Translation: from greek to english

from english to greek

to slaughter for themselves

  • 761 ἔρχομαι

    ἔρχομαι impv. ἔρχου, ἔρχεσθε; impf. ἠρχόμην; fut. ἐλεύσομαι; 2 aor. ἦλθον, and the mixed forms ἦλθα (W-S. §13, 13; B-D-F §81, 3; Mlt-H. 208f), ἤλθοσαν (LXX; TestAbr A 20 p. 103, 12 [Stone p. 54]), ἤλθωσαν (GJs 21:1; ἤλθωσιν17:3; s. deStrycker p. 246f); pf. ἐλήλυθα; plpf. 3 sg. ἐληλύθει 3 Km 10:10, 12 (Hom.+). This multipurpose marker is not readily susceptible to precise classification, but the following outline of usage covers the principal lines:
    of movement from one point to another, with focus on approach from the narrator’s perspective, come
    of movement itself
    α. abs. ἔρχου καὶ ἔρχεται Mt 8:9; Lk 7:8; cp. Mt 22:3; Lk 14:17; J 5:7; Ac 10:29; 1 Cor 11:34; Rv 8:3 al. κραυγὴ γέγονεν• ἰδοὺ ὁ νυμφίος ἔρχεται Mt 25:6 v.l. (Jos., Bell. 5, 272 βοῶντες• ὁ υἱὸς ἔρχεται). οἱ ἐρχόμενοι καὶ οἱ ὑπάγοντες Mk 6:31. ἦλθε δρομέως came on the run AcPl Ha 4, 30 (TestAbr A 5 p. 82, 24 [Stone p. 12] ἦλθεν δρομαία ἐπʼ αὐτούς=Sarah came to them on the run). Also w. the specif. mng. come back, return (Hom. et al.; Bar 4:37; 1 Esdr 5:8; Tob 2:3 BA) J 4:27; 9:7; Ro 9:9; of Joseph GJs 16:2 (foll. by κατέβη of Mary; both Joseph and Mary ‘return’ from an uninhabited area). Come before the judgment-seat of God 2 Cl 9:4. Come in a hostile sense Lk 11:22 P75 et al. (cp. X., Hellenica 6, 5, 43).
    β. used w. prepositions: ἀπό w. gen. of place (Herodian 1, 17, 8 ἀ. τοῦ λουτροῦ; ἀ. βορρᾶς PsSol 11:3; ἀ. τῆς μεγάλης πόλεως TestAbr A 2 p. 78, 30 [Stone p. 4]) Mk 7:1; 15:21; Ac 18:2; 2 Cor 11:9; w. gen. of pers. Mk 5:35; J 3:2b; Gal 2:12.—ἐκ w. gen. of place Lk 5:17; J 3:31b.—εἰς w. acc. of place into Mt 2:11; 8:14; 9:1; Mk 1:29; 5:38; Lk 23:42 (cp. 1bα below, end); J 11:30; εἰς Κόρινθον AcPl Ha 6, 2 (εἰς τὸν παράδεισον TestAbr A 11 p. 90, 1 [Stone p. 28]). to, toward J 11:38; 20:3. εἰς τὸ πέραν Mt 8:28; 16:5. εἰς τ. ἑορτήν to the festival, i.e. to celebrate it J 4:45b; 11:56. ἐκ … εἰς J 4:54.—διά w. gen. of place and εἰς Mk 7:31; ὁ … ἐρχόμενος διᾶ τῆς θύρας one who enters by the gate 10:2 (P75).—μετά w. gen. of pers. ἵνα ἔλθῶ μετʼ αὐτοῦ ἐν τῇ δόξη τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ so that I might return with him in the glory of his Father AcPl Ha 10, 8. ἐν w. dat. of the thing w. which one comes Ro 15:29. ἐν ῥάβδῳ 1 Cor 4:21, also to denote the state of being in which one comes ἐν πνεύματι Lk 2:27; cp. Ro 15:32; w. dat. of the pers. who accompanies someone Jd 14.—ἐπί w. acc. of place over Mt 14:28, to (JosAs 26:5; ParJer 8:4; Jos., Ant. 7, 16; Just., D. 88, 3) Lk 19:5; Ac 12:10, 12; w. acc. of thing to (PTor I, 1; II, 29 [116 B.C.] ἔρχεσθαι ἐπὶ τὸ κριτήριον; Jos., Ant. 12, 395) Mt 3:7; Mk 11:13b; w. acc. of pers. to (ἐπὶ γυναῖκα Just., A I, 33, 3) J 19:33; Ac 24:8 v.l.; against Lk 14:31 (1 Macc 5:39 ἔρχ. ἐπί τινα εἰς πόλεμον; Jos., Ant. 7, 233; Mel., P. 17, 114).—κατά w. acc. of place to Lk 10:33; Ac 16:7; AcPl Ha 2, 5.—παρά w. acc. of place to Mt 15:29; w. gen. of pers. from Lk 8:49.—πρός w. acc. of pers. to (X., Mem. 1, 2, 27; En 106:4; JosAs 3:6; Jos., Ant. 2, 106; 11, 243; Just., D. 77, 4) Mt 3:14; 7:15; Mk 9:14; Lk 1:43; J 1:29, 47; 2 Cor 13:1 and oft. ἀπό τινος (gen. of pers.) πρός τινα 1 Th 3:6.
    γ. w. an adverb of place ἄνωθεν ἔ. J 3:31. ἐκεῖ 18:3. ἐνθάδε 4:16. ὄπισθεν Mk 5:27. πόθεν (Jdth 10:12) J 3:8; 8:14; Rv 7:13. ποῦ Hb 11:8. ὧδε Mt 8:29; Ac 9:21 (ApcEsdr 5:10; ApcSed 9:4; cp. ParJer 7:16 ἐνταῦθα. The adv. w. a case funct. as prep. ἄχρι τινός Ac 11:5. ἐγγύς τινος Hv 4, 1, 9. ἕως τινός Lk 4:42 (ApcMos 34 ἐλθὲ ἕως ἐμοῦ).
    δ. w. a case, without a prep.: dat. of pers. come to someone (Aeschyl., Prom. 358; Thu. 1, 13, 3; X., An. 7, 7, 30; BGU 1041, 16 [II A.D.] ὅτι ἔρχομαί σοι) Mt 21:5 (Zech 9:9); Rv 2:5, 16.
    ε. The purpose of coming is expressed by an inf. (Eur., Med. 1270, also Palaeph. p. 62, 12; 1 Macc 16:22; Bel 40 Theod.; 1 Esdr 1:23; 5:63; TestSol 5 D ἦλθε θεάσασθαι; TestAbr B 5 p. 109, 21 [Stone p. 66] ἔρχομαι … κοιμηθῆναι; Just., D. 78, 7 ὸ̔ν ἐληλύθεισαν προσκυνῆσαι) Mt 2:2; 12:42; Mk 15:36; Lk 1:59; 3:12 al.; by a fut. ptc. (Hom. et al.) Mt 27:49; Ac 8:27; by a pres. ptc. Lk 13:6 (TestJob 9:8 αἰτοῦντες); by ἵνα J 10:10; 12:9b (TestJob 34:5; ApcMos 29); εἰς τοῦτο ἵνα Ac 9:21; διά τινα J 12:9a.
    ζ. Single forms of ἔ. are used w. other verbs to denote that a person, in order to do someth., must first come to a certain place: in parataxis ἔρχεται καί, ἦλθεν καί etc. (Ex 19:7; 2 Km 13:36; 2 Esdr 5:16; JosAs 10:6; TestJob 8:3; ApcMos 37) Mt 13:19, 25; Mk 2:18; 4:15; 5:33; 6:29; 12:9; 14:37; Lk 8:12, 47; J 6:15; 11:48; 12:22; 19:38; 20:19, 26; 21:13; 3J 3; Rv 5:7; 17:1; 21:9. ἔρχου καὶ ἴδε J 1:46; 11:34. ἔρχεσθε καὶ ὄψεσθε 1:39. A ptc. of ἔ. followed by a finite verb ἐλθών (Hdt. 2, 115; LXX; TestJob 7:1; Just., D. 8, 4 al.) Mt 2:8; 8:7; 9:10, 18 (cp. εἷς 3b; προσέρχομαι 1a); 12:44; 14:12; 18:31; 27:64; 28:13; Mk 7:25; 12:14, 42; 14:45; 16:1; Ac 16:37, 39. ἐρχόμενος Lk 13:14; 16:21; 18:5. The participial constr. is best transl. come and. In some pass. ἐλθών is to be rendered when (someone) has come J 16:8; 2 Cor 12:20; Phil 1:27 (opp. ἀπών).—Instead of the transcription ]λη λυθεισα POxy 1081, 3, read after the Coptic SJCh 88, 19–89, 1: ἐ]ληλύθεισαν.
    of making an appearance come before the public, appear (cp. ἦλθον εἰς τόνδε τὸν κόσμον ‘I was born’ Ar. 1, 1).
    α. of Jesus as Messiah Lk 3:16; J 4:25; 7:27, 31, who for this reason (on the basis of pass. like Ps 117:26; Hab 2:3; Da 7:13 Theod.) is called ὁ ἐρχόμενος Mt 11:3; Lk 7:19f; Hb 10:37 (Hab 2:3), or ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀνόματι κυρίου Mt 21:9; 23:39; Mk 11:9; Lk 13:35; 19:38; J 12:13 (in all cases Ps 117:26); also in John, in whose writings the idea of Jesus having come heaven-sent to the earth is of considerable importance J 16:28: (ὁ προφήτης) ὁ ἐρχόμενος εἰς τ. κόσμον J 6:14; 11:27 (cp. ἐρχόμενος εἰς τ. κόσμον ἐπὶ τὸ ὄρος τῶν ἐλαιῶν ParJer 9:20). Of the appearance of Jesus among humans (s. Harnack, ‘Ich bin gekommen’: ZTK 22, 1912, 1–30; AFrövig, D. Sendungsbewusstsein Jesu u. d. Geist 1924, 129ff) Mt 11:19; Lk 7:34; J 5:43; 7:28; 8:42. Foll. by the inf. of purpose Mt 5:17; 10:34f; Lk 19:10. W. ἵνα foll. J 10:10b (ἦλθον, as here, Herm. Wr. 1, 30). W. εἰς τ. κόσμον and ἵνα foll. 12:46; 18:37; εἰς κρίμα, ἵνα 9:39; w. inf. foll. 1 Ti 1:15. ἔ. ἐν σαρκί come in the flesh 1J 4:2; 2J 7; B 5:10f. εἰς σάρκα AcPlCor 1:14. ἔ διʼ ὕδατος καὶ αἵματος 1J 5:6 w. the continuation ἐν τ. ὕδατι καὶ ἐν τ. αἵματι (on the mng. of the prep. s. B-D-F §223, 3; 198, 4). ὀπίσω w. gen. come after of Christ in relation to his forerunner Mt 3:11; Mk 1:7; J 1:15, 27, 30. The idea of coming is even plainer in connection w. the coming of the Human One (Son of Man), the return of Jesus fr. his heavenly home Mt 10:23; Ac 1:11 (opp. πορεύεσθαι); 1 Cor 4:5; 11:26; 2 Th 1:10 (Just., D. 28, 2 al.). W. ἐν τῇ δόξῃ Mt 16:27; 25:31; Mk 8:38; Lk 9:26 (cp. ἔνδοξος … ἐλεύσεται Just., D. 49, 2). ἐπὶ τ. νεφελῶν μετὰ δυνάμεως καὶ δόξης Mt 24:30 (Just., D. 31, 1). ἐν νεφέλαις, νεφέλῃ etc. Mk 13:26; Lk 21:27. ἐν τ. βασιλείᾳ αὐτοῦ in his kingdom Mt 16:28; Lk 23:42 v.l.
