litteras dare alicui, to give a letter to one): domum ad te scribere: ad primam (epistulam) scribere, to answer.—Hence, librum ad aliquem mittere, scribere, to dedicate a book to one. —In titles, ad aliquem signifies to, addressed to.— With names of towns, ad answers to Whither? for the simple acc., i. e. to the vicinity of, to the neighborhood of: ad Aquinum accedere, approach: ut cum suis copiis iret ad Mutinam. — Of hostile movement or protection, against (cf. adversus): veniri ad se existimantes, Cs.: ipse ad hostem vehitur, N.: Romulus ad regem impetum facit (cf. in), L.: clipeos ad tela protecti obiciunt, V.: ad hos casūs provisa praesidia, Cs.—In war, of manner of fighting: ad pedes pugna venerat, was fought out on foot, L.: equitem ad pedes deducere, L.: pugna ad gladios venerat, L. — Emphatic of distance, to, even to, all the way to: a Salonis ad Oricum portūs... occupavit, Cs.: usque a Dianis ad Sinopum navigare. — Fig.: deverberasse usque ad necem, T.: virgis ad necem caedi.—Of nearness or proximity in gen. (cf. apud), near to, by, at, close by: ad forīs adsistere: Ianum ad infimum Argiletum fecit, L.: quod Romanis ad manum domi supplementum esset, at hand, L.: errantem ad flumina, V.; and ellipt.: pecunia utinam ad Opis maneret! — Of persons: qui primum pilum ad Caesarem duxerat, Cs.: ad me fuit, at my house: ad inferos poenas parricidi luent, among.—So, fig.: ad omnīs nationes sanctum, in the judgment of, Cs.: ut esset ad posteros monumentum, etc., L.: ad urbem esse (of a general outside of the walls): ad urbem cum imperio remanere, Cs.—With names of towns and verbs of rest: pons, qui erat ad Genavam, Cs.; and with an ordinal number and lapis: sepultus ad quintum lapidem, N.—    II. In time, about, toward: domum reductus ad vesperum, toward evening.—Till, until, to, even to, up to: usque ad hanc aetatem: ad multam noctem: amant ad quoddam tempus, until: quem ad finem? how long: ad quartam (sc. horam), H. — Hence, ad id (sc. tempus), till then: ad id dubios servare animos, L.— At, on, in, by: ad horam destinatam, at the appointed hour: frumentum ad diem dare. —    III. In number or amount, near, near to, almost, about, toward (cf. circiter): talenta ad quindecim coëgi, T.: annos ad quadraginta natus.—Adverb.: occisis ad hominum milibus quattuor, Cs.: ad duo milia et trecenti occisi, L.—Of a limit, to, unto, even to (rare): (viaticum) ad assem perdere, to the last farthing, H.: ad denarium solvere. —Esp., ad unum, to a single one, without exception: omnes ad unum idem sentiunt: exosus ad unum Troianos, V. —    IV. In other relations, with regard to, in respect of, in relation to, as to, to, in: ad honorem antecellere: nihil ad rem pertinet.—Ellipt.: rectene an secus, nihil ad nos: Quid ad praetorem? quid ad rem? i. e. what difference does it make? H.: quibus (auxiliaribus) ad pugnam confidebat, Cs.: ad speciem ornatus, ad sensum acerbus: mentis ad omnia caecitas: ad cetera paene gemelli, H.: facultas ad dicendum.—With words denoting measure, weight, manner, model, rule, etc., according to, agreeably to, after: taleis ad certum pondus examinatis, Cs.: ad cursūs lunae describit annum, L.: canere ad tibiam: carmen castigare ad unguem, to perfection (see unguis), H.: ad istorum normam sapientes: ad specus angustiae vallium (i. e. ad specuum similitudinem angustae valles), Cs. — With the cause or reason, according to, at, on, in consequence of, for, in order to: ad horum proces in Boeotiam duxit, on their entreaty, L.: dictis ad fallendum instructis, L.: causae ad discordiam, to produce dissension, T.: ad facinora incendere, S.: ad speciem tabernaculis relictis, for appearance, Cs.: ad id, for this use, as a means to that end, L.: ad id ipsum, for that my purpose, L.: delecto milite ad navīs, marines, L.: puer ad cyathum statuetur, H.: biiugi ad frena leones, yoked in pairs with bits, V.: res quae sunt ad incendia, Cs.: ad communem salutem utilius.—In comparison, to, compared with, in comparison with: terra ad universi caeli complexum: nihil ad tuum equitatum, Caesar.—    V. In adverbial phrases, ad omnia, withal, to crown all: ad omnia tantum advehi auri, etc., L.—Ad hoc and ad haec, moreover, besides, in addition: ad hoc, quos... postremo omnes, quos, etc., S. — Ad id quod, beside that (rare): ad id quod... indignitate etiam Romani accendebantur, L. — Ad tempus, at a definite, fixed time, C., L.; at a fit, appropriate time, L.; for some time, for a short time, L.; according to circumstances. — Ad praesens, for the moment, for a short time.—Ad locum, on the spot: ut ad locum miles esset paratus, L.—Ad verbum, word for word, literally. — Ad summam, on the whole, generally, in general; in a word, in short, C., H.—Ad extremum, ad ultimum, ad postremum, at the end, finally, at last; of place, at the extremity, at the top, at the end: ad extremum (teli) unde ferrum exstabat, L.; of time, at last, finally: ad extremum incipit philosophari; of order, finally, lastly; to the last degree, quite, L. — Quem ad finem? to what limit? how far? how long? Note.—a. Ad rarely follows its acc: quam ad, T.: quos ad, C.: ripam ad Araxis, Ta.—b. In composition, ad- stands before vowels, b, d, f, h, i consonant, m, n, q, v, and mostly before l, r, s; acbefore c; but very often ad- before cl-, cr-, and cu-; ag- or ad- before g; ap- or ad- before p; atbefore t; but a- or ad- before gn, sp, sc, st.
    * * *
    I II
    to, up to, towards; near, at; until, on, by; almost; according to; about w/NUM

    Latin-English dictionary > ad

  • 5 urna

        urna ae, f    [1 VAS-], a vessel of baked clay, vessel for drawing water, water-pot, water-jar, urn: fictilis, O.: stetit urna Sicca, H.: Caelata (of a river-god), V.— A voting-urn, ballot-box: senatorum: leges minitatur et urnam, H.— An urn for lots, vessel for drawing lots: educit ex urnā trīs (iudices): stat ductis sortibus urna, V.: omnium Versatur urna, H.: Omne capax movet urna nomen, Cs.: nomina in urnam coicere, L.— A vessel for the ashes of the dead, cinerary urn: Quodque rogis superest unā requiescit in urnā, O.— A money-pot, money-jar: argenti, H.—As a liquid measure, an urna, half an amphora (about two and a half gallons): urnae crater capax, Iu.
    * * *
    pot; cinerary urn, urn used for drawing lots; voting urn; water jar, urna13 l.

    Latin-English dictionary > urna

  • 6 ab

    ăb, ā, abs, prep. with abl. This IndoEuropean particle (Sanscr. apa or ava, Etr. av, Gr. upo, Goth. af, Old Germ. aba, New Germ. ab, Engl. of, off) has in Latin the following forms: ap, af, ab (av), au-, a, a; aps, abs, as-. The existence of the oldest form, ap, is proved by the oldest and best MSS. analogous to the prep. apud, the Sanscr. api, and Gr. epi, and by the weakened form af, which, by the rule of historical grammar and the nature of the Latin letter f, can be derived only from ap, not from ab. The form af, weakened from ap, also very soon became obsolete. There are but five examples of it in inscriptions, at the end of the sixth and in the course of the seventh century B. C., viz.:

    AF VOBEIS,

    Inscr. Orell. 3114;

    AF MVRO,

    ib. 6601;

    AF CAPVA,

    ib. 3308;

    AF SOLO,

    ib. 589;

    AF LYCO,

    ib. 3036 ( afuolunt =avolant, Paul. ex Fest. p. 26 Mull., is only a conjecture). In the time of Cicero this form was regarded as archaic, and only here and there used in account-books; v. Cic. Or. 47, 158 (where the correct reading is af, not abs or ab), and cf. Ritschl, Monum. Epigr. p. 7 sq.—The second form of this preposition, changed from ap, was ab, which has become the principal form and the one most generally used through all periods—and indeed the only oue used before all vowels and h; here and there also before some consonants, particularly l, n, r, and s; rarely before c, j, d, t; and almost never before the labials p, b, f, v, or before m, such examples as ab Massiliensibus, Caes. B. C. 1, 35, being of the most rare occurrence.—By changing the b of ab through v into u, the form au originated, which was in use only in the two compounds aufero and aufugio for abfero, ab-fugio; aufuisse for afuisse, in Cod. Medic. of Tac. A. 12, 17, is altogether unusual. Finally, by dropping the b of ab, and lengthening the a, ab was changed into a, which form, together with ab, predominated through all periods of the Latin language, and took its place before all consonants in the later years of Cicero, and after him almoet exclusively.—By dropping the b without lengthening the a, ab occurs in the form a- in the two compounds a-bio and a-perio, q. v.—On the other hand, instead of reducing ap to a and a, a strengthened collateral form, aps, was made by adding to ap the letter s (also used in particles, as in ex, mox, vix). From the first, aps was used only before the letters c, q, t, and was very soon changed into abs (as ap into ab):

    abs chorago,

    Plaut. Pers. 1, 3, 79 (159 Ritschl):

    abs quivis,

    Ter. Ad. 2, 3, 1:

    abs terra,

    Cato, R. R. 51;

    and in compounds: aps-cessero,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 1, 24 (625 R.); id. ib. 3, 2, 84 (710 R): abs-condo, abs-que, abs-tineo, etc. The use of abs was confined almost exclusively to the combination abs te during the whole ante-classic period, and with Cicero till about the year 700 A. U. C. (=B. C. 54). After that time Cicero evidently hesitates between abs te and a te, but during the last five or six years of his life a te became predominant in all his writings, even in his letters; consequently abs te appears but rarely in later authors, as in Liv. 10, 19, 8; 26, 15, 12;

    and who, perhaps, also used abs conscendentibus,

    id. 28, 37, 2; v. Drakenb. ad. h. l. (Weissenb. ab).—Finally abs, in consequence of the following p, lost its b, and became ds- in the three compounds aspello, as-porto, and as-pernor (for asspernor); v. these words.—The late Lat. verb abbrevio may stand for adbrevio, the d of ad being assimilated to the following b.The fundamental signification of ab is departure from some fixed point (opp. to ad. which denotes motion to a point).
    I.
    In space, and,
    II.
    Fig., in time and other relations, in which the idea of departure from some point, as from source and origin, is included; Engl. from, away from, out of; down from; since, after; by, at, in, on, etc.
    I.
    Lit., in space: ab classe ad urbem tendunt, Att. ap. Non. 495, 22 (Trag. Rel. p. 177 Rib.):

    Caesar maturat ab urbe proficisci,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 7:

    fuga ab urbe turpissima,

    Cic. Att. 7, 21:

    ducite ab urbe domum, ducite Daphnim,

    Verg. E. 8, 68. Cicero himself gives the difference between ab and ex thus: si qui mihi praesto fuerit cum armatis hominibus extra meum fundum et me introire prohibuerit, non ex eo, sed ab ( from, away from) eo loco me dejecerit....Unde dejecti Galli? A Capitolio. Unde, qui cum Graccho fucrunt? Ex Capitolio, etc., Cic. Caecin. 30, 87; cf. Diom. p. 408 P., and a similar distinction between ad and in under ad.—Ellipt.: Diogenes Alexandro roganti, ut diceret, si quid opus esset: Nunc quidem paululum, inquit, a sole, a little out of the sun, Cic. Tusc. 5, 32, 92. —Often joined with usque:

    illam (mulierem) usque a mari supero Romam proficisci,

    all the way from, Cic. Clu. 68, 192; v. usque, I.—And with ad, to denote the space passed over: siderum genus ab ortu ad occasum commeant, from... to, Cic. N. D. 2, 19 init.; cf. ab... in:

    venti a laevo latere in dextrum, ut sol, ambiunt,

    Plin. 2, 47, 48, § 128.
    b.
    Sometimes with names of cities and small islands, or with domus (instead of the usual abl.), partie., in militnry and nautieal language, to denote the marching of soldiers, the setting out of a flcet, or the departure of the inhabitants from some place:

    oppidum ab Aenea fugiente a Troja conditum,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 33:

    quemadmodum (Caesar) a Gergovia discederet,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 43 fin.; so id. ib. 7, 80 fin.; Sall. J. 61; 82; 91; Liv. 2, 33, 6 al.; cf.:

    ab Arimino M. Antonium cum cohortibus quinque Arretium mittit,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 11 fin.; and:

    protinus a Corfinio in Siciliam miserat,

    id. ib. 1, 25, 2:

    profecti a domo,

    Liv. 40, 33, 2;

    of setting sail: cum exercitus vestri numquam a Brundisio nisi hieme summa transmiserint,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 12, 32; so id. Fam. 15, 3, 2; Caes. B. C. 3, 23; 3, 24 fin.:

    classe qua advecti ab domo fuerant,

    Liv. 8, 22, 6;

    of citizens: interim ab Roma legatos venisse nuntiatum est,

    Liv. 21, 9, 3; cf.:

    legati ab Orico ad M. Valerium praetorem venerunt,

    id. 24, 40, 2.
    c.
    Sometimes with names of persons or with pronouns: pestem abige a me, Enn. ap. Cic. Ac. 2, 28, 89 (Trag. v. 50 Vahl.):

    Quasi ad adulescentem a patre ex Seleucia veniat,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 3, 41; cf.:

    libertus a Fuflis cum litteris ad Hermippum venit,

    Cic. Fl. 20, 47:

    Nigidium a Domitio Capuam venisse,

    id. Att. 7, 24:

    cum a vobis discessero,

    id. Sen. 22:

    multa merces tibi defluat ab Jove Neptunoque,

    Hor. C. 1, 28, 29 al. So often of a person instead of his house, lodging, etc.: videat forte hic te a patre aliquis exiens, from the father, i. e. from his house, Ter. Heaut. 2, 2, 6:

    so a fratre,

    id. Phorm. 5, 1, 5:

    a Pontio,

    Cic. Att. 5, 3 fin.:

    ab ea,

    Ter. And. 1, 3, 21; and so often: a me, a nobis, a se, etc., from my, our, his house, etc., Plaut. Stich. 5, 1, 7; Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 50; Cic. Att. 4, 9, 1 al.
    B.
    Transf., without the idea of motion. To designate separation or distance, with the verbs abesse, distare, etc., and with the particles longe, procul, prope, etc.
    1.
    Of separation:

    ego te afuisse tam diu a nobis dolui,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 1, 2:

    abesse a domo paulisper maluit,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 18, § 39:

    tum Brutus ab Roma aberat,

    Sall. C. 40, 5:

    absint lacerti ab stabulis,

    Verg. G. 4, 14.—
    2.
    Of distance:

    quot milia fundus suus abesset ab urbe,

    Cic. Caecin. 10, 28; cf.:

    nos in castra properabamus, quae aberant bidui,

    id. Att. 5, 16 fin.; and:

    hic locus aequo fere spatio ab castris Ariovisti et Caesaris aberat,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 43, 1:

    terrae ab hujusce terrae, quam nos incolimus, continuatione distantes,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 66, 164:

    non amplius pedum milibus duobus ab castris castra distabant,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 82, 3; cf. id. lb. 1, 3, 103.—With adverbs: annos multos longinque ab domo bellum gerentes, Enn. ap. Non. 402, 3 (Trag. v. 103 Vahl.):

    cum domus patris a foro longe abesset,

    Cic. Cael. 7, 18 fin.; cf.:

    qui fontes a quibusdam praesidiis aberant longius,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 49, 5:

    quae procul erant a conspectu imperii,

    Cic. Agr. 2, 32, 87; cf.:

    procul a castris hostes in collibus constiterunt,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 17, 1; and:

    tu procul a patria Alpinas nives vides,

    Verg. E. 10, 46 (procul often also with simple abl.;

    v. procul): cum esset in Italia bellum tam prope a Sicilia, tamen in Sicilia non fuit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 6; cf.:

    tu apud socrum tuam prope a meis aedibus sedebas,

    id. Pis. 11, 26; and:

    tam prope ab domo detineri,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 3, § 6.—So in Caesar and Livy, with numerals to designate the measure of the distance:

    onerariae naves, quae ex eo loco ab milibus passuum octo vento tenebatur,

    eight miles distant, Caes. B. G. 4, 22, 4; and without mentioning the terminus a quo: ad castra contenderunt, et ab milibus passunm minus duobus castra posuerunt, less than two miles off or distant, id. ib. 2, 7, 3; so id. ib. 2, 5, 32; 6, 7, 3; id. B. C. 1, 65; Liv. 38, 20, 2 (for which:

    duo milia fere et quingentos passus ab hoste posuerunt castra,

    id. 37, 38, 5). —
    3.
    To denote the side or direction from which an object is viewed in its local relations,=a parte, at, on, in: utrum hacin feriam an ab laeva latus? Enn. ap. Plaut. Cist. 3, 10 (Trag. v. 38 Vahl.); cf.:

    picus et cornix ab laeva, corvos, parra ab dextera consuadent,

    Plaut. As. 2, 1, 12: clamore ab ea parte audito. on this side, Caes. B. G. 3, 26, 4: Gallia Celtica attingit ab Sequanis et Helvetiis flumen Rhenum, on the side of the Sequani, i. e. their country, id. ib. 1, 1, 5:

    pleraque Alpium ab Italia sicut breviora ita arrectiora sunt,

    on the Italian side, Liv. 21, 35, 11:

    non eadem diligentia ab decumuna porta castra munita,

    at the main entrance, Caes. B. G. 3, 25 fin.:

    erat a septentrionibus collis,

    on the north, id. ib. 7, 83, 2; so, ab oriente, a meridie, ab occasu; a fronte, a latere, a tergo, etc. (v. these words).
    II.
    Fig.
    A.
    In time.
    1.
    From a [p. 3] point of time, without reference to the period subsequently elapsed. After:

    Exul ab octava Marius bibit,

    Juv. 1,40:

    mulieres jam ab re divin[adot ] adparebunt domi,

    immediately after the sucrifice, Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 4:

    Caesar ab decimae legionis cohortatione ad dextrum cornu profectus,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 25, 1:

    ab hac contione legati missi sunt,

    immediately after, Liv. 24, 22, 6; cf. id. 28, 33, 1; 40, 47, 8; 40, 49, 1 al.:

    ab eo magistratu,

    after this office, Sall. J. 63, 5:

    a summa spe novissima exspectabat,

    after the greatest hope, Tac. A. 6, 50 fin. —Strengthened by the adverbs primum, confestim, statim, protinus, or the adj. recens, immediately after, soon after:

    ut primum a tuo digressu Romam veni,

    Cic. Att. 1, 5, 4; so Suet. Tib. 68:

    confestim a proelio expugnatis hostium castris,

    Liv. 30, 36, 1:

    statim a funere,

    Suet. Caes. 85;

    and followed by statim: ab itinere statim,

    id. ib. 60:

    protinus ab adoptione,

    Vell. 2, 104, 3:

    Homerus qui recens ab illorum actate fuit,

    soon after their time, Cic. N. D. 3, 5; so Varr. R. R. 2, 8, 2; Verg. A. 6, 450 al. (v. also primum, confestim, etc.).—

    Sometimes with the name of a person or place, instead of an action: ibi mihi tuae litterae binae redditae sunt tertio abs te die,

    i. e. after their departure from you, Cic. Att. 5, 3, 1: in Italiam perventum est quinto mense a Carthagine Nov[adot ], i. e. after leaving (=postquam a Carthagine profecti sunt), Liv. 21, 38, 1:

    secundo Punico (bello) Scipionis classis XL. die a securi navigavit,

    i. e. after its having been built, Plin. 16, 39, 74, § 192. —Hence the poct. expression: ab his, after this (cf. ek toutôn), i. e. after these words, hereupon, Ov. M. 3, 273; 4, 329; 8, 612; 9, 764.
    2.
    With reference to a subsequent period. From, since, after:

    ab hora tertia bibebatur,

    from the third hour, Cic. Phil. 2, 41:

    infinito ex tempore, non ut antea, ab Sulla et Pompeio consulibus,

    since the consulship of, id. Agr. 2, 21, 56:

    vixit ab omni aeternitate,

    from all eternity, id. Div. 1, 51, 115:

    cum quo a condiscipulatu vivebat conjunctissime,

    Nep. Att. 5, 3:

    in Lycia semper a terrae motu XL. dies serenos esse,

    after an earthquake, Plin. 2, 96, 98, § 211 al.:

    centesima lux est haec ab interitu P. Clodii,

    since the death of, Cic. Mil. 35, 98; cf.:

    cujus a morte quintus hic et tricesimus annus est,

    id. Sen. 6, 19; and:

    ab incenso Capitolio illum esse vigesumiun annum,

    since, Sall. C. 47, 2:

    diebus triginta, a qua die materia caesa est,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 36.—Sometimes joined with usque and inde:

    quod augures omnes usque ab Romulo decreverunt,

    since the time of, Cic. Vat. 8, 20:

    jam inde ab infelici pugna ceciderant animi,

    from the very beginning of, Liv. 2, 65 fin. —Hence the adverbial expressions ab initio, a principio, a primo, at, in, or from the beginning, at first; v. initium, principium, primus. Likewise ab integro, anew, afresh; v. integer.—Ab... ad, from (a time)... to:

    ab hora octava ad vesperum secreto collocuti sumus,

    Cic. Att. 7, 8, 4; cf.:

    cum ab hora septima ad vesperum pugnatum sit,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 26, 2; and:

    a quo tempore ad vos consules anni sunt septingenti octoginta unus,

    Vell. 1, 8, 4; and so in Plautus strengthened by usque:

    pugnata pugnast usque a mane ad vesperum,

    from morning to evening, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 97; id. Most. 3, 1, 3; 3, 2, 80.—Rarely ab... in: Romani ab sole orto in multum diei stetere in acie, from... till late in the day, Liv. 27, 2, 9; so Col. 2, 10, 17; Plin. 2, 31, 31, § 99; 2, 103, 106, § 229; 4, 12, 26, § 89.
    b.
    Particularly with nouns denoting a time of life:

    qui homo cum animo inde ab ineunte aetate depugnat suo,

    from an early age, from early youth, Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 24; so Cic. Off. 2, 13, 44 al.:

    mihi magna cum co jam inde a pueritia fuit semper famillaritas,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 2, 9; so,

    a pueritia,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 11, 27 fin.; id. Fam. 5, 8, 4:

    jam inde ab adulescentia,

    Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 16:

    ab adulescentia,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 1:

    jam a prima adulescentia,

    id. Fam. 1, 9, 23:

    ab ineunte adulescentia,

    id. ib. 13, 21, 1; cf.

    followed by ad: usque ad hanc aetatem ab incunte adulescentia,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 20:

    a primis temporibus aetatis,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 3, 3:

    a teneris unguiculis,

    from childhood, id. ib. 1, 6, 2:

    usque a toga pura,

    id. Att. 7, 8, 5:

    jam inde ab incunabulis,

    Liv. 4, 36, 5:

    a prima lanugine,

    Suet. Oth. 12:

    viridi ab aevo,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 10, 17 al.;

    rarely of animals: ab infantia,

    Plin. 10, 63, 83, § 182.—Instead of the nom. abstr. very often (like the Greek ek paioôn, etc.) with concrete substantives: a pucro, ab adulescente, a parvis, etc., from childhood, etc.:

    qui olim a puero parvulo mihi paedagogus fuerat,

    Plaut. Merc. 1, 1, 90; so,

    a pausillo puero,

    id. Stich. 1, 3, 21:

    a puero,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 36, 115; id. Fam. 13, 16, 4 (twice) al.:

    a pueris,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 24, 57; id. de Or. 1, 1, 2 al.:

    ab adulescente,

    id. Quint. 3, 12:

    ab infante,

    Col. 1, 8, 2:

    a parva virgine,

    Cat. 66, 26 al. —Likewise and in the same sense with adject.: a parvo, from a little child, or childhood, Liv. 1, 39, 6 fin.; cf.:

    a parvis,

    Ter. And. 3, 3, 7; Cic. Leg. 2, 4, 9:

    a parvulo,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 8; id. Ad. 1, 1, 23; cf.:

    ab parvulis,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 21, 3:

    ab tenero,

    Col. 5, 6, 20;

    and rarely of animals: (vacca) a bima aut trima fructum ferre incipit,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 13.
    B.
    In other relations in which the idea of going forth, proceeding, from something is included.
    1.
    In gen. to denote departure, separation, deterring, avoiding, intermitting, etc., or distance, difference, etc., of inanimate or abstract things. From: jus atque aecum se a malis spernit procul, Enn. ap. Non. 399, 10 (Trag. v. 224 Vahl.):

    suspitionem et culpam ut ab se segregent,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 42:

    qui discessum animi a corpore putent esse mortem,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 9, 18:

    hic ab artificio suo non recessit,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 20 al.:

    quod si exquiratur usque ab stirpe auctoritas,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 180:

    condicionem quam ab te peto,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 87; cf.:

    mercedem gloriae flagitas ab iis, quorum, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 15, 34:

    si quid ab illo acceperis,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 90:

    quae (i. e. antiquitas) quo propius aberat ab ortu et divina progenie,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 12, 26:

    ab defensione desistere,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 12, 4:

    ne quod tempus ab opere intermitteretur,

    id. B. G. 7, 24, 2:

    ut homines adulescentis a dicendi studio deterream,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 25, 117, etc.—Of distance (in order, rank, mind, or feeling):

    qui quartus ab Arcesila fuit,

    the fourth in succession from, Cic. Ac. 1, 12, 46:

    tu nunc eris alter ab illo,

    next after him, Verg. E. 5, 49; cf.:

    Aiax, heros ab Achille secundus,

    next in rank to, Hor. S. 2, 3, 193:

    quid hoc ab illo differt,

    from, Cic. Caecin. 14, 39; cf.:

    hominum vita tantum distat a victu et cultu bestiarum,

    id. Off. 2, 4, 15; and:

    discrepare ab aequitate sapientiam,

    id. Rep. 3, 9 fin. (v. the verbs differo, disto, discrepo, dissideo, dissentio, etc.):

    quae non aliena esse ducerem a dignitate,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7:

    alieno a te animo fuit,

    id. Deiot. 9, 24 (v. alienus). —So the expression ab re (qs. aside from the matter, profit; cf. the opposite, in rem), contrary to one's profit, to a loss, disadvantageous (so in the affirmative very rare and only ante-class.):

    subdole ab re consulit,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 1, 12; cf. id. Capt. 2, 2, 88; more frequently and class. (but not with Cicero) in the negative, non, haud, ab re, not without advantage or profit, not useless or unprofitable, adcantageous:

    haut est ab re aucupis,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 71:

    non ab re esse Quinctii visum est,

    Liv. 35, 32, 6; so Plin. 27, 8, 35; 31, 3, 26; Suet. Aug. 94; id. Dom. 11; Gell. 18, 14 fin.; App. Dogm. Plat. 3, p. 31, 22 al. (but in Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 44, ab re means with respect to the money matter).
    2.
    In partic.
    a.
    To denote an agent from whom an action proceeds, or by whom a thing is done or takes place. By, and in archaic and solemn style, of. So most frequently with pass. or intrans. verbs with pass. signif., when the active object is or is considered as a living being: Laudari me abs te, a laudato viro, Naev. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 31, 67: injuria abs te afficior, Enn. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 24, 38:

    a patre deductus ad Scaevolam,

    Cic. Lael. 1, 1:

    ut tamquam a praesentibus coram haberi sermo videretur,

    id. ib. 1, 3:

    disputata ab eo,

    id. ib. 1, 4 al.:

    illa (i. e. numerorum ac vocum vis) maxime a Graecia vetere celebrata,

    id. de Or. 3, 51, 197:

    ita generati a natura sumus,

    id. Off. 1, 29, 103; cf.:

    pars mundi damnata a rerum natura,

    Plin. 4, 12, 26, § 88:

    niagna adhibita cura est a providentia deorum,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 51 al. —With intrans. verbs:

    quae (i. e. anima) calescit ab eo spiritu,

    is warmed by this breath, Cic. N. D. 2, 55, 138; cf. Ov. M. 1, 417: (mare) qua a sole collucet, Cic. Ac. 2, 105:

    salvebis a meo Cicerone,

    i. e. young Cicero sends his compliments to you, id. Att. 6, 2 fin.:

    a quibus (Atheniensibus) erat profectus,

    i. e. by whose command, Nep. Milt. 2, 3:

    ne vir ab hoste cadat,

    Ov. H. 9, 36 al. —A substantive or adjective often takes the place of the verb (so with de, q. v.):

    levior est plaga ab amico quam a debitore,

    Cic. Fam. 9, 16, 7; cf.:

    a bestiis ictus, morsus, impetus,

    id. Off. 2, 6, 19:

    si calor est a sole,

    id. N. D. 2, 52:

    ex iis a te verbis (for a te scriptis),

    id. Att. 16, 7, 5:

    metu poenae a Romanis,

    Liv. 32, 23, 9:

    bellum ingens a Volscis et Aequis,

    id. 3, 22, 2:

    ad exsolvendam fldem a consule,

    id. 27, 5, 6.—With an adj.:

    lassus ab equo indomito,

    Hor. S. 2, 2, 10:

    Murus ab ingenic notior ille tuo,

    Prop. 5, 1, 126:

    tempus a nostris triste malis,

    time made sad by our misfortunes, Ov. Tr. 4, 3, 36.—Different from per:

    vulgo occidebantur: per quos et a quibus?

    by whom and upon whose orders? Cic. Rosc. Am. 29, 80 (cf. id. ib. 34, 97: cujus consilio occisus sit, invenio; cujus manu sit percussus, non laboro); so,

    ab hoc destitutus per Thrasybulum (i. e. Thrasybulo auctore),

    Nep. Alc. 5, 4.—Ambiguity sometimes arises from the fact that the verb in the pass. would require ab if used in the active:

    si postulatur a populo,

    if the people demand it, Cic. Off. 2, 17, 58, might also mean, if it is required of the people; on the contrary: quod ab eo (Lucullo) laus imperatoria non admodum exspectabatur, not since he did not expect military renown, but since they did not expect military renown from him, Cic. Ac. 2, 1, 2, and so often; cf. Rudd. II. p. 213. (The use of the active dative, or dative of the agent, instead of ab with the pass., is well known, Zumpt, § 419. It is very seldom found in prose writers of the golden age of Roman liter.; with Cic. sometimes joined with the participles auditus, cognitus, constitutus, perspectus, provisus, susceptus; cf. Halm ad Cic. Imp. Pomp. 24, 71, and ad ejusdem, Cat. 1, 7 fin.; but freq. at a later period; e. g. in Pliny, in Books 2-4 of H. N., more than twenty times; and likewise in Tacitus seventeen times. Vid. the passages in Nipperd. ad Tac. A. 2, 49.) Far more unusual is the simple abl. in the designation of persons:

    deseror conjuge,

    Ov. H. 12, 161; so id. ib. 5, 75; id. M. 1, 747; Verg. A. 1, 274; Hor. C. 2, 4, 9; 1, 6, 2;

    and in prose,

    Quint. 3, 4, 2; Sen. Contr. 2, 1; Curt. 6, 7, 8; cf. Rudd. II. p. 212; Zumpt ad Quint. V. p. 122 Spalding.—Hence the adverbial phrase a se=uph heautou, sua sponte, of one's own uccord, spontaneously:

    ipsum a se oritur et sua sponte nascitur,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 24, 78:

    (urna) ab se cantat quoja sit,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 5, 21 (al. eapse; cf. id. Men. 1, 2, 66); so Col. 11, 1, 5; Liv. 44, 33, 6.
    b.
    With names of towns to denote origin, extraction, instead of gentile adjectives. From, of:

    pastores a Pergamide,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 1:

    Turnus ab Aricia,

    Liv. 1, 50, 3 (for which Aricinus, id. 1, 51, 1):

    obsides dant trecentos principum a Cora atque Pometia liberos,

    Liv. 2, 22, 2; and poet.: O longa mundi servator ab Alba, Auguste, thou who art descended from the old Alban race of kings (=oriundus, or ortus regibus Albanis), Prop. 5, 6, 37.
    c.
    In giving the etymology of a name: eam rem (sc. legem, Gr. nomon) illi Graeco putant nomine a suum cuique tribuendo appellatam, ego nostro a legendo, Cic. Leg. 1, 6, 19: annum intervallum regni fuit: id ab re... interregnum appellatum, Liv. 1, 17, 6:

    (sinus maris) ab nomine propinquae urbis Ambracius appellatus,

    id. 38, 4, 3; and so Varro in his Ling. Lat., and Pliny, in Books 1-5 of H. N., on almost every page. (Cf. also the arts. ex and de.)
    d.
    With verbs of beginning and repeating: a summo bibere, in Plaut. to drink in succession from the one at the head of the table:

    da, puere, ab summo,

    Plaut. As. 5, 2, 41; so,

    da ab Delphio cantharum circum, id Most. 1, 4, 33: ab eo nobis causa ordienda est potissimum,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 7, 21:

    coepere a fame mala,

    Liv. 4, 12, 7:

    cornicem a cauda de ovo exire,

    tail-foremost, Plin. 10, 16, 18:

    a capite repetis, quod quaerimus,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 6, 18 al.
    e.
    With verbs of freeing from, defending, or protecting against any thing:

    a foliis et stercore purgato,

    Cato, R. R. 65 (66), 1:

    tantumne ab re tuast oti tibi?

    Ter. Heaut. 1, [p. 4] 1, 23; cf.:

    Saguntini ut a proeliis quietem habuerant,

    Liv. 21, 11, 5:

    expiandum forum ab illis nefarii sceleris vestigiis,

    Cic. Rab. Perd. 4, 11:

    haec provincia non modo a calamitate, sed etiam a metu calamitatis est defendenda,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 6, 14 (v. defendo):

    ab incendio urbem vigiliis munitam intellegebat,

    Sall. C. 32:

    ut neque sustinere se a lapsu possent,

    Liv. 21, 35, 12:

    ut meam domum metueret atque a me ipso caveret,

    Cic. Sest. 64, 133.
    f.
    With verbs of expecting, fearing, hoping, and the like, ab =a parte, as, Cic. Att. 9, 7, 4: cum eadem metuam ab hac parte, since I fear the same from this side; hence, timere, metuere ab aliquo, not, to be afraid of any one, but, to fear something (proceeding from) from him:

    el metul a Chryside,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 79; cf.:

    ab Hannibale metuens,

    Liv. 23, 36; and:

    metus a praetore,

    id. 23, 15, 7;

    v. Weissenb. ad h. l.: a quo quidem genere, judices, ego numquam timui,

    Cic. Sull. 20, 59:

    postquam nec ab Romanis robis ulla est spes,

    you can expect nothing from the Romans, Liv. 21, 13, 4.
    g.
    With verbs of fastening and holding:

    funiculus a puppi religatus,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 51, 154:

    cum sinistra capillum ejus a vertice teneret,

    Q. Cic. Pet. Cons. 3.
    h.
    Ulcisci se ab aliquo, to take vengeance on one:

    a ferro sanguis humanus se ulciscitur,

    Plin. 34, 14, 41 fin.
    i.
    Cognoscere ab aliqua re to knoio or learn by means of something (different from ab aliquo, to learn from some one):

    id se a Gallicis armis atque insignibus cognovisse,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 22.
    j.
    Dolere, laborare, valere ab, instead of the simple abl.:

    doleo ab animo, doleo ab oculis, doleo ab aegritudine,

    Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 62:

    a morbo valui, ab animo aeger fui,

    id. Ep. 1, 2, 26; cf. id. Aul. 2, 2, 9:

    a frigore et aestu ne quid laborent,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 17; so,

    a frigore laborantibus,

    Plin. 32, 10, 46, § 133; cf.:

    laborare ab re frumentaria,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 10, 1; id. B. C. 3, 9; v. laboro.
    k.
    Where verbs and adjectives are joined with ab, instead of the simple abl., ab defines more exactly the respect in which that which is expressed by the verb or adj. is to be understood, in relation to, with regard to, in respect to, on the part of:

    ab ingenio improbus,

    Plaut. Truc. 4, 3, 59:

    a me pudica'st,

    id. Curc. 1, 1, 51:

    orba ab optimatibus contio,

    Cic. Fl. 23, 54; ro Ov. H. 6,156: securos vos ab hac parte reddemus, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 24 fin. (v. securus):

    locus copiosus a frumento,

    Cic. Att. 5, 18, 2; cf.:

    sumus imparati cum a militibas tum a pecunia,

    id. ib. 7, 15 fin.:

    ille Graecus ab omni laude felicior,

    id. Brut. 16, 63:

    ab una parte haud satis prosperuin,

    Liv. 1, 32, 2 al.;

    so often in poets ab arte=arte,

    artfully, Tib. 1, 5, 4; 1, 9, 66; Ov. Am. 2, 4, 30.
    l.
    In the statement of the motive instead of ex, propter, or the simple abl. causae, from, out of, on account of, in consequence of: ab singulari amore scribo, Balb. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 7, B fin.:

    linguam ab irrisu exserentem,

    thrusting out the tongue in derision, Liv. 7, 10, 5:

    ab honore,

    id. 1, 8; so, ab ira, a spe, ab odio, v. Drak. ad Liv. 24, 30, 1: 26, 1, 3; cf. also Kritz and Fabri ad Sall. J. 31, 3, and Fabri ad Liv. 21, 36, 7.
    m.
    Especially in the poets instead of the gen.:

    ab illo injuria,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 129:

    fulgor ab auro,

    Lucr. 2, 5:

    dulces a fontibus undae,

    Verg. G. 2, 243.
    n.
    In indicating a part of the whole, for the more usual ex, of, out of:

    scuto ab novissimis uni militi detracto,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 25, 1:

    nonnuill ab novissimis,

    id. ib.; Cic. Sest. 65, 137; cf. id. ib. 59 fin.: a quibus (captivis) ad Senatum missus (Regulus).
    o.
    In marking that from which any thing proceeds, and to which it belongs:

    qui sunt ab ea disciplina,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 3, 7:

    ab eo qui sunt,

    id. Fin. 4, 3, 7:

    nostri illi a Platone et Aristotele aiunt,

    id. Mur. 30, 63 (in imitation of oi upo tinos).
    p.
    To designate an office or dignity (with or without servus; so not freq. till after the Aug. period;

    in Cic. only once): Pollex, servus a pedibus meus,

    one of my couriers, Cic. Att. 8, 5, 1; so,

    a manu servus,

    a secretary, Suet. Caes. 74: Narcissum ab eplstulis ( secretary) et Pallantem a rationibus ( accountant), id. Claud. 28; and so, ab actis, ab admissione, ab aegris, ab apotheca, ab argento, a balneis, a bibliotheca, a codicillis, a jumentis, a potione, etc. (v. these words and Inscr. Orell. vol. 3, Ind. xi. p. 181 sq.).
    q.
    The use of ab before adverbs is for the most part peculiar to later Latinity:

    a peregre,

    Vitr. 5, 7 (6), 8:

    a foris,

    Plin. 17, 24, 37; Vulg. Gen, 7, 16; ib. Matt. 23, 27:

    ab intus,

    ib. ib. 7, 15:

    ab invicem,

    App. Herb. 112; Vulg. Matt. 25, 32; Cypr. Ep. 63, 9: Hier. Ep. 18:

    a longe,

    Hyg. Fab. 257; Vulg. Gen. 22, 4; ib. Matt. 26, 58:

    a modo,

    ib. ib. 23, 39;

    Hier. Vit. Hilar.: a nune,

    Vulg. Luc. 1, 48:

    a sursum,

    ib. Marc. 15, 38.
    a.
    Ab is not repeated like most other prepositions (v. ad, ex, in, etc.) with pron. interrog. or relat. after subst. and pron. demonstr. with ab:

    Arsinoen, Stratum, Naupactum...fateris ab hostibus esse captas. Quibus autem hostibus? Nempe iis, quos, etc.,

    Cic. Pis. 37, 91:

    a rebus gerendis senectus abstrahit. Quibus? An iis, quae in juventute geruntur et viribus?

    id. Sen. 6:

    a Jove incipiendum putat. Quo Jove?

    id. Rep. 1, 36, 56:

    res publica, quascumque vires habebit, ab iis ipsis, quibus tenetur, de te propediem impetrabit,

    id. Fam. 4, 13, 5.—
    b.
    Ab in Plantus is once put after the word which it governs: quo ab, As. 1, 1, 106.—
    c.
    It is in various ways separated from the word which it governs:

    a vitae periculo,

    Cic. Brut. 91, 313:

    a nullius umquam me tempore aut commodo,

    id. Arch. 6, 12:

    a minus bono,

    Sall. C. 2, 6:

    a satis miti principio,

    Liv. 1, 6, 4:

    damnis dives ab ipsa suis,

    Ov. H. 9, 96; so id. ib. 12, 18; 13, 116.—
    d.
    The poets join a and que, making aque; but in good prose que is annexed to the following abl. (a meque, abs teque, etc.):

    aque Chao,

    Verg. G. 4, 347:

    aque mero,

    Ov. M. 3, 631:

    aque viro,

    id. H. 6, 156:

    aque suis,

    id. Tr. 5, 2, 74 al. But:

    a meque,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 16, 1:

    abs teque,

    id. Att. 3, 15, 4:

    a teque,

    id. ib. 8, 11, §

    7: a primaque adulescentia,

    id. Brut. 91, 315 al. —
    e.
    A Greek noun joined with ab stands in the dat.: a parte negotiati, hoc est pragmatikê, removisse, Quint. 3, 7, 1.
    III.
    In composition ab,
    1.
    Retains its original signif.: abducere, to take or carry away from some place: abstrahere, to draw auay; also, downward: abicere, to throw down; and denoting a departure from the idea of the simple word, it has an effect apparently privative: absimilis, departing from the similar, unlike: abnormis, departing from the rule, unusual (different from dissimilis, enormis); and so also in amens=a mente remotus, alienus ( out of one's senses, without self-control, insane): absurdus, missounding, then incongruous, irrational: abutor (in one of its senses), to misuse: aborior, abortus, to miscarry: abludo; for the privative force the Latin regularly employs in-, v. 2. in.—
    2.
    It more rarely designates completeness, as in absorbere, abutor ( to use up). (The designation of the fourth generation in the ascending or descending line by ab belongs here only in appearance; as abavus for quartus pater, great-great-grandfather, although the Greeks introduced upopappos; for the immutability of the syllable ab in abpatrnus and abmatertera, as well as the signif. Of the word abavus, grandfather's grandfather, imitated in abnepos, grandchild's grandchild, seems to point to a derivation from avi avus, as Festus, p. 13 Mull., explains atavus, by atta avi, or, rather, attae avus.)

