Translation: from greek to english

from english to greek

to slaughter for themselves

  • 741 ἀντιλαμβάνω

    ἀντιλαμβάνω (s. λαμβάνω) in our lit. only mid. (which is common Thu. et al.; LXX, En; Philo, Joseph.; Just., D. 4, 7; 103, 8) fut. ἀντιλήψομαι LXX; 2 aor. ἀντελαβόμην.
    to take someone’s part by assisting, take part, come to the aid of, w. gen. (Diod S 11, 13, 1 [of divine help]; Cass. Dio 40, 27; 46, 45; Plut., Pyrrh. 399 [25, 2]; OGI 51, 9f; 697, 1; PPetr II, 3b, 7; UPZ 47, 23 [II B.C.]; LXX; En 1:8; 100:8; 103:15; PsSol 16:3, 5) ἀντελάβετο Ἰσραὴλ God has helped Israel Lk 1:54 (cp. Is 41:8f). ἀ. τῶν ἀσθενούντων help the weak Ac 20:35 (cp. 2 Ch 28:15). ἀ. ἀλλήλων Hv 3, 9, 2.
    to commit oneself wholeheartedly to someth., take part in, devote oneself to, practice, w. gen. (X., Cyr. 2, 3, 6 τ. πραγμάτων. PRein 47, 4 τῆς γεωργίας. PLond II, 301, 6f p. 256 τῆς χρείασ=the assignment; likew. POxy 1196, 12ff. Is 26:3; Bar 3:21; Jos., Ant. 5, 194; 19, 238) οἱ τῆς εὐεργεσίας ἀντιλαμβανόμενοι who devote themselves to kindness 1 Ti 6:2 (the assoc. w. εὐεργεσία suggests pers. of exceptional merit, cp. OGI 339, 32 τῆς εὐσχημοσύνης; s. also 51, 9f). Others make the masters the beneficiaries of the slaves’ service (s. 4).
    to be involved w. someth. through close contact, perceive, notice τινός someth. (Ps.-Pla., Ax. 370a; s. MMeister, Axioch. Dial., diss. Breslau 1915, 43) εὐωδίας ἀ. notice a fragrance MPol 15:2 (Philo, Leg. All. 3, 56, Det. Pot. Ins. 101: tones; Just., D. 4, 7 κολάσεως 103, 8). Some expand this mng. into
    derive benefit fr. someth., enjoy, benefit by 1 Ti 6:2, w. ‘masters’ as subject, on the basis that it fits well into the context (so REB, NRSV; s. Field, Notes 210; WLock, ICC ad loc.; but s. 2).—M-M. TW.