    β. of forerunners of the Messiah and those who identify themselves as such: Elijah Mt 11:14; 17:10, 11, 12; Mk 9:11, 12, 13 (Just., D. 49, 1); John the Baptist Mt 11:18; Lk 7:33; J 1:31; w. εἰς μαρτυρίαν for testimony 1:7. Others, including false messiahs, false teachers, and an antichrist Mt 24:5; Mk 13:6; Lk 21:8 (ἐπὶ τ. ὀνόματί μου calling on my name); J 10:8; 2 Cor 11:4; 2 Pt 3:3; 1J 2:18.
    to proceed on a course, with destination in view, go (Hom. et al.; LXX) ὀπίσω τινός go with (lit. ‘after’) someone fig., of a disciple Mt 16:24; Mk 8:34 v.l.; Lk 9:23; 14:27. ἐπί τι go to someth. Mt 21:19; Mk 11:13a (w. indir. quest. foll.). πρός τινα Lk 15:20. σύν τινι J 21:3. ἔ. ὁδόν go on a journey (Hom. et al.) Lk 2:44. S. also 1bα above.
    to change place or position, with implication of being brought, be brought (Hom. et al.; Thu. 6, 71, 2 χρήματα; Arrian, Anab. 2, 13, 5 ἀγγελία et al.) ὁ λύχνος the lamp is brought Mk 4:21. Sim. ἐλθούσης τ. ἐντολῆς when the commandment came Ro 7:9.
    to take place, come
    of time
    α. of temporal increments ἔρχονται ἡμέραι in future sense (1 Km 2:31; Am 8:11) Lk 23:29; Hb 8:8 (Jer 38:31); ἐλεύσονται ἡμ. Mt 9:15; Mk 2:20; Lk 5:35; 17:22; 21:6 (TestSol 13:7 C; Just., D. 40, 2). ἦλθεν ἡ ἡμέρα 22:7; Rv 6:17.—ἔρχεται ὥρα ὅτε the time is coming when J 4:21, 23; 5:25; 16:25; also ἔ. ὥρα ἐν ᾗ J 5:28; ἔ. ὥρα ἵνα 16:2, 32. ἦλθεν ἡ ὥρα the hour has come = the hour is here Mk 14:41b; J 16:4; Rv 14:7, 15; w. ἵνα foll. J 13:1 (ἥκω P66). ἐλήλυθεν ἡ ὥ. ἵνα 12:23; 16:32; without ἵνα 17:1; cp. 7:30; 8:20.—ἔρχεται νύξ 9:4 (Appian, Bell. Civ. 2, 40 §159 νυκτὸς ἐρχομένης). ἡμέρα κυρίου 1 Th 5:2. καιροί Ac 3:20 (GrBar 8:1 ὁ καιρός). τὸ πλήρωμα τ. χρόνου Gal 4:4.
    β. of events and situations that are connected w. a certain time ὁ θερισμός J 4:35. ὁ γάμος τ. ἀρνίου Rv 19:7. ἡ κρίσις 18:10. So also the ptc. ἐρχόμενος coming, future, imminent: αἰὼν ἐ. (=הָעוֹלָם הַבָּא) the age to come Mk 10:30; Lk 18:30; ἑορτὴ ἐ. the coming festival Ac 18:21 v.l.; σάββατον ἐ. 13:44; ὀργὴ ἐ. the wrath which will be revealed (at the Judgment) 1 Th 1:10. τὰ ἐρχόμενα what is to come (Is 44:7 τὰ ἐπερχόμενα) J 16:13. Of God in Rv ὁ ὢν κ. ὁ ἦν κ. ὁ ἐρχόμενος 1:4, 8; 4:8.
    of events and circumstances
    α. of natural or sensory phenomena (Hom. et al.; also TestAbr A 19 p. 102, 10 [Stone p. 52]; βροντῆς … καὶ ἀστραπῆς ἐλθούσης; ApcEsdr 5:7 νεφέλη) ποταμοί Mt 7:25, 27. κατακλυσμός Lk 17:27. λιμός Ac 7:11. Of rain ἔ. ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς come upon the earth Hb 6:7. Sim. of the coming down of birds fr. the air Mt 13:4, 32; Mk 4:4; of a voice resounding fr. heaven ἦλθεν φωνὴ ἐκ τ. οὐρανοῦ J 12:28 (Test Abr A 10 p. 88, 15 and 14 p. 94, 25 [Stone p. 24; p. 36]; Just., D. 88, 8; cp. Il. 10, 139; En 13:8; TestSol 1:3 VW; TestJob 3:1; ParJer 9:12; ApcEsdr 7:13).
    β. of transcendent and moral-spiritual phenomena: of spiritual coming of God come, appear J 14:23; of Christ ibid. and vss. 3, 18, 28; of the Paraclete 15:26; 16:7, 13.—ἡ ἀποστασία 2 Th 2:3. ἡ βασιλεία τ. θεοῦ Mt 6:10; Lk 11:2 (MBurrows, JBL 74, ’55, 1–8); 17:20; 22:18 al.; 1 Cl 42:3.—τ. σκάνδαλα Mt 18:7; Lk 17:1. τὰ ἀγαθά Ro 3:8 (cp. Jer. 17:6). τὸ τέλειον 1 Cor 13:10. ἡ πίστις Gal 3:23, 25.
    ἐ. in var. prepositional combinations ἔ. ἐκ τ. θλίψεως have suffered persecution Rv 7:14. ἔ. εἰς τὸ χεῖρον Mk 5:26 (Witkowski no. 36, 12=White no. 35 τοῦ παιδίου εἰς τὰ ἔσχατα ἐληλυθότος of a child in desperate circumstances; TestAbr A 20 p. 102, 27 [Stone p. 52] εἰς θάνατον ἔρχονται). εἰς τοσαύτην ἀπόνοιαν, ὥστε 1 Cl 46:7 (Hyperid. 2, 5 εἰς τοῦτο ἀπονοίας ἔ., ὥστε). εἰς πειρασμόν Mk 14:38 (cp. Himerius, Or. 48 [Or. 14], 19 εἰς ἐπιθυμίαν ἐλθεῖν). εἰς ἀπελεγμόν Ac 19:27. εἰς τὴν ὥραν ταύτην J 12:27. ἔ. εἰς κρίσιν submit to judgment (letter of Philip in Demosth. 12, 11; 16; ApcEsdr 2:26 ἔλθωμεν ὁμοῦ εἰς κρίσιν) 5:24. εἰς ἐπίγνωσιν 1 Ti 2:4; 2 Ti 3:7 (Polyb. 6, 9, 12; Appian, Mithr. 31 §123 ἔρχεσθαι ἐς γνῶσίν τινος; Cebes 12, 3 εἰς τὴν ἀληθινὴν παιδείαν ἐλθεῖν; TestSol 20:5 εἰς ἔννοιαν ἐλθεῖν; Just., D. 90, 1 οὐδʼ εἰς ἔννοιαν τούτου ἐλθεῖν). ἵνα ἔλθω εἰς τὴν ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀνάστασιν so that I might realize the resurrection of the dead (cp. ApcMos 10 εἰς τὴν ἡμέραν τῆς ἀναστάσεως) AcPlCor 2:35. εἰς φανερόν come to light Mk 4:22; Lk 8:17. εἰς προκοπήν result in furthering Phil 1:12 (cp. Wsd 15:5). ἔ. εἴς τι of the writer of a letter come to, i.e. deal with someth. (a new subject) 2 Cor 12:1 (cp. w. ἐπὶ Ar. 2:1 al.; Just., D. 42 ἐπὶ τὸν λόγον). εἰς ἑαυτόν come to oneself (=to one’s senses) (Diod S 13, 95, 2; Epict. 3, 1, 15; TestJos 3:9; GrBar 17:3; Sb 5763, 35) Lk 15:17. ἐπί τινα of serious misfortunes come over someone (Dt 28:15; Jos., Ant. 4, 128) J 18:4 (cp. PIand 21, 2 ἡμῶν τὰ ἐρχόμενα οὐκ οἶδα); tortures IRo 5:3; blood upon the murderers Mt 23:35; the Holy Spirit comes down upon someone (cp. Ezk 2:2; Just., D. 49, 7; 88, 1 ἐλεύσεσθαι ἐπʼ αὐτὸν τὰς δυνάμεις) Mt 3:16; Lk 11:2 v.l.; Ac 19:6; peace Mt 10:13; the wrath of God Eph 5:6; cp. Col 3:6; ἡ βασιλεία Lk 11:2 D; ἔ. πρὸς τ. Ἰησοῦν come to Jesus = become disciples of Jesus J 5:40; 6:35, 37, 44f, 65; πρὸς τ. πατέρα 14:6. ἔ. ὑπὸ τὸν ζυγόν 1 Cl 16:17 (cp. PsSol 18, 7f. ὑπὸ ῥάβδον παιδείας Χριστοῦ).—Not infreq. the pres. ἔρχομαι has the mng. of the fut.: Mt 17:11; Lk 12:54 (corresp. to καύσων ἔσται vs. 55); 19:13; J 14:3. Esp. also ἕως ἔρχομαι until I shall come J 21:22f; 1 Ti 4:13; Hs 5, 2, 2; 9, 10, 5; 6; 9, 11, 1. S. B-D-F §323; 383, 1; Rob. 869. S. also 4aα above.—B. 696. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW.