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > ab

  • 7 ad

    ad, prep. with acc. (from the fourth century after Christ written also at; Etrusc. suf. -a; Osc. az; Umbr. and Old Lat. ar, as [p. 27] in Eug. Tab., in S. C. de Bacch., as arveho for adveho; arfuerunt, arfuisse, for adfuerunt, etc.; arbiter for adbiter; so, ar me advenias, Plant. Truc. 2, 2, 17; cf. Prisc. 559 P.; Vel. Long. 2232 P.; Fabretti, Glos. Ital. col. 5) [cf. Sanscr. adhi; Goth. and Eng. at; Celt. pref. ar, as armor, i.e. ad mare; Rom. a].
    I.
    As antith. to ab (as in to ex), in a progressive order of relation, ad denotes, first, the direction toward an object; then the reaching of or attaining to it; and finally, the being at or near it.
    A.
    In space.
    1.
    Direction toward, to, toward, and first,
    a.
    Horizontally:

    fugere ad puppim colles campique videntur,

    the hills and fields appear to fly toward the ship, Lucr. 4, 390: meridie umbrae cadunt ad septentrionem, ortu vero ad occasum, to or toward the north and west, Plin. 2, 13, and so often of the geog. position of a place in reference to the points of compass, with the verbs jacere, vergere, spectare, etc.:

    Asia jacet ad meridiem et austrum, Europa ad septentriones et aquiionem,

    Varr. L. L. 5, § 31 Mull.;

    and in Plin. very freq.: Creta ad austrum... ad septentrionem versa, 4, 20: ad Atticam vergente, 4, 21 al.—Also trop.: animus alius ad alia vitia propensior,

    Cic. Tusc. 4, 37, 81.—
    b.
    In a direction upwards (esp. in the poets, very freq.): manusque sursum ad caelum sustulit, Naev. ap. Non. 116, 30 (B. Pun. p. 13, ed. Vahl.): manus ad caeli templa tendebam lacrimans, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 20, 40 (Ann. v. 50 ed. Vahl.); cf.:

    duplices tendens ad sidera palmas,

    Verg. A. 1, 93: molem ex profundo saxeam ad caelum vomit, Att. ap. Prisc. 1325 P.: clamor ad caelum volvendus, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 104 Mull. (Ann. v. 520 ed. Vahl.) (cf. with this: tollitur in caelum clamor, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1, or Ann. v. 422):

    ad caelumque ferat flammai fulgura rursum, of Aetna,

    Lucr. 1, 725; cf. id. 2, 191; 2, 325: sidera sola micant;

    ad quae sua bracchia tendens, etc.,

    Ov. M. 7, 188:

    altitudo pertingit ad caelum,

    Vulg. Dan. 4, 17.—
    c.
    Also in the direction downwards (for the usu. in):

    tardiore semper ad terras omnium quae geruntur in caelo effectu cadente quam visu,

    Plin. 2, 97, 99, § 216.
    2.
    The point or goal at which any thing arrives.
    a.
    Without reference to the space traversed in passing, to, toward (the most common use of this prep.): cum stupro redire ad suos popularis, Naev. ap. Fest. p. 317 Mull. (B. Pun. p. 14 ed. Vahl.):

    ut ex tam alto dignitatis gradu ad superos videatur potius quam ad inferos pervenisse,

    Cic. Lael. 3, 12: ad terras decidat aether, Lucan. 2, 58. —Hence,
    (α).
    With verbs which designate going, coming, moving, bearing, bringing near, adapting, taking, receiving, calling, exciting, admonishing, etc., when the verb is compounded with ad the prep. is not always repeated, but the constr. with the dat. or acc. employed; cf. Rudd. II. pp. 154, 175 n. (In the ante-class. per., and even in Cic., ad is generally repeated with most verbs, as, ad eos accedit, Cic. Sex. Rosc. 8:

    ad Sullam adire,

    id. ib. 25:

    ad se adferre,

    id. Verr. 4, 50:

    reticulum ad naris sibi admovebat,

    id. ib. 5, 27:

    ad laborem adhortantur,

    id. de Sen. 14:

    T. Vectium ad se arcessit,

    id. Verr. 5, 114; but the poets of the Aug. per., and the historians, esp. Tac., prefer the dative; also, when the compound verb contains merely the idea of approach, the constr. with ad and the acc. is employed; but when it designates increase, that with the dat. is more usual: accedit ad urbem, he approaches the city; but, accedit provinciae, it is added to the province.)—
    (β).
    Ad me, te, se, for domum meam, tuam, suam (in Plaut. and Ter. very freq.):

    oratus sum venire ad te huc,

    Plaut. Mil. 5, 1, 12: spectatores plaudite atque ite ad vos comissatum, id. Stich. fin.:

    eamus ad me,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 64:

    ancillas traduce huc ad vos,

    id. Heaut. 4, 4, 22:

    transeundumst tibi ad Menedemum,

    id. 4, 4, 17: intro nos vocat ad sese, tenet intus apud se, Lucil. ap. Charis. p. 86 P.:

    te oro, ut ad me Vibonem statim venias,

    Cic. Att. 3, 3; 16, 10 al.—
    (γ).
    Ad, with the name of a deity in the gen., is elliptical for ad templum or aedem (cf.:

    Thespiadas, quae ad aedem Felicitatis sunt,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 4; id. Phil. 2, 35:

    in aedem Veneris,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 120;

    in aedem Concordiae,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 9, 21;

    2, 6, 12): ad Dianae,

    to the temple of, Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 43:

    ad Opis,

    Cic. Att. 8, 1, 14:

    ad Castoris,

    id. Quint. 17:

    ad Juturnae,

    id. Clu. 101:

    ad Vestae,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 35 al.: cf. Rudd. II. p. 41, n. 4, and p. 334.—
    (δ).
    With verbs which denote a giving, sending, informing, submitting, etc., it is used for the simple dat. (Rudd. II. p. 175): litteras dare ad aliquem, to send or write one a letter; and: litteras dare alicui, to give a letter to one; hence Cic. never says, like Caesar and Sall., alicui scribere, which strictly means, to write for one (as a receipt, etc.), but always mittere, scribere, perscribere ad aliquem:

    postea ad pistores dabo,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 119:

    praecipe quae ad patrem vis nuntiari,

    id. Capt. 2, 2, 109:

    in servitutem pauperem ad divitem dare,

    Ter. Ph. 4, 3, 48:

    nam ad me Publ. Valerius scripsit,

    Cic. Fam. 14, 2 med.:

    de meis rebus ad Lollium perscripsi,

    id. ib. 5, 3:

    velim domum ad te scribas, ut mihi tui libri pateant,

    id. Att. 4, 14; cf. id. ib. 4, 16:

    ad primam (sc. epistulam) tibi hoc scribo,

    in answer to your first, id. ib. 3, 15, 2:

    ad Q. Fulvium Cons. Hirpini et Lucani dediderunt sese,

    Liv. 27, 15, 1; cf. id. 28, 22, 5.—Hence the phrase: mittere or scribere librum ad aliquem, to dedicate a book to one (Greek, prosphônein):

    has res ad te scriptas, Luci, misimus, Aeli,

    Lucil. Sat. 1, ap. Auct. Her. 4, 12:

    quae institueram, ad te mittam,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 5: ego interea admonitu tuo perfeci sane argutulos libros ad Varronem;

    and soon after: mihi explices velim, maneasne in sententia, ut mittam ad eum quae scripsi,

    Cic. Att. 13, 18; cf. ib. 16; Plin. 1, 19.—So in titles of books: M. Tullii Ciceronis ad Marcum Brutum Orator; M. T. Cic. ad Q. Fratrem Dialogi tres de Oratore, etc.—In the titles of odes and epigrams ad aliquem signifies to, addressed to.
    (ε).
    With names of towns after verbs of motion, ad is used in answer to the question Whither? instead of the simple acc.; but commonly with this difference, that ad denotes to the vicinity of, the neighborhood of:

    miles ad Capuam profectus sum, quintoque anno post ad Tarentum,

    Cic. de Sen. 4, 10; id. Fam. 3, 81:

    ad Veios,

    Liv. 5, 19; 14, 18; cf. Caes. B. G. 1, 7; id. B. C. 3, 40 al.—Ad is regularly used when the proper name has an appellative in apposition to it:

    ad Cirtam oppidum iter constituunt,

    Sall. J. 81, 2; so Curt. 3, 1, 22; 4, 9, 9;

    or when it is joined with usque,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 34, § 87; id. Deiot, 7, 19.— (When an adjective is added, the simple acc. is used poet., as well as with ad:

    magnum iter ad doctas proficisci cogor Athenas,

    Prop. 3, 21, 1; the simple acc., Ov. H. 2, 83: doctas jam nunc eat, inquit, Athenas).—
    (ζ).
    With verbs which imply a hostile movement toward, or protection in respect to any thing, against = adversus:

    nonne ad senem aliquam fabricam fingit?

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 34:

    Lernaeas pugnet ad hydras,

    Prop. 3, 19, 9: neque quo pacto fallam, nec quem dolum ad eum aut machinam commoliar, old poet in Cic. N. D. 3, 29, 73:

    Belgarum copias ad se venire vidit,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 5; 7, 70:

    ipse ad hostem vehitur,

    Nep. Dat. 4, 5; id. Dion. 5, 4: Romulus ad regem impetus facit (a phrase in which in is commonly found), Liv. 1, 5, 7, and 44, 3, 10:

    aliquem ad hostem ducere,

    Tac. A. 2, 52:

    clipeos ad tela protecti obiciunt,

    Verg. A. 2, 443:

    munio me ad haec tempora,

    Cic. Fam. 9, 18:

    ad hos omnes casus provisa erant praesidia,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 65; 7, 41;

    so with nouns: medicamentum ad aquam intercutem,

    Cic. Off. 3, 24:

    remedium ad tertianam,

    Petr. Sat. 18:

    munimen ad imbris,

    Verg. G. 2, 352:

    farina cum melle ad tussim siccam efficasissima est,

    Plin. 20, 22, 89, § 243:

    ad muliebre ingenium efficaces preces,

    Liv. 1, 9; 1, 19 (in these two passages ad may have the force of apud, Hand).—
    (η).
    The repetition of ad to denote the direction to a place and to a person present in it is rare:

    nunc tu abi ad forum ad herum,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 100; cf.:

    vocatis classico ad concilium militibus ad tribunos,

    Liv. 5 47.—(The distinction between ad and in is given by Diom. 409 P., thus: in forum ire est in ipsum forum intrare; ad forum autem ire, in locum foro proximum; ut in tribunal et ad tribunal venire non unum est; quia ad tribunal venit litigator, in tribunal vero praetor aut judex; cf. also Sen. Ep. 73, 14, deus ad homines venit, immo, quod propius est, in homines venit.)—
    b.
    The terminus, with ref. to the space traversed, to, even to, with or without usque, Quint. 10, 7, 16: ingurgitavit usque ad imum gutturem, Naev. ap. Non. 207, 20 (Rib. Com. Rel. p. 30): dictator pervehitur usque ad oppidum, Naev. ap. Varr. L. L. 5, § 153 Mull. (B. Pun. p. 16 ed. Vahl.):

    via pejor ad usque Baii moenia,

    Hor. S. 1, 5, 96; 1, 1, 97:

    rigidum permanat frigus ad ossa,

    Lucr. 1, 355; 1, 969:

    cum sudor ad imos Manaret talos,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 10:

    ut quantum posset, agmen ad mare extenderet,

    Curt. 3, 9, 10:

    laeva pars ad pectus est nuda,

    id. 6, 5, 27 al. —Hence the Plinian expression, petere aliquid (usque) ad aliquem, to seek something everywhere, even with one:

    ut ad Aethiopas usque peteretur,

    Plin. 36, 6, 9, § 51 (where Jan now reads ab Aethiopia); so,

    vestis ad Seras peti,

    id. 12, 1, 1.— Trop.:

    si quid poscam, usque ad ravim poscam,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 5, 10:

    deverberasse usque ad necem,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 2, 13;

    without usque: hic ad incitas redactus,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 136; 4, 2, 52; id. Poen. 4, 2, 85; illud ad incitas cum redit atque internecionem, Lucil. ap. Non. 123, 20:

    virgis ad necem caedi,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 29, § 70; so Hor. S. 1, 2, 42; Liv. 24, 38, 9; Tac. A. 11, 37; Suet. Ner. 26; id. Dom. 8 al.
    3.
    Nearness or proximity in gen. = apud, near to, by, at, close by (in anteclass. per. very freq.; not rare later, esp. in the historians): pendent peniculamenta unum ad quemque pedum, trains are suspended at each foot, Enn. ap. Non. 149, 33 (Ann. v. 363 ed. Vahl.):

    ut in servitute hic ad suum maneat patrem,

    Plaut. Capt. prol. 49; cf. id. ib. 2, 3, 98;

    3, 5, 41: sol quasi flagitator astat usque ad ostium,

    stands like a creditor continually at the door, id. Most. 3, 2, 81 (cf. with same force, Att. ap. Non. 522, 25;

    apud ipsum astas): ad foris adsistere,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 66; id. Arch. 24:

    astiterunt ad januam,

    Vulg. Act. 10, 17:

    non adest ad exercitum,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 6; cf. ib. prol. 133:

    aderant ad spectaculum istud,

    Vulg. Luc. 23, 48: has (testas) e fenestris in caput Deiciunt, qui prope ad ostium adspiraverunt, Lucil. ap. Non. 288, 31:

    et nec opinanti Mors ad caput adstitit,

    Lucr. 3, 959:

    quod Romanis ad manum domi supplementum esset,

    at hand, Liv. 9, 19, 6:

    haec arma habere ad manum,

    Quint. 12, 5, 1:

    dominum esse ad villam,

    Cic. Sull. 20; so id. Verr. 2, 21:

    errantem ad flumina,

    Verg. E. 6, 64; Tib. 1, 10, 38; Plin. 7, 2, § 12; Vitr. 7, 14; 7, 12; and ellipt. (cf. supra, 2. g):

    pecunia utinam ad Opis maneret!

    Cic. Phil. 1, 17.—Even of persons:

    qui primum pilum ad Caesarem duxerat (for apud),

    Caes. B. G. 6, 38; so id. ib. 1, 31; 3, 9; 5, 53; 7, 5; id. B. C. 3, 60:

    ad inferos poenas parricidii luent,

    among, Cic. Phil. 14, 13:

    neque segnius ad hostes bellum apparatur,

    Liv. 7, 7, 4: pugna ad Trebiam, ad Trasimenum, ad Cannas, etc., for which Liv. also uses the gen.:

    si Trasimeni quam Trebiae, si Cannarum quam Trasimeni pugna nobilior esset, 23, 43, 4.—Sometimes used to form the name of a place, although written separately, e. g. ad Murcim,

    Varr. L. L. 5, § 154:

    villa ad Gallinas, a villa on the Flaminian Way,

    Plin. 15, 30, 40, § 37: ad urbem esse (of generals), to remain outside the city (Rome) until permission was given for a triumph:

    “Esse ad urbem dicebantur, qui cum potestate provinciali aut nuper e provincia revertissent, aut nondum in provinciam profecti essent... solebant autem, qui ob res in provincia gestas triumphum peterent, extra urbem exspectare, donec, lege lata, triumphantes urbem introire possent,”

    Manut. ad Cic. Fam. 3, 8.—So sometimes with names of towns and verbs of rest:

    pons, qui erat ad Genavam,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 7:

    ad Tibur mortem patri minatus est,

    Cic. Phil. 6, 4, 10:

    conchas ad Caietam legunt,

    id. Or. 2, 6:

    ad forum esse,

    to be at the market, Plaut. Ps. 4, 7, 136; id. Most. 3, 2, 158; cf. Ter. Ph. 4, 2, 8; id. And. 1, 5, 19.—Hence, adverb., ad dextram (sc. manum, partem), ad laevam, ad sinistram, to the right, to the left, or on the right, on the left:

    ad dextram,

    Att. Rib. Trag. Rel. p. 225; Plaut. Poen. 3, 4, 1; Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 44; Cic. Univ. 13; Caes. B. C. 1, 69:

    ad laevam,

    Enn. Rib. Trag. Rel. p. 51; Att. ib. p. 217: ad sinistram, Ter. [p. 28] Ad. 4, 2, 43 al.:

    ad dextram... ad laevam,

    Liv. 40, 6;

    and with an ordinal number: cum plebes ad tertium milliarium consedisset,

    at the third milestone, Cic. Brut. 14, 54, esp. freq. with lapis:

    sepultus ad quintum lapidem,

    Nep. Att. 22, 4; so Liv. 3, 69 al.; Tac. H. 3, 18; 4, 60 (with apud, Ann. 1, 45; 3, 45; 15, 60) al.; cf. Rudd. II. p. 287.
    B.
    In time, analogous to the relations given in A.
    1.
    Direction toward, i. e. approach to a definite point of time, about, toward:

    domum reductus ad vesperum,

    toward evening, Cic. Lael. 3, 12:

    cum ad hiemem me ex Cilicia recepissem,

    toward winter, id. Fam. 3, 7.—
    2.
    The limit or boundary to which a space of time extends, with and without usque, till, until, to, even to, up to:

    ego ad illud frugi usque et probus fui,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 2, 53:

    philosophia jacuit usque ad hanc aetatem,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 3, 5; id. de Sen. 14:

    quid si hic manebo potius ad meridiem,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 55; so id. Men. 5, 7, 33; id. Ps. 1, 5, 116; id. As. 2, 1, 5:

    ad multam noctem,

    Cic. de Sen. 14:

    Sophocles ad summam senectutem tragoedias fecit,

    id. ib. 2; cf. id. Rep. 1, 1:

    Alexandream se proficisci velle dixit (Aratus) remque integram ad reditum suum jussit esse,

    id. Off. 2, 23, 82:

    bestiae ex se natos amant ad quoddam tempus,

    id. Lael. 8; so id. de Sen. 6; id. Somn. Sc. 1 al. —And with ab or ab-usque, to desig. the whole period of time passed away:

    ab hora octava ad vesperum secreto collocuti sumus,

    Cic. Att. 7, 8:

    usque ab aurora ad hoc diei,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 8.—
    3.
    Coincidence with a point of time, at, on, in, by:

    praesto fuit ad horam destinatam,

    at the appointed hour, Cic. Tusc. 5, 22:

    admonuit ut pecuniam ad diem solverent,

    on the day of payment, id. Att. 16, 16 A:

    nostra ad diem dictam fient,

    id. Fam. 16, 10, 4; cf. id. Verr. 2, 2, 5: ad lucem denique arte et graviter dormitare coepisse, at (not toward) daybreak, id. Div. 1, 28, 59; so id. Att. 1, 3, 2; 1, 4, 3; id. Fin. 2, 31, 103; id. Brut. 97, 313:

    ad id tempus,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 24; Sall. J. 70, 5; Tac. A. 15, 60; Suet. Aug. 87; Domit. 17, 21 al.
    C.
    The relations of number.
    1.
    An approximation to a sum designated, near, near to, almost, about, toward (cf. Gr. epi, pros with acc. and the Fr. pres de, a peu pres, presque) = circiter (Hand, Turs. I. p. 102):

    ad quadraginta eam posse emi minas,

    Plaut. Ep. 2, 2, 111:

    nummorum Philippum ad tria milia,

    id. Trin. 1, 2, 115; sometimes with quasi added:

    quasi ad quadraginta minas,

    as it were about, id. Most. 3, 1, 95; so Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 93:

    sane frequentes fuimus omnino ad ducentos,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 1:

    cum annos ad quadraginta natus esset,

    id. Clu. 40, 110:

    ad hominum milia decem,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 4:

    oppida numero ad duodecim, vicos ad quadringentos,

    id. ib. 1, 5.—In the histt. and post-Aug. authors ad is added adverbially in this sense (contrary to Gr. usage, by which amphi, peri, and eis with numerals retain their power as prepositions): ad binum milium numero utrinque sauciis factis, Sisenn. ap. Non. 80, 4:

    occisis ad hominum milibus quattuor,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 33:

    ad duorum milium numero ceciderunt,

    id. B. C. 3, 53:

    ad duo milia et trecenti occisi,

    Liv. 10, 17, 8; so id. 27, 12, 16; Suet. Caes. 20; cf. Rudd. II. p. 334.—
    2.
    The terminus, the limit, to, unto, even to, a designated number (rare):

    ranam luridam conicere in aquam usque quo ad tertiam partem decoxeris,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 2, 26; cf. App. Herb. 41:

    aedem Junonis ad partem dimidiam detegit,

    even to the half, Liv. 42, 3, 2:

    miles (viaticum) ad assem perdiderat,

    to a farthing, to the last farthing, Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 27; Plin. Ep. 1, 15:

    quid ad denarium solveretur,

    Cic. Quint. 4.—The phrase omnes ad unum or ad unum omnes, or simply ad unum, means lit. all to one, i. e. all together, all without exception; Gr. hoi kath hena pantes (therefore the gender of unum is changed according to that of omnes): praetor omnes extra castra, ut stercus, foras ejecit ad unum, Lucil. ap. Non. 394, 22:

    de amicitia omnes ad unum idem sentiunt,

    Cic. Lael. 23:

    ad unum omnes cum ipso duce occisi sunt,

    Curt. 4, 1, 22 al.:

    naves Rhodias afflixit ita, ut ad unam omnes constratae eliderentur,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 27; onerariae omnes ad unam a nobis sunt exceptae, Cic. Fam. 12, 14 (cf. in Gr. hoi kath hena; in Hebr., Exod. 14, 28).— Ad unum without omnes:

    ego eam sententiam dixi, cui sunt assensi ad unum,

    Cic. Fam. 10, 16:

    Juppiter omnipotens si nondum exosus ad unum Trojanos,

    Verg. A. 5, 687.
    D.
    In the manifold relations of one object to another.
    1.
    That in respect of or in regard to which a thing avails, happens, or is true or important, with regard to, in respect of, in relation to, as to, to, in.
    a.
    With verbs:

    ad omnia alia aetate sapimus rectius,

    in respect to all other things we grow wiser by age, Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 45:

    numquam ita quisquam bene ad vitam fuat,

    id. ib. 5, 4, 1:

    nil ibi libatum de toto corpore (mortui) cernas ad speciem, nil ad pondus,

    that nothing is lost in form or weight, Lucr. 3, 214; cf. id. 5, 570; Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 21, § 58; id. Mur. 13, 29: illi regi Cyro subest, ad immutandi animi licentiam, crudelissimus ille Phalaris, in that Cyrus, in regard to the liberty of changing his disposition (i. e. not in reality, but inasmuch as he is at liberty to lay aside his good character, and assume that of a tyrant), there is concealed another cruel Phalaris, Cic. Rep. 1, 28:

    nil est ad nos,

    is nothing to us, concerns us not, Lucr. 3, 830; 3, 845:

    nil ad me attinet,

    Ter. Ad. 1, 2, 54:

    nihil ad rem pertinet,

    Cic. Caecin. 58;

    and in the same sense elliptically: nihil ad Epicurum,

    id. Fin. 1, 2, 5; id. Pis. 68:

    Quid ad praetorem?

    id. Verr. 1, 116 (this usage is not to be confounded with that under 4.).—
    b.
    With adjectives:

    ad has res perspicax,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 129:

    virum ad cetera egregium,

    Liv. 37, 7, 15:

    auxiliaribus ad pugnam non multum Crassus confidebat,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 25:

    ejus frater aliquantum ad rem est avidior,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 51; cf. id. And. 1, 2, 21; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 129:

    ut sit potior, qui prior ad dandum est,

    id. Phorm. 3, 2, 48:

    difficilis (res) ad credendum,

    Lucr. 2, 1027:

    ad rationem sollertiamque praestantior,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 62; so id. Leg. 2, 13, 33; id. Fin. 2, 20, 63; id. Rosc. Am. 30, 85; id. Font. 15; id. Cat. 1, 5, 12; id. de Or. 1, 25, 113; 1, 32, 146; 2, 49, 200; id. Fam. 3, 1, 1; Liv. 9, 16, 13; Tac. A. 12, 54 al.—
    c.
    With nouns:

    prius quam tuum, ut sese habeat, animum ad nuptias perspexerit,

    before he knew your feeling in regard to the marriage, Ter. And. 2, 3, 4 (cf. Gr. hopôs echei tis pros ti):

    mentis ad omnia caecitas,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 5, 11:

    magna vis est fortunae in utramque partem vel ad secundas res vel ad adversas,

    id. Off. 2, 6; so id. Par. 1:

    ad cetera paene gemelli,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 10, 3.—So with acc. of gerund instead of the gen. from the same vb.:

    facultas ad scribendum, instead of scribendi,

    Cic. Font. 6;

    facultas ad agendum,

    id. de Imp. Pomp. 1, 2: cf. Rudd. II. p. 245.—
    d.
    In gramm.: nomina ad aliquid dicta, nouns used in relation to something, i. e. which derive their significance from their relation to another object: quae non possunt intellegi sola, ut pater, mater;

    jungunt enim sibi et illa propter quae intelleguntur,

    Charis. 129 P.; cf. Prisc. 580 ib.—
    2.
    With words denoting measure, weight, manner, model, rule, etc., both prop. and fig., according to, agreeably to, after (Gr. kata, pros):

    columnas ad perpendiculum exigere,

    Cic. Mur. 77:

    taleis ferreis ad certum pondus examinatis,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 12: facta sunt ad certam formam. Lucr. 2, 379:

    ad amussim non est numerus,

    Varr. 2, 1, 26:

    ad imaginem facere,

    Vulg. Gen. 1, 26:

    ad cursus lunae describit annum,

    Liv. 1, 19:

    omnia ad diem facta sunt,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 5:

    Id ad similitudinem panis efficiebant,

    id. B. C. 3, 48; Vulg. Gen. 1, 26; id. Jac. 3, 9:

    ad aequos flexus,

    at equal angles, Lucr. 4, 323: quasi ad tornum levantur, to or by the lathe, id. 4, 361:

    turres ad altitudiem valli,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 42; Liv. 39, 6:

    ad eandem crassitudinem structi,

    id. 44, 11:

    ad speciem cancellorum scenicorum,

    with the appearance of, like, Varr. R. R. 3, 5, 8:

    stagnum maris instar, circumseptum aedificiis ad urbium speciem,

    Suet. Ner. 31:

    lascivum pecus ludens ad cantum,

    Liv. Andron. Rib. Trag. Rel. p. 1:

    canere ad tibiam,

    Cic. Tusc. 4, 2: canere ad tibicinem, id. ib. 1, 2 (cf.:

    in numerum ludere,

    Verg. E. 6, 28; id. G. 4, 175):

    quod ad Aristophanis lucernam lucubravi,

    Varr. L. L. 5, § 9 Mull.: carmen castigare ad unguem, to perfection (v. unguis), Hor. A. P. 294:

    ad unguem factus homo,

    a perfect gentleman, id. S. 1, 5, 32 (cf. id. ib. 2, 7, 86):

    ad istorum normam sapientes,

    Cic. Lael. 5, 18; id. Mur. 3:

    Cyrus non ad historiae fidem scriptus, sed ad effigiem justi imperii,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 8:

    exercemur in venando ad similitudinem bellicae disciplinae,

    id. N. D. 2, 64, 161: so,

    ad simulacrum,

    Liv. 40, 6:

    ad Punica ingenia,

    id. 21, 22:

    ad L. Crassi eloquentiam,

    Cic. Var. Fragm. 8:

    omnia fient ad verum,

    Juv. 6, 324:

    quid aut ad naturam aut contra sit,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 9, 30:

    ad hunc modum institutus est,

    id. Tusc. 2, 3; Caes. B. G. 2, 31; 3, 13:

    ad eundem istunc modum,

    Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 70:

    quem ad modum, q. v.: ad istam faciem est morbus, qui me macerat,

    of that kind, Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 73; id. Merc. 2, 3, 90; cf.

    91: cujus ad arbitrium copia materiai cogitur,

    Lucr. 2, 281:

    ad eorum arbitrium et nutum totos se fingunt,

    to their will and pleasure, Cic. Or. 8, 24; id. Quint. 71:

    ad P. Lentuli auctoritatem Roma contendit,

    id. Rab. Post. 21:

    aliae sunt legati partes, aliae imperatoris: alter omnia agere ad praescriptum, alter libere ad summam rerum consulere debet,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 51:

    rebus ad voluntatem nostram fluentibus,

    Cic. Off. 1, 26:

    rem ad illorum libidinem judicarunt,

    id. Font. 36:

    ad vulgi opinionem,

    id. Off. 3, 21.—So in later Lat. with instar:

    ad instar castrorum,

    Just. 36, 3, 2:

    scoparum,

    App. M. 9, p. 232:

    speculi,

    id. ib. 2, p. 118: ad hoc instar mundi, id. de Mundo, p. 72.—Sometimes, but very rarely, ad is used absol. in this sense (so also very rarely kata with acc., Xen. Hell. 2, 3; Luc. Dial. Deor. 8): convertier ad nos, as we (are turned), Lucr. 4, 317:

    ad navis feratur,

    like ships, id. 4, 897 Munro. —With noun:

    ad specus angustiac vallium,

    like caves, Caes. B. C. 3, 49.—Hence,
    3.
    With an object which is the cause or reason, in conformity to which, from which, or for which, any thing is or is done.
    a.
    The moving cause, according to, at, on, in consequence of:

    cetera pars animae paret et ad numen mentis momenque movetur,

    Lucr. 3, 144:

    ad horum preces in Boeotiam duxit,

    on their entreaty, Liv. 42, 67, 12: ad ea Caesar veniam ipsique et conjugi et fratribus tribuit, in consequence of or upon this, he, etc., Tac. Ann. 12, 37.—
    b.
    The final cause, or the object, end, or aim, for the attainment of which any thing,
    (α).
    is done,
    (β).
    is designed, or,
    (γ).
    is fitted or adapted (very freq.), to, for, in order to.
    (α).
    Seque ad ludos jam inde abhinc exerceant, Pac. ap. Charis. p. 175 P. (Rib. Trag. Rel. p. 80):

    venimus coctum ad nuptias,

    in order to cook for the wedding, Plaut. Aul. 3, 2, 15:

    omnis ad perniciem instructa domus,

    id. Bacch. 3, 1, 6; cf. Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 41; Liv. 1, 54:

    cum fingis falsas causas ad discordiam,

    in order to produce dissension, Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 71:

    quantam fenestram ad nequitiam patefeceris,

    id. Heaut. 3, 1, 72:

    utrum ille, qui postulat legatum ad tantum bellum, quem velit, idoneus non est, qui impetret, cum ceteri ad expilandos socios diripiendasque provincias, quos voluerunt, legatos eduxerint,

    Cic. de Imp. Pomp. 19, 57:

    ego vitam quoad putabo tua interesse, aut ad spem servandam esse, retinebo,

    for hope, id. Q. Fr. 1, 4; id. Fam. 5, 17:

    haec juventutem, ubi familiares opes defecerant, ad facinora incendebant,

    Sall. C. 13, 4:

    ad speciem atque ad usurpationem vetustatis,

    Cic. Agr. 2, 12, 31; Suet. Caes. 67:

    paucis ad speciem tabernaculis relictis,

    for appearance, Caes. B. C. 2, 35; so id. ib. 2, 41; id. B. G. 1, 51.—
    (β).
    Aut equos alere aut canes ad venandum. Ter. And. 1, 1, 30:

    ingenio egregie ad miseriam natus sum,

    id. Heaut. 3, 1, 11;

    (in the same sense: in rem,

    Hor. C. 1, 27, 1, and the dat., Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 6):

    ad cursum equum, ad arandum bovem, ad indagandum canem,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 13, 40:

    ad frena leones,

    Verg. A. 10, 253:

    delecto ad naves milite,

    marines, Liv. 22, 19 Weissenb.:

    servos ad remum,

    rowers, id. 34, 6; and:

    servos ad militiam emendos,

    id. 22, 61, 2:

    comparasti ad lecticam homines,

    Cat. 10, 16:

    Lygdamus ad cyathos,

    Prop. 4, 8, 37; cf.:

    puer ad cyathum statuetur,

    Hor. C. 1, 29, 8.—
    (γ).
    Quae oportet Signa esse [p. 29] ad salutem, omnia huic osse video, everything indicative of prosperity I see in him, Ter. And. 3, 2, 2:

    haec sunt ad virtutem omnia,

    id. Heaut. 1, 2, 33:

    causa ad objurgandum,

    id. And. 1, 1, 123:

    argumentum ad scribendum,

    Cic. Att. 9, 7 (in both examples instead of the gen. of gerund., cf. Rudd. II. p. 245):

    vinum murteum est ad alvum crudam,

    Cato R. R. 125:

    nulla res tantum ad dicendum proficit, quantum scriptio,

    Cic. Brut. 24:

    reliquis rebus, quae sunt ad incendia,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 101 al. —So with the adjectives idoneus, utilis, aptus, instead of the dat.:

    homines ad hanc rem idoneos,

    Plaut. Poen. 3, 2, 6:

    calcei habiles et apti ad pedem,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 54, 231:

    orator aptus tamen ad dicendum,

    id. Tusc. 1, 3, 5:

    sus est ad vescendum hominibus apta,

    id. N. D. 2, 64, 160:

    homo ad nullam rem utilis,

    id. Off. 3, 6:

    ad segetes ingeniosus ager,

    Ov. F. 4, 684.—(Upon the connection of ad with the gerund. v. Zumpt, § 666; Rudd. II. p. 261.)—
    4.
    Comparison (since that with which a thing is compared is considered as an object to which the thing compared is brought near for the sake of comparison), to, compared to or with, in comparison with:

    ad sapientiam hujus ille (Thales) nimius nugator fuit,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 25; id. Trin. 3, 2, 100:

    ne comparandus hic quidem ad illum'st,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 4, 14; 2, 3, 69:

    terra ad universi caeli complexum,

    compared with the whole extent of the heavens, Cic. Tusc. 1, 17, 40:

    homini non ad cetera Punica ingenia callido,

    Liv. 22, 22, 15:

    at nihil ad nostram hanc,

    nothing in comparison with, Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 70; so Cic. Deiot. 8, 24; and id. de Or. 2, 6, 25.
    E.
    Adverbial phrases with ad.
    1.
    Ad omnia, withal, to crown all:

    ingentem vim peditum equitumque venire: ex India elephantos: ad omnia tantum advehi auri, etc.,

    Liv. 35, 32, 4.—
    2.
    Ad hoc and ad haec (in the historians, esp. from the time of Livy, and in authors after the Aug. per.), = praeterea, insuper, moreover, besides, in addition, epi toutois:

    nam quicumque impudicus, adulter, ganeo, etc.: praeterea omnes undique parricidae, etc.: ad hoc, quos manus atque lingua perjurio aut sanguine civili alebat: postremo omnes, quos, etc.,

    Sall. C. 14, 2 and 3:

    his opinionibus inflato animo, ad hoc vitio quoque ingenii vehemens,

    Liv. 6, 11, 6; 42, 1, 1; Tac. H. 1, 6; Suet. Aug. 22 al.—
    3.
    Ad id quod, beside that (very rare):

    ad id quod sua sponte satis conlectum animorum erat, indignitate etiam Romani accendebantur,

    Liv. 3, 62, 1; so 44, 37, 12.—
    4.
    Ad tempus.
    a.
    At a definite, fixed time, Cic. Att. 13, 45; Liv. 38, 25, 3.—
    b.
    At a fit, appropriate time, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 54, § 141; Liv. 1, 7, 13.—
    c.
    For some time, for a short time, Cic. Off. 1, 8, 27; id. Lael. 15, 53; Liv. 21, 25, 14.—
    d.
    According to circumstances, Cic. Planc. 30, 74; id. Cael. 6, 13; Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 9.—
    5.
    Ad praesens (for the most part only in post-Aug. writers).
    a.
    For the moment, for a short time, Cic. Fam. 12, 8; Plin. 8, 22, 34; Tac. A. 4, 21.—
    b.
    At present, now, Tac. A. 16, 5; id. H. 1, 44.—So, ad praesentiam, Tac. A. 11, 8.—
    6.
    Ad locum, on the spot:

    ut ad locum miles esset paratus,

    Liv. 27, 27, 2.—
    7.
    Ad verbum, word for word, literally, Cic. Fin. 1, 2, 4; id. de Or. 1, 34, 157; id. Ac. 2, 44, 135 al.—
    8.
    Ad summam.
    a.
    On the whole, generally, in general, Cic. Fam. 14, 14, 3; id. Att. 14, 1; Suet. Aug. 71.—
    b.
    In a word, in short, Cic. Off. 1, 41, 149; Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 106. —
    9.
    Ad extremum, ad ultimum, ad postremum.
    a.
    At the end, finally, at last.
    (α).
    Of place, at the extremity, extreme point, top, etc.:

    missile telum hastili abiegno et cetera tereti, praeterquam ad extremum, unde ferrum exstabat,

    Liv. 21, 8, 10.—
    (β).
    Of time = telos de, at last, finally:

    ibi ad postremum cedit miles,

    Plaut. Aul. 3, 5, 52; so id. Poen. 4, 2, 22; Cic. Off. 3, 23, 89; id. Phil. 13, 20, 45; Caes. B. G. 7, 53; Liv. 30, 15, 4 al.— Hence,
    (γ).
    of order, finally, lastly, = denique: inventa componere; tum ornare oratione; post memoria sepire;

    ad extremum agere cum dignitate,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 31, 142.—
    b.
    In Liv., to the last degree, quite: improbus homo, sed non ad extremum perditus, 23, 2, 3; cf.:

    consilii scelerati, sed non ad ultimum dementis,

    id. 28, 28, 8.—
    10.
    Quem ad finem? To what limit? How far? Cic. Cat. 1, 1; id. Verr. 5, 75.—
    11.
    Quem ad modum, v. sub h. v.
    a.
    Ad (v. ab, ex, in, etc.) is not repeated like some other prepositions with interrog. and relative pronouns, after nouns or demonstrative pronouns:

    traducis cogitationes meas ad voluptates. Quas? corporis credo,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 17, 37 (ubi v. Kuhner).—
    b.
    Ad is sometimes placed after its substantive:

    quam ad,

    Ter. Phorm. 3, 2, 39:

    senatus, quos ad soleret, referendum censuit,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 4:

    ripam ad Araxis,

    Tac. Ann. 12, 51;

    or between subst. and adj.: augendam ad invidiam,

    id. ib. 12, 8.—
    c.
    The compound adque for et ad (like exque, eque, and, poet., aque) is denied by Moser, Cic. Rep. 2, 15, p. 248, and he reads instead of ad humanitatem adque mansuetudinem of the MSS., hum. atque mans. But adque, in acc. with later usage, is restored by Hand in App. M. 10, p. 247, adque haec omnia oboediebam for atque; and in Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 9, utroque vorsum rectum'st ingenium meum, ad se adque illum, is now read, ad te atque ad illum (Fleck., Brix).
    II.
    In composition.
    A.
    Form. According to the usual orthography, the d of the ad remains unchanged before vowels, and before b, d, h, m, v: adbibo, adduco, adhibeo, admoveo, advenio; it is assimilated to c, f, g, l, n, p, r, s, t: accipio, affigo, aggero, allabor, annumero, appello, arripio, assumo, attineo; before g and s it sometimes disappears: agnosco, aspicio, asto: and before qu it passes into c: acquiro, acquiesco.—But later philologists, supported by old inscriptions and good MSS., have mostly adopted the following forms: ad before j, h, b, d, f, m, n, q, v; ac before c, sometimes, but less well, before q; ag and also ad before g; a before gn, sp, sc, st; ad and also al before l; ad rather than an before n; ap and sometimes ad before p; ad and also ar before r; ad and also as before s; at and sometimes ad before t. In this work the old orthography has commonly been retained for the sake of convenient reference, but the better form in any case is indicated.—
    B.
    Signif. In English up often denotes approach, and in many instances will give the force of ad as a prefix both in its local and in its figurative sense.
    1.
    Local.
    a.
    To, toward: affero, accurro, accipio ( to one's self).—
    b.
    At, by: astare, adesse.—
    c.
    On, upon, against: accumbo, attero.—
    d.
    Up (cf. de- = down, as in deicio, decido): attollo, ascendo, adsurgo.—
    2.
    Fig.
    a.
    To: adjudico, adsentior.—
    b.
    At or on: admiror, adludo.—
    c.
    Denoting conformity to, or comparison with: affiguro, adaequo.—
    d.
    Denoting addition, increase (cf. ab, de, and ex as prefixes to denote privation): addoceo, adposco.—
    e.
    Hence, denoting intensity: adamo, adimpleo, aduro, and perhaps agnosco.—
    f.
    Denoting the coming to an act or state, and hence commencement: addubito, addormio, adquiesco, adlubesco, advesperascit. See more upon this word in Hand, Turs. I. pp. 74-134.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > ad

  • 8 adeo

    1.
    ăd-ĕo, ĭī, and rarely īvi, ĭtum (arch. adirier for adiri, Enn. Rib. Trag. p. 59), 4, v. n. and a. (acc. to Paul. ex Fest. should be accented a/deo; v. Fest. s. v. adeo, p. 19 Müll.; cf. the foll. word), to go to or approach a person or thing (syn.: accedo, aggredior, advenio, appeto).
    I.
    Lit.
    A.
    In gen., constr.
    (α).
    With ad (very freq.): sed tibi cautim est adeundum ad virum, Att. ap. Non. 512, 10:

    neque eum ad me adire neque me magni pendere visu'st,

    Plaut. Cur. 2, 2, 12:

    adeamne ad eam?