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  • 762 Ἕλλην

    Ἕλλην, ηνος, ὁ (s. Ἑλλάς; Hdt.+)
    a pers. of Greek language and culture, Greek (opp. βάρβαρος [ANikolaidis, Ἑλληνικός–βαρβαρικός, Plutarch on Greek and Barbarian Characteristics: WienerStud n.s. 20, ’86, 229–44] as Thu. 1, 1, 2 et al.; TestSol 6:8 PL; Philo, Ebr. 193 al.; Jos., Ant. 4, 12 al.; Just., D. 117, 5; Tat. 21, 3; s. UWilcken, Hellenen u. Barbaren: NJklA 17, 1906, 457–71; JJüthner, Hell. u. Bar. 1923; HRiesenfeld, ConNeot 9, ’44, 1ff) Ro 1:14 (cultured Romans affected interest in things Greek and would therefore recognize themselves under this term).
    in the broader sense, all persons who came under the influence of Greek, as distinguished from Israel’s, culture
    gentile, polytheist, Greco-Roman (2 Macc 4:36; 11:2; 3 Macc 3:8; 4 Macc 18:20; ViJon 1 [p. 82, 15 Sch.]; SibOr 5, 265; Praxagoras [Hist. IV A.D.]: 219 T 1, 8 [Phot., Bibl. 62, 8:219] Jac. τὴν θρησκείαν Ἕλλην; apolog.) J 7:35; Ac 9:29 v.l. and 11:20 v.l. (both for Ἑλληνιστάς); 16:1, 3; 21:28; 1 Cor 1:22; Gal 2:3; PtK 2 p. 14, 1 and 7; p. 15, 7; Dg 1; 3:3; 5:17. The expr. Ἰουδαῖοι καὶ Ἕλληνες, which clearly indicates Israel’s advantages fr. Judean perspective, embraces a broad range of nationalities, with Ἕλλην focusing on the polytheistic aspect: Ac 14:1; 18:4; 19:10, 17; 20:21; Ro 1:16; 2:9f; 3:9; 10:12; 1 Cor 1:24; 10:32; 12:13; Gal 3:28; Col 3:11 (CPJ 33, 6f=Mitt-Wilck. 55, 6 [III B.C.] παρὰ τῶν Ἰουδαίων καὶ τῶν Ἑλλήνων does not mean to indicate that Judeans have any special privilege [despite the fact that Ἰ. comes before Ἑ.]. Here the expression expresses gentile perspective. Cp. also Epict. 2, 9, 19 τί ὑποκρίνῃ Ἰουδαῖον ὢν Ἕλλην=why do you play the part of a Judean, when you are actually a Greek?).
    used of non-Israelites/gentiles who expressed an interest in the cultic life of Israel (cp. Jos., Bell. 7, 45) J 12:20. οἱ σεβόμενοι Ἕλληνες God-fearing gentiles Ac 17:4.—On the use of the art. s. B-D-F §262, 2=Rehkopf §262, 3.—LWeniger, Jesus u. d. Griechen: NJklA 41, 1918, 477–80; JLeipoldt, Jesu Verh. zu Griech. u. Juden ’41; B. 1489.—Frisk s.v. Ἑλλάς. DELG s.v. Ἕλληνες. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