    Ter. And. 4, 1, 15; id. Eun. 3, 5, 30: aut ad consules aut ad te aut ad Brutum adissent, Cic. Fragm. ap. Non. 208, 5:

    ad M. Bibulum adierunt, id. Fragm. ap. Arus. p. 213 Lind.: ad aedis nostras nusquam adiit,

    Plaut. Aul. 1, 1, 24:

    adibam ad istum fundum,

    Cic. Caec. 29 —
    (β).
    With in: priusquam Romam atque in horum conventum adiretis, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 11, § 26 ed. Halm.—Esp.: adire in jus, to go to law:

    cum ad praetorem in jus adissemus,

    Cic. Verr. 4, § 147; id. Att. 11, 24; Caes. B. C. 1, 87, and in the Plebiscit. de Thermens. lin. 42: QVO DE EA RE IN IOVS ADITVM ERIT, cf. Dirks., Versuche S. p. 193.—
    (γ).
    Absol.:

    adeunt, consistunt, copulantur dexteras,

    Plaut. Aul. 1, 2, 38:

    eccum video: adibo,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 7, 5.—
    (δ).
    With acc.:

    ne Stygeos adeam non libera manes,

    Ov. M. 13, 465:

    voces aetherias adiere domos,

    Sil. 6, 253:

    castrorum vias,

    Tac. A. 2, 13:

    municipia,

    id. ib. 39:

    provinciam,

    Suet. Aug. 47:

    non poterant adire eum,

    Vulg. Luc. 8, 19:

    Graios sales carmine patrio,

    to attain to, Verg. Cat. 11, 62; so with latter supine:

    planioribus aditu locis,

    places easier to approach, Liv. 1, 33.—With local adv.:

    quoquam,

    Sall. J. 14:

    huc,

    Plaut. Truc. 2, 7, 60.—
    B.
    Esp.,
    1.
    To approach one for the purpose of addressing, asking aid, consulting, and the like, to address, apply to, consult (diff. from aggredior, q. v.). —Constr. with ad or oftener with acc.; hence also pass.:

    quanto satius est, adire blandis verbis atque exquaerere, sintne illa, etc.,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 35:

    aliquot me adierunt,

    Ter. And. 3, 3, 2:

    adii te heri de filia,

    id. Hec. 2, 2, 9: cum pacem peto, cum placo, cum adeo, et cum appello meam, Lucil. ap. Non. 237, 28:

    ad me adire quosdam memini, qui dicerent,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 10:

    coram adire et alloqui,

    Tac. H. 4, 65.— Pass.:

    aditus consul idem illud responsum retulit,

    when applied to, Liv. 37, 6 fin.:

    neque praetores adiri possent,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 5.—Hence: adire aliquem per epistulam, to address one in writing, by a letter:

    per epistulam, aut per nuntium, quasi regem, adiri eum aiunt,

    Plaut. Mil. 4, 6, 9 and 10; cf. Tac. A. 4, 39; id. H. 1, 9.—So also: adire deos, aras, deorum sedes, etc., to approach the gods, their altars, etc., as a suppliant (cf.:

    acced. ad aras,

    Lucr. 5, 1199): quoi me ostendam? quod templum adeam? Att. ap. Non. 281, 6:

    ut essent simulacra, quae venerantes deos ipsos se adire crederent,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 27:

    adii Dominum et deprecatus sum,

    Vulg. Sap. 8, 21:

    aras,

    Cic. Phil. 14, 1:

    sedes deorum,

    Tib. 1, 5, 39:

    libros Sibyllinos,

    to consult the Sibylline Books, Liv. 34, 55; cf. Tac. A. 1, 76:

    oracula,

    Verg. A. 7, 82.—
    2.
    To go to a thing in order to examine it, to visit:

    oppida castellaque munita,

    Sall. J. 94:

    hiberna,

    Tac. H. 1, 52.—
    3.
    To come up to one in a hostile manner, to assail, attack:

    aliquem: nunc prior adito tu, ego in insidiis hic ero,

    Ter. Ph. 1, 4, 52:

    nec quisquam ex agmine tanto audet adire virum,

    Verg. A. 5, 379:

    Servilius obvia adire arma jubetur,

    Sil. 9, 272.
    II.
    Fig.
    A.
    To go to the performance of any act, to enter upon, to undertake, set about, undergo, submit to (cf.: accedo, aggredior, and adorior).—With ad or the acc. (class.):

    nunc eam rem vult, scio, mecum adire ad pactionem,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 2, 25:

    tum primum nos ad causas et privatas et publicas adire coepimus,

    Cic. Brut. 90:

    adii causas oratorum, id. Fragm. Scaur. ap. Arus. p. 213 Lind.: adire ad rem publicam,

    id. de Imp. Pomp. 24, 70:

    ad extremum periculum,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 7.—With acc.:

    periculum capitis,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 38:

    laboribus susceptis periculisque aditis,

    id. Off. 1, 19:

    in adeundis periculis,

    id. ib. 24; cf.:

    adeundae inimicitiae, subeundae saepe pro re publica tempestates,

    id. Sest. 66, 139: ut vitae periculum aditurus videretur, Auct. B. G. 8, 48: maximos labores et summa pericula. Nep. Timol. 5:

    omnem fortunam,

    Liv. 25, 10:

    dedecus,

    Tac. A. 1, 39:

    servitutem voluntariam,

    id. G. 24:

    invidiam,

    id. A. 4, 70:

    gaudia,

    Tib. 1, 5, 39.—Hence of an inheritance, t. t., to enter on:

    cum ipse hereditatem patris non adisses,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 16; so id. Arch. 5; Suet. Aug. 8 and Dig.;

    hence also: adire nomen,

    to assume the name bequeathed by will, Vell. 2, 60.—
    B.
    Adire manum alicui, prov., to deceive one, to make sport of (the origin of this phrase is unc.; Acidalius conjectures that it arose from some artifice practised in wrestling, Wagner ad Plaut. Aul. 2, 8, 8):

    eo pacto avarae Veneri pulcre adii manum,

    Plaut. Poen. 2, 11; so id. Aul. 2, 8, 8; id. Cas. 5, 2, 54; id. Pers. 5, 2, 18.
    2.
    ăd-ĕō̆, adv. [cf. quoad and adhuc] (acc. to Festus, it should be accented adéo, v. the preced. word; but this distinction is merely a later invention of the grammarians; [p. 33] cf. Gell. 7, 7).
    I.
    In the ante-class. per.,
    A.
    To designate the limit of space or time, with reference to the distance passed through; hence often accompanied by usque (cf. ad), to this, thus far, so far, as far.
    1.
    Of space:

    surculum artito usque adeo, quo praeacueris,

    fit in the scion as far as you have sharpened it, Cato, R. R. 40, 3.— Hence: res adeo rediit, the affair has gone so far (viz., in deterioration, “cum aliquid pejus exspectatione contigit,” Don. ad Ter. Ph. 1, 2, 5):

    postremo adeo res rediit: adulescentulus saepe eadem et graviter audiendo victus est,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 61; cf. id. Ph. 1, 2, 5.—
    2.
    Of time, so long ( as), so long ( till), strengthened by usque, and with dum, donec, following, and in Cic. with quoad:

    merces vectatum undique adeo dum, quae tum haberet, peperisset bona,

    Plaut. Merc. 1, 1, 76; 3, 4, 72; id. Am. 1, 2, 10 al.:

    nusquam destitit instare, suadere, orare, usque adeo donec perpulit,

    Ter. And. 4, 1, 36; Cato, R. R. 67; id. ib. 76:

    atque hoc scitis omnes usque adeo hominem in periculo fuisse, quoad scitum sit Sestium vivere,

    Cic. Sest. 38, 82.—
    B.
    For the purpose of equalizing two things in comparison, followed by ut: in the same degree or measure or proportion... in which; or so very, so much, so, to such a degree... as (only in comic poets), Plaut. Ep. 4, 1, 38:

    adeon hominem esse invenustum aut infelicem quemquam, ut ego sum?

    Ter. And. 1, 5, 10.—Also followed by quasi, when the comparison relates to similarity:

    gaudere adeo coepit, quasi qui cupiunt nuptias,

    in the same manner as those rejoice who desire marriage, Ter. Heaut. 5, 1, 12.—
    C.
    (Only in the comic poets) = ad haec, praeterea, moreover, besides, too: ibi tibi adeo lectus dabitur, ubi tu haud somnum capias ( beside the other annoyances), a bed, too, shall be given you there, etc., Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 80.—Hence also with etiam:

    adeo etiam argenti faenus creditum audio,

    besides too, id. Most. 3, 1, 101.—
    D.
    (Only in the comic poets.) Adeo ut, for this purpose that, to the end that:

    id ego continuo huic dabo, adeo me ut hic emittat manu,

    Plaut. Rud. 5, 3, 32:

    id adeo te oratum advenio, ut, etc.,

    id. Aul. 4, 10, 9:

    adeo ut tu meam sententiam jam jam poscere possis, faciam, etc.,

    id. ib. 3, 2, 26 (where Wagner now reads at ut):

    atque adeo ut scire possis, factum ego tecum hoc divido,

    id. Stich. 5, 4, 15. (These passages are so interpreted by Hand, I. p. 138; others regard adeo here = quin immo.)—
    E.
    In narration, in order to put one person in strong contrast with another. It may be denoted by a stronger emphasis upon the word to be made conspicuous, or by yet, on the contrary, etc.:

    jam ille illuc ad erum cum advenerit, narrabit, etc.: ille adeo illum mentiri sibi credet,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 2, 4 sq.; so id. Merc. 2, 1, 8 al.
    II.
    To the Latin of every period belongs the use of this word,
    A.
    To give emphasis to an idea in comparison, so, so much, so very, with verbs, adjectives, and substantives:

    adeo ut spectare postea omnīs oderit,

    Plaut. Capt. prol. 65:

    neminem quidem adeo infatuare potuit, ut ei nummum ullum crederet,

    Cic. Fl. 20, 47:

    adeoque inopia est coactus Hannibal, ut, etc.,

    Liv. 22, 32, 3 Weiss.:

    et voltu adeo modesto, adeo venusto, ut nil supra,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 92:

    nemo adeo ferus est, ut, etc.,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 39.—With usque:

    adeo ego illum cogam usque, ut mendicet meus pater,

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 4, 10:

    usque adeo turbatur,

    even so much, so continually, Verg. E. 1, 12; Curt. 10, 1, 42; Luc. 1, 366.—In questions:

    adeone me fuisse fungum, ut qui illi crederem?

    Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 49:

    adeone hospes hujus urbis, adeone ignarus es disciplinae consuetudinisque nostrae, ut haec nescias?

    Cic. Rab. 10, 28; so id. Phil. 2, 7, 15; id. Fam. 9, 10; Liv. 2, 7, 10; 5, 6, 4.—With a negative in both clauses, also with quin in the last:

    non tamen adeo virtutum sterile saeculum, ut non et bona exempla prodiderit,

    Tac. H. 1, 3; so Suet. Oth. 9:

    verum ego numquam adeo astutus fui, quin, etc.,

    Ter. Ad. 2, 2, 13.—

    Sometimes the concluding clause is to be supplied from the first: quis genus Aeneadum, quis Trojae nesciat urbem?... non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Poeni, viz.,

    that we know not the Trojans and their history, Verg. A. 1, 565:

    adeo senuerunt Juppiter et Mars?

    Juv. 6, 59.—Hence (post-Cic.): adeo non ut... adeo nihil ut... so little that, so far from that... (in reference to which, it should be noticed that in Latin the negative is blended with the verb in one idea, which is qualified by adeo) = tantum abest ut: haec dicta adeo nihil moverunt quemquam, ut legati prope violati sint, these words left them all so unmoved that, etc., or had so little effect, etc., Liv. 3, 2, 7: qui adeo non tenuit iram, ut gladio cinctum in senatum venturum se esse palam diceret, who restrained his anger so little that, etc. (for, qui non—tenuit iram adeo, ut), id. 8, 7, 5; so 5, 45, 4; Vell. 2, 66, 4: Curt. 3, 12, 22.—Also with contra in the concluding clause:

    apud hostes Afri et Carthaginienses adeo non sustinebant, ut contra etiam pedem referrent,

    Liv. 30, 34, 5. —
    B.
    Adeo is placed enclitically after its word, like quidem, certe, and the Gr. ge, even, indeed, just, precisely. So,
    1.
    Most freq. with pronouns, in order to render prominent something before said, or foll., or otherwise known (cf. in Gr. egôge, suge, autos ge, etc., Viger. ed. Herm. 489, vi. and Zeun.): argentariis male credi qui aiunt, nugas praedicant: nam et bene et male credi dico; id adeo hodie ego expertus sum, just this (touto ge), Plaut. Curc. 5, 3, 1; so id. Aul. 2, 4, 10; 4, 2, 15; id. Am. 1, 1, 98; 1, 2, 6; id. Ep. 1, 1, 51; 2, 2, 31; 5, 2, 40; id. Poen. 1, 2, 57: plerique homines, quos, cum nihil refert, pudet;

    ubi pudendum'st ibi eos deserit pudor, is adeo tu es,

    you are just such a one, id. Ep. 2, 1, 2:

    cui tu obsecutus, facis huic adeo injuriam,

    Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 68: tute adeo jam ejus verba audies, you yourself shall hear what he has to say (suge akousêi), Ter. And. 3, 3, 27: Dolabella tuo nihil scito mihi esse jucundius: hanc adeo habebo gratiam illi, i. e. hanc, quae maxima est, gratiam (tautên ge tên charin), Caes. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 16:

    haec adeo ex illo mihi jam speranda fuerunt,

    even this, Verg. A. 11, 275.—It is often to be translated by the intensive and, and just, etc. (so esp. in Cic. and the histt.): id adeo, si placet, considerate, just that (touto ge skopeite), Cic. Caec. 30, 87:

    id adeo ex ipso senatus consulto cognoscite,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 64, 143; cf. id. Clu. 30, 80:

    ad hoc quicumque aliarum atque senatus partium erant, conturbari remp., quam minus valere ipsi malebant. Id adeo malum multos post annos in civitatem reverterat,

    And just this evil, Sall. C. 37, 11; so 37, 2; id. J. 68, 3; Liv. 2, 29, 9; 4, 2, 2: id adeo manifestum erit, si cognoverimus, etc., and this, precisely this, will be evident, if, etc., Quint. 2, 16, 18 Spald.—It is rarely used with ille:

    ille adeo illum mentiri sibi credet,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 2, 6.—Sometimes with the rel. pron.: quas adeo haud quisquam liber umquam tetigit, Plaut: Poen. 1, 2, 57; Cic. Fin. 2, 12, 37. —With interrog. pron.:

    Quis adeo tam Latinae linguae ignarus est, quin, etc.,

    Gell. 7, 17.—Adeo is joined with the pers. pron. when the discourse passes from one person to another, and attention is to be particularly directed to the latter: Juppiter, tuque adeo summe Sol, qui res omnes inspicis, and thou especially, and chiefly thou, Enn. ap. Prob.:

    teque adeo decus hoc aevi inibit,

    Verg. E. 4, 11; id. G. 1, 24: teque, Neptune, invoco, vosque adeo venti, Poët. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 34, 73;

    and without the copulative: vos adeo... item ego vos virgis circumvinciam,

    Plaut. Rud. 3, 4, 25.— Ego adeo often stands for ego quidem, equidem (egôge):

    tum libertatem Chrysalo largibere: ego adeo numquam accipiam,

    Plaut. Bacch. 4, 7, 30; so id. Mil. 4, 4, 55; id. Truc. 4, 3, 73:

    ego adeo hanc primus inveni viam,

    Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 16:

    nec me adeo fallit,

    Verg. A. 4, 96.—Ipse adeo (autos ge), for the sake of emphasis:

    atque hercle ipsum adeo contuor,

    Plaut. As. 2, 3, 24:

    ipsum adeo praesto video cum Davo,

    Ter. And. 2, 5, 4:

    ipse adeo senis ductor Rhoeteus ibat pulsibus,

    Sil. 14, 487.—
    2.
    With the conditional conjj. si, nisi, etc. (Gr. ei ge), if indeed, if truly:

    nihili est autem suum qui officium facere immemor est, nisi adeo monitus,

    unless, indeed, he is reminded of it, Plaut. Ps. 4, 7, 2: Si. Num illi molestae quippiam hae sunt nuptiae? Da. Nihil Hercle: aut si adeo, bidui est aut tridui haec sollicitudo, and if, indeed, etc. (not if also, for also is implied in aut), Ter. And. 2, 6, 7.—
    3.
    With adverbs: nunc adeo (nun ge), Plaut. As. 3, 1, 29; id. Mil. 2, 2, 4; id. Merc. 2, 2, 57; id. Men. 1, 2, 11; id. Ps. 1, 2, 52; id. Rud. 3, 4, 23; Ter. And. 4, 5, 26; Verg. A. 9, 156: jam adeo (dê ge), id. ib. 5, 268; Sil. 1, 20; 12, 534; Val. Fl. 3, 70. umquam adeo, Plaut. Cas. 5, 4, 23:

    inde adeo,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 1:

    hinc adeo,

    Verg. E. 9, 59: sic adeo (houtôs ge), id. A. 4, 533; Sil. 12, 646:

    vix adeo,

    Verg. A. 6, 498:

    non adeo,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 57; Verg. A. 11, 436. —
    4.
    With adjectives = vel, indeed, even, very, fully:

    quot adeo cenae, quas deflevi, mortuae!

    how very many suppers, Plaut. Stich. 1, 3, 59: quotque adeo fuerint, qui temnere superbum... Lucil. ap. Non. 180, 2: nullumne malorum finem adeo poenaeque dabis (adeo separated from nullum by poet. license)? wilt thou make no end at all to calamity and punishment? Val. Fl. 4, 63:

    trīs adeo incertos caeca caligine soles erramus,

    three whole days we wander about, Verg. A. 3, 203; 7, 629.—And with comp. or the adv. magis, multo, etc.:

    quae futura et quae facta, eloquar: multo adeo melius quam illi, cum sim Juppiter,

    very much better, Plaut. Am. 5, 2, 3; so id. Truc. 2, 1, 5:

    magis adeo id facilitate quam aliā ullā culpā meā, contigit,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 4, 15.—
    5.
    With the conjj. sive, aut, vel, in order to annex a more important thought, or to make a correction, or indeed, or rather, or even only:

    sive qui ipsi ambīssent, seu per internuntium, sive adeo aediles perfidiose quoi duint,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 71:

    si hercle scivissem, sive adeo joculo dixisset mihi, se illam amare,

    id. Merc. 5, 4, 33; so id. Truc. 4, 3, 1; id. Men. 5, 2, 74; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 9: nam si te tegeret pudor, sive adeo cor sapientia imbutum foret, Pacuv. ap. Non. 521, 10:

    mihi adeunda est ratio, quā ad Apronii quaestum, sive adeo, quā ad istius ingentem immanemque praedam possim pervenire,

    or rather, Cic. Verr 2, 3, 46, 110; Verg. A. 11, 369; so, atque adeo:

    ego princeps in adjutoribus atque adeo secundus,

    Cic. Att. 1, 17, 9.—
    6.
    With the imperative, for emphasis, like tandem, modo, dum, the Germ. so, and the Gr. ge (cf. L. and S.), now, I pray:

    propera adeo puerum tollere hinc ab janua,

    Ter. And. 4, 4, 20 (cf. xullabete g auton, Soph. Phil. 1003).—
    C.
    Like admodum or nimis, to give emphasis to an idea (for the most part only in comic poets, and never except with the positive of the adj.; cf. Consent. 2023 P.), indeed, truly, so very, so entirely:

    nam me ejus spero fratrem propemodum jam repperisse adulescentem adeo nobilem,

    so very noble, Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 123:

    nec sum adeo informis,

    nor am I so very ugly, Verg. E. 2, 25:

    nam Caii Luciique casu non adeo fractus,

    Suet. Aug. 65:

    et merito adeo,

    and with perfect right, Ter. Hec. 2, 1, 42:

    etiam num credis te ignorarier aut tua facta adeo,

    do you, then, think that they are ignorant of you or your conduct entirely? id. Ph. 5, 8, 38.—
    D.
    To denote what exceeds expectation, even: quam omnium Thebis vir unam esse optimam dijudicat, quamque adeo cives Thebani rumificant probam, and whom even the Thebans (who are always ready to speak evil of others) declare to be an honest woman, Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 44.— Hence also it denotes something added to the rest of the sentence, besides, too, over and above, usually in the connection: -que adeo (rare, and never in prose; cf.

    adhuc, I.): quin te Di omnes perdant qui me hodie oculis vidisti tuis, meque adeo scelestum,

    and me too, Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 122; cf. id. 4, 2, 32:

    haec adeo tibi me, ipsa palam fari omnipotens Saturnia jussit,

    Verg. A. 7, 427.
    III.
    After Caesar and Cicero (the only instance of this use adduced from Cicero's works, Off. 1, 11, 36, being found in a passage rejected by the best critics, as B. and K.).
    A.
    For adding an important and satisfactory reason to an assertion, and then it always stands at the beginning of the clause, indeed, for:

    cum Hanno perorāsset, nemini omnium cum eo certare necesse fuit: adeo prope omnis senatus Hannibalis erat: the idea is,

    Hanno's speech, though so powerful, was ineffectual, and did not need a reply; for all the senators belonged to the party of Hannibal, Liv. 21, 11, 1; so id. 2, 27, 3; 2, 28, 2; 8, 37, 2; Tac. Ann. 1, 50, 81; Juv. 3, 274; 14, 233.—Also for introducing a parenthesis: sed ne illi quidem ipsi satis mitem gentem fore (adeo ferocia atque indomita [p. 34] ingenia esse) ni subinde auro... principum animi concilientur, Liv. 21, 20, 8; so id. 9, 26, 17; 3, 4, 2; Tac. A. 2, 28.—
    B.
    When to a specific fact a general consideration is added as a reason for it, so, thus (in Livy very often):

    haud dubius, facilem in aequo campi victoriam fore: adeo non fortuna modo, sed ratio etiam cum barbaris stabat,

    thus not only fortune, but sagacity, was on the side of the barbarians, Liv. 5, 38, 4:

    adeo ex parvis saepe magnarum momenta rerum pendent,

    id. 27, 9, 1; so id. 4, 31, 5; 21, 33, 6; 28, 19; Quint. 1, 12, 7; Curt. 10, 2, 11; Tac. Agr. 1:

    adeo in teneris consuescere multum est,

    Verg. G. 2, 272.—
    C.
    In advancing from one thought to another more important = immo, rather, indeed, nay: nulla umquam res publica ubi tantus paupertati ac parsimoniae honos fuerit: adeo, quanto rerum minus, tanto minus cupiditatis erat, Liv. praef. 11; so Gell. 11, 7; Symm. Ep. 1, 30, 37.—
    D.
    With a negative after ne—quidem or quoque, so much the more or less, much less than, still less (post-Aug.):

    hujus totius temporis fortunam ne deflere quidem satis quisquam digne potuit: adeo nemo exprimere verbis potest,

    still less can one describe: it by words, Vell. 2, 67, 1:

    ne tecta quidem urbis, adeo publicum consilium numquam adiit,

    still less, Tac. A. 6, 15; so id. H. 3, 64; Curt. 7, 5, 35:

    favore militum anxius et superbia viri aequalium quoque, adeo superiorum intolerantis,

    who could not endure his equals even, much less his superiors, Tac. H. 4, 80.—So in gen., after any negative: quaelibet enim ex iis artibus in paucos libros contrahi solet: adeo infinito spatio ac traditione opus non est, so much the less is there need, etc., Quint. 12, 11, 16; Plin. 17, 12, 35, § 179; Tac. H. 3, 39.—(The assumption of a causal signif. of adeo = ideo, propterea, rests upon false readings. For in Cael. Cic. Fam. 8, 15 we should read ideo, B. and K., and in Liv. 24, 32, 6, ad ea, Weiss.).—See more upon this word in Hand, Turs. I. pp. 135-155.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > adeo

  • 9 adhuc

    ăd-huc, adv.
    I.
    Prop., of place, to this place, hitherto, thus far (designating the limit, inclusive of the whole space traversed: hence often joined with usque; cf.

    ad, A. 1. B.): conveniunt adhuc utriusque verba,

    thus far, to this point, the statements of both agree, Plaut. Truc. 4, 3, 20:

    adhuc ea dixi, causa cur Zenoni non fuisset,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 16, 44; cf. Auct. Her. 1, 9, 16:

    his oris, quas angulo Baeticae adhuc usque perstrinximus,

    Mel. 3, 6, 1.—Hence, in the desig. of measure or degree, so far, to such a degree:

    et ipse Caesar erat adhuc impudens, qui exercitum et provinciam invito senatu teneret,

    Cic. Fam. 16, 11, 4; so Liv. 21, 18, 4; Quint. 2, 19, 2; 8, 5, 20.—More frequently,
    II.
    Transf.
    A.
    Of time, until now, hitherto, as yet (designating the limit, together with the period already passed; cf.

    ad, 1. B.): res adhuc quidem hercle in tuto est,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 48:

    celabitur itidem ut celata adhuc est,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 20:

    sicut adhuc fecerunt, speculabuntur,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 2, 6:

    ille vidit non modo, quot fuissent adhuc philosophorum de summo bono, sed quot omnino esse possent sententiae,

    id. Fin. 5, 6, 16:

    haec adhuc (sc. acta sunt): sed ad praeterita revertamur,

    id. Att. 5, 20; so ib. 3, 14 fin.; 5, 17, 46; id. Agr. 3, 1, 1:

    Britanni, qui adhuc pugnae expertes,

    Tac. Agr. 37; so Curt. 7, 7, 8 al.—With usque or semper:

    usque adhuc actum est probe,

    Plaut. Mil. 2, 6, 107; so id. Ps. 4, 7, 14; Ter. And. 1, 5, 27; id. Ad. 4, 4, 23; 5, 4, 5; id. Hec. 4, 1, 29; Cic. Rep. 2, 20:

    quod adhuc semper tacui et tacendum putavi,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 26, 119.—With dum in subordinate propositions, for the purpose of more accurate desig. of time:

    quae adhuc te carens, dum hic fui, sustentabam,

    what I have endured during the whole time that I have been here, until now, Plaut. Capt. 5, 1, 4:

    adhuc dum mihi nullo loco deesse vis, numquam te confirmare potuisti,

    Cic. Fam. 16, 4; so ib. 18.—Hence the adverbial expression (occurring once in Plautus): adhuc locorum, until now, hitherto: ut adhuc locorum feci, faciam sedulo, Capt. 2, 3, 25.— Adhuc denotes not merely a limitation of time in the present, but also, though more rarely, like usque eo and ad id tempus, and the Engl. as yet, in the past:

    adhuc haec erant, ad reliqua alacri tendebamus animo,

    Cic. Div. 2, 2, 4:

    Abraham vero adhuc stabat,

    Vulg. Gen. 18, 22:

    unam adhuc a te epistulam acceperam,

    Cic. Att. 7, 2:

    cum adhuc sustinuisset multos dies,

    Vulg. Act. 18, 18:

    scripsi etiam illud quodam in libello... disertos me cognōsse nonnullos, eloquentem adhuc neminem,

    id. de Or. 1, 21:

    una adhuc victoria Carus Metius censebatur,

    Tac. Agr. 45.—
    B.
    Adhuc non, or neque adhuc, not as yet, not to this time: nihil adhuc, nothing as yet, or not at all as yet: numquam adhuc, never as yet, never yet:

    cupidissimi veniendi maximis injuriis affecti, adhuc non venerunt,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 27, 65:

    me adhuc non legisse turpe utrique nostrum est,

    id. Fam. 7, 24, 7; so id. 3, 8, 25; 6, 14; 14, 6, 2; Mart. 7, 89, 10:

    cui neque fulgor adhuc nec dum sua forma recessit,

    Verg. A. 11, 70:

    nihil adhuc peccavit etiam,

    Plaut. Pers. 4, 4, 78:

    nihil adhuc est, quod vereare,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 2, 1:

    sed quod quaeris, quando, qua, quo, nihil adhuc scimus,

    Cic. Fam. 9, 7, 4; so 9, 17, 7; Caes. B. C. 3, 57; Nep. Milt. 5:

    numquam etiam quicquam adhuc verborum est prolocutus perperam,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 92; cf. id. Capt. 5, 2, 7.—
    C.
    For etiam nunc, yet, still; to denote continuance (apparently not used by Cic.):

    stertis adhuc?

    are you still snoring? Pers. 3, 58;

    adhuc tranquilla res est,

    it is still quiet, Ter. Ph. 3, 1, 15; so id. Ad. 1, 2, 42:

    Ephesi regem est consecutus fluctuantem adhuc animo,

    Liv. 33, 49, 7; so 21, 43, 14; Tac. A. 1, 8, 17; id. H. 2, 44, 73; 4, 17; id. Germ. 28; Suet. Aug. 56, 69; Plin. Ep. 4, 13, 1; Curt. 8, 6, 18: quinque satis fuerant; nam sex septemve libelli est nimium: quid adhuc ludere, Musa, juvat? why play still, still more, or further? Mart. 8, 3; so id. 4, 91.—
    D.
    Hence also to denote that a thing is still remaining or existing:

    at in veterum comicorum adhuc libris invenio,

    I yet find in the old comic poets, Quint. 1, 7, 22:

    quippe tres adhuc legiones erant,

    were still left, Tac. H. 3, 9; so id. G. 34; id. Ann. 2, 26; Mart. 7, 44, 1.—With vb. omitted:

    si quis adhuc precibus locus, exue mentem,

    Verg. A. 4, 319.—
    E.
    To denote that a thing has only reached a certain point, now first, just now: cum adhuc ( now for the first time) naso odos obsecutus es meo, da vicissim meo gutturi gaudium, Plaut. Curc. 1, 2, 9:

    gangraenam vero, si nondum plane tenet, sed adhuc incipit, curare non difficillimum est,

    Cels. 5, 26, 34; so Mart. 13, 102.—Hence, with deinde or aliquando following:

    quam concedis adhuc artem omnino non esse, sed aliquando,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 58, 246:

    senatus priusquam edicto convocaretur ad curiam concurrit, obseratisque adhuc foribus, deinde apertis, tantas mortuo gratias agit, etc.,

    Suet. Tit. 11; so Tac. A. 11, 23.—
    F.
    To denote that a thing had reached a certain limit before another thing happened (in prose only after Livy), still, yet, while yet:

    inconditam multitudinem adhuc disjecit,

    he dispersed the multitude while yet unarranged, Tac. A. 3, 42.—
    G.
    For etiam, insuper, praeterea, to denote that a thing occurs beside or along with another (belonging perhaps only to popular language, hence once in Plaut., and to the post-Aug. per.), besides, further, moreover:

    addam minam adhuc istic postea,

    Plaut. Truc. 5, 18:

    unam rem adhuc adiciam,

    Sen. Q. N. 4, 8:

    sunt adhuc aliquae non omittendae in auro differentiae,

    Plin. 33, 2, 10, § 37; so Quint. 2, 21, 6; 9, 4, 34; Val. Fl. 8, 429; Tac. A. 1, 17; id. Agr. 29; ib. 33; Flor. 1, 13, 17; Vulg. Amos, 4, 7; ib. Joan. 16, 12; ib. Heb. 11, 32.—
    H.
    In later Lat. adhuc is used like etiam in the Cic. per., = eti, yet, still, for the sake of emphasis in comparisons; then, if it cnhances the comparative, it stands before it; but follows it, if that which the comp. expresses is added by way of augmentation; as, he has done a still greater thing, and he has still done a greater thing (this is the view of Hand, Turs. I. p. 166):

    tum Callicles adhuc concitatior,

    Quint. 2, 15, 28:

    adhuc difficilior observatio est per tenores,

    id. 1, 5, 22:

    si marmor illi (Phidiae), si adhuc viliorem materiem obtulisses, fecisset, etc.,

    Sen. Ep. 85, 34:

    adhuc diligentius,

    Plin. 18, 4: cui gloriae amplior [p. 36] adhuc ex opportunitate cumulus accessit, Suet. Tib. 17:

    Di faveant, majora adhuc restant,

    Curt. 9, 6, 23; so Quint. 10, 1, 99; Tac. G. 19; Suet. Ner. 10.
    I.
    Adhuc sometimes = adeo, even (in the connection, et adhuc, -que adhuc; v. adeo, II.).
    a.
    Ita res successit meliusque adhuc, Plaut. Bacch. 4, 9, 18:

    Tellurem Nymphasque et adhuc ignota precatur flumina,

    Verg. A. 7, 137:

    Nil parvum sapias et adhuc sublimia cures,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 12, 15; so ib. 2, 2, 114; Liv. 22, 49, 10; Sen. Ep. 49, 4.—
    b.
    Absol.:

    gens non astuta nec callida aperit adhuc secreta pectoris licentiā joci,

    Tac. G. 22:

    cetera similes Batavis, nisi quod ipso adhuc terrae suae solo et caelo acrius animantur,

    ib. 29, 3 (cf.: ipse adeo under adeo, II., and at the end); so Stat. S. 1, 2, 55.—See more upon this word, Hand, Turs. I. pp. 156-167.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > adhuc

  • 10 admodum

    ad-mŏdum, adv. [modus], prop., to the measure or limit (scarcely found in the poets, except the comic poets);

    as, postea ubi occipiet fervere, paulisper demittito, usque admodum dum quinquies quinque numeres,

    quite to the limit till you count, until you count, Cato, R. R. 156, 2 (like fere and omnino, freq. put after its word).— Hence,
    I.
    To a (great) measure, in a high degree, much, very. —With adj., P. adj., vbs., and adv.
    (α).
    With adj.:

    admodum causam gravem,

    Lucil. 29, 19 Müll.:

    admodum antiqui,

    Cic. Phil. 5, 47:

    admodum amplum et excelsum,

    id. Verr. 4, 74:

    utrique nostrum gratum admodum feceris,

    id. Lael. 4, 16; so id. Verr. 2, 3, 10:

    nec admodum in virum honorificum,

    Liv. 6, 34, 8:

    in quo multum admodum fortunae datur,

    Cic. Fin. 5, 5, 12:

    neque admodum sunt multi,

    Nep. Reg. 1, 1:

    admodum magnis itineribus,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 56:

    admodum pauci,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 36; 14, 27; id. N. D. 3, 69; Tac. G. 18:

    pauci admodum,

    Liv. 10, 41:

    iter angustum admodum,

    Sall. J. 92:

    admodum nimia ubertas,

    very excessive, Col. 4, 21:

    admodum dives,

    Suet. Caes. 1:

    brevis admodum,

    id. ib. 56.—And strengthened by quam, q. v. (only before and after the class. per.):

    hic admodum quam saevus est,

    very cruel indeed, Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 43:

    voce admodum quam suavi,

    Gell. 19, 9 (on this use of quam, cf. Rudd. II. p. 307, n. 15).—
    (β).
    With part. adj.:

    admodum iratum senem,

    Ter. Phorm. 3, 1, 13:

    iratum admodum,

    id. Ad. 3, 3, 49:

    natio admodum dedita religionibus,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 16:

    prorae admodum erectae,

    id. ib. 3, 13:

    admodum mitigati,

    Liv. 1, 10:

    munitus admodum,

    Tac. A. 2, 80:

    admodum fuit militum virtus laudanda,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 8.—Esp. is it joined (like komidêi in Dem.) with words denoting age; as, puer, adulescens, juvenis, senex, to enhance the idea (for which in some cases the dim. or the prefix per- is used;

    as, puellus, adulescentulus, peradulescentulus): Catulus admodum tum adulescens,

    Cic. Rab. Perd. 7, 21; id. Off. 2, 13, 47; Tac. A. 1, 3:

    puer admodum,

    Liv. 31, 28; Sen. Brev. Vit. 7, 3; Quint. 12, 6, 1:

    admodum infans,

    Tac. A. 4, 13:

    juvenis admodum,

    id. H. 4, 5:

    fratres admodum juvenes,

    Curt. 7, 2, 12:

    admodum senex,

    Eutr. 8, 1:

    admodum parvulus,

    Just. 17, 3:

    non admodum grandem natu,

    Cic. Sen. 4, 10.— Also with dim.: neque admodum adulescentulus est, Naev. ap. Sergium ad Don. Keil, Gr. Lat. IV. p. 559 (Rib. Com. Fragm. p. 11):

    hic admodum adulescentulus est,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 90; so Nep. Ham. 1, 1 (cf. peradulescentulus, id. Eum. 1, 4), and Tac. A. 4, 44.—
    (γ).
    With verbs (in earlier Latin, mostly with delectare, diligere, placere): haec anus admodum frigultit, Enn. ap. Fulg. p. 175:

    irridere ne videare et gestire admodum,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 125:

    neque admodum a pueris abscessit,

    Naev. Rib. Com. Fragm. p. 11:

    me superiores litterae tuae admodum delectaverunt,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 19; id. Att. 7, 24:

    ejus familiarissimos, qui me admodum diligunt,

    id. Fam. 4, 13:

    stomacho admodum prodest,

    Plin. 20, 3, 7, § 13:

    bucinum pelagio admodum adligatur,

    id. 9, 38, 62, § 134:

    (familia) ipsa admodum floruit,

    Suet. Tib. 3:

    Marius auctis admodum copiis... vicit,

    Flor. 1, 36, 13 Halm.—
    (δ).
    With adv.:

    haec inter nos nuper notitia admodum est,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 1: si quando demersimus, aut nihil superum aut obscure admodum cernimus, Cic. Ac. ap. Non. 7, 57: acipenser, qui admodum raro capitur, id. de Fato ap. Macr. S. 2, 12:

    raro admodum admonitu amicorum... uti solebat,

    Curt. 4, 13, 25:

    ubi satis admodum suorum animos est expertus,

    Liv. 34, 13, 4 Weissenb. (Hertz cancels satis): quae maxime admodum oratori accommodata est, Auct. ad Her. 4, 12, 17 (Oudendorp regarded this as a mere pleonasm, and Hand seems to agree with him; Klotz and B. and K. adopt after Goerenz the reading maxime ad modum oratoris, but Hand condemned this form).—
    II.
    To a (full) measure, fully, completely, wholly, quite, absolutely.
    A.
    Of number (not used in this way by Cic., Tac., or Suet.): noctu turres admodum CXX. excitantur, full 120, Caes. B. G. 5, 40: sex milia hostium caesa;

    quinque admodum Romanorum,

    Liv. 22, 24. 14; 42, 65, 3;

    44, 43, 8: mille admodum hostium utràque pugnā occidit,

    id. 27, 30, 2:

    in laevo cornu Bactriani ibant equites, mille admodum,

    a round thousand, Curt. 4, 12, 3: mille admodum equites praemiserat, quorum paucitate Alexander, etc., a thousand, but not more (as the context requires), id. 4, 9, 24:

    congregati admodum quingenti sponsos hostes consectantur, trucidatisque admodum novem milibus, etc.,

    Just. 24, 1.
    The meaning, circiter, fere, about, near, or nearly, which used to be assigned to this head, as by Graevius ad Just.
    24, 26, Gronovius ad Liv. 27, 30, 2, is rejected by recent scholars, as Hand, Turs. I. p. 175 sq., and by Corradini, Lex. Lat. s. h. v.
    B.
    Of time:

    legati ex Macedonia exacto admodum mense Februario redierunt,

    when February was fully ended, Liv. 43, 11, 9:

    Alexandri filius, rex Syriae, decem annos admodum habens,

    just ten years, Liv. Epit. 55:

    post menses admodum septem occiditur,

    Just. 17, 2, 3.—
    C.
    With negatives, just, at all, absolutely:

    equestris pugna nulla admodum fuit,

    no engagement with the cavalry at all, Liv. 23, 29, 14:

    armorum magnam vim transtulit, nullam pecuniam admodum,

    id. 40, 59, 2:

    horunc illa nibilum quidquam facere poterit admodum,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 65:

    Curio litterarum admodum nihil sciebat,

    Cic. Brut. 58, 210:

    oratorem plane quidem perfectum et cui nihil admodum desit, Demosthenem facile dixeris,

    id. 9, 35: alter non multum, alter nihil admodum scripti reliquit (by the latter is meant Antonius, who indeed, acc. to Brut. 44, 163, left a treatise de ratione dicendi, but no written oration at all, by which his eloquence could be judged), id. Or. 38, 132; id. Clu. 50, 140; id. Or. 2, 2, 8; eirôneia a tropo genere ipso nihil admodum distat, Quint. 9, 2, 44;

    quia nihil admodum super vite aut arbore colenda sciret,

    Gell. 19, 12. —
    D.
    In emphatic affirmative or corroborative answers, = maxime (Gr. panu ge), exactly, just so, quite so, certainly, yes (freq. in Plaut., only twice in Ter.); cf. the remark of Cic.: scis solere, frater, in hujusmodi sermone, ut transiri alio possit, dici Admodum aut Prorsus ita est, Leg. 3, 11, 26: nempe tu hanc dicis, quam esse aiebas dudum popularem meam. Tr. Admodum, Certainly, Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 36: num quidnam ad filium haec aegritudo attinet? Ni. Admodum, It does, id. Bacch. 5, 1, 24; 4, 1, 40; id. Rud. 1, 5, 10; 1, 2, 55; 3, 6, 2; id. Ps. 4, 7, 54: Advenis modo? Pa. Admodum, Yes, Ter. Hec. 3, 5, 8; id. Phorm. 2, 2, 1.
    Admodum with an adj.
    may have the same force as in II., in:

    quandam formam ingenii, sed admodum impolitam et plane rudem,

    absolutely without polish and altogether rude, Cic. Brut. 85, 294, compared with:

    (oratorem) plane perfectum et cui nihil admodum desit,

    id. ib. 9, 35, where the same adverbs occur.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > admodum

  • 11 ager

    ăger, gri, m. [agros; Germ. Acker, Eng. acre, Sanscr. agras = surface, floor; Grimm conjectured that it was connected with ago, agô, a pecore agendo, and this was the ancient view; cf. Varr. L. L. 5, § 34 Müll., and Don. ad Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 47; so the Germ. Trift = pasture, from treiben, to drive].
    I.
    In an extended sense, territory, district, domain, the whole of the soil belonging to a community (syn.: terra, tellus, arvum, solum, rus, humus; opp. terra, which includes [p. 70] many such possessions taken together; cf.

    Nieb. Röm. Gesch. 2, 694 sq.): Ager Tusculanus,... non terra,

    Varr. L. L. 7, 2, 84:

    praedā atque agro adfecit familiares suos,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 38:

    abituros agro Achivos,

    id. ib. 1, 53, 71:

    ut melior fundus Hirpinus sit, sive ager Hirpinus (totum enim possidet), quam, etc.,

    Cic. Agr. 3, 2: fundum habet in agro Thurino, id. Fragm. ap. Quint. 4, 2, 131 (pro Tull. 14):

    Rhenus, qui agrum Helvetium a Germanis dividit,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 2 Herz.:

    ager Noricus,

    id. ib. 1, 5:

    in agro Troade,

    Nep. Paus. 3:

    in agro Aretino,

    Sall. C. 36, 1:

    his civitas data agerque,

    Liv. 2, 16:

    in agro urbis Jericho,

    Vulg. Josue, 5, 13.—In the Roman polity: ager Romanus, the Roman possessions in land (distinguished from ager peregrinus, foreign territory) was divided into ager publicus, public property, domains, and ager privatus, private estates; v. Smith's Dict. Antiq., and Nieb. Röm. Gesch. 2, 695 and 696; cf. with 153 sq.—
    II.
    In a more restricted sense.
    A.
    Improdued or productive land, a field, whether pasture, arable, nursery ground, or any thing of the kind; cf. Doed. Syn. 3, 7 sq.; 1, 71; Hab. Syn. 68, and Herz. ad Caes. B. G. 7, 13:

    agrum hunc mercatus sum: hic me exerceo,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 94:

    agrum de nostro patre colendum habebat,

    id. Phorm. 2, 3, 17:

    ut ager quamvis fertilis, sine culturā fructuosus esse non potest,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 5; id. Fl. 29:

    agrum colere,

    id. Rosc. Am. 18:

    conserere,

    Verg. E. 1, 73:

    agrum tuum non seres,

    Vulg. Lev. 19, 19:

    (homo) seminavit bonum semen in agro suo,

    ib. Matt. 13, 24; ib. Luc. 12, 16. —
    * Of a piece of ground where vines or trees are planted, a nursery:

    ut ager mundus purusque flat, ejus arbor atque vitis fecundior,

    Gell.
    19, 12, 8.—Of a place of habitation in the country, estate, villa:

    in tuosne agros confugiam,

    Cic. Att. 3, 15 (so agros, Hom. Od. 24, 205).—
    B.
    The fields, the open country, the country (as in Gr. agros or agroi), like rus, in opp. to the town, urbs (in prose writers generally only in the plur.), Ter. Eun. 5, 5, 2:

    homines ex agris concurrunt,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 44:

    non solum ex urbe, sed etiam ex agris,

    id. Cat. 2, 4, 8:

    annus pestilens urbi agrisque,

    Liv. 3, 6; id. 3, 32:

    in civitatem et in agros,

    Vulg. Marc. 5, 14.—And even in opp. to a village or hamlet, the open field:

    sanum hominem modo ruri esse oportet, modo in urbe, saepiusque in agro,

    Cels. 1, 1.—
    C.
    Poet., in opp. to mountains, plain, valley, champaign:

    ignotos montes agrosque salutat,

    Ov. M. 3, 25.—
    D.
    As a measure of length (opp. frons, breadth):

    mille pedes in fronte, trecentos cippus in agrum Hic dabat,

    in depth, Hor. S. 1, 8, 12.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > ager

  • 12 alter

    alter, tĕra, tĕrum, adj. (the measure of the gen. sing. āltĕrĭŭs as paeon primus is supported in good Latin only by examples from dactylic verse (but see alterĭus in trochaic measure, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 56), in which īpsĭŭs, īllĭŭs, īstĭŭs, ūnĭŭs, etc., are used as dactyls; on the contr., the regular measure āltĕrīŭs, as ditrochaeus, is sufficiently confirmed by the foll. verses of Enn., Ter., and Ter. Maur.: mox cum alterīus abligurias bona, Enn. ap. Donat. ad Ter. Phorm. 2, 2, 25 (Sat. 29 Vahl.):

    alterīus sua comparent commoda? ah!

    Ter. And. 4, 1, 4:

    nec alter[imacracute]us indigéns opís veni,

    Ter. Maur. p. 2432 P.;

    and sescupló vel una víncet alter[imacracute]us singulum,

    id. ib. p. 2412 ib.; Prisc. p. 695 ib.; alterius is also commonly used as the gen. of alius, as alīus is little used (v. h. v. fin.).— Dat. sing. f.:

    alterae,

    Plaut. Rud. 3, 4, 45; Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 30; Caes. B. G. 5, 27; Nep. Eum. 1, 6; Col. 5, 11, 10) [a comp. form of al-ius; cf. Sanscr. antara = alius; Goth. anthar; Lith. antras = secundus; Germ. ander; Gr. heteros; Engl. either, other; also Sanscr. itara = alius], the other of two, one of two, the other, ho heteros.
    I.
    Lit.
    A.
    In gen.:

    nam huic alterae patria quae sit, profecto nescio,

    Plaut. Rud. 3, 4, 45:

    necesse est enim sit alterum de duobus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 41, 97:

    altera ex duabus legionibus,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 20: mihi cum viris ambobus est amicitia;

    cum altero vero magnus usus,

    Cic. Clu. 42, 117:

    alter consulum,

    Liv. 40, 59:

    alter ex censoribus,

    id. 40, 52:

    in alterā parte fluminis legatum reliquit,

    on the other side, Caes. B. G. 2, 5; id. B. C. 3, 54:

    si quis te percusserit in dexteram maxillam tuam, praebe illi et alteram,

    Vulg. Matt. 5, 39; 28, 1.—Hence: alter ambove, one or both; commonly in the abbreviation:

    A. A. S. E. V. = alter ambove si eis videretur: utique C. Pansa, A. Hirtius consules alter ambove S. E. V. rationem agri habeant,

    Cic. Phil. 5 fin. Wernsd.; cf. id. ib. 8, 11; 9, 7 fin.; 14, 14 fin.; cf.

    Brison. Form. pp. 218 and 219: absente consulum altero ambobusve,

    Liv. 30, 23: ambo alterve, S. C. ap. Front. Aquaed. 100 fin.
    B.
    Esp.
    1.
    a.. In distributive clauses: alter... alter, the one... the other (cf. alius, II. A.): ho heteros... ho heteros:

    Si duobus praefurniis coques, lacunā nihil opus erit. Cum cinere eruto opus erit, altero praefurnio eruito, in altero ignis erit,

    Cato, R. R. 38, 9:

    alteram ille amat sororem, ego alteram,

    Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 68; id. Am. 1, 2, 19; 1, 2, 20; Ter. Ad. 1, 2, 50:

    quorum alter exercitum perdidit, alter vendidit,

    Cic. Planc. 35; so id. Rosc. Am. 6, 16: namque alterā ex parte Bellovaci instabant;

    alteram Camulogenus tenebat,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 59 Herz.:

    conjunxit alteram (cortinam) alteri,

    Vulg. Exod. 36, 10; 36, 22; ib. Joan. 13, 14; ib. Rom. 12, 5.—
    b.
    In same sense, unus... alter, one... the other, as in later Gr. heis men... heteros de: vitis insitio una est per ver, altera est cum uva floret;

    ea optima est,

    Cato, R. R. 41, 1: Phorm. Una injuria est tecum. Chrem. Lege agito ergo. Phorm. Altera est tecum, Ter. Phorm. 5, 8, 90: uni epistolae respondi;

    venio ad alteram,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 17, 6:

    nomen uni Ada, et nomen alteri Sella,

    Vulg. Gen. 4, 19; ib. Matt. 6, 24:

    Erant duae factiones, quarum una populi causam agebat, altera optimatium,

    Nep. Phoc. 3, 1; Liv. 31, 21:

    consules coepere duo creari, ut si unus malus esse voluisset, alter eum coërceret,

    Eutr. 1, 8:

    Duo homines ascenderunt in templum, unus pharisaeus et alter publicanus,

    Vulg. Luc. 18, 10 al. —
    c.
    Sometimes a subst., or hic, ille, etc., stands in the place of the second alter:

    Epaminondas... Leonidas: quorum alter, etc... Leonidas autem, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 30, 97; so Vell. 2, 71, 3:

    alter gladiator habetur, hic autem, etc.,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 6, 17:

    quorum alteri Capitoni cognomen est, iste, qui adest, magnus vocatur,

    id. ib.:

    alterum corporis aegritudo, illum, etc.,

    Flor. 4, 7.—Sometimes
    (α).
    one alter is entirely omitted (cf. alius, II. A.; heteros, L. and S. I. 2.):

    duae turmae haesere: altera metu dedita hosti, pertinacior (sc. altera), etc.,

    Liv. 29, 33:

    hujus lateris alter angulus ad orientem solem, inferior ad meridiem spectat,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 13; or
    (β).
    the form changed:

    dialecticam adjungunt et physicam, alteram quod habeat rationem.... Physicae quoque etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 21, 72, and 3, 22, 73. —Sometimes a further distributive word is added:

    alter adulescens decessit, alter senex, aliquis praeter hos infans,

    Sen. Ep. 66, 39:

    alter in vincula ducitur, alter insperatae praeficitur potestati, alius etc.,

    Amm. 14, 11.—
    d.
    In plur.: nec ad vivos pertineat, nec ad mortuos;

    alteri nulli sunt, alteros non attinget,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 38, 91:

    alteri dimicant, alteri victorem timent,

    id. Fam. 6, 3: binas a te accepi litteras; quarum alteris mihi gratulabare... alteris dicebas etc., in one of which,... in the other, id. ib. 4, 14:

    quorum alteri adjuvabant, alteri etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 17: duplices similitudines, unae rerum, alterae verborum, Auct. ad Her. 3, 20. —
    e.
    The second alter in a different case:

    alter alterius ova frangit,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 49:

    uterque numerus plenus, alter alterā de causā habetur,

    Macr. Somn. Scip. 2:

    qui noxii ambo, alter in alterum causam conferant,

    Liv. 5, 11:

    alteri alteros aliquantum attriverant,

    Sall. J. 79, 4; so id. ib. 42, 4;

    53, 7 al. —Also with alteruter: ne alteruter alterum praeoccuparet,

    Nep. Dion. 4, 1.—With unus:

    quom inter nos sorderemus unus alteri,

    Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 30:

    dicunt unus ad alterum,

    Vulg. Ez. 33, 30:

    ne unus adversus alterum infletur pro alio,

    ib. 1 Cor. 4, 6.—With uterque:

    uterque suo studio delectatus contempsit alterum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 1, 4:

    utrique alteris freti finitimos sub imperium suum coëgere,

    Sall. J. 18, 12.—With nemo, nullus, neuter:

    ut nemo sit alteri similis,

    Quint. 2, 9, 2:

    cum tot saeculis nulla referta sit causa, quae esset tota alteri similis,

    id. 7, prooem. 4:

    neutrum eorum contra alterum juvare,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 1, 3:

    ut neutra alteri officiat,

    Quint. 1, 1, 3.—After two substt., the first alter generally refers to the first subst., and the second to the second:

    Philippum rebus gestis superatum a filio, facilitate video superiorem fuisse. Itaque alter semper magnus, alter saepe turpissimus,

    Cic. Off. 1, 26; cf. Plaut. Am. 1, 2, 21; Brem. ad Suet. Claud. 20.—Sometimes the order is reversed: contra nos (summa gratia et eloquentia) raciunt in hoc tempore;

    quarum alteram (i. e. eloquentiam) vereor, alteram (i. e. gratiam) metuo,

    Cic. Quinct. 1; so id. Off. 3, 18; 1, 12; cf. Spald. ad Quint. 9, 2, 6.—
    2.
    As a numeral = secundus, the second, the next, o heteros:

    primo die, alter dies, tertius dies, deinde reliquis diebus etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 7:

    proximo, altero, tertio, reliquis consecutis diebus non intermittebas etc.,

    id. Phil. 1, 13 Wernsd.:

    quadriennio post alterum consulatum,

    id. Sen. 9:

    die altero,

    Vulg. Jos. 10, 32: alteris Te mensis adhibet deum, i. e. at the dessert (= mensā secundā), Hor. C. 4, 5, 31.—So, alterā die, the next day, têi allêi hêmerai, têi heterai:

    se alterā die ad conloquium venturum,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 19; Vulg. Gen. 19, 34; ib. Matt. 27, 62:

    die altero,

    ib. Num. 11, 32; ib. Jos. 5, 11 al.—So in comparative sense:

    alterā die quam a Brindisio solvit, in Macedoniam trajecit,

    Liv. 31, 14; Suet. Vit. 3:

    intermittere diem alterum quemque oportet,

    every other day, Cels. 3, 23; 3, 13; 4, 12:

    Olea non continuis annis, sed fere altero quoque fructum adfert,

    Col. R. R. 5, 8.—With prepp.:

    qui (Ptolemaeus) tum regnabat alter post Alexandream conditam,

    next after, Cic. Off. 2, 23, 82; so, fortunate puer, tu nunc eris alter ab illo, the second or next after him, Verg. E. 5, 49:

    alter ab undecimo jam tum me ceperat annus,

    id. ib. 8, 39.—Hence,
    b.
    Also with tens, hundreds, etc.:

    accepi tuas litteras, quas mihi Cornificius altero vicesimo die reddidit,

    on the twenty-second day, Cic. Fam. 12, 25 Manut.:

    anno trecentesimo altero quam condita Roma erat,

    in the three hundred and second year, Liv. 3, 33:

    vicesima et altera laedit,

    Manil. 4, 466.—
    c.
    So of a number collectively:

    remissarios pedum XII., alteros pedum X.,

    a second ten, Cato, R. R. 19, 2:

    ad Brutum hos libros alteros quinque mittemus,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 41, 121:

    basia mille, deinde centum, dein mille altera, dein secunda centum,

    Cat. 5, 7.—So with the numeral understood: aurea mala decem misi;

    cras altera (sc. decem) mittam,

    a second ten, Verg. E. 3, 71.—Hence,
    d.
    Unus et alter, unus atque alter, unus alterque, the one and the other.
    (α).
    For two (as in Gr. heis kai heteros):

    unus et alter dies intercesserat,

    Cic. Clu. 26:

    adductus sum tuis unis et alteris litteris,

    id. Att. 14, 18:

    et sub eā versus unus et alter erunt,

    Ov. H. 15, 182; so Suet. Tib. 63; id. Calig. 56; id. Claud. 12 (cf. id. Gram. 24: unum vel alterum, vel, cum plurimos, tres aut quattuor admittere).—
    (β).
    More freq. of an indef. number, one and another; and: unusalterve, one or two:

    Unus et item alter,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 50:

    mora si quem tibi item unum alterumve diem abstulerit,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 9; so id. Clu. 13, 38; 13, 26:

    versus paulo concinnior unus et alter,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 74; so id. S. 1, 6, 102; 2, 5, 24; id. A. P. 15:

    ex illis unus et alter ait,

    Ov. F. 2, 394; id. Am. 2, 5, 22; Petr. 108; Plin. Pan. 45 Schwarz; cf. id. ib. 52, 2; Suet. Caes. 20; id. Galb. 14 al.:

    paucis loricae, vix uni alterive cassis aut galea,

    Tac. G. 6.—
    e.
    Alterum tantum, as much more or again, twice as much (cf. Gr. heteron tosouton or hetera tosauta):

    etiamsi alterum tantum perdundum est, perdam potius quam sinam, etc.,

    Plaut. Ep. 3, 4, 81; so id. Bacch. 5, 2, 65:

    altero tanto aut sesqui major,

    Cic. Or. 56, 188:

    altero tanto longior,

    Nep. Eum. 8, 5; so Dig. 28, 2, 13:

    numero tantum alterum adjecit,

    Liv. 1, 36; so id. 10, 46; Auct. B. Hisp. 30; Dig. 49, 14, 3 al.—
    f.
    Alteri totidem, as many more:

    de alteris totidem scribere incipiamus,

    Varr. L. L. 8, 24 Müll. —
    g.
    To mark the similarity of one object to another in qualities, etc., a second, another (as in English, a second father, my second self, and the like). So,
    (α).
    With a proper name, used as an appellative (cf. alius, II. G.):

    Verres, alter Orcus,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 50:

    alterum se Verrem putabat,

    id. ib. 5, 33 fin.:

    Hamilcar, Mars alter,

    Liv. 21, 10.—
    (β).
    With a com. noun:

    me sicut alterum parentem observat,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 8:

    altera patria,

    Flor. 2, 6, 42 al. —
    (γ).
    Alter ego, a second self, of very intimate friends (in the class. per. perh. only in Cic. Ep.; cf. ho hetairos, heteros egô, Clem. Al. 450):

    vide quam mihi persuaserim te me esse alterum,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 5:

    me alterum se fore dixit,

    id. Att. 4, 1:

    quoniam alterum me reliquissem,

    id. Fam. 2, 15; Aus. praef. 2, 15.—
    (δ).
    Alter idem, a second self, like heteroi hautoi, Arist. Eth. M. 8, 12, 3 (on account of the singularity of the expression, introduced by tamquam):

    amicus est tamquam alter idem,

    Cic. Lael. 21, 82.—
    3.
    The one of two, either of two, without a more precise designation, for alteruter:

    non uterque sed alter,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 43, 132:

    fortasse utrumque, alterum certe,

    id. Att. 11, 18:

    melius peribimus quam sine alteris vestrūm vivemus,

    Liv. 1, 13:

    nec rogarem, ut mea de vobis altera amica foret,

    Ov. A. A. 3, 520:

    ex duobus, quorum alterum petis, etc.,

    Plin. Ep. 1, 7, 3:

    ex duobus (quorum necesse est alterum verum), etc.,

    Quint. 5, 10, 69:

    ac si necesse est in alteram errare partem, maluerim etc.,

    id. 10, 1, 26; 1, 4, 24; 9, 3, 6 al.—Once also with a negative, neither of two: hos, tamquam medios, [p. 98] nec in alterius favorem inclinatos, miserat rex, Liv. 40, 20, 4.—
    II.
    Transf.
    A.
    Another of a class = alius (as opp. to one's self, to another); subst., another, a neighbor, a fellow-creature, ho pelas (so sometimes heteros, Xen. Cyr. 2, 3, 17); cf. Ochsn. Eclog. 90 and 458 (alter designates the similarity of two objects; alius a difference in the objects contrasted): SI. INIVRIAM. FAXIT. ALTERI., Fragm. XII. Tab. ap. Gell. 20, 1:

    qui alterum incusat probri, eum ipsum se intueri oportet,

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 58; id. Am. prol. 84: mox dum alterius abligurias bona, quid censes dominis esse animi? Enn. ap. Don. ad Ter. Phorm. 2, 2, 25:

    ut malis gaudeant atque ex incommodis Alterius sua ut comparent commoda,

    Ter. And. 4, 1, 3: qui alteris exitium paret, etc., Att. ap. Cic. Tusc. 2, 17, 39:

    qui nihil alterius causā facit et metitur suis commodis omnia,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 14:

    ut aeque quisque altero delectetur ac se ipso,

    id. Off. 1, 17, 56; 1, 2, 4:

    scientem in errorem alterum inducere,

    id. ib. 3, 13, 55 et saep.:

    cave ne portus occupet alter,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 6, 32 Schmid.:

    nil obstet tibi, dum ne sit te ditior alter,

    id. S. 1, 1, 40; 1, 5, 33:

    canis parturiens cum rogāsset alteram, ut etc.,

    Phaedr. 1, 19:

    nec patientem sessoris alterius (equum) primus ascendit,

    Suet. Caes. 61; id. Tib. 58:

    in quo judicas alterum, te ipsum condemnas,

    Vulg. Rom. 2, 1:

    nemo quod suum est quaerat, sed quod alterius,

    ib. 1 Cor. 10, 24;

    14, 17: sic in semet ipso tantum gloriam habebit et non in altero,

    ib. Gal. 6, 4 al. —Hence, alter with a neg., or neg. question and comp., as an emphatic expression (mostly ante-class.; cf.

    alius, II. H.): scelestiorem nullum illuxere alterum,

    Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 22:

    scelestiorem in terrā nullam esse alteram,

    id. Cist. 4, 1, 8:

    qui me alter audacior est homo?

    id. Am. 1, 1, 1; id. Ep. 1, 1, 24.—
    B.
    The other, the opposite:

    alterius factionis principes,

    the leaders of the opposite party, Nep. Pelop. 1, 4 (cf. id. ib. 1, 2:

    adversariae factioni): studiosiorem partis alterius,

    Suet. Tib. 11. —
    C.
    In gen., different:

    quotiens te speculo videris alterum,

    Hor. C. 4, 10, 6: abeuntes post carnem alteram (Gr. heteros, q. v. L. and S. III.), Vulg. Jud. 7.—
    D.
    In the lang. of augury, euphem. for infaustus, unfavorable, unpropitious, Fest. p. 6 (v. L. and S. Gr. Lex. s. v. heteros, III. 2.).
    The gen.
    alterius commonly serves as gen. of alius instead of alīus, Cic. Fam. 15, 1, 1; id. Att. 1, 5, 1; 1, 20, 2; Caes. B. G. 1, 36, 1; Sall. C. 52, 8; Liv. 21, 13, 3; 22, 14, 4; 26, 8, 2; 28, 37, 6 al.; Col. 8, 17, 2; 11, 2, 87; 12, 22, 2; Sen. Ep. 72, 10; 102, 3; id. Ben. 4, 3, 1; id. Ot. Sap. 4, 1; id. Brev. Vit. 16, 2; id. Q. N. 2, 34, 1 al.; Quint. 7, 9, 8; 8, 3, 73 al.; Tac. A. 15, 25; id. H. 2, 90; Plin. Ep. 10, 114, 2; Suet. Caes. 61; id. Tib. 58 al.; Gell. 2, 28 al.—It also stands as correlative to alius:

    alius inter cenandum solutus est, alterius continuata mors somno est,

    Sen. Ep. 66, 39:

    cum inventum sit ex veris (gemmis) generis alterius in aliud falsas traducere,

    Plin. 37, 12, 75, § 197; Plin. Pan. 2, 6 (Neue, Formenl. II. p. 216).
    altĕras, adv.
    [alter], for alias, acc. to Paul. ex. Fest. p. 27 Müll.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > alter

  • 13 alteras

    alter, tĕra, tĕrum, adj. (the measure of the gen. sing. āltĕrĭŭs as paeon primus is supported in good Latin only by examples from dactylic verse (but see alterĭus in trochaic measure, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 56), in which īpsĭŭs, īllĭŭs, īstĭŭs, ūnĭŭs, etc., are used as dactyls; on the contr., the regular measure āltĕrīŭs, as ditrochaeus, is sufficiently confirmed by the foll. verses of Enn., Ter., and Ter. Maur.: mox cum alterīus abligurias bona, Enn. ap. Donat. ad Ter. Phorm. 2, 2, 25 (Sat. 29 Vahl.):

    alterīus sua comparent commoda? ah!

    Ter. And. 4, 1, 4:

    nec alter[imacracute]us indigéns opís veni,

    Ter. Maur. p. 2432 P.;

    and sescupló vel una víncet alter[imacracute]us singulum,

    id. ib. p. 2412 ib.; Prisc. p. 695 ib.; alterius is also commonly used as the gen. of alius, as alīus is little used (v. h. v. fin.).— Dat. sing. f.:

    alterae,

    Plaut. Rud. 3, 4, 45; Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 30; Caes. B. G. 5, 27; Nep. Eum. 1, 6; Col. 5, 11, 10) [a comp. form of al-ius; cf. Sanscr. antara = alius; Goth. anthar; Lith. antras = secundus; Germ. ander; Gr. heteros; Engl. either, other; also Sanscr. itara = alius], the other of two, one of two, the other, ho heteros.
    I.
    Lit.
    A.
    In gen.:

    nam huic alterae patria quae sit, profecto nescio,

    Plaut. Rud. 3, 4, 45:

    necesse est enim sit alterum de duobus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 41, 97:

    altera ex duabus legionibus,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 20: mihi cum viris ambobus est amicitia;

    cum altero vero magnus usus,

    Cic. Clu. 42, 117:

    alter consulum,

    Liv. 40, 59:

    alter ex censoribus,

    id. 40, 52:

    in alterā parte fluminis legatum reliquit,

    on the other side, Caes. B. G. 2, 5; id. B. C. 3, 54:

    si quis te percusserit in dexteram maxillam tuam, praebe illi et alteram,

    Vulg. Matt. 5, 39; 28, 1.—Hence: alter ambove, one or both; commonly in the abbreviation:

    A. A. S. E. V. = alter ambove si eis videretur: utique C. Pansa, A. Hirtius consules alter ambove S. E. V. rationem agri habeant,

    Cic. Phil. 5 fin. Wernsd.; cf. id. ib. 8, 11; 9, 7 fin.; 14, 14 fin.; cf.

    Brison. Form. pp. 218 and 219: absente consulum altero ambobusve,

    Liv. 30, 23: ambo alterve, S. C. ap. Front. Aquaed. 100 fin.
    B.
    Esp.
    1.
    a.. In distributive clauses: alter... alter, the one... the other (cf. alius, II. A.): ho heteros... ho heteros:

    Si duobus praefurniis coques, lacunā nihil opus erit. Cum cinere eruto opus erit, altero praefurnio eruito, in altero ignis erit,

    Cato, R. R. 38, 9:

    alteram ille amat sororem, ego alteram,

    Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 68; id. Am. 1, 2, 19; 1, 2, 20; Ter. Ad. 1, 2, 50:

    quorum alter exercitum perdidit, alter vendidit,

    Cic. Planc. 35; so id. Rosc. Am. 6, 16: namque alterā ex parte Bellovaci instabant;

    alteram Camulogenus tenebat,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 59 Herz.:

    conjunxit alteram (cortinam) alteri,

    Vulg. Exod. 36, 10; 36, 22; ib. Joan. 13, 14; ib. Rom. 12, 5.—
    b.
    In same sense, unus... alter, one... the other, as in later Gr. heis men... heteros de: vitis insitio una est per ver, altera est cum uva floret;

    ea optima est,

    Cato, R. R. 41, 1: Phorm. Una injuria est tecum. Chrem. Lege agito ergo. Phorm. Altera est tecum, Ter. Phorm. 5, 8, 90: uni epistolae respondi;

    venio ad alteram,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 17, 6:

    nomen uni Ada, et nomen alteri Sella,

    Vulg. Gen. 4, 19; ib. Matt. 6, 24:

    Erant duae factiones, quarum una populi causam agebat, altera optimatium,

    Nep. Phoc. 3, 1; Liv. 31, 21:

    consules coepere duo creari, ut si unus malus esse voluisset, alter eum coërceret,

    Eutr. 1, 8:

    Duo homines ascenderunt in templum, unus pharisaeus et alter publicanus,

    Vulg. Luc. 18, 10 al. —
    c.
    Sometimes a subst., or hic, ille, etc., stands in the place of the second alter:

    Epaminondas... Leonidas: quorum alter, etc... Leonidas autem, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 30, 97; so Vell. 2, 71, 3:

    alter gladiator habetur, hic autem, etc.,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 6, 17:

    quorum alteri Capitoni cognomen est, iste, qui adest, magnus vocatur,

    id. ib.:

    alterum corporis aegritudo, illum, etc.,

    Flor. 4, 7.—Sometimes
    (α).
    one alter is entirely omitted (cf. alius, II. A.; heteros, L. and S. I. 2.):

    duae turmae haesere: altera metu dedita hosti, pertinacior (sc. altera), etc.,

    Liv. 29, 33:

    hujus lateris alter angulus ad orientem solem, inferior ad meridiem spectat,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 13; or
    (β).
    the form changed:

    dialecticam adjungunt et physicam, alteram quod habeat rationem.... Physicae quoque etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 21, 72, and 3, 22, 73. —Sometimes a further distributive word is added:

    alter adulescens decessit, alter senex, aliquis praeter hos infans,

    Sen. Ep. 66, 39:

    alter in vincula ducitur, alter insperatae praeficitur potestati, alius etc.,

    Amm. 14, 11.—
    d.
    In plur.: nec ad vivos pertineat, nec ad mortuos;

    alteri nulli sunt, alteros non attinget,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 38, 91:

    alteri dimicant, alteri victorem timent,

    id. Fam. 6, 3: binas a te accepi litteras; quarum alteris mihi gratulabare... alteris dicebas etc., in one of which,... in the other, id. ib. 4, 14:

    quorum alteri adjuvabant, alteri etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 17: duplices similitudines, unae rerum, alterae verborum, Auct. ad Her. 3, 20. —
    e.
    The second alter in a different case:

    alter alterius ova frangit,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 49:

    uterque numerus plenus, alter alterā de causā habetur,

    Macr. Somn. Scip. 2:

    qui noxii ambo, alter in alterum causam conferant,

    Liv. 5, 11:

    alteri alteros aliquantum attriverant,

    Sall. J. 79, 4; so id. ib. 42, 4;

    53, 7 al. —Also with alteruter: ne alteruter alterum praeoccuparet,

    Nep. Dion. 4, 1.—With unus:

    quom inter nos sorderemus unus alteri,

    Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 30:

    dicunt unus ad alterum,

    Vulg. Ez. 33, 30:

    ne unus adversus alterum infletur pro alio,

    ib. 1 Cor. 4, 6.—With uterque:

    uterque suo studio delectatus contempsit alterum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 1, 4:

    utrique alteris freti finitimos sub imperium suum coëgere,

    Sall. J. 18, 12.—With nemo, nullus, neuter:

    ut nemo sit alteri similis,

    Quint. 2, 9, 2:

    cum tot saeculis nulla referta sit causa, quae esset tota alteri similis,

    id. 7, prooem. 4:

    neutrum eorum contra alterum juvare,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 1, 3:

    ut neutra alteri officiat,

    Quint. 1, 1, 3.—After two substt., the first alter generally refers to the first subst., and the second to the second:

    Philippum rebus gestis superatum a filio, facilitate video superiorem fuisse. Itaque alter semper magnus, alter saepe turpissimus,

    Cic. Off. 1, 26; cf. Plaut. Am. 1, 2, 21; Brem. ad Suet. Claud. 20.—Sometimes the order is reversed: contra nos (summa gratia et eloquentia) raciunt in hoc tempore;

    quarum alteram (i. e. eloquentiam) vereor, alteram (i. e. gratiam) metuo,

    Cic. Quinct. 1; so id. Off. 3, 18; 1, 12; cf. Spald. ad Quint. 9, 2, 6.—
    2.
    As a numeral = secundus, the second, the next, o heteros:

    primo die, alter dies, tertius dies, deinde reliquis diebus etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 7:

    proximo, altero, tertio, reliquis consecutis diebus non intermittebas etc.,

    id. Phil. 1, 13 Wernsd.:

    quadriennio post alterum consulatum,

    id. Sen. 9:

    die altero,

    Vulg. Jos. 10, 32: alteris Te mensis adhibet deum, i. e. at the dessert (= mensā secundā), Hor. C. 4, 5, 31.—So, alterā die, the next day, têi allêi hêmerai, têi heterai:

    se alterā die ad conloquium venturum,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 19; Vulg. Gen. 19, 34; ib. Matt. 27, 62:

    die altero,

    ib. Num. 11, 32; ib. Jos. 5, 11 al.—So in comparative sense:

    alterā die quam a Brindisio solvit, in Macedoniam trajecit,

    Liv. 31, 14; Suet. Vit. 3:

    intermittere diem alterum quemque oportet,

    every other day, Cels. 3, 23; 3, 13; 4, 12:

    Olea non continuis annis, sed fere altero quoque fructum adfert,

    Col. R. R. 5, 8.—With prepp.:

    qui (Ptolemaeus) tum regnabat alter post Alexandream conditam,

    next after, Cic. Off. 2, 23, 82; so, fortunate puer, tu nunc eris alter ab illo, the second or next after him, Verg. E. 5, 49:

    alter ab undecimo jam tum me ceperat annus,

    id. ib. 8, 39.—Hence,
    b.
    Also with tens, hundreds, etc.:

    accepi tuas litteras, quas mihi Cornificius altero vicesimo die reddidit,

    on the twenty-second day, Cic. Fam. 12, 25 Manut.:

    anno trecentesimo altero quam condita Roma erat,

    in the three hundred and second year, Liv. 3, 33:

    vicesima et altera laedit,

    Manil. 4, 466.—
    c.
    So of a number collectively:

    remissarios pedum XII., alteros pedum X.,

    a second ten, Cato, R. R. 19, 2:

    ad Brutum hos libros alteros quinque mittemus,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 41, 121:

    basia mille, deinde centum, dein mille altera, dein secunda centum,

    Cat. 5, 7.—So with the numeral understood: aurea mala decem misi;

    cras altera (sc. decem) mittam,

    a second ten, Verg. E. 3, 71.—Hence,
    d.
    Unus et alter, unus atque alter, unus alterque, the one and the other.
    (α).
    For two (as in Gr. heis kai heteros):

    unus et alter dies intercesserat,

    Cic. Clu. 26:

    adductus sum tuis unis et alteris litteris,

    id. Att. 14, 18:

    et sub eā versus unus et alter erunt,

    Ov. H. 15, 182; so Suet. Tib. 63; id. Calig. 56; id. Claud. 12 (cf. id. Gram. 24: unum vel alterum, vel, cum plurimos, tres aut quattuor admittere).—
    (β).
    More freq. of an indef. number, one and another; and: unusalterve, one or two:

    Unus et item alter,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 50:

    mora si quem tibi item unum alterumve diem abstulerit,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 9; so id. Clu. 13, 38; 13, 26:

    versus paulo concinnior unus et alter,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 74; so id. S. 1, 6, 102; 2, 5, 24; id. A. P. 15:

    ex illis unus et alter ait,

    Ov. F. 2, 394; id. Am. 2, 5, 22; Petr. 108; Plin. Pan. 45 Schwarz; cf. id. ib. 52, 2; Suet. Caes. 20; id. Galb. 14 al.:

    paucis loricae, vix uni alterive cassis aut galea,

    Tac. G. 6.—
    e.
    Alterum tantum, as much more or again, twice as much (cf. Gr. heteron tosouton or hetera tosauta):

    etiamsi alterum tantum perdundum est, perdam potius quam sinam, etc.,

    Plaut. Ep. 3, 4, 81; so id. Bacch. 5, 2, 65:

    altero tanto aut sesqui major,

    Cic. Or. 56, 188:

    altero tanto longior,

    Nep. Eum. 8, 5; so Dig. 28, 2, 13:

    numero tantum alterum adjecit,

    Liv. 1, 36; so id. 10, 46; Auct. B. Hisp. 30; Dig. 49, 14, 3 al.—
    f.
    Alteri totidem, as many more:

    de alteris totidem scribere incipiamus,

    Varr. L. L. 8, 24 Müll. —
    g.
    To mark the similarity of one object to another in qualities, etc., a second, another (as in English, a second father, my second self, and the like). So,
    (α).
    With a proper name, used as an appellative (cf. alius, II. G.):

    Verres, alter Orcus,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 50:

    alterum se Verrem putabat,

    id. ib. 5, 33 fin.:

    Hamilcar, Mars alter,

    Liv. 21, 10.—
    (β).
    With a com. noun:

    me sicut alterum parentem observat,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 8:

    altera patria,

    Flor. 2, 6, 42 al. —
    (γ).
    Alter ego, a second self, of very intimate friends (in the class. per. perh. only in Cic. Ep.; cf. ho hetairos, heteros egô, Clem. Al. 450):

    vide quam mihi persuaserim te me esse alterum,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 5:

    me alterum se fore dixit,

    id. Att. 4, 1:

    quoniam alterum me reliquissem,

    id. Fam. 2, 15; Aus. praef. 2, 15.—
    (δ).
    Alter idem, a second self, like heteroi hautoi, Arist. Eth. M. 8, 12, 3 (on account of the singularity of the expression, introduced by tamquam):

    amicus est tamquam alter idem,

    Cic. Lael. 21, 82.—
    3.
    The one of two, either of two, without a more precise designation, for alteruter:

    non uterque sed alter,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 43, 132:

    fortasse utrumque, alterum certe,

    id. Att. 11, 18:

    melius peribimus quam sine alteris vestrūm vivemus,

    Liv. 1, 13:

    nec rogarem, ut mea de vobis altera amica foret,

    Ov. A. A. 3, 520:

    ex duobus, quorum alterum petis, etc.,

    Plin. Ep. 1, 7, 3:

    ex duobus (quorum necesse est alterum verum), etc.,

    Quint. 5, 10, 69:

    ac si necesse est in alteram errare partem, maluerim etc.,

    id. 10, 1, 26; 1, 4, 24; 9, 3, 6 al.—Once also with a negative, neither of two: hos, tamquam medios, [p. 98] nec in alterius favorem inclinatos, miserat rex, Liv. 40, 20, 4.—
    II.
    Transf.
    A.
    Another of a class = alius (as opp. to one's self, to another); subst., another, a neighbor, a fellow-creature, ho pelas (so sometimes heteros, Xen. Cyr. 2, 3, 17); cf. Ochsn. Eclog. 90 and 458 (alter designates the similarity of two objects; alius a difference in the objects contrasted): SI. INIVRIAM. FAXIT. ALTERI., Fragm. XII. Tab. ap. Gell. 20, 1:

    qui alterum incusat probri, eum ipsum se intueri oportet,

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 58; id. Am. prol. 84: mox dum alterius abligurias bona, quid censes dominis esse animi? Enn. ap. Don. ad Ter. Phorm. 2, 2, 25:

    ut malis gaudeant atque ex incommodis Alterius sua ut comparent commoda,

    Ter. And. 4, 1, 3: qui alteris exitium paret, etc., Att. ap. Cic. Tusc. 2, 17, 39:

    qui nihil alterius causā facit et metitur suis commodis omnia,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 14:

    ut aeque quisque altero delectetur ac se ipso,

    id. Off. 1, 17, 56; 1, 2, 4:

    scientem in errorem alterum inducere,

    id. ib. 3, 13, 55 et saep.:

    cave ne portus occupet alter,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 6, 32 Schmid.:

    nil obstet tibi, dum ne sit te ditior alter,

    id. S. 1, 1, 40; 1, 5, 33:

    canis parturiens cum rogāsset alteram, ut etc.,

    Phaedr. 1, 19:

    nec patientem sessoris alterius (equum) primus ascendit,

    Suet. Caes. 61; id. Tib. 58:

    in quo judicas alterum, te ipsum condemnas,

    Vulg. Rom. 2, 1:

    nemo quod suum est quaerat, sed quod alterius,

    ib. 1 Cor. 10, 24;

    14, 17: sic in semet ipso tantum gloriam habebit et non in altero,

    ib. Gal. 6, 4 al. —Hence, alter with a neg., or neg. question and comp., as an emphatic expression (mostly ante-class.; cf.

    alius, II. H.): scelestiorem nullum illuxere alterum,

    Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 22:

    scelestiorem in terrā nullam esse alteram,

    id. Cist. 4, 1, 8:

    qui me alter audacior est homo?

    id. Am. 1, 1, 1; id. Ep. 1, 1, 24.—
    B.
    The other, the opposite:

    alterius factionis principes,

    the leaders of the opposite party, Nep. Pelop. 1, 4 (cf. id. ib. 1, 2:

    adversariae factioni): studiosiorem partis alterius,

    Suet. Tib. 11. —
    C.
    In gen., different:

    quotiens te speculo videris alterum,

    Hor. C. 4, 10, 6: abeuntes post carnem alteram (Gr. heteros, q. v. L. and S. III.), Vulg. Jud. 7.—
    D.
    In the lang. of augury, euphem. for infaustus, unfavorable, unpropitious, Fest. p. 6 (v. L. and S. Gr. Lex. s. v. heteros, III. 2.).
    The gen.
    alterius commonly serves as gen. of alius instead of alīus, Cic. Fam. 15, 1, 1; id. Att. 1, 5, 1; 1, 20, 2; Caes. B. G. 1, 36, 1; Sall. C. 52, 8; Liv. 21, 13, 3; 22, 14, 4; 26, 8, 2; 28, 37, 6 al.; Col. 8, 17, 2; 11, 2, 87; 12, 22, 2; Sen. Ep. 72, 10; 102, 3; id. Ben. 4, 3, 1; id. Ot. Sap. 4, 1; id. Brev. Vit. 16, 2; id. Q. N. 2, 34, 1 al.; Quint. 7, 9, 8; 8, 3, 73 al.; Tac. A. 15, 25; id. H. 2, 90; Plin. Ep. 10, 114, 2; Suet. Caes. 61; id. Tib. 58 al.; Gell. 2, 28 al.—It also stands as correlative to alius:

    alius inter cenandum solutus est, alterius continuata mors somno est,

    Sen. Ep. 66, 39:

    cum inventum sit ex veris (gemmis) generis alterius in aliud falsas traducere,

    Plin. 37, 12, 75, § 197; Plin. Pan. 2, 6 (Neue, Formenl. II. p. 216).
    altĕras, adv.
    [alter], for alias, acc. to Paul. ex. Fest. p. 27 Müll.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > alteras

  • 14 altus

    1.
    altus, a, um, participle from alo., lit., grown or become great, great (altus ab alendo dictus, Paul. ex Fest. p. 7 Müll.; cf. the Germ. gross with the Engl. grow), a polar word meaning both high and deep.
    A.
    Seen from below upwards, high.
    I.
    Lit.: IN ALTOD MARID PVCNANDOD, etc., Columna Duilii; so, maria alta, Liv. Andron. ap. Macr. S. 6, 5, 10; id. ib. ap. Prisc. p. 725 P.: aequor, Pac. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 23 Müll.: parietes, Enn. ap. Cic. Tusc. 3, 19, 44:

    sub ramis arboris altae,

    Lucr. 2, 30:

    acervus,

    id. 3, 198 al.:

    columellam tribus cubitis ne altiorem,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 26, 66:

    altior illis Ipsa dea est colloque tenus supereminet omnes,

    taller, Ov. M. 3, 181:

    altis de montibus,

    Verg. E. 1, 83:

    umbras Altorum nemorum,

    Ov. M. 1, 591 al. —With the acc. of measure:

    clausi lateribus pedem altis,

    a foot high, Sall. H. Fragm. 4, 39 Gerl.; cf. Lind. C. Gr. I. p. 215.—With gen.:

    triglyphi alti unius et dimidiati moduli, lati in fronte unius moduli,

    Vitr. 4, 3:

    majorem turrim altam cubitorum CXX.,

    id. 10, 5:

    alta novem pedum,

    Col. 8, 14, 1:

    singula latera pedum lata tricenum, alta quinquagenum,

    Plin. 36, 13, 19, § 4.—
    II.
    Trop., high, lofty, elevated, great, magnanimous, high-minded, noble, august, etc.:

    altissimus dignitatis gradus,

    Cic. Phil. 1, 6, 14; so id. Clu. 55; id. Dom. 37.—Of mind or thought:

    te natura excelsum quendam videlicet et altum et humana despicientem genuit,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 4, 11:

    homo sapiens et altā mente praeditus,

    highminded, id. Mil. 8:

    qui altiore animo sunt,

    id. Fin. 5, 20, 57 al. —So of gods, or persons elevated in birth, rank, etc.;

    also of things personified: rex aetheris altus Juppiter,

    Verg. A. 12, 140:

    Apollo,

    id. ib. 10, 875:

    Caesar,

    Hor. C. 3, 4, 37:

    Aeneas, i. e. deā natus,

    id. S. 2, 5, 62:

    Roma,

    Ov. Tr. 1, 3, 33:

    Carthago,

    Prop. 2, 1, 23 al. —Of the voice, high, shrill, loud, clear:

    Conclamate iterum altiore voce,

    Cat. 42, 18:

    haec fatus altā voce,

    Sen. Troad. 196:

    altissimus sonus,

    Quint. 11, 3, 23 (cf.:

    vox magna,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 9, 24; Juv. 4, 32).— Subst.: altum, i, n., a height:

    sic est hic ordo (senatorius) quasi propositus atque editus in altum,

    on high, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 41, § 98:

    aedificia in altum edita,

    Tac. H. 3, 71:

    quidquid in altum Fortuna tulit, ruitura levat,

    Sen. Agam. 100.—Esp.
    (α).
    (Sc. caelum.) The height of heaven, high heaven, the heavens:

    ex alto volavit avis,

    Enn. Ann. 1, 108:

    haec ait, et Maiā genitum demisit ab alto,

    Verg. A. 1, 297.—Still more freq.,
    (β).
    (Sc. mare.) The high sea, the deep, the sea: rapit ex alto navīs velivolas, Enn. ap. Serv. ad Verg. A. 1, 224:

    ubi sumus provecti in altum, capiunt praedones navem illam, ubi vectus fui,

    Plaut. Mil. 2, 1, 39; so id. Men. 1, 2, 2; id. Rud. prol. 66; 2, 3, 64:

    terris jactatus et alto,

    Verg. A. 1, 3:

    in altum Vela dabant,

    id. ib. 1, 34:

    collectae ex alto nubes,

    id. G. 1, 324:

    urget ab alto Notus,

    id. ib. 1, 443 al.:

    alto mersā classe,

    Sil. 6, 665:

    ab illā parte urbis navibus aditus ex alto est,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 32:

    in alto jactari,

    id. Inv. 2, 31, 95:

    naves nisi in alto constitui non poterant,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 24:

    naves in altum provectae,

    id. ib. 4, 28: scapha in altum navigat, Sall. Fragm.—So in the plur.:

    alta petens,

    Verg. A. 7, 362.— Trop.:

    quam magis te in altum capessis, tam aestus te in portum refert,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 6:

    imbecillitas... in altum provehitur imprudens,

    Cic. Tusc. 4, 18, 42:

    te quasi quidam aestus ingenii tui in altum abstraxit,

    id. de Or. 3, 36, 145.—
    B.
    Seen from above downwards, deep, profound.
    I.
    Lit. (hence sometimes opp. summus): Acherusia templa alta Orci, salvete, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, 2, 81; Cic. Tusc. 1, 21, 48:

    quom ex alto puteo sursum ad summum escenderis,

    Plaut. Mil. 4, 4, 14:

    altissimae radices,

    Cic. Phil. 4, 5:

    altae stirpes,

    id. Tusc. 3, 6, 13:

    altissima flumina,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 77:

    altior aqua,

    id. ib. 1, 25:

    alta theatri Fundamenta,

    Verg. A. 1, 427:

    gurgite in alto,

    in the deep whirlpool, id. E. 6, 76:

    altum vulnus,

    id. A. 10, 857; Petr. 136; Sen. Troad. 48:

    altum totā metitur cuspide pectus,

    Sil. 4, 292; so id. 6, 580 al.:

    unde altior esset Casus,

    Juv. 10, 106.—With the abl. of measure:

    faciemus (scrobes) tribus pedibus altas,

    Pall. Jan. 10, 3.—
    II.
    Trop. (more freq. in and after the Aug. per.), deep, profound:

    somno quibus est opus alto,

    Hor. S. 2, 1, 8; so Liv. 7, 35:

    sopor,

    Verg. A. 8, 27:

    quies,

    id. ib. 6, 522:

    silentium,

    id. ib. 10, 63; Quint. 10, 3, 22:

    altissima tranquillitas,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 1:

    altissima eruditio,

    id. ib. 4, 30:

    altiores artes,

    Quint. 8, 3, 2.— Subst.: altum, i, n., the depth, i. e. what is deep or far removed:

    ex alto dissimulare,

    Ov. Am. 2, 4, 16:

    non ex alto venire nequitiam, sed summo, quod aiunt, animo inhaerere,

    Sen. Ira, 1, 16 med. al.—Hence, ex alto repetere, or petere, in discourse, to bring from far; as P. a., farfetched:

    quae de nostris officiis scripserim, quoniam ex alto repetita sunt,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 5:

    quid causas petis ex alto?

    Verg. A. 8, 395 (cf.:

    alte repetere in the same sense,

    Cic. Sest. 13; id. Rep. 4, 4, and v. al. infra).—
    C.
    Poet., in reference to a distant (past) time: cur vetera tam ex alto appetissis discidia, Agamemno? Att. ap. Non. 237, 22 (altum: vetus, antiquum, Non.); cf. Verg. G. 4, 285.—With the access. idea of venerable (cf. antiquus), ancient, old:

    genus alto a sanguine Teucri,

    Verg. A. 6, 500:

    Thebanā de matre nothum Sarpedonis alti,

    id. ib. 9, 697;

    genus Clauso referebat ab alto,

    Ov. F. 4, 305:

    altā gente satus,

    Val. Fl. 3, 202:

    altis inclitum titulis genus,

    Sen. Herc. Fur. 338.— Adv.: altē, and very rarely altum, high, deep (v. supra, altus, P. a. init.).
    A.
    High, on high, high up, from on high, from above (v. altus, P. a., A.).
    I.
    Lit.:

    alte ex tuto prospectum aucupo,

    Att. Trag. Rel. p. 188 Rib.:

    colomen alte geminis aptum cornibus,

    id. ib. p. 221:

    alte jubatos angues,

    Naev. ib. p. 9:

    jubar erigere alte,

    Lucr. 4, 404:

    roseā sol alte lampade lucens,

    id. 5, 610:

    in vineā ficos subradito alte, ne eas vitis scandat,

    Cato, R. R. 50:

    cruentum alte extollens pugionem,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 12, 28: non animadvertis cetarios escendere in malum alte, ut perspiciant pisces? Varr. ap. Non. 49, 15:

    (aër) tollit se ac rectis ita faucibus eicit alte,

    Lucr. 6, 689:

    dextram Entellus alte extulit,

    Verg. A. 5, 443:

    alte suras vincire cothurno,

    high up, id. ib. 1, 337:

    puer alte cinctus,

    Hor. S. 2, 8, 10, and Sen. Ep. 92:

    unda alte subjectat arenam,

    Verg. G. 3, 240:

    Nihil tam alte natura constituit, quo virtus non possit eniti,

    Curt. 7, 11, 10: alte maesti in terram cecidimus, from on high, Varr. ap. Non. 79, 16:

    eo calcem cribro succretam indito alte digitos duo,

    to the height of two fingers, Cato, R. R. 18, 7; so Col. R. R. 5, 6, 6.— Comp.:

    quae sunt humiliora neque se tollere a terrā altius possunt,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 13, 37:

    tollam altius tectum,

    id. Har. Resp. 15, 33:

    altius praecincti,

    Hor. S. 1, 5, 5:

    pullus in arvis altius ingreditur,

    Verg. G. 3, 75:

    caput altius effert,

    id. ib. 3, 553:

    altius atque cadant imbres,

    id. E. 6, 38 ubi v. Forb.:

    altius aliquid tenere,

    Sen. Q. N. 1, 5.— Sup.: [p. 96] cum altissime volāsset (aquila), Suet. Aug. 94.—
    II.
    Trop.:

    alte natus,

    Albin. 1, 379 (cf.: altus Aeneas, supra, P. a., A. II.):

    alte enim cadere non potest,

    Cic. Or. 28, 98:

    video te alte spectare,

    id. Tusc. 1, 34, 82; id. Rep. 6, 23, 25.— Comp.:

    altius se efferre,

    Cic. Rep. 6, 23, 25; 3, 3, 4:

    altius irae surgunt ductori,

    Verg. A. 10, 813:

    altius aliquid agitare,

    Cels. 1 prooem.:

    attollitur vox altius,

    Quint. 11, 3, 65:

    verbis altius atque altius insurgentibus,

    id. 8, 4, 27.— Sup.:

    Ille dies virtutem Catonis altissime illuminavit,

    Vell. 2, 35:

    ingenium altissime adsurgit,

    Plin. Ep. 8, 4.—
    B.
    Deep, deeply (v. altus, P. a. B.).
    I.
    Lit.:

    ablaqueato ficus non alte,

    Cato, R. R. 36:

    ferrum haud alte in corpus descendere,

    Liv. 1, 41:

    alte vulnus adactum,

    Verg. A. 10, 850; Ov. M. 6, 266; Curt. 4, 6, 18; Cels. 5, 26, 30:

    timidum caput abdidit alte,

    Verg. G. 3, 422:

    alte consternunt terram frondes,

    deeply strew, id. A. 4, 443:

    ut petivit Suspirium alte!

    Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 58 (cf.:

    ingentem gemitum dat pectore ab imo,

    Verg. A. 1, 485):

    inter cupam pertundito alte digitos primorīs tres,

    Cato, R. R. 21, 2:

    minimum alte pedem,

    Col. de Arb. 30.— Comp.:

    ne radices altius agant,

    Col. 5, 6, 8:

    terra altius effossa,

    Quint. 10, 3, 2:

    cum sulcus altius esset impressus,

    Cic. Div. 2, 23, 50:

    frigidus imber Altius ad vivum persedit, Verg G. 3, 441: tracti altius gemitus,

    Sen. Ira, 3, 4, 2.— Sup.:

    (latronibus gladium) altissime demergo,

    App. M. 2, 32.—
    II.
    Trop., deeply, profoundly, far, from afar:

    privatus ut altum Dormiret,

    Juv. 1, 16:

    alte terminus haerens,

    Lucr. 1, 77:

    longo et alte petito prooemio respondere,

    Cic. Clu. 21, 58:

    ratio alte petita,

    Quint. 11, 1, 62:

    alte et a capite repetis, quod quaerimus,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 6, 18; id. Rep. 4, 4, 4; id. Sest. 13, 31.— Comp.:

    qui altius perspiciebant,

    had a deeper insight, Cic. Verr. 1, 7, 19:

    quae principia sint, repetendum altius videtur,

    must be sought out more deeply, id. Off. 1, 16:

    altius repetitae causae,

    Quint. 11, 1, 62:

    de quo si paulo altius ordiri ac repetere memoriam religionis videbor,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 105:

    Hisce tibi in rebus latest alteque videndum,

    Lucr. 6, 647:

    altius supprimere iram,

    Curt. 6, 7, 35:

    altius aliquem percellere,

    Tac. A. 4, 54:

    altius metuere,

    id. ib. 4, 41:

    altius animis maerere,

    id. ib. 2, 82:

    cum verbum aliquod altius transfertur,

    Cic. Or. 25, 82:

    Altius omnem Expediam primā repetens ab origine famam,

    Verg. G. 4, 285;

    so,

    Tac. H. 4, 12:

    altius aliquid persequi,

    Plin. 2, 23, 31, § 35:

    hinc altius cura serpit,

    id. 4, 11, 13, § 87.— Sup.:

    qui vir et quantus esset, altissime inspexi,

    Plin. Ep. 5, 15, 5.
    2.
    altus, ūs, m. [alo], a nourishing, support:

    terrae altu,

    Macr. S. 1, 20 fin.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > altus

  • 15 amplissime

    amplus, a, um, adj. [some regard this as a shortened form of anapleôs, = filled up, full; others, as for ambulus from amb-, rounded out, as superus from super, etc.; v. Doed. Syn. II. p. 113; but perh. it is better to form it from am- and -plus, akin to -pleo, plenus, q. v. Pott], thus pr., full all round; hence, great, large. —In space, of large extent, great, large, wide, ample, spacious (the forms amplus and amplior are very rare in the ante-class. per., and rare in all periods. Amplius is com. in the ante-class., freq. in the class., and very freq. in the post-class. per., the Vulg. rarely using the other forms, but using this 121 times. Amplissimus belongs to prose, and is scarcely used before Cicero, with whom it was a very favorite word. It was also used by Plin. Maj. and Min., but never by Tac., Sall. (in his genuine works), nor the Vulg. Catullus used only the form amplius, and Prop. only amplus, while Tib. and Pers. never used this word in any form. Ampliter is found mostly in Plaut.; and ample and amplissime are used a few times by Cic. and by writers that followed him; syn.: magnus, ingens, latus, late patens, spatiosus, laxus).
    I.
    Lit.:

    amplus et spectu protervo ferox,

    Pac. Trag. Rel. p. 94 Rib.:

    qui (Pluto) ter amplum Geryonen compescit unda,

    Hor. C. 2, 14, 7:

    ampla domus dedecori domino fit, si est in ea solitudo,

    Cic. Off. 1, 39, 139; so Verg. A. 2, 310:

    admodum amplum et excelsum signum,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 74:

    collis castris parum amplus,

    Sall. J. 98, 3:

    porticibus in amplis,

    Verg. A. 3, 353:

    per amplum mittimur Elysium,

    id. ib. 6, 743:

    vocemque per ampla volutant Atria,

    id. ib. 1, 725:

    nil vulva pulchrius ampla,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 15, 41:

    amplae aures,

    Plin. 11, 52, 114, § 274:

    milium amplum grano,

    id. 18, 7, 10, § 55:

    cubiculum amplum,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 17, 6:

    baptisterium amplum atque opacum,

    id. ib. 5, 6, 25.— Comp.:

    quanto est res amplior,

    Lucr. 2, 1133:

    Amplior Urgo et Capraria,

    Plin. 3, 6, 12, § 81:

    avis paulo amplior passere,

    id. 10, 32, 47, § 89:

    amplior specie mortali,

    Suet. Aug. 94; id. Caes. 76 (for the neutr. amplius, v. infra).— Sup.:

    amplissima curia... gymnasium amplissimum,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 53:

    urbs amplissima atque ornatissima,

    id. Agr. 2, 76:

    amplissimum peristylum,

    id. Dom. 116:

    (candelabrum) ad amplissimi templi ornatum esse factum,

    id. Verr. 4, 65:

    mons Italiae amplissimus,

    Plin. 3, 5, 7, § 48:

    amplissimum flumen,

    Plin. Ep. 8, 8, 3:

    amplissimus lacus,

    id. ib. 10, 41, 2:

    amplissima insula,

    Plin. 6, 20, 23, § 71:

    amplissimi horti,

    Plin. Ep. 8, 18, 11:

    amplissima arborum,

    Plin. 16, 39, 76, § 200:

    est (topazon) amplissima gemmarum,

    id. 37, 8, 32, § 109:

    amplissimum cubiculum,

    Plin. Ep. 5, 6, 23.—
    B.
    Transf., great, abundant, ample, much, long:

    bono atque amplo lucro,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 6 and Ep. 2, 2, 117:

    pabula miseris mortalibus ampla,

    Lucr. 5, 944:

    ampla civitas,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 81; 4, 96:

    civitas ampla atque florens,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 3:

    gens ampla,

    Plin. 5, 30, 33, § 125:

    amplae copiae,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 19:

    ampla manus militum,

    Liv. Epit. 1, 4, 9:

    pecuaria res ampla,

    Cic. Quinct. 12:

    res familiaris ampla,

    id. Phil. 13, 8:

    (res) ampla,

    Sall. H. Fragm. 3, 82, 20 Kritz:

    patrimonium amplum et copiosum,

    Cic. Sex. Rosc. 6; id. Dom. 146: id. Phil. 2, 67:

    amplae divitiae,

    Hor. S. 2, 2, 101:

    esse patri ejus amplas facultates,

    Plin. Ep. 1, 14, 9:

    in amplis opibus heres,

    Plin. 9, 36, 59, § 122.— Comp.:

    amplior numerus,

    Cic. Mil. 57; Sall. J. 105, 3; Tac. A. 14, 53:

    ampliores aquae,

    Plin. 5, 9, 10, § 58:

    amplior exercitus,

    Sall. J. 54, 3; Suet. Vesp. 4:

    commeatus spe amplior,

    Sall. J. 75, 8:

    amplior pecunia, Auct. B. Alex. 56: pecunia amplior,

    Plin. Ep. 3, 11, 2:

    pretia ampliora,

    Plin. 10, 29, 43, § 84:

    omnia longe ampliora invenire quam etc.,

    Plin. Ep. 1, 14, 10:

    ampliores noctes,

    Plin. 18, 26, 63, § 232:

    ut ampliori tempore maneret,

    Vulg. Act. 18, 20.— Sup.:

    peditatus copiae amplissimae e Gallia,

    Cic. Font. 8:

    exercitus amplissimus,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 13, 2; 9, 13, 11:

    amplissima pecunia,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 31:

    amplissimae fortunae,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 8; id. Quinct. 49; id. Phil. 10, 4:

    amplissimae patrimonii copiae,

    id. Fl. 89:

    amplissimas summas emptionibus occupare,

    Plin. Ep. 8, 2, 3:

    opes amplissimae,

    id. ib. 8, 18, 4:

    amplissima dies horarum quindecim etc.,

    the longest day, Plin. 6, 34, 39, § 218.—Also subst. in comp. neutr. (v. amplius, adv. infra), more:

    ut quirem exaudire amplius,

    Att. Trag. Rel. p. 173 Rib.:

    si vis amplius dari, Dabitur,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 1, 18:

    jam amplius orat,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 19:

    daturus non sum amplius,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 29:

    non complectar in his libris amplius quam quod etc.,

    id. de Or. 1, 6, 22:

    tantum adfero quantum ipse optat, atque etiam amplius,

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 1, 10:

    ni amplius etiam, quod ebibit,

    id. Trin. 2, 1, 20: Ph. Etiamne amplius? Th. Nil, Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 63: Tr. Dimidium Volo ut dicas. Gr. Immo hercle etiam amplius, Plaut. Rud. 4, 3, 21: Th. Nempe octoginta debentur huic minae? Tr. Haud nummo amplius, id. Most. 3, 3, 16:

    etiam amplius illam adparare condecet,

    Turp. Com. Rel. p. 100 Rib.:

    hoc onere suscepto amplexus animo sum aliquanto amplius,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1:

    si sit opus liquidi non amplius urna,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 54:

    omnis numerus amplius octingentis milibus explebat,

    Vell. 2, 110, 3:

    Segestanis imponebat aliquanto amplius quam etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 76:

    illa corona contentus Thrasybulus neque amplius requisivit,

    Nep. Thras. 4, 3:

    amplius possidere,

    Plin. 18, 4, 3, § 17:

    Ille imperio ei reddito haud amplius, quam ut duo ex tribus filiis secum militarent, exegit,

    Curt. 8, 4, 21:

    dedit quantum maximum potuit, daturus amplius, si potuisset,

    Plin. Ep. 3, 21, 6:

    cum hoc amplius praestet, quod etc.,

    id. ib. 7, 25, 1.—Also with part. gen., more of, a greater quantity or number of:

    gaudeo tibi liberorum esse amplius,

    Plaut. Cist. 5, 4:

    te amplius bibisse praedicet loti,

    Cat. 39, 21:

    amplius frumenti auferre,

    Cic. Verr. 3, 49:

    expensum est auri viginti paulo amplius,

    id. Fl. 6, 8:

    amplius negotii contrahi,

    id. Cat. 4, 9:

    si amplius obsidum vellet,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 9, ubi v. Herz.:

    quanto ejus amplius processerat temporis,

    id. B. C. 3, 25.—
    II.
    Fig.
    A.
    Of internal power or force, great, strong, violent, impetuous:

    pro viribus amplis,

    Lucr. 5, 1174:

    amplae vires peditum,

    Plin. 6, 20, 23, § 75;

    ampla nepotum Spes,

    Prop. 4, 22, 41:

    poena sera, sed ampla,

    full, strict, id. 4, 5, 32. — Comp.:

    haec irae factae essent multo ampliores,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 1, 9:

    si forte morbus amplior factus siet, i. e. gravior,

    id. ib. 3, 1, 50:

    amplior metus,

    Cic. Clu. 128:

    amplior potentia feris,

    Plin. 28, 10, 42, § 153:

    ampliorem dicendi facultatem consequi,

    Quint. 2, 3, 4:

    amplior eoque acrior impetus,

    Flor. 4, 2, 66:

    spes amplior,

    Sall. J. 105, 4:

    amplius accipietis judicium,

    severer, Vulg. Matt. 23, 14:

    amplior auctoritas,

    Plin. 37, 3, 12, § 47:

    amplior virtus,

    higher merit, Quint. 8, 3, 83:

    idem aut amplior cultus (dei),

    Plin. 28, 2, 4, § 18:

    amplior est quaestio,

    Quint. 3, 5, 8:

    ampliora verba,

    of larger meaning, id. 8, 4, 2: scientia intellegentiaque ac sapientia ampliores inventae sunt in te, Vulg. Dan. 5, 14:

    quo legatis animus amplior esset,

    Sall. C. 40, 6; 59, 1:

    spiritus amplior,

    Vulg. Dan. 5, 12; 6, 3.— Sup.:

    (honos) pro amplissimis meritis redditur,

    Cic. Phil. 5, 41:

    cujus sideris (Caniculae) effectus amplissimi in terra sentiuntur,

    very violent, Plin. 2, 40, 40, § 107:

    amplissima spes,

    Suet. Caes. 7:

    his finis cognitionis amplissimae,

    most important trial, Plin. Ep. 2, 11, 23.—
    B.
    Of external splendor, great, handsome, magnificent, splendid, glorious:

    illis ampla satis forma, pudicitia,

    great enough, Prop. 1, 2, 24:

    haec ampla sunt, haec divina,

    Cic. Sest. 102; id. Arch. 23:

    res gestae satis amplae,

    Sall. C. 8, 2:

    cur parum amplis adfecerit praemiis,

    Cic. Mil. 57:

    ampla quidem, sed pro ingentibus meritis praemia acceperunt,

    Tac. A. 14, 53:

    amplum in modum praemia ostentare,

    Aur. Vict. Caes. 26, 6:

    amplis honoribus usi,

    Sall. J. 25, 4:

    amplis honoribus auctos,

    Hor. S. 1, 6, 11.—Sometimes in mal. part. or ironically:

    amplam occasionem calumniae nactus,

    a fine opportunity, Cic. Verr. 2, 61:

    spolia ampla refertis Tuque puerque tuus,

    glorious spoils, Verg. A. 4, 93.— Comp.:

    ne ullum munus aedilitatis amplius aut gratius populo esse possit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 5; id. Mur. 37:

    praemiis ad perdiscendum amplioribus commoveri,

    id. de Or. 1, 4, 13:

    alicui ampliorem laudem tribuere,

    id. Sest. 27:

    in aliqua re esse laudem ampliorem,

    id. Marcell. 4:

    corporis membris plus dedit, id amplius atque augustius ratus (Zeuxis),

    Quint. 12, 10, 5:

    ut Augustus vocaretur ampliore cognomine,

    Suet. Aug. 7.— Subst.:

    in potestatibus eo modo agitabat, ut ampliore, quam gerebat, dignus haberetur,

    of something greater, Sall. J. 63, 5.— Sup.:

    ut consules monumentum quam amplissimum faciundum curent,

    Cic. Phil. 14, 38; 14, 31; id. Verr. 4, 82:

    hoc munus aedilitatis amplissimum,

    id. ib. 1, 12, 36; Aur. Vict. Vir. Ill. 1, 74:

    alicui amplissimas potestates dare,

    Cic. Agr. 2, 31:

    insignibus amplissimis ornatus,

    id. ib. 2, 101:

    dona amplissima conferre,

    Plin. 18, 3, 3, § 9:

    praemia legatis dedistis amplissima,

    Cic. Cat. 4, 5; id. Phil. 2, 32:

    spe amplissimorum praemiorum adduci,

    id. Mil. 5; id. de Or. 1, 5, 16:

    velut praemium quoddam amplissimum longi laboris,

    Quint. 10, 7, 1:

    munera amplissima mittere,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 43:

    vestris beneficiis amplissimis adfectus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 51; id. Dom. 98:

    laudi amplissimae lauream concedere,

    id. Pis. 74:

    laudibus amplissimis adficere,

    id. Phil. 7, 11:

    amplissimam gloriam consequi,

    id. Prov. Cons. 39:

    ut eum amplissimo regis honore et nomine adfeceris,

    id. Deiot. 14:

    amplissimis aliquem efferre honoribus,

    Aur. Vict. Epit. 17, 3:

    amplissimis uti honoribus,

    Cic. Fl. 45:

    amplissimos honores adipisci,

    id. Verr. 5, 181:

    honores adsequi amplissimos,

    id. Mil. 81:

    aliquem ad honores amplissimos perducere,

    id. Am. 20, 73:

    meus labor fructum est amplissimum consecutus,

    id. Imp. Pomp 2:

    mihi gratiae verbis amplissimis aguntur,

    in the handsomest termis, id. Cat. 3, 14; id. Phil. 2, 13; id. Quir. 15:

    ei amplissimis verbis gratias egimus,

    id. Phil. 1, 3:

    provincia Gallia merito ornatur verbis amplissimis ab senatu,

    id. ib. 4, 9:

    amplissimis verbis conlaudatus,

    Suet. Caes. 16:

    amplissimo populi senatusque judicio exercitus habuistis,

    Cic. Agr. 1, 12; id. Fl. 5; id. Dom. 86; id. Planc. 93:

    de meo consulatu amplissima atque ornatissima decreta fecerunt,

    id. Dom. 74:

    quam universi populi, illius gentis, amplissimum testimonium (said of Cic.),

    Plin. 7, 30, 31, § 116.—
    C.
    In respect of the opinion of others, esteemed, renowned, etc.:

    quicquid est, quamvis amplum sit, id est parum tum cum est aliquid amplius,

    Cic. Marcell. 26:

    quid hunc hominem magnum aut amplum de re publica cogitare (putare possumus), qui etc.,

    great or noble, id. Imp. Pomp. 37:

    omnia, quae vobis cara atque ampla sunt,

    id. Agr. 2, 9; id. Arch. 23:

    convenerunt corrogati et quidem ampli quidam homines,

    id. Phil. 3, 20:

    hoc studium parvi properemus et ampli,

    small and great, Hor. Ep. 1, 3, 28:

    amplis doctoribus instructus,

    Tac. A. 14, 52:

    sin autem sunt amplae et honestae familiae plebeiae,

    Cic. Mur. 7, 15.— Comp.:

    cum est aliquid amplius,

    Cic. Marcell. 26:

    ampliores ordines,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 77, where Dinter reads priores: quo (ingenio) neque melius neque amplius aliud in natura mortalium est, [p. 112] Sall. J. 2, 4:

    nihil amplius potes (tribuere) amicitia tua,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 13, 10:

    quid amplius facitis?

    Vulg. Matt. 5, 47.— Sup.:

    ex amplissimo genere nubere,

    Cic. Cael. 34:

    amplissimo genere natus,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 12:

    genere copiisque amplissimus, id. ib 6, 15: quam (familiam) vidit amplissimam,

    Cic. Phil. 13, 12:

    amplissimos patruos habere,

    id. Sex. Rosc. 147:

    amplissima civitas,

    id. Verr. 5, 122:

    apud illos Fabiorum nomen est amplissimum,

    id. Font. 36; id. Caecin. 104; id. Verr. 3, 96; id. Deiot. 14:

    mihi hic locus ad agendum amplissimus est visus,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 1:

    non adgrediar ad illa maxima atque amplissima prius quam etc.,

    id. Sest. 5:

    licet tribuas ei quantum amplissimum potes, nihil tamen amplius potes amicitia tua,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 13, 10:

    amplissimis operibus increscere,

    id. ib. 8, 4, 3:

    honores in amplissimo consilio collocare,

    Cic. Sen. 2:

    amplissimi orbis terrae consilii principes,

    id. Phil. 3, 34: honoris amplissimi puto esse accusare improbos, I esteem it to be the greatest honor, etc., id. Div. in Caecil. 70:

    promotus ad amplissimas procurationes,

    Plin. Ep. 7, 31, 3:

    praeter honores amplissimos cognomenque etc.,

    Plin. 7, 44, 45, § 142:

    spes amplissimae dignitatis,

    Cic. Agr. 2, 49; id. Sen. 19, 68; Suet. Vit. 2.—
    D.
    Hence, amplissimus (almost always thus in sup.) as a title for persons holding great and honored offices, as consul, senator, etc., or as an honorable epithet of the office itself or the body of officers, distinguished, very distinguished, honorable, right honorable, most honorable, etc.:

    is mihi videtur amplissimus, qui sua virtute in altiorem locum pervenit,

    Cic. Sex. Rosc. 83:

    homo et suis et populi Romani ornamentis amplissimus,

    id. Mur. 8:

    P. Africanus rebus gestis amplissimus,

    id. Caecin. 69:

    ut homines amplissimi testimonium de sua re non dicerent,

    id. Sex. Rosc. 102; id. Clu. 197:

    Q. Catuli atque ceterorum amplissimorum hominum auctoritas,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 63:

    vir amplissimus ejus civitatis,

    id. Verr. 4, 17; id. Fl. 32:

    exercitum Cn. Domitii, amplissimi viri, sustentavit,

    id. Deiot. 5, 14:

    cum habeas amplissimi viri religionem (of L. Lucullus),

    id. Arch. 4, 8; id. Lig. 22:

    in quo consilio amplissimi viri judicarent,

    id. Mil. 5; id. Balb. 1; id. Dom. 2:

    comitatus virorum amplissimorum,

    id. Sull. 9:

    viros primarios atque amplissimos civitatis in consilium advocare,

    id. Verr. 3, 18:

    ordinis amplissimi esse,

    Aur. Vict. Caes. 13, 1; 37, 6:

    cives amplissimos legare,

    Cic. Balb. 42:

    hoc amplissimum nomen, i. e. senatorium,

    id. Verr. 3, 96:

    amplissimus honos, i. e. consulatus,

    id. Rep. 1, 6; so,

    amplissimo praeditus magistratu,

    Suet. Aug. 26:

    amplissimus ordo, i. e. senatorius,

    Plin. Ep. 10, 3; Suet. Calig. 49:

    amplissimi ordines, i. e. senatus et equites,

    id. Vesp. 9:

    amplissimum collegium decemvirale,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 49:

    an vero vir amplissimus, P. Scipio, pontifex maximus, etc.,

    id. Cat. 1, 3:

    amplissimum sacerdotium,

    id. Verr. 2, 126; id. Phil. 13, 8:

    sacerdotium amplissimum,

    id. Verr. 2, 127.—
    E.
    As rhet. epithet:

    amplus orator,

    one that speaks richly and with dignity, Cic. Or. 9; id. Brut. 68:

    herous (pes), qui est idem dactylus Aristoteli amplior, iambus humanior videatur,

    grander, more stately, Quint. 9, 4, 88:

    amplius compositionis genus,

    more copious style, id. 9, 4, 129.— Adv. (on the extent of the use of the different forms of the adverb, v. supra init.), largely, abundantly, copiously.
    I.
    Lit.
    a.
    Form amplĭter:

    benigne ei largi atque ampliter,

    Att. Trag. Rel. p. 173 Rib.:

    aptate munde atque ampliter convivium,

    Pomp. Com. Rel. p. 234 Rib.:

    extructam ampliter mensam,

    Lucil. 13, 7 Mull.:

    opsonato ampliter,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 8, 65:

    adpositum est ampliter,

    id. Mil. 3, 1, 163:

    acceptus hilare atque ampliter,

    id. Merc. prol. 98:

    modeste melius facere sumptum quam ampliter,

    id. Stich. 5, 4, 10:

    parum (digitulos) immersisti ampliter,

    not deep enough, id. Bacch. 4, 4, 26.—
    b.
    Form amplē:

    exornat ample magnificeque triclinium,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 62: qui ample valetudinarios nutriunt, in great numbers (v. the context), Cels. praef. med.
    II.
    Trop., fully, handsomely.
    a.
    Form amplĭter:

    ampliter dicere,

    fully, particularly, Gell. 10, 3, 4:

    laudare ampliter,

    id. 2, 6, 11.—
    b.
    Form amplē: duo genera sunt: unum attenuate presseque, alterum sublate ampleque dicentium, with great fulness, richly (v. amplus, II. E.), Cic. Brut. 55, 201; so,

    elate ampleque loqui,

    id. Tusc. 5, 9, 24:

    satis ample sonabant in Pompeiani nominis locum Cato et Scipio,

    full grandly filled the place of, Flor. 4, 2, 65.— Comp.: amplĭus, more, longer, further, besides (syn.: ultra, praeterea); of time, number, and action (while plus denotes more in quantity, measure, etc.; magis, more, in the comparison of quality, and sometimes of action; and potius, rather, the choice between different objects or acts), constr. absol., with comp. abl., and, in the case of numerals, like minus, plus, propius, q. v., without quam with the nom., acc., or gen., or rarely with the abl. comp., or with quam, but chiefly in the post-Aug. per.; cf. Zumpt, § 485; Madv. § 305; Roby, § 1273; Herz. ad Caes. B. G. 4, 12; and Draeger, Hist. Synt. I. p. 521 sq.
    a.
    In gen.:

    deliberatum est non tacere [me] amplius,

    Afran. Com. Rel. p. 199 Rib.:

    otium ubi erit, de istis rebus tum amplius tecum loquar,

    Plaut. Truc. 4, 4, 18:

    cui amplius male faxim,

    id. Aul. 3, 2, 6: De. Etiam? Li. Amplius, id. As. 1, 1, 29: Ar. Vale. Ph. Aliquanto amplius valerem, si hic maneres, id. ib. 3, 3, 2:

    etiam faxo amabit (eam) amplius,

    id. Men. 5, 2, 40:

    multo tanto illum accusabo, quam te accusavi, amplius,

    id. ib. 5, 2, 49:

    quo populum servare potissit amplius,

    Lucil. 1, 15 Mull.:

    At ego amplius dico,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 26:

    amplius posse,

    Sall. J. 69, 2:

    armis amplius valere,

    id. ib. 111, 1:

    si lamentetur miser amplius aequo,

    Lucr. 3, 953:

    tribus vobis opsonatumst an opsono amplius Tibi et parasito et mulieri?

    besides, Plaut. Men. 2, 2, 45:

    Quam vellem invitatum, ut nobiscum esset amplius,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 2, 11:

    in illo exercitu cuncta (probra) fuere et alia amplius,

    Sall. J. 44, 5:

    felices ter et amplius,

    Hor. C. 1, 13, 17:

    binas aut amplius domos continuare,

    Sall. C. 20, 11:

    ter nec amplius,

    Suet. Caes. 25:

    cum non solum de his scripserit, sed amplius praecepta (reliquerit),

    Quint. 12, 11, 24:

    multa promi amplius possunt,

    Plin. 2, 17, 15, § 77:

    si studere amplius possum,

    Quint. 6, prooem. 4:

    auram communem amplius haurire potui?

    id. 6, prooem. 12:

    sagum, quod amplius est,

    Vulg. Exod. 26, 12.—
    b.
    And so very often with the pron. quid, etc.; with the negatives nihil, non, neque, nec, ne; and sometimes with nemo and haud.
    (α).
    With quid, etc.:

    Quid faciam amplius?