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  • 763 ἰδέα

    ἰδέα, ας, ἡ (the form εἰδέα is freq. in later Gk.; Pind., Hdt. et al.; pap, LXX, TestAbr; TestBenj 10:1 [deJonge; εἰδέαν Ch.]; AscIs 3:13 [pap col. IX, 3 ἡ εἰδέα]; 4:4 [pap col. XIV, 13f ἐν τῇ εἰδέᾳ]; Philo, Joseph., Just., Ath.—CRitter on εἶδος).
    outward look of someth., appearance, w. focus on physical features (as distinct fr. μορφή, which is freq. used e.g. in assoc. w. suggestion of status or the impression made by it, such as μορφὴ θεοῦ and μορφὴ δούλου Phil 2:6f) (Theognis, Pind. et al.; Artem. 2, 44 φαίνονται οἱ θεοὶ ἐν ἀνθρώπων ἰδέᾳ [v.l. εἰδέᾳ] τε καὶ μορφῇ=the gods show themselves in the semblance and aspect of humans; POxy 1277, 10; Gen 5:3; EpJer 62; 2 Macc 3:16; TestAbr A 11 p. 89, 4 [Stone p. 26]; TestBenj 10:1; Jos., Bell. 3, 508, Ant. 8, 177; Just., A I, 62, 3 ἐν ἰδέᾳ πυρός al.) Hs 9, 17, 1f; ἡ ἰ. αὐτοῦ ἱλαρὰ ἦν his appearance was pleasant 6, 1, 6. κατηφὴς τῇ ἰ. downcast in appearance Hv 1, 2, 3; cp. Hs 6, 2, 5; 9, 3, 1. ἠλλοιώθη ἡ ἰ. αὐτοῦ his appearance changed v 5:4; cp. Lk 9:29 D. ἄλλην ἰ. ἔχειν Hs 9, 1, 4. The rendering face (cp. Diod S 3, 8 of Ethiopians ταῖς ἰδέαις σίμοι; perh. Plut., Flamin. 369 [1, 1]; Field, n. 22) prob. fits Mt 28:3 v.l. (for εἰδέα) and Hv 1, 2, 3; Hs 6, 1, 6; s. εἰδέα.
    a variety of someth., form, kind (Aristoph., Ran. 384 ἑτέρα ὕμνων ἰδέα; Thu. 1, 109, 1; 3, 102, 7; Appian, Mithrid. 22 §87 συμφορῶν ἰδέαι ποικίλαι=various kinds of misfortune, Bell. Civ. 4, 14 §53; 4 Macc 1:14, 18; Philo, Op. M. 22, Praem. 90; Jos., Ant. 15, 416) ἄλλαις βασάνων ἰδέαις with other kinds of torture(s) MPol 2:4 (cp. Thu. 3, 81, 5 πᾶσα ἰ. θανάτου).—S. also εἰδέα.—B. 1212. DELG s.v. ἰδεῖν. M-M. TW. Sv.

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  • 764 Ἰουδαῖος

    Ἰουδαῖος, αία, αῖον (Clearchus, the pupil of Aristotle, Fgm. 6 [in Jos., C. Ap. 1, 179]; Theophr., Fgm. 151 W. [WJaeger, Diokles v. Karystos ’38, 134–53: Theophrastus and the earliest Gk. report concerning the Judeans or Jews]; Hecataeus of Abdera [300 B.C.]: 264 Fgm. 25, 28, 2a Jac. [in Diod S 1, 28, 2] al.; Polyb.; Diod S; Strabo; Plut.; Epict. 1, 11, 12f, al.; Appian, Syr. 50 §252f, Mithrid. 106 §498, Bell. Civ. 2, 90 §380; Artem. 4, 24 p. 217, 13; Diog. L. 1, 9; OGI 73, 4; 74, 3; 726, 8; CIG 3418; CB I/2, 538 no. 399b τ. νόμον τῶν Εἰουδέων [on Ἰ. in ins s. RKraemer, HTR 82, ’89, 35–53]; Mitt-Wilck. I/2, 55; 56 [both III B.C.]; 57 [II B.C.]; BGU 1079, 25 [41 A.D.]; PFay 123, 16 [100 A.D.]; POxy 1189, 9; LXX; TestSol; AscIs 2:7; EpArist; SibOr; Philo, Joseph., Ar., Just., Tat. For a variety of synonyms s. Schürer III 87–91.). Gener. as description of ‘one who identifies with beliefs, rites, and customs of adherents of Israel’s Mosaic and prophetic tradition’ (the standard term in the Mishnah is ‘Israelite’). (Since the term ‘Judaism’ suggests a monolithic entity that fails to take account of the many varieties of thought and social expression associated with such adherents, the calque or loanword ‘Judean’ is used in this and other entries where Ἰ. is treated. Complicating the semantic problem is the existence side by side of persons who had genealogy on their side and those who became proselytes [on the latter cp. Cass. Dio 37, 17, 1; 67, 14, 2; 68, 1, 2]; also of adherents of Moses who recognized Jesus as Messiah [s. Gal 2:13 in 2d below; s. also 2eα] and those who did not do so. Incalculable harm has been caused by simply glossing Ἰ. with ‘Jew’, for many readers or auditors of Bible translations do not practice the historical judgment necessary to distinguish between circumstances and events of an ancient time and contemporary ethnic-religious-social realities, with the result that anti-Judaism in the modern sense of the term is needlessly fostered through biblical texts.)
    pert. to being Judean (Jewish), with focus on adherence to Mosaic tradition, Judean, as a real adj. (Philo, In Flacc. 29; Jos., Ant. 10, 265) ἀνὴρ Ἰ. (1 Macc 2:23; 14:33) Judean Ac 10:28; 22:3. ἄνθρωπος 21:39. ἀρχιερεύς 19:14. ψευδοπροφήτης 13:6. ἐξορκισταί 19:13. γυνή (Jos., Ant. 11, 185) 16:1. χώρα Mk 1:5.—But γῆ J 3:22 is to be taken of Judea in the narrower sense (s. Ἰουδαία 1), and means the Judean countryside in contrast to the capital city. Of Drusilla, described as οὔσα Ἰουδαία being Judean or Jewish, but for the view that Ἰ. is here a noun s. 2b.
    one who is Judean (Jewish), with focus on adherence to Mosaic tradition, a Judean, Ἰουδαῖος as noun (so predom.). Since Jerusalem sets the standard for fidelity to Israel’s tradition, and since Jerusalem is located in Judea, Ἰ. frequently suggests conformity to Israel’s ancestral belief and practice. In turn, the geographical name provided outsiders with a term that applied to all, including followers of Jesus, who practiced customs variously associated with Judea (note the Roman perception Ac 18:15 [‘Judeans’ at Corinth]; 23:28).
    (ὁ) Ἰ. Judean (w. respect to birth, nationality, or cult) J 3:25; (Mitt-Wilck. I/2, 57, 5 [II B.C.] παρʼ Ἰουδαίου=from a Judean) 4:9; 18:35; Ac 18:2, 24; 19:34; Ro 1:16; 2:9f, 17, 28f (on the ‘genuine’ Judean cp. Epict. 2, 9, 20f τῷ ὄντι Ἰουδαῖος … λόγῳ μὲν Ἰουδαῖοι, ἔργῳ δʼ ἄλλο τι); 10:12; Gal 2:14; 3:28; Col 3:11.—Collective sing. (Thu. 6, 78, 1 ὁ Ἀθηναῖος, ὁ Συρακόσιος; EpArist 13 ὁ Πέρσης; B-D-F §139; Rob. 408) Ro 3:1.
    of Drusilla οὔσα Ἰουδαία being a Judean Ac 24:24, but for the simple adjectival sense s. 1 end.
    (οἱ) Ἰουδαῖοι (on the use of the art. B-D-F §262, 1; 3) the Judeans οἱ Φαρισαῖοι κ. πάντες οἱ Ἰ. Mk 7:3; τὸ πάσχα τῶν Ἰ. J 2:13; cp. 5:1; 6:4; 7:2; ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰ. (Appian, Mithrid. 117 §573 Ἰουδαίων βασιλεὺς Ἀριστόβουλος) Mt 2:2; 27:11, 29 (in these three last pass., Ἰ. is used by non-Israelites; Mt’s preferred term is Ἰσραήλ); Mk 15:2 and oft. πόλις τῶν Ἰ. Lk 23:51; ἔθνος τῶν Ἰ. Ac 10:22; λαὸς τῶν Ἰ. 12:11. χώρα τῶν Ἰ. 10:39 (Just., A I, 34, 2; cp. A I, 32, 4 ἡ γῆ Ἰουδαίων). ἄρχων τῶν Ἰ. J 3:1; συναγωγὴ τῶν Ἰ. Ac 14:1a. Cp. J 2:6; 4:22; 18:20. Ἰ. καὶ Ἕλληνες (on the combination of the two words s. B-D-F §444, 2: w. τε … καί) Judeans and Hellenes Ac 14:1b; 18:4; 19:10; 20:21; 1 Cor 1:24; 10:32; 12:13; PtK 2 p. 15, 7; ἔθνη τε καὶ Ἰ.= non-Judeans and Judeans Ac 14:5; cp. ISm 1:2. Ἰ. τε καὶ προσήλυτοι Judeans and proselytes Ac 2:11; cp. 13:43; οἱ κατὰ τὰ ἔθνη Ἰ. the Judeans who live among the nations (in the Diaspora) 21:21. Judeans and non-Judeans as persecutors of Christians MPol 12:2; cp. also 13:1; 17:2; 18:1; 1 Th 2:14 (Polytheists, Jews, and Christians Ar. 2, 1).—Dg 1.—Without the art. (cp. 19:3 φαρισαῖοι) Mt 28:15, suggesting that not all ‘Judeans’ are meant, and without ref. to Israel, or Jews, as an entity.
    a Mosaic adherent who identifies with Jesus Christ Judean Gal 2:13; cp. Ac 21:20 and eα below. On Rv 2:9; 3:9 s. Mussies 195.
    in J Ἰουδαῖοι or ‘Judeans’ for the most part (for exceptions s. a and c) constitute two groups
    α. those who in various degrees identify with Jesus and his teaching J 8:52; 10:19–21; 11:45; 12:11 al.
    β. those who are in opposition to Jesus, with special focus on hostility emanating from leaders in Jerusalem, center of Israelite belief and cult; there is no indication that John uses the term in the general ethnic sense suggested in modern use of the word ‘Jew’, which covers diversities of belief and practice that were not envisaged by biblical writers, who concern themselves with intra-Judean (intra-Israelite) differences and conflicts: 1:19; 2:18, 20; 5:10, 15f; 6:41, 52 (a debate); 7:1, 11, 13; 9:18, 22; 10:24, 31, 33 (in contrast to the πολλοί from ‘beyond the Jordan’, 10:40–42, who are certainly Israelites) 11:8; 13:33; 18:14. S. Hdb. exc. on J 1:19 and, fr. another viewpoint, JBelser, TQ 84, 1902, 265ff; WLütgert, Heinrici Festschr. 1914, 147ff, Schlatter Festschr. 1922, 137–48; GBoccaccini, Multiple Judaisms: BRev XI/1 ’95, 38–41, 46.—J 18:20 affirms that Jesus did not engage in sectarian activity. Further on anti-Judean feeling in J, s. EGraesser, NTS 11, ’64, 74–90; DHare, RSR, July, ’76, 15–22 (lit.); Hdb. exc. on J 1:19; BHHW II 906–11, 901f, 905.—LFeldman, Jew and Gentile in the Ancient World ’93.—MLowe, Who Were the Ἰουδαῖοι?: NovT 18, ’76, 101–30; idem Ἰουδαῖοι of the Apocrypha [NT]: NovT 23, ’81, 56–90; UvonWahlde, The Johannine ‘Jews’—A Critical Survey: NTS 28, ’82, 33–60; JAshton, ibid. 27, ’85, 40–75 (J).—For impact of Ἰουδαῖοι on gentiles s. ESmallwood, The Jews under Roman Rule fr. Pompey to Diocletian ’81; SCohen, Crossing the Boundary and Becoming a Jew: HTR 82, ’89, 13–33; PvanderHorst, NedTTs 43, ’89, 106–21 (c. 200 A.D.); PSchäfer, Judeophobia, Attitudes toward the Jews in the Ancient World ’97.—On the whole word s. Ἱσραήλ end. For Ἰουδαῖοι in ins s. SEG XXXIX, 1839. M-M. EDNT. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > Ἰουδαῖος