    Ter. Ad. 4, 7, 14, and Cic. Har. Resp. 42:

    quid dicam amplius?

    Quint. 8, 4, 7:

    quid a me amplius dicendum putatis?

    Cic. Verr. 3, 60:

    quid quaeris amplius?

    id. Sex. Rosc. 145; id. Dom. 41; id. Verr. 2, 191:

    quid vultis amplius?

    id. Mil. 35:

    quid amplius vis?

    Hor. Epod. 17, 30:

    quid exspectatis amplius?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 174:

    quid amplius exspectabo,

    Vulg. 4 Reg. 6, 33:

    quid loquar amplius de hoc homine?

    Cic. Caecin. 25:

    quid amplius laboremus?

    Quint. 8, prooem. 31:

    quid habet amplius homo?

    Vulg. Eccl. 1, 3; 6, 8:

    quid ego aliud exoptem amplius, nisi etc.,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 134:

    quid amplius debeam optare?

    Quint. 4, 1, 51: Lo. Numquid amplius? Ly. Tantum est, Plaut. Merc. 2, 2, 11; Ter. And. 2, 1, 25: De. An quid est etiam amplius? He. Vero amplius, id. Ad. 3, 4, 22:

    quid est quod tibi mea ars efficere hoc possit amplius?

    more than this, id. And. 1, 1, 4:

    Etenim quid est, Catilina, quod jam amplius exspectes, si etc.,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 3, 6; id. Sull. 90:

    si quid amplius scit,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 23:

    si quid ego addidero amplius,

    id. Trin. 4, 2, 13:

    si amplius aliquid gloriatus fuero,

    Vulg. 2 Cor. 10, 8.—And often hoc amplius, where hoc is commonly an abl., but sometimes may be regarded as a nom. or an acc.:

    hoc amplius si quid poteris,

    any thing beyond this, Cic. de Or. 1, 10, 44: et hoc amplius (additur), quod etc., and this further, that etc., id. Sull. 44; so Quint. 5, 13, 36:

    de paedagogis hoc amplius, ut aut sint etc.,

    id. 1, 1, 8:

    Mario urbe Italiaque interdicendum, Marciano hoc amplius, Africa,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 11, 19; Quint. 1, 5, 50; 1, 5, 55; sometimes in plur., his amplius:

    his amplius apud eundem (est) etc.,

    Quint. 9, 3, 15;

    so rarely eo amplius: inferiasque his annua religione, publice instituit, et eo amplius matri Circenses,

    Suet. Calig. 15:

    quaeris quid potuerit amplius adsequi,

    Cic. Planc. 60: prius quam (hic) turbarum quid faciat amplius, Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 93:

    quare jam te cur amplius excrucies?

    Cat. 76, 10.—
    (β).
    With nihil, etc.:

    habet nihil amplius quam lutum,

    Lucil. 9, 46 Mull.:

    nihil habui amplius, quod praeciperem,

    Quint. 7, 1, 64:

    nihil enim dixit amplius,

    Cic. Deiot. 21:

    Nihil dico amplius: causa dicta est,

    I say no more; I have done with my case, id. ib. 8:

    nihil amplius dico, nisi me etc.,

    id. Planc. 96:

    nihil amplius dicam quam victoriam etc.,

    id. Marcell. 17.—Hence, nihil dico or dicam amplius, when one fears to wound by declaring his opinion, etc., I say no more, have nothing further to say or add:

    vetus est, Nihili cocio est. Scis cujus? non dico amplius,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 51:

    si, quod equitis Romani filius est, inferior esse debuit: omnes tecum equitum Romanorum filii petiverunt. Nihil dico amplius,

    Cic. Planc. 7 (tacite significat eos dignitate inferiores esse Plancio, Manut. ad h.l.):

    Alterius vero partis nihil amplius dicam quam id, quod etc.,

    id. Marcell. 6, 17:

    amplius nihil respondit,

    Vulg. Marc. 15, 5:

    nihil amplius addens,

    ib. Deut. 5, 22:

    nihil noverunt amplius,

    ib. Eccl. 9, 5:

    nihil amplius optet,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 2, 46:

    nihil amplius potes,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 13, 10:

    amplius quod desideres, nihil erit,

    this will leave nothing to be desired, Cic. Tusc. 1, 11, 24:

    nil amplius oro, nisi ut etc.,

    Hor. S. 2, 6, 4:

    ipse Augustus nihil amplius quam equestri familia ortum se scribit,

    Suet. Aug. 2:

    si non amplius, ad lustrum hoc protolleret unum,

    Lucil. 1, 33 Mull.:

    non luctabor tecum, Crasse, amplius,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 17, 74; id. Tusc. 5, 34, 98:

    verbum non amplius addam,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 121:

    non amplius me objurgabis,

    Quint. 5, 10, 47:

    non amplius posse,

    Sall. Fragm. Hist. 3, 82, 19 Kritz:

    non habent amplius quid faciant,

    Vulg. Luc. 12, 4: non videbitis amplius faciem meam. ib. Gen. 44, 23; ib. Heb. 10, 17:

    amplius illa jam non inveniet,

    ib. Apoc. 18, 14:

    studium, quo non aliud ad dignitatem amplius excogitari potest,

    Tac. Or. 5:

    extra me non est alia amplius,

    Vulg. Soph. 2, 15:

    neque hoc amplius quam quod vides nobis quicquamst,

    Plaut. Rud. 1, 5, 21:

    neque va dari amplius neque etc.,

    Cic. Quinct. 23:

    nec jam amplius ullae Adparent terrae,

    Verg. A. 3, 192; 3, 260; 5, 8; 9, 426; 9, 519; 11, 807; 12, 680; id. G. 4, 503:

    nec irascar amplius,

    Vulg. Ezech. 16, 42; ib. Apoc. 7, 16:

    ne amplius dona petas,

    Cat. 68, 14:

    urere ne possit calor amplius aridus artus,

    Lucr. 4, 874;

    ne quos amplius Rhenum transire pateretur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 43:

    ut ne quem amplius posthac discipulum reciperet,

    Suet. Gram. 17:

    ne amplius morando Scaurum incenderet,

    Sall. J. 25, 10; id. Fragm. Hist. 1, 2, 10 Kritz;

    3, 82, 17: ne amplius divulgetur,

    Vulg. Act. 4, 17:

    ut nequaquam amplius per eamdem viam revertamini,

    ib. Deut. 17, 16:

    nolite amplius accipere pecuniam,

    ib. 4 Reg. 12, 7.—
    (γ).
    With nemo:

    cur non restipulatur neminem amplius petiturum?

    Cic. Q. Rosc. 12, 36:

    cum amplius nemo occurreret,

    nobody further, no one more, Curt. 8, 10, 2; so,

    neminem amplius viderunt,

    Vulg. Marc. 9, 7:

    nemo emet amplius,

    no one will buy any longer, any more, ib. Apoc. 18, 11 (for cases of haud with amplius, v. c. a and g).—
    c.
    With numerals and numeral forms.
    (α).
    Without quam:

    amplius horam suffixum in cruce me memini esse,

    Cat. 69, 3:

    horam amplius jam in demoliendo signo homines moliebantur,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 95:

    amplius annos triginta tribunus fuerat,

    Sall. C. 59, 6:

    me non amplius novem annos nato,

    Nep. Hann. 2, 3:

    per annos amplius quadraginta,

    Suet. Aug. 72; 32:

    quid si tandem amplius triennium est?

    Cic. Q. Rosc. 8:

    Tu faciem illius noctem non amplius unam Falle dolo,

    Verg. A. 1, 683:

    inveniebat Sabim flumen non amplius milia passuum decem abesse,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 16; 4, 12:

    reliquum spatium, quod est non amplius pedum sexcentorum, mons continet,

    id. ib. 1, 28;

    2, 29: amplius sestertium ducentiens acceptum hereditatibus rettuli,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 40; id. Fl. 68; so Plin. Ep. 10, 39, 1:

    huic paulo amplius tertiam partem denegem?

    id. ib. 5, 7, 3:

    cum eum amplius centum cives Romani cognoscerent,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 14; 5, 155:

    victi amplius ducenti ceciderunt,

    Liv. 21, 29, 3: non amplius quattuordecim cohortes, Pompei. ap. Cic. Att. 8, 12, C:

    ex omni multitudine non amplius quadraginta locum cepere,

    Sall. J. 58, 3: torrentes amplius centum, [p. 113] Plin. 5, 28, 29, § 103; 9, 5, 4, § 10.—And very rarely placed after the numeral:

    qui septingentos jam annos amplius numquam mutatis legibus vivunt,

    Cic. Fl. 63:

    pugnatum duas amplius horas,

    Liv. 25, 19, 15 Weissenb.:

    duo haud amplius milia peditum effugerunt,

    id. 28, 2:

    decem amplius versus perdidimus,

    Plin. Ep. 3, 5, 12:

    tris pateat caeli spatium non amplius ulnas,

    Verg. E. 3, 105.—
    (β).
    With the comp. abl. (rare but class.):

    cum jam amplius horis sex continenter pugnaretur,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 5; 4, 37:

    pugnatum amplius duabus horis est,

    Liv. 27, 12:

    neque triennio amplius supervixit,

    Suet. Caes. 89:

    uti non amplius quinis aut senis milibus passuum interesset,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 15; 1, 23; 2, 7;

    6, 29: non amplius patet milibus quinque et triginta,

    Sall. Fragm. Hist. 4, 1, 34 Kritz:

    est ab capite paulo amplius mille passibus locus,

    Plin. Ep. 10, 90, 1:

    ab Capsa non amplius duum milium intervallo,

    Sall. J. 91, 3:

    (Catilina) cum initio non amplius duobus milibus (militum) habuisset,

    id. C. 56, 2; so,

    denas alii, alii plures (uxores) habent, set reges eo amplius,

    id. J. 80, 7.—

    And prob. the following ambiguous cases: cum mille non amplius equitibus,

    Sall. J. 105, 3:

    oppidum non amplius mille passuum abesse,

    id. ib. 68, 3.—
    (γ).
    With quam (postAug. and eccl.):

    non amplius, cum plurimum, quam septem horas dormiebat,

    Suet. Aug. 78:

    nec amplius quam septem et viginti dies Brundisii commoratus,

    id. ib. 17:

    Toto triennio semel omnino eam nec amplius quam uno die paucissimis vidit horis,

    id. Tib. 51:

    demoratus dies non amplius quam octo aut decem,

    Vulg. Act. 25, 6:

    ut non amplius apud te quam quarta (pars) remaneret,

    Plin. Ep. 5, 19:

    ut vexillum veteranorum, non amplius quam quingenti numero, copias fuderint,

    Tac. A. 3, 21:

    haud amplius quam ducentos misit,

    id. ib. 14, 32:

    insidiantur ei ex iis viri amplius quam quadraginta,

    Vulg. Act. 23, 21.—
    d. (α).
    Amplius, t. t. of judges when they deferred an important case for future examination:

    Amplius adeo prolixum temporis spatium significat, ut judices quotienscunque significarent, adhuc se audire velle, amplius dicebant. Itaque negotium differebant, unde hodieque ampliari judicium differri dicitur,

    Charis. 176 P.; so Don. ad Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 39; cf.

    also amplio and ampliatio: cum consules re audita amplius de consilii sententia pronuntiavissent,

    Cic. Brut. 22, 86:

    antea vel judicari primo poterat vel amplius pronuntiari,

    id. Verr. 2, 1, 26:

    ut de Philodamo amplius pronuntiaretur,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 29.—

    And metaph.: ego amplius deliberandum censeo,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 4, 17.—
    (β).
    Amplius non petere, judicial t. phr., to bring no further action, to make no further claim:

    quid ita satis non dedit, AMPLIVS [A SE] NEMINEM PETITVRVM?

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 12, 35:

    Tibi ego, Brute, non solvam, nisi prius a te cavero amplius eo nomine neminem, cujus petitio sit, petiturum,

    id. Brut. 5, 18:

    sunt duo, quae te rogo: primum, ut si quid satis dandum erit, AMPLIVS EO NOMINE NON PETI, cures etc.,

    id. Fam. 13, 28 A:

    quod ille recusarit satis dare amplius abs te non peti,

    id. Att. 1, 8, 1.—
    (γ).
    Hoc amplius, beside the general use given above (II. Comp. b. a), as t. phr. of senators when they approved a measure, but amended it by addition:

    Servilio adsentior et HOC AMPLIVS CENSEO, magnum Pompeium fecisse etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 12, 21, 50:

    cui cum essem adsensus, decrevi HOC AMPLIVS, ut etc.,

    id. ad Brut. 1, 5, 1;

    so Seneca: fortasse et post omnes citatus nihil improbabo ex iis, quae priores decreverint, et dicam HOC AMPLIVS CENSEO, Vit. Beat. 3, 2: Quaedam ex istis sunt, quibus adsentire possumus, sed HOC AMPLIVS CENSEO,

    id. Q. N. 3, 15, 1.—
    (δ).
    To this may be added the elliptical phrases, nihil amplius and si nihil amplius:

    nihil amplius, denoting that there is nothing further than has been declared: sese ipsum abs te repetit. Nihil amplius,

    Cic. Verr. 5, 49, 128;

    (res publica) ulta suas injurias est per vos interitu tyranni. Nihil amplius,

    id. Fam. 12, 1, 2; and, si nihil amplius, marking a limit, if nothing more, at least:

    excedam tectis? An, si nihil amplius, obstem?

    Ov. M. 9, 148.
    The form amplius has the ambiguity of the Engl.
    word more, which is sometimes an adj., sometimes a subst., and sometimes an adv., and some of the above examples would admit of different classifications; as, non amplius dicere, not to speak further (adv.) or not to say more (subst.), Plaut. As. 1, 3, 51; but some of them would admit of only one explanation;

    as, ne quos amplius Rhenum transire pateretur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 43. Sup.: amplissimē.
    I.
    Lit., very largely, most abundantly:

    ut quibus militibus amplissime (agri) dati adsignati essent,

    in the largest shares, Cic. Phil. 5, 53:

    duumviri (deos) tribus quam amplissume tum apparari poterat stratis lectis placavere,

    Liv. 5, 13, 6 Weissenb.—
    II.
    Fig., most generously, most handsomely:

    qui amplissime de salute mea decreverint,

    Cic. Dom. 44:

    amplissime laudare,

    in the handsomest style, Plin. 18, 3, 3, § 11; Suet. Calig. 15:

    honores amplissime gessit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 112:

    pater cum amplissime ex praetura triumphasset,

    with the greatest pomp, id. Mur. 15:

    placere eum quam amplissime supremo suo die efferri,

    should be carried forth with every possible solemnity, id. Phil. 9, 7, 16. V. on this word, Hand, Turs. I. pp. 287-296.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > amplissime

  • 16 amplus

    amplus, a, um, adj. [some regard this as a shortened form of anapleôs, = filled up, full; others, as for ambulus from amb-, rounded out, as superus from super, etc.; v. Doed. Syn. II. p. 113; but perh. it is better to form it from am- and -plus, akin to -pleo, plenus, q. v. Pott], thus pr., full all round; hence, great, large. —In space, of large extent, great, large, wide, ample, spacious (the forms amplus and amplior are very rare in the ante-class. per., and rare in all periods. Amplius is com. in the ante-class., freq. in the class., and very freq. in the post-class. per., the Vulg. rarely using the other forms, but using this 121 times. Amplissimus belongs to prose, and is scarcely used before Cicero, with whom it was a very favorite word. It was also used by Plin. Maj. and Min., but never by Tac., Sall. (in his genuine works), nor the Vulg. Catullus used only the form amplius, and Prop. only amplus, while Tib. and Pers. never used this word in any form. Ampliter is found mostly in Plaut.; and ample and amplissime are used a few times by Cic. and by writers that followed him; syn.: magnus, ingens, latus, late patens, spatiosus, laxus).
    I.
    Lit.:

    amplus et spectu protervo ferox,

    Pac. Trag. Rel. p. 94 Rib.:

    qui (Pluto) ter amplum Geryonen compescit unda,

    Hor. C. 2, 14, 7:

    ampla domus dedecori domino fit, si est in ea solitudo,

    Cic. Off. 1, 39, 139; so Verg. A. 2, 310:

    admodum amplum et excelsum signum,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 74:

    collis castris parum amplus,

    Sall. J. 98, 3:

    porticibus in amplis,

    Verg. A. 3, 353:

    per amplum mittimur Elysium,

    id. ib. 6, 743:

    vocemque per ampla volutant Atria,

    id. ib. 1, 725:

    nil vulva pulchrius ampla,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 15, 41:

    amplae aures,

    Plin. 11, 52, 114, § 274:

    milium amplum grano,

    id. 18, 7, 10, § 55:

    cubiculum amplum,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 17, 6:

    baptisterium amplum atque opacum,

    id. ib. 5, 6, 25.— Comp.:

    quanto est res amplior,

    Lucr. 2, 1133:

    Amplior Urgo et Capraria,

    Plin. 3, 6, 12, § 81:

    avis paulo amplior passere,

    id. 10, 32, 47, § 89:

    amplior specie mortali,

    Suet. Aug. 94; id. Caes. 76 (for the neutr. amplius, v. infra).— Sup.:

    amplissima curia... gymnasium amplissimum,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 53:

    urbs amplissima atque ornatissima,

    id. Agr. 2, 76:

    amplissimum peristylum,

    id. Dom. 116:

    (candelabrum) ad amplissimi templi ornatum esse factum,

    id. Verr. 4, 65:

    mons Italiae amplissimus,

    Plin. 3, 5, 7, § 48:

    amplissimum flumen,

    Plin. Ep. 8, 8, 3:

    amplissimus lacus,

    id. ib. 10, 41, 2:

    amplissima insula,

    Plin. 6, 20, 23, § 71:

    amplissimi horti,

    Plin. Ep. 8, 18, 11:

    amplissima arborum,

    Plin. 16, 39, 76, § 200:

    est (topazon) amplissima gemmarum,

    id. 37, 8, 32, § 109:

    amplissimum cubiculum,

    Plin. Ep. 5, 6, 23.—
    B.
    Transf., great, abundant, ample, much, long:

    bono atque amplo lucro,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 6 and Ep. 2, 2, 117:

    pabula miseris mortalibus ampla,

    Lucr. 5, 944:

    ampla civitas,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 81; 4, 96:

    civitas ampla atque florens,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 3:

    gens ampla,

    Plin. 5, 30, 33, § 125:

    amplae copiae,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 19:

    ampla manus militum,

    Liv. Epit. 1, 4, 9:

    pecuaria res ampla,

    Cic. Quinct. 12:

    res familiaris ampla,

    id. Phil. 13, 8:

    (res) ampla,

    Sall. H. Fragm. 3, 82, 20 Kritz:

    patrimonium amplum et copiosum,

    Cic. Sex. Rosc. 6; id. Dom. 146: id. Phil. 2, 67:

    amplae divitiae,

    Hor. S. 2, 2, 101:

    esse patri ejus amplas facultates,

    Plin. Ep. 1, 14, 9:

    in amplis opibus heres,

    Plin. 9, 36, 59, § 122.— Comp.:

    amplior numerus,

    Cic. Mil. 57; Sall. J. 105, 3; Tac. A. 14, 53:

    ampliores aquae,

    Plin. 5, 9, 10, § 58:

    amplior exercitus,

    Sall. J. 54, 3; Suet. Vesp. 4:

    commeatus spe amplior,

    Sall. J. 75, 8:

    amplior pecunia, Auct. B. Alex. 56: pecunia amplior,

    Plin. Ep. 3, 11, 2:

    pretia ampliora,

    Plin. 10, 29, 43, § 84:

    omnia longe ampliora invenire quam etc.,

    Plin. Ep. 1, 14, 10:

    ampliores noctes,

    Plin. 18, 26, 63, § 232:

    ut ampliori tempore maneret,

    Vulg. Act. 18, 20.— Sup.:

    peditatus copiae amplissimae e Gallia,

    Cic. Font. 8:

    exercitus amplissimus,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 13, 2; 9, 13, 11:

    amplissima pecunia,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 31:

    amplissimae fortunae,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 8; id. Quinct. 49; id. Phil. 10, 4:

    amplissimae patrimonii copiae,

    id. Fl. 89:

    amplissimas summas emptionibus occupare,

    Plin. Ep. 8, 2, 3:

    opes amplissimae,

    id. ib. 8, 18, 4:

    amplissima dies horarum quindecim etc.,

    the longest day, Plin. 6, 34, 39, § 218.—Also subst. in comp. neutr. (v. amplius, adv. infra), more:

    ut quirem exaudire amplius,

    Att. Trag. Rel. p. 173 Rib.:

    si vis amplius dari, Dabitur,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 1, 18:

    jam amplius orat,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 19:

    daturus non sum amplius,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 29:

    non complectar in his libris amplius quam quod etc.,

    id. de Or. 1, 6, 22:

    tantum adfero quantum ipse optat, atque etiam amplius,

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 1, 10:

    ni amplius etiam, quod ebibit,

    id. Trin. 2, 1, 20: Ph. Etiamne amplius? Th. Nil, Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 63: Tr. Dimidium Volo ut dicas. Gr. Immo hercle etiam amplius, Plaut. Rud. 4, 3, 21: Th. Nempe octoginta debentur huic minae? Tr. Haud nummo amplius, id. Most. 3, 3, 16:

    etiam amplius illam adparare condecet,

    Turp. Com. Rel. p. 100 Rib.:

    hoc onere suscepto amplexus animo sum aliquanto amplius,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1:

    si sit opus liquidi non amplius urna,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 54:

    omnis numerus amplius octingentis milibus explebat,

    Vell. 2, 110, 3:

    Segestanis imponebat aliquanto amplius quam etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 76:

    illa corona contentus Thrasybulus neque amplius requisivit,

    Nep. Thras. 4, 3:

    amplius possidere,

    Plin. 18, 4, 3, § 17:

    Ille imperio ei reddito haud amplius, quam ut duo ex tribus filiis secum militarent, exegit,

    Curt. 8, 4, 21:

    dedit quantum maximum potuit, daturus amplius, si potuisset,

    Plin. Ep. 3, 21, 6:

    cum hoc amplius praestet, quod etc.,

    id. ib. 7, 25, 1.—Also with part. gen., more of, a greater quantity or number of:

    gaudeo tibi liberorum esse amplius,

    Plaut. Cist. 5, 4:

    te amplius bibisse praedicet loti,

    Cat. 39, 21:

    amplius frumenti auferre,

    Cic. Verr. 3, 49:

    expensum est auri viginti paulo amplius,

    id. Fl. 6, 8:

    amplius negotii contrahi,

    id. Cat. 4, 9:

    si amplius obsidum vellet,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 9, ubi v. Herz.:

    quanto ejus amplius processerat temporis,

    id. B. C. 3, 25.—
    II.
    Fig.
    A.
    Of internal power or force, great, strong, violent, impetuous:

    pro viribus amplis,

    Lucr. 5, 1174:

    amplae vires peditum,

    Plin. 6, 20, 23, § 75;

    ampla nepotum Spes,

    Prop. 4, 22, 41:

    poena sera, sed ampla,

    full, strict, id. 4, 5, 32. — Comp.:

    haec irae factae essent multo ampliores,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 1, 9:

    si forte morbus amplior factus siet, i. e. gravior,

    id. ib. 3, 1, 50:

    amplior metus,

    Cic. Clu. 128:

    amplior potentia feris,

    Plin. 28, 10, 42, § 153:

    ampliorem dicendi facultatem consequi,

    Quint. 2, 3, 4:

    amplior eoque acrior impetus,

    Flor. 4, 2, 66:

    spes amplior,

    Sall. J. 105, 4:

    amplius accipietis judicium,

    severer, Vulg. Matt. 23, 14:

    amplior auctoritas,

    Plin. 37, 3, 12, § 47:

    amplior virtus,

    higher merit, Quint. 8, 3, 83:

    idem aut amplior cultus (dei),

    Plin. 28, 2, 4, § 18:

    amplior est quaestio,

    Quint. 3, 5, 8:

    ampliora verba,

    of larger meaning, id. 8, 4, 2: scientia intellegentiaque ac sapientia ampliores inventae sunt in te, Vulg. Dan. 5, 14:

    quo legatis animus amplior esset,

    Sall. C. 40, 6; 59, 1:

    spiritus amplior,

    Vulg. Dan. 5, 12; 6, 3.— Sup.:

    (honos) pro amplissimis meritis redditur,

    Cic. Phil. 5, 41:

    cujus sideris (Caniculae) effectus amplissimi in terra sentiuntur,

    very violent, Plin. 2, 40, 40, § 107:

    amplissima spes,

    Suet. Caes. 7:

    his finis cognitionis amplissimae,

    most important trial, Plin. Ep. 2, 11, 23.—
    B.
    Of external splendor, great, handsome, magnificent, splendid, glorious:

    illis ampla satis forma, pudicitia,

    great enough, Prop. 1, 2, 24:

    haec ampla sunt, haec divina,

    Cic. Sest. 102; id. Arch. 23:

    res gestae satis amplae,

    Sall. C. 8, 2:

    cur parum amplis adfecerit praemiis,

    Cic. Mil. 57:

    ampla quidem, sed pro ingentibus meritis praemia acceperunt,

    Tac. A. 14, 53:

    amplum in modum praemia ostentare,

    Aur. Vict. Caes. 26, 6:

    amplis honoribus usi,

    Sall. J. 25, 4:

    amplis honoribus auctos,

    Hor. S. 1, 6, 11.—Sometimes in mal. part. or ironically:

    amplam occasionem calumniae nactus,

    a fine opportunity, Cic. Verr. 2, 61:

    spolia ampla refertis Tuque puerque tuus,

    glorious spoils, Verg. A. 4, 93.— Comp.:

    ne ullum munus aedilitatis amplius aut gratius populo esse possit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 5; id. Mur. 37:

    praemiis ad perdiscendum amplioribus commoveri,

    id. de Or. 1, 4, 13:

    alicui ampliorem laudem tribuere,

    id. Sest. 27:

    in aliqua re esse laudem ampliorem,

    id. Marcell. 4:

    corporis membris plus dedit, id amplius atque augustius ratus (Zeuxis),

    Quint. 12, 10, 5:

    ut Augustus vocaretur ampliore cognomine,

    Suet. Aug. 7.— Subst.:

    in potestatibus eo modo agitabat, ut ampliore, quam gerebat, dignus haberetur,

    of something greater, Sall. J. 63, 5.— Sup.:

    ut consules monumentum quam amplissimum faciundum curent,

    Cic. Phil. 14, 38; 14, 31; id. Verr. 4, 82:

    hoc munus aedilitatis amplissimum,

    id. ib. 1, 12, 36; Aur. Vict. Vir. Ill. 1, 74:

    alicui amplissimas potestates dare,

    Cic. Agr. 2, 31:

    insignibus amplissimis ornatus,

    id. ib. 2, 101:

    dona amplissima conferre,

    Plin. 18, 3, 3, § 9:

    praemia legatis dedistis amplissima,

    Cic. Cat. 4, 5; id. Phil. 2, 32:

    spe amplissimorum praemiorum adduci,

    id. Mil. 5; id. de Or. 1, 5, 16:

    velut praemium quoddam amplissimum longi laboris,

    Quint. 10, 7, 1:

    munera amplissima mittere,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 43:

    vestris beneficiis amplissimis adfectus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 51; id. Dom. 98:

    laudi amplissimae lauream concedere,

    id. Pis. 74:

    laudibus amplissimis adficere,

    id. Phil. 7, 11:

    amplissimam gloriam consequi,

    id. Prov. Cons. 39:

    ut eum amplissimo regis honore et nomine adfeceris,

    id. Deiot. 14:

    amplissimis aliquem efferre honoribus,

    Aur. Vict. Epit. 17, 3:

    amplissimis uti honoribus,

    Cic. Fl. 45:

    amplissimos honores adipisci,

    id. Verr. 5, 181:

    honores adsequi amplissimos,

    id. Mil. 81:

    aliquem ad honores amplissimos perducere,

    id. Am. 20, 73:

    meus labor fructum est amplissimum consecutus,

    id. Imp. Pomp 2:

    mihi gratiae verbis amplissimis aguntur,

    in the handsomest termis, id. Cat. 3, 14; id. Phil. 2, 13; id. Quir. 15:

    ei amplissimis verbis gratias egimus,

    id. Phil. 1, 3:

    provincia Gallia merito ornatur verbis amplissimis ab senatu,

    id. ib. 4, 9:

    amplissimis verbis conlaudatus,

    Suet. Caes. 16:

    amplissimo populi senatusque judicio exercitus habuistis,

    Cic. Agr. 1, 12; id. Fl. 5; id. Dom. 86; id. Planc. 93:

    de meo consulatu amplissima atque ornatissima decreta fecerunt,

    id. Dom. 74:

    quam universi populi, illius gentis, amplissimum testimonium (said of Cic.),

    Plin. 7, 30, 31, § 116.—
    C.
    In respect of the opinion of others, esteemed, renowned, etc.:

    quicquid est, quamvis amplum sit, id est parum tum cum est aliquid amplius,

    Cic. Marcell. 26:

    quid hunc hominem magnum aut amplum de re publica cogitare (putare possumus), qui etc.,

    great or noble, id. Imp. Pomp. 37:

    omnia, quae vobis cara atque ampla sunt,

    id. Agr. 2, 9; id. Arch. 23:

    convenerunt corrogati et quidem ampli quidam homines,

    id. Phil. 3, 20:

    hoc studium parvi properemus et ampli,

    small and great, Hor. Ep. 1, 3, 28:

    amplis doctoribus instructus,

    Tac. A. 14, 52:

    sin autem sunt amplae et honestae familiae plebeiae,

    Cic. Mur. 7, 15.— Comp.:

    cum est aliquid amplius,

    Cic. Marcell. 26:

    ampliores ordines,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 77, where Dinter reads priores: quo (ingenio) neque melius neque amplius aliud in natura mortalium est, [p. 112] Sall. J. 2, 4:

    nihil amplius potes (tribuere) amicitia tua,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 13, 10:

    quid amplius facitis?

    Vulg. Matt. 5, 47.— Sup.:

    ex amplissimo genere nubere,

    Cic. Cael. 34:

    amplissimo genere natus,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 12:

    genere copiisque amplissimus, id. ib 6, 15: quam (familiam) vidit amplissimam,

    Cic. Phil. 13, 12:

    amplissimos patruos habere,

    id. Sex. Rosc. 147:

    amplissima civitas,

    id. Verr. 5, 122:

    apud illos Fabiorum nomen est amplissimum,

    id. Font. 36; id. Caecin. 104; id. Verr. 3, 96; id. Deiot. 14:

    mihi hic locus ad agendum amplissimus est visus,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 1:

    non adgrediar ad illa maxima atque amplissima prius quam etc.,

    id. Sest. 5:

    licet tribuas ei quantum amplissimum potes, nihil tamen amplius potes amicitia tua,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 13, 10:

    amplissimis operibus increscere,

    id. ib. 8, 4, 3:

    honores in amplissimo consilio collocare,

    Cic. Sen. 2:

    amplissimi orbis terrae consilii principes,

    id. Phil. 3, 34: honoris amplissimi puto esse accusare improbos, I esteem it to be the greatest honor, etc., id. Div. in Caecil. 70:

    promotus ad amplissimas procurationes,

    Plin. Ep. 7, 31, 3:

    praeter honores amplissimos cognomenque etc.,

    Plin. 7, 44, 45, § 142:

    spes amplissimae dignitatis,

    Cic. Agr. 2, 49; id. Sen. 19, 68; Suet. Vit. 2.—
    D.
    Hence, amplissimus (almost always thus in sup.) as a title for persons holding great and honored offices, as consul, senator, etc., or as an honorable epithet of the office itself or the body of officers, distinguished, very distinguished, honorable, right honorable, most honorable, etc.:

    is mihi videtur amplissimus, qui sua virtute in altiorem locum pervenit,

    Cic. Sex. Rosc. 83:

    homo et suis et populi Romani ornamentis amplissimus,

    id. Mur. 8:

    P. Africanus rebus gestis amplissimus,

    id. Caecin. 69:

    ut homines amplissimi testimonium de sua re non dicerent,

    id. Sex. Rosc. 102; id. Clu. 197:

    Q. Catuli atque ceterorum amplissimorum hominum auctoritas,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 63:

    vir amplissimus ejus civitatis,

    id. Verr. 4, 17; id. Fl. 32:

    exercitum Cn. Domitii, amplissimi viri, sustentavit,

    id. Deiot. 5, 14:

    cum habeas amplissimi viri religionem (of L. Lucullus),

    id. Arch. 4, 8; id. Lig. 22:

    in quo consilio amplissimi viri judicarent,

    id. Mil. 5; id. Balb. 1; id. Dom. 2:

    comitatus virorum amplissimorum,

    id. Sull. 9:

    viros primarios atque amplissimos civitatis in consilium advocare,

    id. Verr. 3, 18:

    ordinis amplissimi esse,

    Aur. Vict. Caes. 13, 1; 37, 6:

    cives amplissimos legare,

    Cic. Balb. 42:

    hoc amplissimum nomen, i. e. senatorium,

    id. Verr. 3, 96:

    amplissimus honos, i. e. consulatus,

    id. Rep. 1, 6; so,

    amplissimo praeditus magistratu,

    Suet. Aug. 26:

    amplissimus ordo, i. e. senatorius,

    Plin. Ep. 10, 3; Suet. Calig. 49:

    amplissimi ordines, i. e. senatus et equites,

    id. Vesp. 9:

    amplissimum collegium decemvirale,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 49:

    an vero vir amplissimus, P. Scipio, pontifex maximus, etc.,

    id. Cat. 1, 3:

    amplissimum sacerdotium,

    id. Verr. 2, 126; id. Phil. 13, 8:

    sacerdotium amplissimum,

    id. Verr. 2, 127.—
    E.
    As rhet. epithet:

    amplus orator,

    one that speaks richly and with dignity, Cic. Or. 9; id. Brut. 68:

    herous (pes), qui est idem dactylus Aristoteli amplior, iambus humanior videatur,

    grander, more stately, Quint. 9, 4, 88:

    amplius compositionis genus,

    more copious style, id. 9, 4, 129.— Adv. (on the extent of the use of the different forms of the adverb, v. supra init.), largely, abundantly, copiously.
    I.
    Lit.
    a.
    Form amplĭter:

    benigne ei largi atque ampliter,

    Att. Trag. Rel. p. 173 Rib.:

    aptate munde atque ampliter convivium,

    Pomp. Com. Rel. p. 234 Rib.:

    extructam ampliter mensam,

    Lucil. 13, 7 Mull.:

    opsonato ampliter,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 8, 65:

    adpositum est ampliter,

    id. Mil. 3, 1, 163:

    acceptus hilare atque ampliter,

    id. Merc. prol. 98:

    modeste melius facere sumptum quam ampliter,

    id. Stich. 5, 4, 10:

    parum (digitulos) immersisti ampliter,

    not deep enough, id. Bacch. 4, 4, 26.—
    b.
    Form amplē:

    exornat ample magnificeque triclinium,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 62: qui ample valetudinarios nutriunt, in great numbers (v. the context), Cels. praef. med.
    II.
    Trop., fully, handsomely.
    a.
    Form amplĭter:

    ampliter dicere,

    fully, particularly, Gell. 10, 3, 4:

    laudare ampliter,

    id. 2, 6, 11.—
    b.
    Form amplē: duo genera sunt: unum attenuate presseque, alterum sublate ampleque dicentium, with great fulness, richly (v. amplus, II. E.), Cic. Brut. 55, 201; so,

    elate ampleque loqui,

    id. Tusc. 5, 9, 24:

    satis ample sonabant in Pompeiani nominis locum Cato et Scipio,

    full grandly filled the place of, Flor. 4, 2, 65.— Comp.: amplĭus, more, longer, further, besides (syn.: ultra, praeterea); of time, number, and action (while plus denotes more in quantity, measure, etc.; magis, more, in the comparison of quality, and sometimes of action; and potius, rather, the choice between different objects or acts), constr. absol., with comp. abl., and, in the case of numerals, like minus, plus, propius, q. v., without quam with the nom., acc., or gen., or rarely with the abl. comp., or with quam, but chiefly in the post-Aug. per.; cf. Zumpt, § 485; Madv. § 305; Roby, § 1273; Herz. ad Caes. B. G. 4, 12; and Draeger, Hist. Synt. I. p. 521 sq.
    a.
    In gen.:

    deliberatum est non tacere [me] amplius,

    Afran. Com. Rel. p. 199 Rib.:

    otium ubi erit, de istis rebus tum amplius tecum loquar,

    Plaut. Truc. 4, 4, 18:

    cui amplius male faxim,

    id. Aul. 3, 2, 6: De. Etiam? Li. Amplius, id. As. 1, 1, 29: Ar. Vale. Ph. Aliquanto amplius valerem, si hic maneres, id. ib. 3, 3, 2:

    etiam faxo amabit (eam) amplius,

    id. Men. 5, 2, 40:

    multo tanto illum accusabo, quam te accusavi, amplius,

    id. ib. 5, 2, 49:

    quo populum servare potissit amplius,

    Lucil. 1, 15 Mull.:

    At ego amplius dico,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 26:

    amplius posse,

    Sall. J. 69, 2:

    armis amplius valere,

    id. ib. 111, 1:

    si lamentetur miser amplius aequo,

    Lucr. 3, 953:

    tribus vobis opsonatumst an opsono amplius Tibi et parasito et mulieri?

    besides, Plaut. Men. 2, 2, 45:

    Quam vellem invitatum, ut nobiscum esset amplius,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 2, 11:

    in illo exercitu cuncta (probra) fuere et alia amplius,

    Sall. J. 44, 5:

    felices ter et amplius,

    Hor. C. 1, 13, 17:

    binas aut amplius domos continuare,

    Sall. C. 20, 11:

    ter nec amplius,

    Suet. Caes. 25:

    cum non solum de his scripserit, sed amplius praecepta (reliquerit),

    Quint. 12, 11, 24:

    multa promi amplius possunt,

    Plin. 2, 17, 15, § 77:

    si studere amplius possum,

    Quint. 6, prooem. 4:

    auram communem amplius haurire potui?

    id. 6, prooem. 12:

    sagum, quod amplius est,

    Vulg. Exod. 26, 12.—
    b.
    And so very often with the pron. quid, etc.; with the negatives nihil, non, neque, nec, ne; and sometimes with nemo and haud.
    (α).
    With quid, etc.:

    Quid faciam amplius?