  • 765 ἴδιος

    ἴδιος, ία, ον (Hom.+; s. B-D-F §286; W-S. §22, 17; Rob. 691f; Mlt-Turner 191f.—For the spelling ἵδιος s. on ὀλίγος.)
    pert. to belonging or being related to oneself, one’s own
    in contrast to what is public property or belongs to another: private, one’s own (exclusively) (opp. κοινός, as Pla., Pol. 7, 535b; Appian, Bell. Civ. 5, 41 §171; Ath. 25, 4) οὐδὲ εἷς τι τῶν ὑπαρχόντων αὐτῷ ἔλεγεν ἴδιον εἶναι nor did anyone claim that anything the person had was private property or nor did anyone claim ownership of private possessions Ac 4:32; cp. D 4:8.
    in respect to circumstance or condition belonging to an individual (opp. ἀλλότριος) κατὰ τὴν ἰδίαν δύναμιν according to each one’s capability (in contrast to that of others) Mt 25:15. τὴν δόξαν τὴν ἰ. ζητεῖ J 7:18; cp. 5:18, 43. ἕκαστος εἰς τὴν ἰδίαν πόλιν Lk 2:3 v.l. (for ἑαυτοῦ); sim. Mt 9:1 (noting the departure of Jesus to his home territory); cp. Dg 5:2. Christ ἐλευθερώσῃ πᾶσαν σάρκα διὰ τῆς ἰδίας σαρκός AcPlCor 2:6; cp. vs. 16 ἕκαστος τῇ ἰ. διαλέκτῳ ἡμῶν Ac 2:8; cp. 1:19 τῇ ἰ. διαλέκτῳ αὐτῶν, without pron. 2:6 (Tat. 26, 1 τὴν ἰ. αὐτῆς … λέξιν); ἰδίᾳ δυνάμει 3:12; cp. 28:30; τἡν ἰ. (δικαιοσύνην) Ro 10:3; cp. 11:24; 14:4f. ἕκαστος τ. ἴ. μισθὸν λήμψεται κατὰ τ. ἴ. κόπον each will receive wages in proportion to each one’s labor 1 Cor 3:8. ἑκάστη τὸν ἴδιον ἄνδρα her own husband 7:2 (Diog. L. 8, 43 πρὸς τὸν ἴδιον ἄνδρα πορεύεσθαι). ἕκαστος ἴδιον ἔχει χάρισμα 7:7. ἕκαστος τὸ ἴδιον δεῖπνον προλαμβάνει (s. προλαμβάνω 1c) 1 Cor 11:21 (Eratosth.: 241 Fgm. 16 Jac. of the festival known as Lagynophoria τὰ κομισθέντα αὑτοῖς δειπνοῦσι κατακλιθέντες … κ. ἐξ ἰδίας ἕκαστος λαγύνου παρʼ αὑτῶν φέροντες πίνουσιν ‘they dine on the things brought them … and they each drink from a flagon they have personally brought’. Evaluation: συνοίκια ταῦτα ῥυπαρά• ἀνάγκη γὰρ τὴν σύνοδον γίνεσθαι παμμιγοῦς ὄχλου ‘that’s some crummy banquet; it’s certainly a meeting of a motley crew’); cp. 1 Cor 9:7; 15:38. ἕκαστος τὸ ἴ. φορτίον βαστάσει Gal 6:5.—Tit 1:12; Hb 4:10; 7:27; 9:12; 13:12.—J 4:44 s. 2 and 3b.
    pert. to a striking connection or an exclusive relationship, own (with emphasis when expressed orally, or italicized in written form) κοπιῶμεν ταῖς ἰ. χερσίν with our own hands 1 Cor 4:12 (first pers., cp. UPZ 13, 14 [158 B.C.] εἰμὶ μετὰ τ. ἀδελφοῦ ἰδίου=w. my brother; TestJob 34:3 ἀναχωρήσωμεν εἰς τὰς ἰδίας χώρας). ἐν τῷ ἰ. ὀφθαλμῷ in your own eye Lk 6:41; 1 Th 2:14; 2 Pt 3:17 (here the stability of the orthodox is contrasted with loss of direction by those who are misled by error). Ac 1:7 (God’s authority in sharp contrast to the apostles’ interest in determining a schedule of events). ἰ. θέλημα own will and ἰδία καρδία own heart or mind 1 Cor 7:37ab contrast with μὴ ἔχων ἀνάγκην ‘not being under compulsion’; hence ἰ. is not simply equivalent to the possessive gen. in the phrase ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ αὐτοῦ. 1 Cor 6:18, ἰ. heightens the absurdity of sinning against one’s own body. Lk 10:34 (apparently the storyteller suggests that the wealthy Samaritan had more than one animal, but put his own at the service of the injured traveler). ἐπὶ τὸ ἴδιον ἐξέραμα 2 Pt 2:22 (cp. ἐπὶ τὸν ἑαυτοῦ ἔμετον Pr 26:11), with heightening of disgust. Some would put J 4:44 here (s. 1 end). εἰς τὸν ἴδιον ἀγρόν Mt 22:5 (the rude guest prefers the amenities of his own estate). Mk 4:34b (Jesus’ close followers in contrast to a large crowd). Ac 25:19 (emphasizing the esoteric nature of sectarian disputes). Js 1:14 (a contrast, not between types of desire but of sources of temptation: those who succumb have only themselves to blame). διὰ τοῦ αἵματος τοῦ ἰδίου through his own blood Ac 20:28 (so NRSV mg.; cp. the phrase SIG 547, 37; 1068, 16 ἐκ τῶν ἰδίων commonly associated with the gifts of generous officials, s. 4b. That the ‘blood’ would be associated with Jesus would be quite apparent to Luke’s publics).
    pert. to a person, through substitution for a pronoun, own. Some of the passages cited in 2 may belong here. ἴ. is used for the gen. of αὐτός or the possess. pron., or for the possess. gen. ἑαυτοῦ, ἑαυτῶν (this use found in Hellenistic wr. [Schmidt 369], in Attic [Meisterhans3-Schw. 235] and Magnesian [Thieme 28f] ins; pap [Kuhring—s. ἀνά beg.—14; Mayser II/2, 73f]. S. also Dssm., B 120f [BS 123f], and against him Mlt. 87–91. LXX oft. uses ἴ. without emphasis to render the simple Hebr. personal suffix [Gen 47:18; Dt 15:2; Job 2:11; 7:10, 13; Pr 6:2 al.], but somet. also employs it without any basis for it in the original text [Job 24:12; Pr 9:12; 22:7; 27:15]. Da 1:10, where LXX has ἴ., Theod. uses μου. 1 Esdr 5:8 εἰς τὴν ἰδίαν πόλιν=2 Esdr 2:1 εἰς πόλιν αὐτοῦ; Mt 9:1 is formally sim., but its position in the narrative suggests placement in 1)
    with the second pers. (Jos., Bell. 6, 346 ἰδίαις χερσίν=w. your own hands). Eph 5:22 (cp. vs. 28 τὰς ἑαυτῶν γυναῖκας); 1 Th 4:11; 1 Pt 3:1.
    with the third pers. ἐν τῇ ἰδίᾳ πατρίδι J 4:44 (cp. ἐν τῇ πατρίδι αὐτοῦ: Mt 13:57; Mk 6:4; Lk 4:24, but J 4:44 is expressed in a slightly difft. form and may therefore belong in 1b above); Mt 25:14; 15:20 v.l.; J 1:41 (UPZ 13, s. 2 above: ἀδ. ἴ.); Ac 1:19; 24:24; 1 Ti 6:1; Tit 2:5, 9; 1 Pt 3:5; MPol 17:3; AcPl Ha 3, 21; 4, 27 (context uncertain); τὸ ἴδιον πλάσμα AcPlCor 2:12, 1; ἴδιον χωρίον Papias (3:3).
    associates, relations οἱ ἴδιοι (comrades in battle: Polyaenus, Exc. 14, 20; SIG 709, 19; 22; 2 Macc 12:22; Jos., Bell. 1, 42, Ant. 12, 405; compatriots: ViHab 5 [p. 86, 7 Sch.]; Philo, Mos. 1, 177) fellow-Christians Ac 4:23; 24:23 (Just., D. 121, 3). The disciples (e.g., of a philosopher: Epict. 3, 8, 7) J 13:1. Relatives (BGU 37; POxy 932; PFay 110; 111; 112; 116; 122 al.; Vett. Val. 70, 5 ὑπὸ ἰδίων κ. φίλων; Sir 11:34; Just., A II, 7, 2 σὺν τοῖς ἰδίοις … Νῶε and D. 138, 2 Νῶε … μετὰ τῶν ἰδίων) 1 Ti 5:8; J 1:11b (the worshipers of a god are also so called: Herm. Wr. 1, 31).—Sg. τὸν ἴδιον J 15:19 v.l. (s. b below).
    home, possessions τὰ ἴδια home (Polyb. 2, 57, 5; 3, 99, 4; Appian, Iber. 23; Peripl. Eryth. 65 εἰς τὰ ἴδια; POxy 4, 9f ἡ ἀνωτέρα ψυχὴ τ. ἴδια γεινώσκει; 487, 18; Esth 5:10; 6:12; 1 Esdr 6:31 [τὰ ἴδια αὐτοῦ=2 Esdr 6:11 ἡ οἰκία αὐτοῦ]; 3 Macc 6:27, 37; 7:8; Jos., Ant. 8, 405; 416, Bell. 1, 666; 4, 528) J 16:32 (EFascher, ZNW 39, ’41, 171–230); 19:27; Ac 5:18 D; 14:18 v.l.; 21:6; AcPl Ha 8, 5. Many (e.g. Goodsp, Probs. 87f; 94–96; Field, Notes 84; RSV; but not Bultmann 34f; NRSV) prefer this sense for J 1:11a and Lk 18:28; another probability in both these pass. is property, possessions (POxy 489, 4; 490, 3; 491, 3; 492, 4 al.). ἐκ τῶν ἰδίων from his own well-stocked supply (oft. in ins e.g. fr. Magn. and Priene, also SIG 547, 37; 1068, 16 [in such ins the focus is on the generosity of public-spirited officals who use their own resources to meet public needs]; Jos., Ant. 12, 158) J 8:44. The sg. can also be used in this way τὸ ἴδιον (SIG 1257, 3; BGU 1118, 31 [22 B.C.]) J 15:19 (v.l. τὸν ἴδιον, s. a above).—τὰ ἴδια one’s own affairs (X., Mem. 3, 4, 12; 2 Macc 9:20; 11:23 v.l., 26, 29) 1 Th 4:11, here πράσσειν τὰ ἴδια=mind your own business. Jd 6 of one’s proper sphere.
    pert. to a particular individual, by oneself, privately, adv. ἰδίᾳ (Aristoph., Thu.; Diod S 20, 21, 5 et al.; ins, pap, 2 Macc 4:34; Philo; Jos., Bell. 4, 224, C. Ap. 1, 225; Ath. 8, 1f) 1 Cor 12:11; IMg 7:1.—κατʼ ἰδίαν (Machon, Fgm. 11 vs. 121 [in Athen. 8, 349b]; Polyb. 4, 84, 8; Diod S 1, 21, 6; also ins [SIG 1157, 12 καὶ κατὰ κοινὸν καὶ κατʼ ἰδίαν ἑκάστῳ al.]; 2 Macc 4:5; 14:21; JosAs 7:1; Philo, Sacr. Abel. 136; Just., D. 5, 2) privately, by oneself (opp. κοινῇ: Jos., Ant. 4, 310) Mt 14:13, 23; 17:1, 19; 20:17; 24:3; Mk 4:34a; 6:31f; 7:33 (Diod S 18, 49, 2 ἕκαστον ἐκλαμβάνων κατʼ ἰδίαν=‘he took each one aside’); 9:2 (w. μόνος added), 28; 13:3; Lk 9:10; 10:23; Ac 23:19; Gal 2:2 (on the separate meeting cp. Jos., Bell. 2, 199 τ. δυνατοὺς κατʼ ἰδίαν κ. τὸ πλῆθος ἐν κοινῷ συλλέγων; Appian, Bell. Civ. 5, 40 §170); ISm 7:2.
    pert. to being distinctively characteristic of some entity, belonging to/peculiar to an individual ἕκαστον δένδρον ἐκ τ. ἰδίου καρποῦ γινώσκεται every tree is known by its own fruit Lk 6:44. τὰ ἴδια πρόβατα his (own) sheep J 10:3f. εἰς τὸν τόπον τ. ἴδιον to his own place (= the place where he belonged) Ac 1:25; cp. 20:28. The expression τοῦ ἰδίου υἱοῦ οὐκ ἐφείσατο Ro 8:32 emphasizes the extraordinary nature of God’s gift: did not spare his very own Son (Paul’s association here with the ref. to pandemic generosity, ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν πάντων παρέδωκεν αὐτο͂ν, contributes a semantic component to ἰ. in this pass.; for the pandemic theme see e.g. OGI 339, 29f; for donation of one’s own resources, ibid. 104; IGR 739, II, 59–62. For the term ὁ ἴδιος υἱός, but in difft. thematic contexts, see e.g. Diod S 17, 80, 1 of Parmenio; 17, 118, 1 of Antipater. In relating an instance in which a son was not spared Polyaenus 8, 13 has υἱὸς αὐτοῦ, evidently without emphasis, but Exc. 3, 7 inserts ἴδιος υἱός to emphasize the gravity of an officer’s own son violating an order.). 1 Cor 7:4ab. ἕκαστος ἐν. τ. ἰδίῳ τάγματι each one in his (own) turn 15:23 (cp. En 2:1 τ. ἰ. τάξιν). καιροὶ ἴδιοι the proper time (cp. Diod S 1, 50, 7 ἐν τοῖς ἰδίοις χρόνοις; likew. 5, 80, 3; Jos., Ant. 11, 171; Ps.-Clemens, Hom. 3, 16; TestSol 6:3 ἐν καιρῷ ἰ.; Just., D. 131, 4 πρὸ τῶν ἰ. καιρῶν; Mel., P. 38, 258ff) 1 Ti 2:6; 6:15; Tit 1:3; 1 Cl 20:4; cp. 1 Ti 3:4f, 12; 4:2; 5:4. ἴδιαι λειτουργίαι … ἴδιος ὁ τόπος … ἴδιαι διακονίαι in each case proper: ministrations, … place, … services 1 Cl 40:5.—In ἰδία ἐπίλυσις 2 Pt 1:20 one’s own private interpretation is contrasted with the meaning intended by the author himself or with the interpretation of another person who is authorized or competent (s. ἐπίλυσις and WWeeda, NThSt 2, 1919, 129–35).—All these pass. are close to mng. 3; it is esp. difficult to fix the boundaries here.—DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW. Spicq. Sv.