    Ter. Ad. 4, 7, 14, and Cic. Har. Resp. 42:

    quid dicam amplius?

    Quint. 8, 4, 7:

    quid a me amplius dicendum putatis?

    Cic. Verr. 3, 60:

    quid quaeris amplius?

    id. Sex. Rosc. 145; id. Dom. 41; id. Verr. 2, 191:

    quid vultis amplius?

    id. Mil. 35:

    quid amplius vis?

    Hor. Epod. 17, 30:

    quid exspectatis amplius?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 174:

    quid amplius exspectabo,

    Vulg. 4 Reg. 6, 33:

    quid loquar amplius de hoc homine?

    Cic. Caecin. 25:

    quid amplius laboremus?

    Quint. 8, prooem. 31:

    quid habet amplius homo?

    Vulg. Eccl. 1, 3; 6, 8:

    quid ego aliud exoptem amplius, nisi etc.,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 134:

    quid amplius debeam optare?

    Quint. 4, 1, 51: Lo. Numquid amplius? Ly. Tantum est, Plaut. Merc. 2, 2, 11; Ter. And. 2, 1, 25: De. An quid est etiam amplius? He. Vero amplius, id. Ad. 3, 4, 22:

    quid est quod tibi mea ars efficere hoc possit amplius?

    more than this, id. And. 1, 1, 4:

    Etenim quid est, Catilina, quod jam amplius exspectes, si etc.,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 3, 6; id. Sull. 90:

    si quid amplius scit,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 23:

    si quid ego addidero amplius,

    id. Trin. 4, 2, 13:

    si amplius aliquid gloriatus fuero,

    Vulg. 2 Cor. 10, 8.—And often hoc amplius, where hoc is commonly an abl., but sometimes may be regarded as a nom. or an acc.:

    hoc amplius si quid poteris,

    any thing beyond this, Cic. de Or. 1, 10, 44: et hoc amplius (additur), quod etc., and this further, that etc., id. Sull. 44; so Quint. 5, 13, 36:

    de paedagogis hoc amplius, ut aut sint etc.,

    id. 1, 1, 8:

    Mario urbe Italiaque interdicendum, Marciano hoc amplius, Africa,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 11, 19; Quint. 1, 5, 50; 1, 5, 55; sometimes in plur., his amplius:

    his amplius apud eundem (est) etc.,

    Quint. 9, 3, 15;

    so rarely eo amplius: inferiasque his annua religione, publice instituit, et eo amplius matri Circenses,

    Suet. Calig. 15:

    quaeris quid potuerit amplius adsequi,

    Cic. Planc. 60: prius quam (hic) turbarum quid faciat amplius, Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 93:

    quare jam te cur amplius excrucies?

    Cat. 76, 10.—
    (β).
    With nihil, etc.:

    habet nihil amplius quam lutum,

    Lucil. 9, 46 Mull.:

    nihil habui amplius, quod praeciperem,

    Quint. 7, 1, 64:

    nihil enim dixit amplius,

    Cic. Deiot. 21:

    Nihil dico amplius: causa dicta est,

    I say no more; I have done with my case, id. ib. 8:

    nihil amplius dico, nisi me etc.,

    id. Planc. 96:

    nihil amplius dicam quam victoriam etc.,

    id. Marcell. 17.—Hence, nihil dico or dicam amplius, when one fears to wound by declaring his opinion, etc., I say no more, have nothing further to say or add:

    vetus est, Nihili cocio est. Scis cujus? non dico amplius,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 51:

    si, quod equitis Romani filius est, inferior esse debuit: omnes tecum equitum Romanorum filii petiverunt. Nihil dico amplius,

    Cic. Planc. 7 (tacite significat eos dignitate inferiores esse Plancio, Manut. ad h.l.):

    Alterius vero partis nihil amplius dicam quam id, quod etc.,

    id. Marcell. 6, 17:

    amplius nihil respondit,

    Vulg. Marc. 15, 5:

    nihil amplius addens,

    ib. Deut. 5, 22:

    nihil noverunt amplius,

    ib. Eccl. 9, 5:

    nihil amplius optet,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 2, 46:

    nihil amplius potes,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 13, 10:

    amplius quod desideres, nihil erit,

    this will leave nothing to be desired, Cic. Tusc. 1, 11, 24:

    nil amplius oro, nisi ut etc.,

    Hor. S. 2, 6, 4:

    ipse Augustus nihil amplius quam equestri familia ortum se scribit,

    Suet. Aug. 2:

    si non amplius, ad lustrum hoc protolleret unum,

    Lucil. 1, 33 Mull.:

    non luctabor tecum, Crasse, amplius,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 17, 74; id. Tusc. 5, 34, 98:

    verbum non amplius addam,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 121:

    non amplius me objurgabis,

    Quint. 5, 10, 47:

    non amplius posse,

    Sall. Fragm. Hist. 3, 82, 19 Kritz:

    non habent amplius quid faciant,

    Vulg. Luc. 12, 4: non videbitis amplius faciem meam. ib. Gen. 44, 23; ib. Heb. 10, 17:

    amplius illa jam non inveniet,

    ib. Apoc. 18, 14:

    studium, quo non aliud ad dignitatem amplius excogitari potest,

    Tac. Or. 5:

    extra me non est alia amplius,

    Vulg. Soph. 2, 15:

    neque hoc amplius quam quod vides nobis quicquamst,

    Plaut. Rud. 1, 5, 21:

    neque va dari amplius neque etc.,

    Cic. Quinct. 23:

    nec jam amplius ullae Adparent terrae,

    Verg. A. 3, 192; 3, 260; 5, 8; 9, 426; 9, 519; 11, 807; 12, 680; id. G. 4, 503:

    nec irascar amplius,

    Vulg. Ezech. 16, 42; ib. Apoc. 7, 16:

    ne amplius dona petas,

    Cat. 68, 14:

    urere ne possit calor amplius aridus artus,

    Lucr. 4, 874;

    ne quos amplius Rhenum transire pateretur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 43:

    ut ne quem amplius posthac discipulum reciperet,

    Suet. Gram. 17:

    ne amplius morando Scaurum incenderet,

    Sall. J. 25, 10; id. Fragm. Hist. 1, 2, 10 Kritz;

    3, 82, 17: ne amplius divulgetur,

    Vulg. Act. 4, 17:

    ut nequaquam amplius per eamdem viam revertamini,

    ib. Deut. 17, 16:

    nolite amplius accipere pecuniam,

    ib. 4 Reg. 12, 7.—
    (γ).
    With nemo:

    cur non restipulatur neminem amplius petiturum?

    Cic. Q. Rosc. 12, 36:

    cum amplius nemo occurreret,

    nobody further, no one more, Curt. 8, 10, 2; so,

    neminem amplius viderunt,

    Vulg. Marc. 9, 7:

    nemo emet amplius,

    no one will buy any longer, any more, ib. Apoc. 18, 11 (for cases of haud with amplius, v. c. a and g).—
    c.
    With numerals and numeral forms.
    (α).
    Without quam:

    amplius horam suffixum in cruce me memini esse,

    Cat. 69, 3:

    horam amplius jam in demoliendo signo homines moliebantur,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 95:

    amplius annos triginta tribunus fuerat,

    Sall. C. 59, 6:

    me non amplius novem annos nato,

    Nep. Hann. 2, 3:

    per annos amplius quadraginta,

    Suet. Aug. 72; 32:

    quid si tandem amplius triennium est?

    Cic. Q. Rosc. 8:

    Tu faciem illius noctem non amplius unam Falle dolo,

    Verg. A. 1, 683:

    inveniebat Sabim flumen non amplius milia passuum decem abesse,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 16; 4, 12:

    reliquum spatium, quod est non amplius pedum sexcentorum, mons continet,

    id. ib. 1, 28;

    2, 29: amplius sestertium ducentiens acceptum hereditatibus rettuli,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 40; id. Fl. 68; so Plin. Ep. 10, 39, 1:

    huic paulo amplius tertiam partem denegem?

    id. ib. 5, 7, 3:

    cum eum amplius centum cives Romani cognoscerent,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 14; 5, 155:

    victi amplius ducenti ceciderunt,

    Liv. 21, 29, 3: non amplius quattuordecim cohortes, Pompei. ap. Cic. Att. 8, 12, C:

    ex omni multitudine non amplius quadraginta locum cepere,

    Sall. J. 58, 3: torrentes amplius centum, [p. 113] Plin. 5, 28, 29, § 103; 9, 5, 4, § 10.—And very rarely placed after the numeral:

    qui septingentos jam annos amplius numquam mutatis legibus vivunt,

    Cic. Fl. 63:

    pugnatum duas amplius horas,

    Liv. 25, 19, 15 Weissenb.:

    duo haud amplius milia peditum effugerunt,

    id. 28, 2:

    decem amplius versus perdidimus,

    Plin. Ep. 3, 5, 12:

    tris pateat caeli spatium non amplius ulnas,

    Verg. E. 3, 105.—
    (β).
    With the comp. abl. (rare but class.):

    cum jam amplius horis sex continenter pugnaretur,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 5; 4, 37:

    pugnatum amplius duabus horis est,

    Liv. 27, 12:

    neque triennio amplius supervixit,

    Suet. Caes. 89:

    uti non amplius quinis aut senis milibus passuum interesset,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 15; 1, 23; 2, 7;

    6, 29: non amplius patet milibus quinque et triginta,

    Sall. Fragm. Hist. 4, 1, 34 Kritz:

    est ab capite paulo amplius mille passibus locus,

    Plin. Ep. 10, 90, 1:

    ab Capsa non amplius duum milium intervallo,

    Sall. J. 91, 3:

    (Catilina) cum initio non amplius duobus milibus (militum) habuisset,

    id. C. 56, 2; so,

    denas alii, alii plures (uxores) habent, set reges eo amplius,

    id. J. 80, 7.—

    And prob. the following ambiguous cases: cum mille non amplius equitibus,

    Sall. J. 105, 3:

    oppidum non amplius mille passuum abesse,

    id. ib. 68, 3.—
    (γ).
    With quam (postAug. and eccl.):

    non amplius, cum plurimum, quam septem horas dormiebat,

    Suet. Aug. 78:

    nec amplius quam septem et viginti dies Brundisii commoratus,

    id. ib. 17:

    Toto triennio semel omnino eam nec amplius quam uno die paucissimis vidit horis,

    id. Tib. 51:

    demoratus dies non amplius quam octo aut decem,

    Vulg. Act. 25, 6:

    ut non amplius apud te quam quarta (pars) remaneret,

    Plin. Ep. 5, 19:

    ut vexillum veteranorum, non amplius quam quingenti numero, copias fuderint,

    Tac. A. 3, 21:

    haud amplius quam ducentos misit,

    id. ib. 14, 32:

    insidiantur ei ex iis viri amplius quam quadraginta,

    Vulg. Act. 23, 21.—
    d. (α).
    Amplius, t. t. of judges when they deferred an important case for future examination:

    Amplius adeo prolixum temporis spatium significat, ut judices quotienscunque significarent, adhuc se audire velle, amplius dicebant. Itaque negotium differebant, unde hodieque ampliari judicium differri dicitur,

    Charis. 176 P.; so Don. ad Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 39; cf.

    also amplio and ampliatio: cum consules re audita amplius de consilii sententia pronuntiavissent,

    Cic. Brut. 22, 86:

    antea vel judicari primo poterat vel amplius pronuntiari,

    id. Verr. 2, 1, 26:

    ut de Philodamo amplius pronuntiaretur,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 29.—

    And metaph.: ego amplius deliberandum censeo,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 4, 17.—
    (β).
    Amplius non petere, judicial t. phr., to bring no further action, to make no further claim:

    quid ita satis non dedit, AMPLIVS [A SE] NEMINEM PETITVRVM?

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 12, 35:

    Tibi ego, Brute, non solvam, nisi prius a te cavero amplius eo nomine neminem, cujus petitio sit, petiturum,

    id. Brut. 5, 18:

    sunt duo, quae te rogo: primum, ut si quid satis dandum erit, AMPLIVS EO NOMINE NON PETI, cures etc.,

    id. Fam. 13, 28 A:

    quod ille recusarit satis dare amplius abs te non peti,

    id. Att. 1, 8, 1.—
    (γ).
    Hoc amplius, beside the general use given above (II. Comp. b. a), as t. phr. of senators when they approved a measure, but amended it by addition:

    Servilio adsentior et HOC AMPLIVS CENSEO, magnum Pompeium fecisse etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 12, 21, 50:

    cui cum essem adsensus, decrevi HOC AMPLIVS, ut etc.,

    id. ad Brut. 1, 5, 1;

    so Seneca: fortasse et post omnes citatus nihil improbabo ex iis, quae priores decreverint, et dicam HOC AMPLIVS CENSEO, Vit. Beat. 3, 2: Quaedam ex istis sunt, quibus adsentire possumus, sed HOC AMPLIVS CENSEO,

    id. Q. N. 3, 15, 1.—
    (δ).
    To this may be added the elliptical phrases, nihil amplius and si nihil amplius:

    nihil amplius, denoting that there is nothing further than has been declared: sese ipsum abs te repetit. Nihil amplius,

    Cic. Verr. 5, 49, 128;

    (res publica) ulta suas injurias est per vos interitu tyranni. Nihil amplius,

    id. Fam. 12, 1, 2; and, si nihil amplius, marking a limit, if nothing more, at least:

    excedam tectis? An, si nihil amplius, obstem?

    Ov. M. 9, 148.
    The form amplius has the ambiguity of the Engl.
    word more, which is sometimes an adj., sometimes a subst., and sometimes an adv., and some of the above examples would admit of different classifications; as, non amplius dicere, not to speak further (adv.) or not to say more (subst.), Plaut. As. 1, 3, 51; but some of them would admit of only one explanation;

    as, ne quos amplius Rhenum transire pateretur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 43. Sup.: amplissimē.
    I.
    Lit., very largely, most abundantly:

    ut quibus militibus amplissime (agri) dati adsignati essent,

    in the largest shares, Cic. Phil. 5, 53:

    duumviri (deos) tribus quam amplissume tum apparari poterat stratis lectis placavere,

    Liv. 5, 13, 6 Weissenb.—
    II.
    Fig., most generously, most handsomely:

    qui amplissime de salute mea decreverint,

    Cic. Dom. 44:

    amplissime laudare,

    in the handsomest style, Plin. 18, 3, 3, § 11; Suet. Calig. 15:

    honores amplissime gessit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 112:

    pater cum amplissime ex praetura triumphasset,

    with the greatest pomp, id. Mur. 15:

    placere eum quam amplissime supremo suo die efferri,

    should be carried forth with every possible solemnity, id. Phil. 9, 7, 16. V. on this word, Hand, Turs. I. pp. 287-296.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > amplus

  • 17 as

    as, assis, m. (nom. assis, Don. ad Ter. Phorm. 1, 1, 9, and Schol. ad Pers. 2, 59; old form assārĭus, ii, m.; and in the gen. plur. assariūm, Varr. L. L. 8, § 71 Müll.; Charis. p. 58 P.) [heis, Dor. ais, Tarent. as, Hinter].
    I.
    In gen., unity, a unit; as a standard for different coins, weight, measure, etc. (in Vitr. 3, 1, p. 61 Rode, perfectus numerus, the perfect number, fundamental number), acc. to the duodecimal system, divided into 12 parts, or uncias, with the following particular designations: uncia = 1s./12 duodecima (sc. pars) sextans = 2/12 = 1s./6 sexta quadrans = 3/12 = 1s./4 quarta, also teruncius or triuncis triens = 4/12 = 1s./3 tertia or quincunx = 5s./12 sextans cum quadrante semissis s. semis = 6/12 = 1s./2 dimidia septunx = 7s./12 quadrans cum triente bessis s. bes = 8/12 = 2/3, for beis s. binae partes assis. dodrans = 9/12 = 3s./4 terni quadrantes dextans s. decunx = 10/12 = 5s./6 quini sextantes deunx = 11s./12 undecim unciaeThe uncia was again divided into smaller parts: semuncia = 1/2 uncia = 1/24 assis. duella = 1/3 uncia = 1/36 assis. sicilicus (-um) = 1/4 uncia = 1/48 assis. sextula = 1/6 uncia = 1/72 assis. drachma = 1/8 uncia = 1/96 assis. hemisecla = 1/12 uncia = 1/144 assis. scripulum = 1/24 uncia = 1/288 assis.The multiples of the as received the following designations: dupondius = 2 asses. tripondius s. tressis = 3 asses. (quadressis) = 4 asses. quinquessis = 5 asses. sexis (only in the connection decussissexis in Vitr. 1. c.) = 6 asses. septissis = 7 asses. octussis = 8 asses. nonussis (novissis?) = 9 asses. decussis = 10 asses. bicessis = 20 asses. tricessis = 30 asses, and so on to centussis = 100 asses. (Cf. Varr. L. L. 5, § 169 sq. Müll.)
    II.
    Esp.
    A.
    1.. As a copper coin, the as was, acc. to the ancient custom of weighing money, originally a pound (asses librales or aes grave), of the value of about 8 8 d. /89, or 16 2/3 cents, and was uncoined (aes rude) until Servius Tullius stamped it with the figures of animals (hence pecunia, from pecus); cf. Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 9; Plin. 33, 3, 13, § 42 sqq. In the first Punic war, on account of the scarcity of money, the as was reduced to a sixth part of its original weight, i. e. two ounces; hence asses sextantarii (of the value of about 1 103 d. /297, or 2.8 cents), and the state gained five sixths. In the second Punic war, and the dictatorship of Fabius, the as was again reduced one half, to one ounce; hence asses unciales, about equal to 200 d. /297, or 1.4 cents. Finally, the Lex Papiria (A.U.C. 563, B.C. 191) reduced the as to half an ounce; hence asses semiunciales = 100 d. /297, or 7.9 1/3 mills, which continued as a standard even under the emperors. In all these reductions, however, the names of coins remained, independent of the weight of the as: uncia, sextans, quadrans, etc.; cf. Grotef. Gr. II. p. 253 sq.—From the small value of the as after the last reduction, the following phrases arose: quod non opus est, asse carum est, Cato ap. Sen. Ep. 94:

    Quod (sc. pondus auri) si comminuas, vilem redigatur ad assem,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 43:

    viatica ad assem Perdiderat,

    to the last farthing, id. Ep. 2, 2, 27:

    ad assem impendium reddere,

    Plin. Ep. 1, 15:

    rumores Omnes unius aestimemus assis,

    Cat. 5, 3:

    Non assis facis?

    id. 42, 13.—Hence,
    2.
    The proverbs,
    a.
    Assem habeas, assem valeas, your worth is estimated by your possessions, Petr. 77, 6:

    crumena plena assium,

    Gell. 20, 1.—
    b.
    Assem elephanto dare, to give something (as a petition, and the like) with trembling to a superior (a metaphor derived from trained elephants, which, after playing their parts, were accustomed to take pay for themselves, which was given them with fear by the multitude; cf. Plin. 8, 5, 5, § 14), Augustus ap. Quint. 6, 3, 59, and Macr. S. 2, 4; Varr. ap. Non. p. 531, 10 sq.—
    B.
    In inheritances and other money matters, where a division was made, the as, with its parts, was used to designate the portions. Thus haeres ex asse, sole heir; haeres ex semisse, he who receives one half of the inheritance; haeres ex dodrante, he who receives three fourths; and so, haeres ex besse, triente, quadrante, sextante, etc.;

    ex semiunciā, ex sextulā, ex duabus sextulis, etc.,

    Dig. 28, 5, 50; 34, 9, 2; Suet. Caes. 83; Cic. Caecin. 6 et saep.:

    Nerva constituit, ut tu ex triente socius esses, ego ex besse,

    Dig. 17, 2, 76:

    bessem fundi emere ab aliquo,

    ib. 26, 21, 2, § 39:

    quadrans et semissis fundi,

    ib. 6, 1, 8 al.;

    hence, in assem, in asse, or ex asse,

    in all, entirely, completely, Dig. 36, 45:

    vendere fundum in assem,

    ib. 20, 6, 9; so Col. 3, 3, 8 and 9:

    in asse,

    id. 2, 12, 7:

    sic in asse flunt octo menses et dies decem,

    id. 2, 12, 7:

    ex asse aut ex parte possidere,

    Dig. 2, 8, 15; Sid. Ep. 2, 1; 6, 12; 8, 6 al.—
    C.
    As a measure of extent.
    a.
    An acre, acc. to the same divisions as above, from scripulum to the as, Col. 5, 1, 9 sq.:

    proscindere semissem, iterare assem,

    Plin. 18, 19, 49, § 178.—
    b.
    A foot, Col. 5, 3.—
    D.
    Of weight, a pound, acc. to the same division; cf.

    Fann. Pond. 41: In haec solide sexta face assis eat,

    Ov. Med. Fac. 60.← Mathematicians (v. Vitr. l. c.) called the number 6 perfectus numerus (since 1 + 2 + 3 = 6), and formed, accordingly, the following terminology: 1 = sextans, as a dice-number. unio. 2 = triens.......... binio. 3 = semissis.......... ternio. 4 = bessis (dimoiros)..... quaternio. 5 = quintarius....... quinio. 6 = perfectus numerus.... senio. 7 = ephektos, sex adjecto asse = 6 + 1. 8 = adtertiarius, sex adjectā tertiā = 6 + 2 (epitritos). 9 = sesquialter, sex adjectā dimidiā = 6 + 3 (hêmiolios). 10 = bes alter, sex duabus partibus additis = 6 + 4 (epidimoiros). 11 = adquintarius, sex quinque partibus additis = 6 + 5 (epipentamoiros). 12 = duplio (diplasiôn).

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > as

  • 18 breve

    brĕvis, e, adj. (abl. breve, Varr. R. R. 2, 3, 2; comp. abl. breviore, Ov. Am. 2, 17, 22) [cf. brachus, Fest. p. 26], short, little, of small extent, in space and time (opp. longus; in space, in good class. prose, diff. from parvus, which designates that which fills a small space in length, breadth, and thickness; while brevis is used only of length in its different directions of breadth, height, or depth; and even of a circle, as merely a line, and without reference to the space enclosed, v. infra. In poets and postAug. prose brevis sometimes = parvus).
    I.
    Lit., in space.
    A.
    In distance, extent, short, little, small, narrow (opp. latus), Cic. Ac. 2, 29, 92:

    brevior via,

    Nep. Eum. 8, 5; Tib. 1, 10, 4:

    via brevis,

    Verg. E. 9, 23; Ov. M. 5, 253; Juv. 14, 223:

    cursus brevissimus,

    Verg. A. 3, 507:

    brevius iter,

    Ov. P. 1, 4, 32:

    cursu brevissimus Almo,

    id. M. 14, 329:

    quid mihi, quod lato non separor aequore, prodest? Num minus haec nobis tam brevis obstat aqua?

    so narrow a stream, id. H. 18, 174; cf.

    also brevis unda, opp. latum mare,

    id. ib. 19, 141 and 142:

    non Asiam brevioris aquae disterminat usquam fluctus ab Europā,

    Luc. 9, 957 (strictioris, Schol.); cf. id. 9, 317:

    brevissima terra,

    Plin. Ep. 10, 69, 2:

    in Euboico scopulus brevis emicat altō Gurgite,

    a small, narrow rock, Ov. M. 9, 226:

    brevibus Gyaris,

    Juv. 1, 73:

    scis In breve te cogi (sc. libellum),

    that you are closely rolled together, Hor. Ep. 1, 20, 8:

    quo brevius valent,

    the nearer, the more powerful are they in conflict, Tac. A. 6, 35.—
    2.
    Trop. of the journey of life:

    quid est, quod in hoc tam exiguo vitae curriculo et tam brevi tantis nos in laboribus exerceamus?

    Cic. Arch. 11, 28; cf.:

    vitae brevis cursus, gloriae sempiternus,

    id. Sest. 21, 47:

    tum brevior dirae mortis aperta via est,

    Tib. 1, 10, 4.—And poet. of the thread of life:

    fila vitae breviora,

    Ov. Tr. 5, 10, 46. —
    B.
    In height, short, small, low (opp. altus and sometimes longus);

    of the human figure: sed sedebat judex L. Aurifex, brevior ipse quam testis,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 60, 245:

    ut statura breves in digitos eriguntur,

    Quint. 2, 3, 8:

    forma,

    Ov. M. 5, 457:

    (puella) longa brevisque,

    id. Am. 2, 4, 36:

    brevis corpore,

    Suet. Galb. 3;

    id. Vit. Hor.—Of a maiden changed to a boy: et incomptis brevior mensura capillis,

    Ov. M. 9, 789.—

    Of other things: ut pleraque Alpium ab Italiā sicut breviora, ita arrectiora sunt,

    lower, Liv. 21, 35, 11:

    brevior ilex,

    Sen. Herc. Oet. 1641:

    mus,

    little, Ov. F. 2, 574. —
    C.
    In depth, small, little, shallow (opp. profundus):

    puteus,

    Juv. 3, 226:

    vada,

    Verg. A. 5, 221; Sen. Agam. 570.—Hence, subst.: brĕvia, ium, n., as in Gr. ta brachea, shallow places, shallows, shoals:

    tris Eurus ab alto In brevia et syrtis urget,

    Verg. A. 1, 111 (brevia vadosa dicit, per quae vadi pedibus potest, Serv.); Luc. 9, 338: neque discerni poterant incerta ab solidis, brevia a profundis, Tac. A. 1, 70:

    brevia litorum,

    id. ib. 6, 33 fin. —Perh. also in sing.:

    breve,

    Tac. A. 14, 29 Draeg. ad loc. (Ritter, brevia; al. breve litus).—
    2.
    Trop.:

    brevia, in quibus volutatur, incerta, ancipitia,

    difficulties, Sen. Ep. 22, 7.—
    D.
    Of the line of a circle:

    ubi circulus (i.e. arcticus) axem Ultimus extremum spatioque brevissimus ambit,

    makes the shortest path, Ov. M. 2, 517; cf.

    of similar orbits, of stars: absides breviores,

    Plin. 2. 15, 13, §

    63.—Of the circular course of a horse on the track: discit gyro breviore flecti,

    Sen. Hippol. 314. —
    II.
    Transf., of time.
    A.
    Lit. (the usu. signif. of the word), short, brief, small, little.
    1.
    In gen.:

    quanto, nox, fuisti longior hac proxumā, Tanto brevior dies ut fiat faciam,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 51:

    breve spatium'st perferundi quae minitas mihi,

    id. Capt. 3, 5, 85:

    brevis hora,

    Lucr. 4, 179; so Ov. M. 4, 696: Pa. Brevin' an longinquo sermone? Mi. Tribus verbis, Plaut. Mil. 4, 2, 30:

    occasio,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 57; Phaedr. 5, 8, 5:

    brevis hic est fructus homulleis,

    short is this enjoyment for little men, Lucr. 3, 927; cf.:

    MORS. PERFECIT. TVA. VT. TIBE. ESSENT. OMNIA. BREVIA. HONOS. FAMA. VIRTVSQVE. GLORIA. ATQVE. INGENIVM.,

    Inscr. Orell. 558:

    omnia brevia tolerabilia esse debent,

    Cic. Lael. 27, 104; id. Fin. 1, 12, 40; 2, 29, 94; id. Tusc. 1, 39, 94; Sen. Ira, 3, 43, 5:

    quoniam vita brevis est, memoriam nostri quam maxime longam efficere,

    Sall. C. 1, 3; so,

    vitae summa brevis spem nos vetat incohare longam,

    Hor. C. 1, 4, 15; cf. id. ib. 1, 11, 6:

    aut omnia breviora aliquanto fuere, aut Saguntum principio anni captum,

    occupied a shorter time, Liv. 21, 15, 5:

    brevissimum tempus,

    id. 5, 6, 7:

    detrimentum,

    Quint. 11, 1, 10:

    arbitrium mortis,

    Tac. A. 15, 60:

    breves populi Romani amores,

    id. ib. 2, 41:

    tempus,

    Suet. Ner. 20 al.:

    nobis quom semel occidit brevis lux, nox est perpetua una dormienda,

    Cat. 5, 5:

    fructus,

    Lucr. 3, 914:

    aevum,

    Hor. C. 2, 16, 17; id. S. 2, 6, 97; id. Ep. 2, 1, 144; Plin. Pan. 78, 2:

    anni,

    Hor. C. 4, 13, 22:

    ver,

    Ov. M. 1, 118; 10, 85:

    flores rosae,

    quickly withering, short-lived, Hor. C. 2, 3, 13:

    lilium,

    id. ib. 1, 36, 16:

    cena,

    frugal, id. Ep. 1, 14, 35:

    mensa,

    id. A. P. 198:

    dominus,

    living but a short time, id. C. 2, 14, 24:

    stultitia,

    id. ib. 4, 12, 27:

    ira furor brevis est,

    id. Ep. 1, 2, 62:

    actio brevis atque concisa,

    Quint. 6, 4, 2:

    somnus,

    Sen. Troad. 441:

    nec gratius quicquam decore nec brevius,

    nothing is more acceptable, but nothing more perishable, fading, than beauty, Suet. Dom. 18:

    domus,

    Sen. Hippol. 762:

    fortuna,

    Sil. 4, 734.—
    2.
    Esp.
    a.
    Comp. brevius, with subj. clause, shorter, i.e. easier, more convenient:

    brevius visum urbana crimina incipi, quorum obvii testes erant,

    Tac. A. 13, 43: modo ne existimes brevius esse ab urbe mitti, Trag. ap. Plin. Ep. 10, 40 (49), 3.—
    b.
    In brevi spatio, brevi spatio, in brevi tempore, brevi tempore, and absol. brevi or in brevi, in a short time, shortly (before or after) (brevi tempore and brevi are class.; the latter, as in Gr. en brachei, to be considered as neuter, without supplying tempore):

    inque brevi spatio mutantur saecla animantum,

    Lucr. 2, 77; so Ter. Heaut. 5, 2, 2; Suet. Claud. 12; id. Ner. 30; cf.:

    in multo breviore temporis spatio,

    id. Aug. 22:

    multa brevi spatio simulacra geruntur,

    Lucr. 4, 160; Sall. J. 87, 3:

    spatio brevi,

    Hor. C. 1, 11, 6:

    res publica per vos brevi tempore jus suum recuperabit,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 2, 3; 5, 21, 2; id. Tusc. 2, 2, 5; Caes. B. G. 1, 40, 11; Nep. Milt. 2, 1; id. Them. 1, 4; Suet. Caes. 3:

    sic ille affectus, brevi postea est mortuus,

    soon after, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 54, § 142 (Zumpt;

    acc. to MSS. perbrevi).—So brevi post = paulo post: brevi post Marcellus Romam venit,

    Liv. 33, 37, 9; 24, 3, 14:

    brevi deinde,

    id. 24, 4, 9: (Britanni) tantum usu cotidiano et exercitatione efficiunt, uti in declivi ac praecipiti loco incitatos equos sustinere et brevi ( in a short time, i.e. with great rapidity) moderari ac flectere consuerint, Caes. B. G. 4, 33 fin. Herz. and Held.:

    fama tanti facinoris per omnem Africam brevi divolgatur,

    Sall. J. 13, 1; Nep. Them. 4, 4:

    mirantur tam brevi rem Romanam crevisse,

    Liv. 1, 9, 9:

    brevi omnia subegit,

    Suet. Caes. 34; so id. Aug. 17; 65; id. Vesp. 5; id. Gram. 3; Gell. 1, 15, 18: scire in brevi, Afran. ap. Charis. p. 186 P.; Flor. 1, 1, 15.—
    c.
    Brevi, a short time, a little while: [p. 251] cunctatusque brevi, contortam viribus hastam in Persea misit, Ov. M. 5, 32; cf.:

    illa brevi spatio silet,

    id. ib. 7, 307; so,

    * breve,

    Cat. 61, 187.—
    d.
    Ad breve, for a short time, Suet. Tib. 68; cf.:

    ad breve quoddam tempus,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 13, 31.—
    B.
    Transf. to things done or taking place in a short time; so most freq.
    1.
    Of discourse, short, brief, concise (most freq. in Cic. and Quint.):

    narratio,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 20, 28; id. de Or. 3, 50, 196: laudatio;

    comprehensio et ambitus ille verborum erat apud illum contractus et brevis,

    id. Brut. 44, 162; cf. id. de Or. 2, 80, 326:

    nunc venio ad illa tua brevia: et primum illud, quo nihil potest esse brevius: bonum omne laudabile, etc.,

    id. Fin. 4, 18, 48:

    quam falsa re! quam brevia responsu!

    id. Clu. 59, 164: urbanitas est virtus quaedam in breve dictum coacta, Dom. Mars. ap. Quint. 6, 3, 104:

    Homerus brevem eloquentiam Menelao dedit,

    Quint. 12, 10, 64 (brevis = ou polumuthos, Hom. Il. 3, 214):

    breviores commentarii,

    Quint. 3, 8, 58:

    annotatio,

    id. 10, 7, 31:

    brevia illa atque concisa,

    id. 10, 7, 10; so,

    sententiae,

    id. 10, 1, 60:

    causae,

    id. 6, 1, 8:

    docendi compendia,

    id. 1, 1, 24:

    comprehensiones,

    id. 12, 2, 19:

    quod ut brevissimo pateat exemplo,

    id. 3, 6, 10: commendatio, requiring few words, i.e. moderate, Plin. 11, 42, 97, § 240.— Meton. of a speaker or orator, brief:

    multos imitatio brevitatis decipit, ut cum se breves putent esse, longissimi sint,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 20, 38:

    brevior in scribendo,

    id. Att. 5, 6, 2:

    brevis esse laboro, Obscurus fio,

    Hor. A. P. 25:

    in eloquendo brevis,

    Quint. 10, 1, 63:

    densus et brevis et semper instans sibi Thucydides,

    id. 10, 1, 73.—Hence, brĕvī, adv., briefly, in few words (freq. and class.):

    brevi pro breviter M. Tullius de Orat. ad Quintum fratrem (1, 8, 34): ac ne plura quidem quae sunt innumerabilia consecter, comprehendam brevi,

    Charis. p. 176 P.:

    id percurram brevi,

    Cic. Caecin. 32, 94:

    aliquid explicare,

    id. Planc. 40, 95 Wund.:

    circumscribere et definire,

    id. Sest. 45, 97; so id. ib. 5, 12 Orell. N. cr.; id. Fin. 1, 17, 55:

    complecti,

    id. de Or. 1, 42, 190:

    exponere,

    id. ib. 1, 46, 203:

    reprehendere,

    id. Inv. 1, 9, 12:

    reddere,

    id. Leg. 2, 14, 34:

    respondere,

    id. Fam. 3, 8, 1:

    perscribere,

    id. ib. 4, 5, 1; so Auct. Her. 4, 26, 35; 35, 47 al.; cf.:

    in brevi,

    Quint. 9, 4, 32.—So once in epistolary style: breve facere, to be short or brief:

    quid scribam? breve faciam,

    Cic. Att. 11, 7, 6; cf.:

    longum est ea dicere, sed hoc breve dicam,

    id. Sest. 5, 12.—Once, in breve cogere (diff. from I. A.), to comprise in few words, bring into a small compass:

    in breve coactae causae,

    Liv. 39, 47, 5; cf.:

    in breve coactio causae,

    Gai. Inst. 4, 15.— In late Lat. subst.: brĕvis, is, m. (sc. liber—acc. to another reading, brĕve, is, n.), a short catalogue, summary, = breviarium:

    brevis nominum,

    Vop. Aur. 36; so id. Bonos. 15; Lampr. Alex. Sev. 21; Hier. Ep. 5, n. 2 al.—
    2.
    Of a short syllable;

    rarely as adj.: Syllaba longa brevi subjecta vocatur iambus,

    Hor. A. P. 251:

    a brevis, gre brevis, faciet tamen longam priorem,

    Quint. 9, 4, 86 et saep.—More freq. subst.: brĕvis, is, f. (sc. syllaba):

    dactylus, qui est e longā et duabus brevibus,

    Cic. Or. 64, 217 sq.:

    in fine pro longā accipi brevem,

    Quint. 9, 4, 93; 9, 4, 86:

    plurimum habent celeritatis breves,

    id. 9, 4, 91.—

    Hence also once of a syllable long by position, but pronounced short: indoctus dicimus brevi primā litterā, insanus productā: inhumanus brevi, infelix longā,

    Cic. Or. 48, 159 Meyer N. cr.; cf. Gell. 2, 17 sqq., and Schütz Lex. Cic. s. v. brevis.—
    C.
    For parvus, exiguus, little, small:

    exigua pars brevisque,

    Lucr. 5, 591:

    Canidia brevibus implicata viperis,

    Hor. Epod. 5, 15:

    Alecto brevibus torquata colubris,

    Ov. H. 2, 119:

    brevi latere ac pede longo est,

    Hor. S. 1, 2, 93; cf.

    just before: breve quod caput, ardua cervix, v. 89, and brevis alvus,

    Verg. G. 3, 80 (on the other hand, Nemes. 244:

    parvae alvi): mus,

    Ov. F. 2, 574:

    forma (sc. pueri in stellionem mutati),

    id. M. 5, 457.—

    So, lapathi herba,

    Hor. S. 2, 4, 29 (brevis = parva, non excrescens in altum, Schol. Cruqu.):

    folia breviora,

    id. Ep. 1, 19, 26 (minor corona, Schol. Cruqu.):

    census,

    id. C. 2, 15, 13:

    pondus,

    id. S. 2, 2, 37:

    impensa,

    Ov. H. 7, 188 Ruhnk.:

    sigillum,

    id. M. 6, 86:

    insulae,

    Pall. 1, 28, 1; cf. Juv. 1, 73: vasculum, Pall. Apr. 8, 4:

    offulae,

    id. 1, 29, 4:

    pantheris in candido breves macularum oculi,

    Plin. 8, 17, 23, § 62.—With nom. abstr.:

    breve in exiguo marmore nomen ero,

    Prop. 2, 1, 72; Sen. Oedip. 935.—So, pondus, Hor. S. 2, 2, 37 al.—Hence, brĕ-vĭter, adv., shortly, briefly, etc.
    1.
    Of space (acc. to I.) (rare): seu libeat, curvo brevius convertere gyro, shorter, i. e. in a smaller circle, Tib. 4, 1, 94:

    parvo brevius quam totus,

    a little less than the whole, Plin. 2, 67, 67, § 168:

    Sarmatae, omisso arcu, quo brevius valent, contis gladiisque ruerent,

    Tac. A. 6, 35.—Far more freq. in prose and poetry,
    2.
    (Acc. to II. A. b. and c.) Of time, in a short time.
    a.
    In gen.:

    iratum breviter vites, inimicum diu, Publ. Syr. v. 249 Rib.: sapiens, cum breviter et strictim colore atque vultu motus est,

    Gell. 19, 1, 20.—
    b.
    Esp.
    (α).
    In expression, briefly, in brief, in few words, concisely, summarily:

    sed breviter paucis praestat comprendere multa,

    Lucr. 6, 1082: multa breviter et commode dicta (sc. apophthegmata; cf. Cic. Off. 1, 29, 104) memoriae mandabam, Cic. Lael. 1, 1:

    rem totam breviter cognoscite,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 69, § 169; 2, 3, 27, § 67; so id. de Or. 2, 83, 340:

    summatim breviterque describere,

    id. Or. 15, 50:

    breviter tangere,

    id. Off. 3, 2, 8 Beier N. cr.:

    breviter et modice disserere,

    Sall. J. 111, 1:

    adicere aliquid,

    Quint. 9, 3, 100; cf. also Verg. A. 2, 11; 4, 632; 6, 321; Ov. M. 2, 783:

    omnia soli Forsan Pacuvio breviter dabit (i.e. paucis testamenti verbis, quibus heres ex asse scribetur),

    Juv. 12, 125 Web. (cf. id. 1, 68: beatum exiguis tabulis).— Comp., Cic. Fin. 4, 10, 26; Quint. 8, prooem. § 1; 8, 6, 61; 9, 2, 16; 10, 1, 49; 11, 1, 5 al.— Sup., Cic. N. D. 2, 1, 3; id. Div. 1, 32, 70; Quint. 1, 10, 1; 4, 2, 113 al.—
    (β).
    Of syllables:

    quibus in verbis eae primae litterae sunt quae in sapiente atque felice, producte dicitur, in ceteris omnibus breviter,

    Cic. Or. 48, 159.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > breve

  • 19 brevi

    brĕvis, e, adj. (abl. breve, Varr. R. R. 2, 3, 2; comp. abl. breviore, Ov. Am. 2, 17, 22) [cf. brachus, Fest. p. 26], short, little, of small extent, in space and time (opp. longus; in space, in good class. prose, diff. from parvus, which designates that which fills a small space in length, breadth, and thickness; while brevis is used only of length in its different directions of breadth, height, or depth; and even of a circle, as merely a line, and without reference to the space enclosed, v. infra. In poets and postAug. prose brevis sometimes = parvus).
    I.
    Lit., in space.
    A.
    In distance, extent, short, little, small, narrow (opp. latus), Cic. Ac. 2, 29, 92:

    brevior via,

    Nep. Eum. 8, 5; Tib. 1, 10, 4:

    via brevis,

    Verg. E. 9, 23; Ov. M. 5, 253; Juv. 14, 223:

    cursus brevissimus,

    Verg. A. 3, 507:

    brevius iter,

    Ov. P. 1, 4, 32:

    cursu brevissimus Almo,

    id. M. 14, 329:

    quid mihi, quod lato non separor aequore, prodest? Num minus haec nobis tam brevis obstat aqua?

    so narrow a stream, id. H. 18, 174; cf.

    also brevis unda, opp. latum mare,

    id. ib. 19, 141 and 142:

    non Asiam brevioris aquae disterminat usquam fluctus ab Europā,

    Luc. 9, 957 (strictioris, Schol.); cf. id. 9, 317:

    brevissima terra,

    Plin. Ep. 10, 69, 2:

    in Euboico scopulus brevis emicat altō Gurgite,

    a small, narrow rock, Ov. M. 9, 226:

    brevibus Gyaris,

    Juv. 1, 73:

    scis In breve te cogi (sc. libellum),

    that you are closely rolled together, Hor. Ep. 1, 20, 8:

    quo brevius valent,

    the nearer, the more powerful are they in conflict, Tac. A. 6, 35.—
    2.
    Trop. of the journey of life:

    quid est, quod in hoc tam exiguo vitae curriculo et tam brevi tantis nos in laboribus exerceamus?