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  • 766 ὀδύνη

    ὀδύνη, ης, ἡ (s. prec. entry; Hom. et al.; PGrenf I, 1, 2 [II B.C.]; Sb 4949, 12; 5716, 12; LXX; En 102:11; PsSol 4:15; TestSol 4:9 D; TestJob; Test12Patr; ApcMos 25; EpArist 208; Philo; Jos., Ant. 15, 62, C. Ap. 2, 143)
    physical suffering or misery, pain, woe ἐν ὀδ. AcPl Ha 5, 30 (through wounding); of the tribulations of the last days Mt 24:8 v.l. (itacism s. ὠδίν).
    mental pain, distress ἀδιάλειπτος ὀδ. τῇ καρδίᾳ μου (sc. ἐστί) my heart is continually grieved Ro 9:2 (Philo, Aet. M. 63 ὀδ. ψυχῆς). Of the remorse of conscience ἑαυτοὺς περιέπειραν ὀδύναις πολλαῖς they have pierced themselves to the heart with many pangs 1 Ti 6:10.—Schmidt, Syn. II 596–610. DELG. M-M. TW.

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  • 767 ὀργή

    ὀργή, ῆς, ἡ (Hes. et al. in the sense of ‘temperament’; also ‘anger, indignation, wrath’ (so Trag., Hdt.+)
    state of relatively strong displeasure, w. focus on the emotional aspect, anger GPt 12:50 (s. φλέγω 2). W. πικρία and θυμός Eph 4:31; cp. Col 3:8 (on the relationship betw. ὀργή and θυμός, which are oft., as the product of Hebrew dualism, combined in the LXX as well, s. Zeno in Diog. L. 7, 113; Chrysipp. [Stoic. III Fgm. 395]; Philod., De Ira p. 91 W.; PsSol 2:23; ParJer 6:23). W. διαλογισμοί 1 Ti 2:8. W. μερισμός IPhld 8:1. ἡ ἀθέμιτος τοῦ ζήλους ὀρ. the lawless anger caused by jealousy 1 Cl 63:2. ἀπέχεσθαι πάσης ὀρ. refrain from all anger Pol 6:1. μετʼ ὀργῆς angrily (Pla., Apol. 34c; Esth 8:12x; 3 Macc 6:23; JosAs 4:16 μετὰ ἀλαζονείας καὶ ὀργῆς) Mk 3:5; βραδὺς εἰς ὀρ. slow to be angry Js 1:19 (Aristoxenus, Fgm. 56 Socrates is called τραχὺς εἰς ὀργήν; but s. Pla., Phd. 116c, where S. is called πρᾳότατο ‘meekest’). ἐλέγχετε ἀλλήλους μὴ ἐν ὀρ. correct one another, not in anger D 15:3 (ἐν ὀργῇ Is 58:13; Da 3:13 Theod.). Anger ἄφρονα ἀναιρεῖ 1 Cl 39:7 (Job 5:2); leads to murder D 3:2. δικαιοσύνην θεοῦ οὐκ ἐργάζεται Js 1:20; originates in θυμός and results in μῆνις Hm 5, 2, 4.—Pl. outbursts of anger (Pla., Euthyphro 7b ἐχθρὰ καὶ ὀργαί, Rep. 6, 493a; Maximus Tyr. 27, 6b; 2 Macc 4:25, 40; Jos., Vi. 266) 1 Cl 13:1; IEph 10:2 (B-D-F §142; W-S. §27, 4d). JStelzenberger, D. Beziehgen der frühchristl. Sittenlehre zur Ethik der Stoa ’33, 250ff. S. also Ps.-Phocyl. 57f; 63f and Horst’s annotations 153, 155–57.
    strong indignation directed at wrongdoing, w. focus on retribution, wrath (Πανὸς ὀργαί Eur., Med. 1172; Parmeniscus [III/II B.C.] in the schol. on Eur., Medea 264 Schw. τῆς θεᾶς ὀργή; Diod S 5, 55, 6 διὰ τὴν ὀργήν of Aphrodite; Philostrat., Vi. Apoll. 6, 29; SIG 1237, 5 ἕξει ὀργὴν μεγάλην τοῦ μεγάλου Διός; OGI 383, 210 [I B.C.]; LXX; En 106:15; TestReub 4:4; ApcEsdr 1:17 p. 25, 11 Tdf.; ApcrEzk pap. Fgm. 1 recto, 6 [Denis, p. 125]; SibOr 4, 162; 5, 75f; Philo, Somn. 2, 179, Mos. 1, 6; Just., D. 38, 2; 123, 3; oft. Jos., e.g. Ant. 3, 321; 11, 127; Theoph. Ant. 1, 3 [p. 62, 21].—EpArist 254 θεὸς χωρὶς ὀργῆς ἁπάσης) as the divine reaction toward evil (παιδεύει ἡ καλουμένη ὀρ. τοῦ θεοῦ Orig., C. Cels. 4, 72, 4) it is thought of not so much as an emotion (οὐ πάθος δʼ αὐτοῦ αὐτὴν [sc. ὀργὴν] εἶναί φαμεν Orig., C. Cels. 4, 72, 1) as the outcome of an indignant frame of mind ( judgment), already well known to OT history (of the inhabitants of Nineveh: οἳ τὴν ὀρ. διὰ μετανοίας ἐκώλυσαν Did., Gen. 116, 22), where it somet. runs its course in the present, but more oft. is to be expected in the future, as God’s final reckoning w. evil (ὀρ. is a legitimate feeling on the part of a judge; s. RHirzel, Themis 1907, 416; Pohlenz [s. below, b, end] 15, 3; Synes. Ep. 2 p. 158b).—S. Cat. Cod. Astr. V/4 p. 155.
    of the past and pres.: of judgment on the desert generation ὤμοσα ἐν τῇ ὀργῇ μου (Ps 94:11) Hb 3:11; 4:3. In the present, of Judeans ἔφθασεν ἐπʼ αὐτοὺς ἡ ὀρ. the indignation (ὀργή abs.= ὁρ. θεοῦ also Ro 12:19—AvanVeldhuizen, ‘Geeft den toorn plaats’ [Ro 12:19]: TSt 25, 1907, 44–46; [on 13:4; 1 Th 1:10]. Likew. Jos., Ant. 11, 141) has come upon them 1 Th 2:16 (cp. TestLevi 6:11; on 1 Th 2:13–16 s. BPearson, HTR 64, ’71, 79–94). Of God’s indignation against sin in the pres. ἀποκαλύπτεται ὀρ. θεοῦ ἐπὶ πᾶσαν ἀσέβειαν Ro 1:18 (JCampbell, ET 50, ’39, 229–33; SSchultz, TZ 14, ’58, 161–73). Of God’s indignation against evildoers as revealed in the judgments of earthly gov. authorities 13:4f (here ὀρ. could also be punishment, as Demosth. 21, 43). The indignation of God remains like an incubus upon the one who does not believe in the Son J 3:36 (for ἡ ὀρ. μένει cp. Wsd 18:20). Of the Lord’s wrath against renegade Christians Hv 3, 6, 1. The Lord ἀποστρέφει τὴν ὀρ. αὐτοῦ ἀπό τινος turns away (divine) indignation from someone (ἀποστρέφω 2a) Hv 4, 2, 6.—Of the wrath of God’s angel of repentance Hm 12, 4, 1.
    of God’s future judgment specifically qualified as punitive (ἐκφυγεῖν τὴν ὀρ. καὶ κρίσιν τοῦ θεοῦ Theoph. Ant. 2, 14 [p. 136, 16]) ἔσται ὀρ. τῷ λαῷ τούτῳ Lk 21:23; ἡ μέλλουσα ὀρ. Mt 3:7; Lk 3:7; IEph 11:1. ἡ ὀρ. ἡ ἐρχομένη 1 Th 1:10; cp. Eph 5:6; Col 3:6. σωθησόμεθα ἀπὸ τῆς ὀρ. Ro 5:9. οὐκ ἔθετο ἡμᾶς ὁ θεὸς εἰς ὀρ. God has not destined us for punitive judgment 1 Th 5:9. θησαυρίζειν ἑαυτῷ ὀργήν (s. θησαυρίζω 2b and PLond VI 1912, 77–78 ταμιευόμενος ἐμαυτῷ … ὀργήν and 81 εἰς ὀργὴν δικαίαν [opp. internal hostility, line 80]; s. SLösch, Epistula Claudiana 1930, 8. Claudius reserves to himself punitive measures against ringleaders of civil unrest; the par. is merely formal: in our pass. it is sinners who ensure divine indignation against themselves) Ro 2:5a. This stored-up wrath will break out ἐν ἡμέρᾳ ὀργῆς (s. ἡμέρα 3bβ) vs. 5b. Elsewhere, too, the portrayal of the wrath of God in Paul is predom. eschatological: ὀρ. καὶ θυμός (s. θυμός 2) Ro 2:8 (cp. 1QS 4:12); cp. 1 Cl 50:4; δότε τόπον τῇ ὀρ. Ro 12:19 (s. 2a above; τόπος 4). Cp. 9:22a. ἐπιφέρειν τὴν ὀργήν inflict punishment 3:5 (s. 13:4f under a above; s. Just., A I, 39, 2). Humans are τέκνα φύσει ὀργῆς by nature children of wrath, i.e. subject to divine indignation Eph 2:3 (JMehlman, Natura Filii Irae etc. ’57). τέκνα ὀργῆς AcPlCor 2:19 (on gnostic opponents of Paul). Cp. σκεύη ὀργῆς κατηρτισμένα εἰς ἀπώλειαν objects of wrath prepared for destruction Ro 9:22b. Of the law: ὀργὴν κατεργάζεται it effects/brings (only) wrath 4:15.—In Rv the term is also used to express thoughts on eschatology 6:16; 11:18. ἡ ἡμέρα ἡ μεγάλη τῆς ὀρ. αὐτῶν the great day of their (God’s and the Lamb’s) wrath (s. above) 6:17. On τὸ ποτήριον τῆς ὀρ. αὐτοῦ the cup of his wrath 14:10 and οἶνος τοῦ θυμοῦ τῆς ὀρ. τοῦ θεοῦ 16:19; 19:15, s. θυμός 1 and 2 (AHanson, The Wrath of the Lamb, ’57, 159–80).—ARitschl, Rechtfertigung u. Versöhnung II4 1900, 119–56; MPohlenz, Vom Zorne Gottes 1909; GWetter, D. Vergeltungsgedanke bei Pls1912; GBornkamm, D. Offenbarung des Zornes Gottes (Ro 1–3): ZNW 34, ’35, 239–62; ASchlatter, Gottes Gerechtigkeit ’35, 48ff; GMacGregor, NTS 7, ’61, 101–9; JHempel, Gottes Selbstbeherrschung, H-WHertzberg Festschr., ’65, 56–66. S. also κρίσις, end: Braun 41ff and Filson.—B. 1134. DELG 1 ὀργή. M-M. DLNT 1238–41. EDNT. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ὀργή