    Cic. Arch. 11, 28; cf.:

    vitae brevis cursus, gloriae sempiternus,

    id. Sest. 21, 47:

    tum brevior dirae mortis aperta via est,

    Tib. 1, 10, 4.—And poet. of the thread of life:

    fila vitae breviora,

    Ov. Tr. 5, 10, 46. —
    B.
    In height, short, small, low (opp. altus and sometimes longus);

    of the human figure: sed sedebat judex L. Aurifex, brevior ipse quam testis,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 60, 245:

    ut statura breves in digitos eriguntur,

    Quint. 2, 3, 8:

    forma,

    Ov. M. 5, 457:

    (puella) longa brevisque,

    id. Am. 2, 4, 36:

    brevis corpore,

    Suet. Galb. 3;

    id. Vit. Hor.—Of a maiden changed to a boy: et incomptis brevior mensura capillis,

    Ov. M. 9, 789.—

    Of other things: ut pleraque Alpium ab Italiā sicut breviora, ita arrectiora sunt,

    lower, Liv. 21, 35, 11:

    brevior ilex,

    Sen. Herc. Oet. 1641:

    mus,

    little, Ov. F. 2, 574. —
    C.
    In depth, small, little, shallow (opp. profundus):

    puteus,

    Juv. 3, 226:

    vada,

    Verg. A. 5, 221; Sen. Agam. 570.—Hence, subst.: brĕvia, ium, n., as in Gr. ta brachea, shallow places, shallows, shoals:

    tris Eurus ab alto In brevia et syrtis urget,

    Verg. A. 1, 111 (brevia vadosa dicit, per quae vadi pedibus potest, Serv.); Luc. 9, 338: neque discerni poterant incerta ab solidis, brevia a profundis, Tac. A. 1, 70:

    brevia litorum,

    id. ib. 6, 33 fin. —Perh. also in sing.:

    breve,

    Tac. A. 14, 29 Draeg. ad loc. (Ritter, brevia; al. breve litus).—
    2.
    Trop.:

    brevia, in quibus volutatur, incerta, ancipitia,

    difficulties, Sen. Ep. 22, 7.—
    D.
    Of the line of a circle:

    ubi circulus (i.e. arcticus) axem Ultimus extremum spatioque brevissimus ambit,

    makes the shortest path, Ov. M. 2, 517; cf.

    of similar orbits, of stars: absides breviores,

    Plin. 2. 15, 13, §

    63.—Of the circular course of a horse on the track: discit gyro breviore flecti,

    Sen. Hippol. 314. —
    II.
    Transf., of time.
    A.
    Lit. (the usu. signif. of the word), short, brief, small, little.
    1.
    In gen.:

    quanto, nox, fuisti longior hac proxumā, Tanto brevior dies ut fiat faciam,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 51:

    breve spatium'st perferundi quae minitas mihi,

    id. Capt. 3, 5, 85:

    brevis hora,

    Lucr. 4, 179; so Ov. M. 4, 696: Pa. Brevin' an longinquo sermone? Mi. Tribus verbis, Plaut. Mil. 4, 2, 30:

    occasio,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 57; Phaedr. 5, 8, 5:

    brevis hic est fructus homulleis,

    short is this enjoyment for little men, Lucr. 3, 927; cf.:

    MORS. PERFECIT. TVA. VT. TIBE. ESSENT. OMNIA. BREVIA. HONOS. FAMA. VIRTVSQVE. GLORIA. ATQVE. INGENIVM.,

    Inscr. Orell. 558:

    omnia brevia tolerabilia esse debent,

    Cic. Lael. 27, 104; id. Fin. 1, 12, 40; 2, 29, 94; id. Tusc. 1, 39, 94; Sen. Ira, 3, 43, 5:

    quoniam vita brevis est, memoriam nostri quam maxime longam efficere,

    Sall. C. 1, 3; so,

    vitae summa brevis spem nos vetat incohare longam,

    Hor. C. 1, 4, 15; cf. id. ib. 1, 11, 6:

    aut omnia breviora aliquanto fuere, aut Saguntum principio anni captum,

    occupied a shorter time, Liv. 21, 15, 5:

    brevissimum tempus,

    id. 5, 6, 7:

    detrimentum,

    Quint. 11, 1, 10:

    arbitrium mortis,

    Tac. A. 15, 60:

    breves populi Romani amores,

    id. ib. 2, 41:

    tempus,

    Suet. Ner. 20 al.:

    nobis quom semel occidit brevis lux, nox est perpetua una dormienda,

    Cat. 5, 5:

    fructus,

    Lucr. 3, 914:

    aevum,

    Hor. C. 2, 16, 17; id. S. 2, 6, 97; id. Ep. 2, 1, 144; Plin. Pan. 78, 2:

    anni,

    Hor. C. 4, 13, 22:

    ver,

    Ov. M. 1, 118; 10, 85:

    flores rosae,

    quickly withering, short-lived, Hor. C. 2, 3, 13:

    lilium,

    id. ib. 1, 36, 16:

    cena,

    frugal, id. Ep. 1, 14, 35:

    mensa,

    id. A. P. 198:

    dominus,

    living but a short time, id. C. 2, 14, 24:

    stultitia,

    id. ib. 4, 12, 27:

    ira furor brevis est,

    id. Ep. 1, 2, 62:

    actio brevis atque concisa,

    Quint. 6, 4, 2:

    somnus,

    Sen. Troad. 441:

    nec gratius quicquam decore nec brevius,

    nothing is more acceptable, but nothing more perishable, fading, than beauty, Suet. Dom. 18:

    domus,

    Sen. Hippol. 762:

    fortuna,

    Sil. 4, 734.—
    2.
    Esp.
    a.
    Comp. brevius, with subj. clause, shorter, i.e. easier, more convenient:

    brevius visum urbana crimina incipi, quorum obvii testes erant,

    Tac. A. 13, 43: modo ne existimes brevius esse ab urbe mitti, Trag. ap. Plin. Ep. 10, 40 (49), 3.—
    b.
    In brevi spatio, brevi spatio, in brevi tempore, brevi tempore, and absol. brevi or in brevi, in a short time, shortly (before or after) (brevi tempore and brevi are class.; the latter, as in Gr. en brachei, to be considered as neuter, without supplying tempore):

    inque brevi spatio mutantur saecla animantum,

    Lucr. 2, 77; so Ter. Heaut. 5, 2, 2; Suet. Claud. 12; id. Ner. 30; cf.:

    in multo breviore temporis spatio,

    id. Aug. 22:

    multa brevi spatio simulacra geruntur,

    Lucr. 4, 160; Sall. J. 87, 3:

    spatio brevi,

    Hor. C. 1, 11, 6:

    res publica per vos brevi tempore jus suum recuperabit,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 2, 3; 5, 21, 2; id. Tusc. 2, 2, 5; Caes. B. G. 1, 40, 11; Nep. Milt. 2, 1; id. Them. 1, 4; Suet. Caes. 3:

    sic ille affectus, brevi postea est mortuus,

    soon after, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 54, § 142 (Zumpt;

    acc. to MSS. perbrevi).—So brevi post = paulo post: brevi post Marcellus Romam venit,

    Liv. 33, 37, 9; 24, 3, 14:

    brevi deinde,

    id. 24, 4, 9: (Britanni) tantum usu cotidiano et exercitatione efficiunt, uti in declivi ac praecipiti loco incitatos equos sustinere et brevi ( in a short time, i.e. with great rapidity) moderari ac flectere consuerint, Caes. B. G. 4, 33 fin. Herz. and Held.:

    fama tanti facinoris per omnem Africam brevi divolgatur,

    Sall. J. 13, 1; Nep. Them. 4, 4:

    mirantur tam brevi rem Romanam crevisse,

    Liv. 1, 9, 9:

    brevi omnia subegit,

    Suet. Caes. 34; so id. Aug. 17; 65; id. Vesp. 5; id. Gram. 3; Gell. 1, 15, 18: scire in brevi, Afran. ap. Charis. p. 186 P.; Flor. 1, 1, 15.—
    c.
    Brevi, a short time, a little while: [p. 251] cunctatusque brevi, contortam viribus hastam in Persea misit, Ov. M. 5, 32; cf.:

    illa brevi spatio silet,

    id. ib. 7, 307; so,

    * breve,

    Cat. 61, 187.—
    d.
    Ad breve, for a short time, Suet. Tib. 68; cf.:

    ad breve quoddam tempus,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 13, 31.—
    B.
    Transf. to things done or taking place in a short time; so most freq.
    1.
    Of discourse, short, brief, concise (most freq. in Cic. and Quint.):

    narratio,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 20, 28; id. de Or. 3, 50, 196: laudatio;

    comprehensio et ambitus ille verborum erat apud illum contractus et brevis,

    id. Brut. 44, 162; cf. id. de Or. 2, 80, 326:

    nunc venio ad illa tua brevia: et primum illud, quo nihil potest esse brevius: bonum omne laudabile, etc.,

    id. Fin. 4, 18, 48:

    quam falsa re! quam brevia responsu!

    id. Clu. 59, 164: urbanitas est virtus quaedam in breve dictum coacta, Dom. Mars. ap. Quint. 6, 3, 104:

    Homerus brevem eloquentiam Menelao dedit,

    Quint. 12, 10, 64 (brevis = ou polumuthos, Hom. Il. 3, 214):

    breviores commentarii,

    Quint. 3, 8, 58:

    annotatio,

    id. 10, 7, 31:

    brevia illa atque concisa,

    id. 10, 7, 10; so,

    sententiae,

    id. 10, 1, 60:

    causae,

    id. 6, 1, 8:

    docendi compendia,

    id. 1, 1, 24:

    comprehensiones,

    id. 12, 2, 19:

    quod ut brevissimo pateat exemplo,

    id. 3, 6, 10: commendatio, requiring few words, i.e. moderate, Plin. 11, 42, 97, § 240.— Meton. of a speaker or orator, brief:

    multos imitatio brevitatis decipit, ut cum se breves putent esse, longissimi sint,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 20, 38:

    brevior in scribendo,

    id. Att. 5, 6, 2:

    brevis esse laboro, Obscurus fio,

    Hor. A. P. 25:

    in eloquendo brevis,

    Quint. 10, 1, 63:

    densus et brevis et semper instans sibi Thucydides,

    id. 10, 1, 73.—Hence, brĕvī, adv., briefly, in few words (freq. and class.):

    brevi pro breviter M. Tullius de Orat. ad Quintum fratrem (1, 8, 34): ac ne plura quidem quae sunt innumerabilia consecter, comprehendam brevi,

    Charis. p. 176 P.:

    id percurram brevi,

    Cic. Caecin. 32, 94:

    aliquid explicare,

    id. Planc. 40, 95 Wund.:

    circumscribere et definire,

    id. Sest. 45, 97; so id. ib. 5, 12 Orell. N. cr.; id. Fin. 1, 17, 55:

    complecti,

    id. de Or. 1, 42, 190:

    exponere,

    id. ib. 1, 46, 203:

    reprehendere,

    id. Inv. 1, 9, 12:

    reddere,

    id. Leg. 2, 14, 34:

    respondere,

    id. Fam. 3, 8, 1:

    perscribere,

    id. ib. 4, 5, 1; so Auct. Her. 4, 26, 35; 35, 47 al.; cf.:

    in brevi,

    Quint. 9, 4, 32.—So once in epistolary style: breve facere, to be short or brief:

    quid scribam? breve faciam,

    Cic. Att. 11, 7, 6; cf.:

    longum est ea dicere, sed hoc breve dicam,

    id. Sest. 5, 12.—Once, in breve cogere (diff. from I. A.), to comprise in few words, bring into a small compass:

    in breve coactae causae,

    Liv. 39, 47, 5; cf.:

    in breve coactio causae,

    Gai. Inst. 4, 15.— In late Lat. subst.: brĕvis, is, m. (sc. liber—acc. to another reading, brĕve, is, n.), a short catalogue, summary, = breviarium:

    brevis nominum,

    Vop. Aur. 36; so id. Bonos. 15; Lampr. Alex. Sev. 21; Hier. Ep. 5, n. 2 al.—
    2.
    Of a short syllable;

    rarely as adj.: Syllaba longa brevi subjecta vocatur iambus,

    Hor. A. P. 251:

    a brevis, gre brevis, faciet tamen longam priorem,

    Quint. 9, 4, 86 et saep.—More freq. subst.: brĕvis, is, f. (sc. syllaba):

    dactylus, qui est e longā et duabus brevibus,

    Cic. Or. 64, 217 sq.:

    in fine pro longā accipi brevem,

    Quint. 9, 4, 93; 9, 4, 86:

    plurimum habent celeritatis breves,

    id. 9, 4, 91.—

    Hence also once of a syllable long by position, but pronounced short: indoctus dicimus brevi primā litterā, insanus productā: inhumanus brevi, infelix longā,

    Cic. Or. 48, 159 Meyer N. cr.; cf. Gell. 2, 17 sqq., and Schütz Lex. Cic. s. v. brevis.—
    C.
    For parvus, exiguus, little, small:

    exigua pars brevisque,

    Lucr. 5, 591:

    Canidia brevibus implicata viperis,

    Hor. Epod. 5, 15:

    Alecto brevibus torquata colubris,

    Ov. H. 2, 119:

    brevi latere ac pede longo est,

    Hor. S. 1, 2, 93; cf.

    just before: breve quod caput, ardua cervix, v. 89, and brevis alvus,

    Verg. G. 3, 80 (on the other hand, Nemes. 244:

    parvae alvi): mus,

    Ov. F. 2, 574:

    forma (sc. pueri in stellionem mutati),

    id. M. 5, 457.—

    So, lapathi herba,

    Hor. S. 2, 4, 29 (brevis = parva, non excrescens in altum, Schol. Cruqu.):

    folia breviora,

    id. Ep. 1, 19, 26 (minor corona, Schol. Cruqu.):

    census,

    id. C. 2, 15, 13:

    pondus,

    id. S. 2, 2, 37:

    impensa,

    Ov. H. 7, 188 Ruhnk.:

    sigillum,

    id. M. 6, 86:

    insulae,

    Pall. 1, 28, 1; cf. Juv. 1, 73: vasculum, Pall. Apr. 8, 4:

    offulae,

    id. 1, 29, 4:

    pantheris in candido breves macularum oculi,

    Plin. 8, 17, 23, § 62.—With nom. abstr.:

    breve in exiguo marmore nomen ero,

    Prop. 2, 1, 72; Sen. Oedip. 935.—So, pondus, Hor. S. 2, 2, 37 al.—Hence, brĕ-vĭter, adv., shortly, briefly, etc.
    1.
    Of space (acc. to I.) (rare): seu libeat, curvo brevius convertere gyro, shorter, i. e. in a smaller circle, Tib. 4, 1, 94:

    parvo brevius quam totus,

    a little less than the whole, Plin. 2, 67, 67, § 168:

    Sarmatae, omisso arcu, quo brevius valent, contis gladiisque ruerent,

    Tac. A. 6, 35.—Far more freq. in prose and poetry,
    2.
    (Acc. to II. A. b. and c.) Of time, in a short time.
    a.
    In gen.:

    iratum breviter vites, inimicum diu, Publ. Syr. v. 249 Rib.: sapiens, cum breviter et strictim colore atque vultu motus est,

    Gell. 19, 1, 20.—
    b.
    Esp.
    (α).
    In expression, briefly, in brief, in few words, concisely, summarily:

    sed breviter paucis praestat comprendere multa,

    Lucr. 6, 1082: multa breviter et commode dicta (sc. apophthegmata; cf. Cic. Off. 1, 29, 104) memoriae mandabam, Cic. Lael. 1, 1:

    rem totam breviter cognoscite,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 69, § 169; 2, 3, 27, § 67; so id. de Or. 2, 83, 340:

    summatim breviterque describere,

    id. Or. 15, 50:

    breviter tangere,

    id. Off. 3, 2, 8 Beier N. cr.:

    breviter et modice disserere,

    Sall. J. 111, 1:

    adicere aliquid,

    Quint. 9, 3, 100; cf. also Verg. A. 2, 11; 4, 632; 6, 321; Ov. M. 2, 783:

    omnia soli Forsan Pacuvio breviter dabit (i.e. paucis testamenti verbis, quibus heres ex asse scribetur),

    Juv. 12, 125 Web. (cf. id. 1, 68: beatum exiguis tabulis).— Comp., Cic. Fin. 4, 10, 26; Quint. 8, prooem. § 1; 8, 6, 61; 9, 2, 16; 10, 1, 49; 11, 1, 5 al.— Sup., Cic. N. D. 2, 1, 3; id. Div. 1, 32, 70; Quint. 1, 10, 1; 4, 2, 113 al.—
    (β).
    Of syllables:

    quibus in verbis eae primae litterae sunt quae in sapiente atque felice, producte dicitur, in ceteris omnibus breviter,

    Cic. Or. 48, 159.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > brevi

  • 20 brevia

    brĕvis, e, adj. (abl. breve, Varr. R. R. 2, 3, 2; comp. abl. breviore, Ov. Am. 2, 17, 22) [cf. brachus, Fest. p. 26], short, little, of small extent, in space and time (opp. longus; in space, in good class. prose, diff. from parvus, which designates that which fills a small space in length, breadth, and thickness; while brevis is used only of length in its different directions of breadth, height, or depth; and even of a circle, as merely a line, and without reference to the space enclosed, v. infra. In poets and postAug. prose brevis sometimes = parvus).
    I.
    Lit., in space.
    A.
    In distance, extent, short, little, small, narrow (opp. latus), Cic. Ac. 2, 29, 92:

    brevior via,

    Nep. Eum. 8, 5; Tib. 1, 10, 4:

    via brevis,

    Verg. E. 9, 23; Ov. M. 5, 253; Juv. 14, 223:

    cursus brevissimus,

    Verg. A. 3, 507:

    brevius iter,

    Ov. P. 1, 4, 32:

    cursu brevissimus Almo,

    id. M. 14, 329:

    quid mihi, quod lato non separor aequore, prodest? Num minus haec nobis tam brevis obstat aqua?

    so narrow a stream, id. H. 18, 174; cf.

    also brevis unda, opp. latum mare,

    id. ib. 19, 141 and 142:

    non Asiam brevioris aquae disterminat usquam fluctus ab Europā,

    Luc. 9, 957 (strictioris, Schol.); cf. id. 9, 317:

    brevissima terra,

    Plin. Ep. 10, 69, 2:

    in Euboico scopulus brevis emicat altō Gurgite,

    a small, narrow rock, Ov. M. 9, 226:

    brevibus Gyaris,

    Juv. 1, 73:

    scis In breve te cogi (sc. libellum),

    that you are closely rolled together, Hor. Ep. 1, 20, 8:

    quo brevius valent,

    the nearer, the more powerful are they in conflict, Tac. A. 6, 35.—
    2.
    Trop. of the journey of life:

    quid est, quod in hoc tam exiguo vitae curriculo et tam brevi tantis nos in laboribus exerceamus?

    Cic. Arch. 11, 28; cf.:

    vitae brevis cursus, gloriae sempiternus,

    id. Sest. 21, 47:

    tum brevior dirae mortis aperta via est,

    Tib. 1, 10, 4.—And poet. of the thread of life:

    fila vitae breviora,

    Ov. Tr. 5, 10, 46. —
    B.
    In height, short, small, low (opp. altus and sometimes longus);

    of the human figure: sed sedebat judex L. Aurifex, brevior ipse quam testis,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 60, 245:

    ut statura breves in digitos eriguntur,

    Quint. 2, 3, 8:

    forma,

    Ov. M. 5, 457:

    (puella) longa brevisque,

    id. Am. 2, 4, 36:

    brevis corpore,

    Suet. Galb. 3;

    id. Vit. Hor.—Of a maiden changed to a boy: et incomptis brevior mensura capillis,

    Ov. M. 9, 789.—

    Of other things: ut pleraque Alpium ab Italiā sicut breviora, ita arrectiora sunt,

    lower, Liv. 21, 35, 11:

    brevior ilex,

    Sen. Herc. Oet. 1641:

    mus,

    little, Ov. F. 2, 574. —
    C.
    In depth, small, little, shallow (opp. profundus):

    puteus,

    Juv. 3, 226:

    vada,

    Verg. A. 5, 221; Sen. Agam. 570.—Hence, subst.: brĕvia, ium, n., as in Gr. ta brachea, shallow places, shallows, shoals:

    tris Eurus ab alto In brevia et syrtis urget,

    Verg. A. 1, 111 (brevia vadosa dicit, per quae vadi pedibus potest, Serv.); Luc. 9, 338: neque discerni poterant incerta ab solidis, brevia a profundis, Tac. A. 1, 70:

    brevia litorum,

    id. ib. 6, 33 fin. —Perh. also in sing.:

    breve,

    Tac. A. 14, 29 Draeg. ad loc. (Ritter, brevia; al. breve litus).—
    2.
    Trop.:

    brevia, in quibus volutatur, incerta, ancipitia,

    difficulties, Sen. Ep. 22, 7.—
    D.
    Of the line of a circle:

    ubi circulus (i.e. arcticus) axem Ultimus extremum spatioque brevissimus ambit,

    makes the shortest path, Ov. M. 2, 517; cf.

    of similar orbits, of stars: absides breviores,

    Plin. 2. 15, 13, §

    63.—Of the circular course of a horse on the track: discit gyro breviore flecti,

    Sen. Hippol. 314. —
    II.
    Transf., of time.
    A.
    Lit. (the usu. signif. of the word), short, brief, small, little.
    1.
    In gen.:

    quanto, nox, fuisti longior hac proxumā, Tanto brevior dies ut fiat faciam,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 51:

    breve spatium'st perferundi quae minitas mihi,

    id. Capt. 3, 5, 85:

    brevis hora,

    Lucr. 4, 179; so Ov. M. 4, 696: Pa. Brevin' an longinquo sermone? Mi. Tribus verbis, Plaut. Mil. 4, 2, 30:

    occasio,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 57; Phaedr. 5, 8, 5:

    brevis hic est fructus homulleis,

    short is this enjoyment for little men, Lucr. 3, 927; cf.:

    MORS. PERFECIT. TVA. VT. TIBE. ESSENT. OMNIA. BREVIA. HONOS. FAMA. VIRTVSQVE. GLORIA. ATQVE. INGENIVM.,

    Inscr. Orell. 558:

    omnia brevia tolerabilia esse debent,

    Cic. Lael. 27, 104; id. Fin. 1, 12, 40; 2, 29, 94; id. Tusc. 1, 39, 94; Sen. Ira, 3, 43, 5:

    quoniam vita brevis est, memoriam nostri quam maxime longam efficere,

    Sall. C. 1, 3; so,

    vitae summa brevis spem nos vetat incohare longam,

    Hor. C. 1, 4, 15; cf. id. ib. 1, 11, 6:

    aut omnia breviora aliquanto fuere, aut Saguntum principio anni captum,

    occupied a shorter time, Liv. 21, 15, 5:

    brevissimum tempus,

    id. 5, 6, 7:

    detrimentum,

    Quint. 11, 1, 10:

    arbitrium mortis,

    Tac. A. 15, 60:

    breves populi Romani amores,

    id. ib. 2, 41:

    tempus,

    Suet. Ner. 20 al.:

    nobis quom semel occidit brevis lux, nox est perpetua una dormienda,

    Cat. 5, 5:

    fructus,

    Lucr. 3, 914:

    aevum,

    Hor. C. 2, 16, 17; id. S. 2, 6, 97; id. Ep. 2, 1, 144; Plin. Pan. 78, 2:

    anni,

    Hor. C. 4, 13, 22:

    ver,

    Ov. M. 1, 118; 10, 85:

    flores rosae,

    quickly withering, short-lived, Hor. C. 2, 3, 13:

    lilium,

    id. ib. 1, 36, 16:

    cena,

    frugal, id. Ep. 1, 14, 35:

    mensa,

    id. A. P. 198:

    dominus,

    living but a short time, id. C. 2, 14, 24:

    stultitia,

    id. ib. 4, 12, 27:

    ira furor brevis est,

    id. Ep. 1, 2, 62:

    actio brevis atque concisa,

    Quint. 6, 4, 2:

    somnus,

    Sen. Troad. 441:

    nec gratius quicquam decore nec brevius,

    nothing is more acceptable, but nothing more perishable, fading, than beauty, Suet. Dom. 18:

    domus,

    Sen. Hippol. 762:

    fortuna,

    Sil. 4, 734.—
    2.
    Esp.
    a.
    Comp. brevius, with subj. clause, shorter, i.e. easier, more convenient:

    brevius visum urbana crimina incipi, quorum obvii testes erant,

    Tac. A. 13, 43: modo ne existimes brevius esse ab urbe mitti, Trag. ap. Plin. Ep. 10, 40 (49), 3.—
    b.
    In brevi spatio, brevi spatio, in brevi tempore, brevi tempore, and absol. brevi or in brevi, in a short time, shortly (before or after) (brevi tempore and brevi are class.; the latter, as in Gr. en brachei, to be considered as neuter, without supplying tempore):

    inque brevi spatio mutantur saecla animantum,

    Lucr. 2, 77; so Ter. Heaut. 5, 2, 2; Suet. Claud. 12; id. Ner. 30; cf.:

    in multo breviore temporis spatio,

    id. Aug. 22:

    multa brevi spatio simulacra geruntur,

    Lucr. 4, 160; Sall. J. 87, 3:

    spatio brevi,

    Hor. C. 1, 11, 6:

    res publica per vos brevi tempore jus suum recuperabit,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 2, 3; 5, 21, 2; id. Tusc. 2, 2, 5; Caes. B. G. 1, 40, 11; Nep. Milt. 2, 1; id. Them. 1, 4; Suet. Caes. 3:

    sic ille affectus, brevi postea est mortuus,

    soon after, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 54, § 142 (Zumpt;

    acc. to MSS. perbrevi).—So brevi post = paulo post: brevi post Marcellus Romam venit,

    Liv. 33, 37, 9; 24, 3, 14:

    brevi deinde,

    id. 24, 4, 9: (Britanni) tantum usu cotidiano et exercitatione efficiunt, uti in declivi ac praecipiti loco incitatos equos sustinere et brevi ( in a short time, i.e. with great rapidity) moderari ac flectere consuerint, Caes. B. G. 4, 33 fin. Herz. and Held.:

    fama tanti facinoris per omnem Africam brevi divolgatur,

    Sall. J. 13, 1; Nep. Them. 4, 4:

    mirantur tam brevi rem Romanam crevisse,

    Liv. 1, 9, 9:

    brevi omnia subegit,

    Suet. Caes. 34; so id. Aug. 17; 65; id. Vesp. 5; id. Gram. 3; Gell. 1, 15, 18: scire in brevi, Afran. ap. Charis. p. 186 P.; Flor. 1, 1, 15.—
    c.
    Brevi, a short time, a little while: [p. 251] cunctatusque brevi, contortam viribus hastam in Persea misit, Ov. M. 5, 32; cf.:

    illa brevi spatio silet,

    id. ib. 7, 307; so,

    * breve,

    Cat. 61, 187.—
    d.
    Ad breve, for a short time, Suet. Tib. 68; cf.:

    ad breve quoddam tempus,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 13, 31.—
    B.
    Transf. to things done or taking place in a short time; so most freq.
    1.
    Of discourse, short, brief, concise (most freq. in Cic. and Quint.):

    narratio,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 20, 28; id. de Or. 3, 50, 196: laudatio;

    comprehensio et ambitus ille verborum erat apud illum contractus et brevis,

    id. Brut. 44, 162; cf. id. de Or. 2, 80, 326:

    nunc venio ad illa tua brevia: et primum illud, quo nihil potest esse brevius: bonum omne laudabile, etc.,

    id. Fin. 4, 18, 48:

    quam falsa re! quam brevia responsu!

    id. Clu. 59, 164: urbanitas est virtus quaedam in breve dictum coacta, Dom. Mars. ap. Quint. 6, 3, 104:

    Homerus brevem eloquentiam Menelao dedit,

    Quint. 12, 10, 64 (brevis = ou polumuthos, Hom. Il. 3, 214):

    breviores commentarii,

    Quint. 3, 8, 58:

    annotatio,

    id. 10, 7, 31:

    brevia illa atque concisa,

    id. 10, 7, 10; so,

    sententiae,

    id. 10, 1, 60:

    causae,

    id. 6, 1, 8:

    docendi compendia,

    id. 1, 1, 24:

    comprehensiones,

    id. 12, 2, 19:

    quod ut brevissimo pateat exemplo,

    id. 3, 6, 10: commendatio, requiring few words, i.e. moderate, Plin. 11, 42, 97, § 240.— Meton. of a speaker or orator, brief:

    multos imitatio brevitatis decipit, ut cum se breves putent esse, longissimi sint,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 20, 38:

    brevior in scribendo,

    id. Att. 5, 6, 2:

    brevis esse laboro, Obscurus fio,

    Hor. A. P. 25:

    in eloquendo brevis,

    Quint. 10, 1, 63:

    densus et brevis et semper instans sibi Thucydides,

    id. 10, 1, 73.—Hence, brĕvī, adv., briefly, in few words (freq. and class.):

    brevi pro breviter M. Tullius de Orat. ad Quintum fratrem (1, 8, 34): ac ne plura quidem quae sunt innumerabilia consecter, comprehendam brevi,

    Charis. p. 176 P.:

    id percurram brevi,

    Cic. Caecin. 32, 94:

    aliquid explicare,

    id. Planc. 40, 95 Wund.:

    circumscribere et definire,

    id. Sest. 45, 97; so id. ib. 5, 12 Orell. N. cr.; id. Fin. 1, 17, 55:

    complecti,

    id. de Or. 1, 42, 190:

    exponere,

    id. ib. 1, 46, 203:

    reprehendere,

    id. Inv. 1, 9, 12:

    reddere,

    id. Leg. 2, 14, 34:

    respondere,

    id. Fam. 3, 8, 1:

    perscribere,

    id. ib. 4, 5, 1; so Auct. Her. 4, 26, 35; 35, 47 al.; cf.:

    in brevi,

    Quint. 9, 4, 32.—So once in epistolary style: breve facere, to be short or brief:

    quid scribam? breve faciam,

    Cic. Att. 11, 7, 6; cf.:

    longum est ea dicere, sed hoc breve dicam,

    id. Sest. 5, 12.—Once, in breve cogere (diff. from I. A.), to comprise in few words, bring into a small compass:

    in breve coactae causae,

    Liv. 39, 47, 5; cf.:

    in breve coactio causae,

    Gai. Inst. 4, 15.— In late Lat. subst.: brĕvis, is, m. (sc. liber—acc. to another reading, brĕve, is, n.), a short catalogue, summary, = breviarium:

    brevis nominum,

    Vop. Aur. 36; so id. Bonos. 15; Lampr. Alex. Sev. 21; Hier. Ep. 5, n. 2 al.—
    2.
    Of a short syllable;

    rarely as adj.: Syllaba longa brevi subjecta vocatur iambus,

    Hor. A. P. 251:

    a brevis, gre brevis, faciet tamen longam priorem,

    Quint. 9, 4, 86 et saep.—More freq. subst.: brĕvis, is, f. (sc. syllaba):

    dactylus, qui est e longā et duabus brevibus,

    Cic. Or. 64, 217 sq.:

    in fine pro longā accipi brevem,

    Quint. 9, 4, 93; 9, 4, 86:

    plurimum habent celeritatis breves,

    id. 9, 4, 91.—

    Hence also once of a syllable long by position, but pronounced short: indoctus dicimus brevi primā litterā, insanus productā: inhumanus brevi, infelix longā,

    Cic. Or. 48, 159 Meyer N. cr.; cf. Gell. 2, 17 sqq., and Schütz Lex. Cic. s. v. brevis.—
    C.
    For parvus, exiguus, little, small:

    exigua pars brevisque,

    Lucr. 5, 591:

    Canidia brevibus implicata viperis,

    Hor. Epod. 5, 15:

    Alecto brevibus torquata colubris,

    Ov. H. 2, 119:

    brevi latere ac pede longo est,

    Hor. S. 1, 2, 93; cf.

    just before: breve quod caput, ardua cervix, v. 89, and brevis alvus,

    Verg. G. 3, 80 (on the other hand, Nemes. 244:

    parvae alvi): mus,

    Ov. F. 2, 574:

    forma (sc. pueri in stellionem mutati),

    id. M. 5, 457.—

    So, lapathi herba,

    Hor. S. 2, 4, 29 (brevis = parva, non excrescens in altum, Schol. Cruqu.):

    folia breviora,

    id. Ep. 1, 19, 26 (minor corona, Schol. Cruqu.):

    census,

    id. C. 2, 15, 13:

    pondus,

    id. S. 2, 2, 37:

    impensa,

    Ov. H. 7, 188 Ruhnk.:

    sigillum,

    id. M. 6, 86:

    insulae,

    Pall. 1, 28, 1; cf. Juv. 1, 73: vasculum, Pall. Apr. 8, 4:

    offulae,

    id. 1, 29, 4:

    pantheris in candido breves macularum oculi,

    Plin. 8, 17, 23, § 62.—With nom. abstr.:

    breve in exiguo marmore nomen ero,

    Prop. 2, 1, 72; Sen. Oedip. 935.—So, pondus, Hor. S. 2, 2, 37 al.—Hence, brĕ-vĭter, adv., shortly, briefly, etc.
    1.
    Of space (acc. to I.) (rare): seu libeat, curvo brevius convertere gyro, shorter, i. e. in a smaller circle, Tib. 4, 1, 94:

    parvo brevius quam totus,

    a little less than the whole, Plin. 2, 67, 67, § 168:

    Sarmatae, omisso arcu, quo brevius valent, contis gladiisque ruerent,

    Tac. A. 6, 35.—Far more freq. in prose and poetry,
    2.
    (Acc. to II. A. b. and c.) Of time, in a short time.
    a.
    In gen.:

    iratum breviter vites, inimicum diu, Publ. Syr. v. 249 Rib.: sapiens, cum breviter et strictim colore atque vultu motus est,

    Gell. 19, 1, 20.—
    b.
    Esp.
    (α).
    In expression, briefly, in brief, in few words, concisely, summarily:

    sed breviter paucis praestat comprendere multa,

    Lucr. 6, 1082: multa breviter et commode dicta (sc. apophthegmata; cf. Cic. Off. 1, 29, 104) memoriae mandabam, Cic. Lael. 1, 1:

    rem totam breviter cognoscite,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 69, § 169; 2, 3, 27, § 67; so id. de Or. 2, 83, 340:

    summatim breviterque describere,

    id. Or. 15, 50:

    breviter tangere,

    id. Off. 3, 2, 8 Beier N. cr.:

    breviter et modice disserere,

    Sall. J. 111, 1:

    adicere aliquid,

    Quint. 9, 3, 100; cf. also Verg. A. 2, 11; 4, 632; 6, 321; Ov. M. 2, 783:

    omnia soli Forsan Pacuvio breviter dabit (i.e. paucis testamenti verbis, quibus heres ex asse scribetur),

    Juv. 12, 125 Web. (cf. id. 1, 68: beatum exiguis tabulis).— Comp., Cic. Fin. 4, 10, 26; Quint. 8, prooem. § 1; 8, 6, 61; 9, 2, 16; 10, 1, 49; 11, 1, 5 al.— Sup., Cic. N. D. 2, 1, 3; id. Div. 1, 32, 70; Quint. 1, 10, 1; 4, 2, 113 al.—
    (β).
    Of syllables:

    quibus in verbis eae primae litterae sunt quae in sapiente atque felice, producte dicitur, in ceteris omnibus breviter,

    Cic. Or. 48, 159.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > brevia

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