  • 768 ὅραμα

    ὅραμα, ατος, τό (ὁράω; X. et al.) in our lit. of extraordinary visions, whether the pers. who has the vision be asleep or awake.
    someth. that is viewed with one’s eye, someth. seen, sight, vision (acc. to Artem. 1, 2 p. 5, 19 ὅραμα is someth. that can actually be seen, in contrast to 5, 17 φάντασμα=a figment of the imagination; PCairGoodsp 3, 5 [III B.C.]; PParis 51, 38 [160 B.C.]=UPZ 78 τὸ ὅραμα τοῦτο ὸ̔ τεθέαμαι; Ex 3:3; Dt 4:34; Da 7:1; En 99:8; TestAbr A 4 p. 81, 13 [Stone p. 10] ἀναγγελεῖ τὸ ὅραμα; TestLevi 8:1 εἶδον ὅραμα; 9:2) of the Transfiguration Mt 17:9. Of God’s appearance in the burning bush Ac 7:31. Cp. Ac 10:17, 19; 11:5; 12:9; 16:9f (Appian, Bell. Civ. 4, 134 §565 Brutus, when he is about to cross over ἐκ τῆς Ἀσίας ἐς τὴν Εὐρώπην … νυκτός sees someth. that appeared to him [ὄψιν ἰδεῖν]: a φάσμα—not a human being, not a god, but a δαίμων κακός—stands at his side and speaks to him; cp. Philostrat., Life of Apollonius 4, 34 on a change of plan prompted by a dream [ὄναρ]); Hv 4, 2, 2. ἐπιδεικνύναι τινὶ ὅραμα show someone a vision 3, 2, 3. δεικνύναι τινὶ ὁράματα (w. ἀποκαλύψεις) 4, 1, 3. ἀποκαλύπτειν τὰ ὁράματα reveal the visions (double sense, as in the original, which can be understood of the visions themselves or of the interpretation of their mng.) 3, 4, 3.
    the act by which the recipient of a vision is granted a vision, or the state of being in which the pers. receives a vision, vision (SIG 1128 καθʼ ὅραμα; LXX) of the Lord: εἰπεῖν ἐν νυκτὶ διʼ ὁράματος say at night in a vision Ac 18:9. ἐν ὁράματι (Gen 15:1; 46:2 εἶπεν ὁ θεὸς ἐν ὁρ. τῆς νυκτός; Da 7:13) εἶδεν ἐν ὁρ. ἄγγελον (cp. TestJud 3:10) Ac 10:3. Cp. 9:10, 12. βλέπειν ἐν ὁρ. τῆς νυκτός Hv 3, 10, 6. [τοῦ παιδὸ] τ̣ο̣υ̣ [διελ]θόντο ἐν ὁρό(=ά)ματι διὰ [τοῦ κεκλεισμένου] κοιτῶ̣[νο] [the youth] who, in (Paul’s) vision, had entered through [the closed] bedroom AcPl Ha 5, 31f. ἐν ὁράματι ἰδ[ούση] τὸν κύριον having seen the Lord in a vision Ox 3525, 19. Ox 1224 Fgm. 2 recto, II, 3 (=Kl. T. 83, p. 26, 10) Ἰῆ [ἐ]ν ὁράμα[τι λέγει]. S. ὅρασις 3, ὄναρ, and πνεῦμα 6f.—DELG s.v. ὁράω. M-M. TW. EDNT.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ὅραμα

  • 769 ὑποστολή

    ὑποστολή, ῆς, ἡ (ὑποστέλλω) the state of being timid, hesitancy, timidity (Asclepiodot. Tact. [I B.C.] 10, 21 of holding a body of troops in reserve position.—Jos., Bell. 2, 277, Ant. 16, 112 of pers. who have no reservations about indulging themselves in baseness) οὐκ ἐσμὲν ὑποστολῆς we do not belong to those who are timid, in contrast to those who are earnestly committed Hb 10:39.—DELG s.v. στέλλω. M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ὑποστολή

  • 770 πελεκώ

    1) hew
    2) slaughter

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά νέο λεξικό (Greek-English new dictionary) > πελεκώ

  • 771 σφαγή

    1) carnage
    2) massacre
    3) slaughter

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά νέο λεξικό (Greek-English new dictionary) > σφαγή

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