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  • 742 ἀπέχω

    ἀπέχω 2 aor. ἀπέσχον; pf. 3 sg. ἀπέσχηκεν LXX; fut. mid. ἀφέξομαι; aor. ἀπεσχόμην LXX; inf. ἀποσχέσθαι; pf. 1 pl. ἀπεσχήμεθα 1 Km 21:6 al. (Hom.+; ins, pap, LXX, En, TestAbr A, Test12Patr; ParJer 7:37; Philo, Joseph., Just., Ath.).
    to receive in full what is due, to be paid in full, receive in full, act., commercial t.t. = ‘provide a receipt for a sum paid in full’, used both lit. and fig. (Callim., Epigr. 50, 4 [Pf.] of a nurse who receives thanks in the form of a memorial; SIG2 845, 7 [200 B.C.] τὰν τιμὰν ἀπέχει; M. Ant. 9, 42 ἀπέχει τὸ ἴδιον. Oft. pap and ostraca; s. Dssm., NB 56 [BS 229]; LO 88ff [LAE 110f]; Erman, APF 1, 1901, 77ff; Mayser 487; O. Wilck I 86; Nägeli 54f; Anz 318f; Gen 43:23; Num 32:19; Jos., Bell. 1, 596 ἀ. τῆς ἀσεβείας τὸ ἐπιτίμιον) τὸν μισθόν (Plut., Sol. 90 [22, 4], Mor. 334a) Mt 6:2, 5, 16; τὴν παράκλησιν Lk 6:24; πάντα Phil 4:18; τὸ τέλειον τῆς γνώσεως perfect knowledge B 13:7; ἀ. τὴν ἀποκάλυψιν to have received the revelation Hv 3, 13, 4.—Sim. Phlm 15 ἵνα αἰώνιον αὐτὸν ἀπέχῃς that you might have him back forever (opp. χωρίζεσθαι πρὸς ὥραν). Some would here put the difficult impers. ἀπέχει in the sense the account is closed Mk 14:41; s. JdeZwaan, Exp. 6th ser., 12, 1905, 459–72, who takes the informant of vs. 42 as the subj. he has received the money. S. 2 and 3.
    to meet the need of the moment, to suffice, be enough, Vulg. has for ἀπέχει Mk 14:41 ‘sufficit’ it is enough, which is supported by some comparatively late evidence (Anacreontea Carmina 16, 33 [Preis., West, Campbell]; PStras 4, 19 note [550 A.D.]; PLond 1343, 38 [709 A.D.] dub. l.) and is followed in numerous translations, incl. REV, NRSV (‘Enough!’); that the expression is not found in this sense in other lit. is not surprising, for it is a colloquialism that emerges, as in the case of the Anacreontea, in dramatic statement. In this instance, as w. ἀπελπίζω (Lk 6:35) q.v., context is a strong semantic determinant.
    The rather freq. expr. οὐδὲν ἀπέχει=‘nothing hinders’ (Pla., Cra. 23 p. 407b; Plut., Mor. 433a; 680e) would suggest for ἀπέχει in Mk 14:41 that is a hindrance (referring to the extreme drowsiness of the disciples at the decisive moment). But s. 1 and 2.—Ms. D has ἀ. τὸ τέλος this is the end (B-D-F §129; JWackernagel, Syntax. I2 [1926] 119. Cp. Kaibel 259, 4 [II A.D.] ἀπέσχε τέλος [=death]. MBlack, An Aramaic Approach, ’46, 16f, suggests an Aram. background).—GBoobyer, NTS 2, ’55, 44–48 ‘he (Judas) is taking possession of’ me.
    to be at some distance from a position, be distant, intr. (Hdt. et al.; PStras 57, 6; PLille 1, 5; 2, 2; Jos., Ant. 5, 161; Just., A I, 34, 2; Ath. 32, 1) αὐτοῦ μακρὰν ἀπέχοντος when he was still far away Lk 15:20 (Diod S 12, 33, 4 μακρὰν ἀπ.; Gen 44:4; Jo 4:8; En 32:2). W. indication of the place from which (as 1 Macc 8:4; 2 Macc 11:5) οὐ μακρὰν ἀπέχων ἀπὸ τ. οἰκίας being not far fr. the house Lk 7:6; cp. MPol 5:1; of a ship at some distance from the land Mt 14:24 (as Michel 466, 9 ἀπέχον ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς). W. the exact distance given (so since Thu. 2, 5, 2) κώμη ἀπέχουσα σταδίους ἑξήκοντα ἀπὸ Ἰερουσαλήμ sixty stades fr. Jerusalem Lk 24:13 (Demetr. of Kallatis [200 B.C.]: 85 Fgm. 2 Jac. ἀπεχούσης τῆς νήσου ἀπὸ τῆς ἠπείρου σταδίους υ´. Cp. the comic poet Euphro [III B.C.] 11, 3 Kock; Appian, Ital. 5 §1; 2 Macc 12:29; Jos., Bell. 2, 516; Just., A I, 34, 2).—Fig. πόρρω ἀ. ἀπό τινος (=רָחַק מִן) be far from someone Mt 15:8; Mk 7:6 (both Is 29:13); so also PEg2 57f.
    to avoid contact w. or use of someth., keep away, abstain, refrain from mid. w. gen. of thing (Hom. et al.; SIG 768, 16 [31 B.C.]; PHerm 52, 21; StudPal V, 52, 21; 1 Esdr 6:26; Wsd 2:16; σου PsSol 8:32; τούτου TestAbr A 2 p. 79, 8 [Stone p. 6]; Jos., Bell. 2, 581, Ant. 11, 101; Just., A II, 7, 7 al.; Ath.) εἰδωλοθύτων καὶ αἵματος καὶ πνικτῶν καὶ πορνείας abstain fr. things offered to idols, blood, things strangled, and irregular sexual union Ac 15:29 (s. Lev 18:6–30), cp. vs. 20 (s. αἷμα 1b). πάσης ἀδικίας (Hyperid., Fgm. 210 τ. ἀδικημάτων; SIG 1268 I, 18 [III B.C.] κακίας ἀπέχου; Ath. 1, 2 τοῦ ἀδικεῖν) Pol 2:2; cp. 6:1, 3; Hv 1, 2, 4; 2, 2, 3; 3, 8, 4; m 3:5; Dg 4:6. τῶν κακῶν βοτανῶν IPhld 3:1; cp. ITr 6:1. βρωμάτων 1 Ti 4:3. εὐχαριστίας κ. προσευχῆς keep away fr. the Lord’s Supper and prayer ISm 7:1; the response to those who absent themselves from the Lord’s meal is to discontinue social relations with them, vs. 2 (Schol. Pl. Euthyphr. 2 A ἀπέχεσθαι μυστηρίων=remain aloof from the Mysteries). τῶν σαρκικῶν ἐπιθυμιῶν 1 Pt 2:11; D 1:4. τῆς γλώσσης= control the tongue Hv 2, 2, 3. λατρείας Dg 3:2.—W. ἀπό τινος (oft. LXX; En 104:6; TestAbr A 4 p. 81, 4 [Stone p. 10]; EpArist 143; w. ἐκ ParJer 7:37 [7, 32 Harris]): ἀπὸ τῆς πορνείας 1 Th 4:3; cp. Ac 15:20 (v.l. ἀπό); ἀπὸ παντὸς εἴδους πονηροῦ fr. every kind of evil 1 Th 5:22. ἀπὸ παντὸς κακοῦ 1 Cl 17:3 (Job 1:1, 8; 2:3). ἀπέχεσθε ἀπὸ τ. ἀνθρώπων keep hands off the men Ac 5:39 D.—Pol 5:3; Hm 2:3; 4, 1, 3 and 9; 5, 1, 7; 5, 2, 8; 7:3; 9:12; 11:4, 8, 21; 12, 1, 3; 12, 2, 2; Hs 4:5.—DELG s.v. ἔχω. M-M. TW. Spicq.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἀπέχω

  • 743 ἀποκόπτω

    ἀποκόπτω fut. ἀποκόψω; 1 aor. ἀπέκοψα LXX; 2 aor. 3 pl. pass. ἀπεκόπησαν Judg 5:22 cod. A; inf. ἀποκοπῆναι (s. κόπτω; Hom. et al.; pap, LXX, Philo, Joseph.) to cut so as to make a separation, cut off, cut away
    of body parts (Hom. et al.; Hdt. 6, 91 χεῖρας; Diod S 17, 20, 7 ἀπέκοψε τὴν χεῖρα; Dt 25:12; Judg 1:6f; Jos., Bell. 6, 164, Vi. 177) Mk 9:43, 45 (Epict 2, 5, 24 of ἀποκόπτειν the foot ὑπὲρ τοῦ ὅλου; cp. Ael. Aristid. 48, 27 K.=24 p. 472 D.: παρατέμνειν one limb ὑπὲρ σωτηρίας of the whole body); ear J 18:10, 26 (on the implications of mutilation cp. Lev 21:16–23; BViviano, RB 96, ’89, 71–80). Private parts implied make a eunuch of, castrate (Lucian, Eunuch. 8; Cass. Dio 79, 11; Dt 23:2; Philo, Leg. All. 3, 8, Spec. Leg. 1, 325; Theoph. Ant. 3, 8 [p. 222, 3]) mid. (Epict. 2, 20, 19; §317; Rob. 809) ὄφελον καὶ ἀποκόψονται would that they might make eunuchs of themselves Gal 5:12. So interpr. by many since Chrysostom and Ambrosiaster, also PDebouxhtay, RevÉtGr 39, 1926, 323–26 (against ChBruston, ibid. 36, 1923, 193f); GDuncan, Gal ’34, 154; 161.
    of noncorporal things τὰ σχοινία cut the ropes (cp. Od. 10, 127; X., Hell. 1, 6, 21; Polyaenus 5, 8, 2; 6, 8) Ac 27:32; branches κλάδους in pruning procedure Hs 8, 1, 2 Joly (ἔκοπτε W.); building-stones πολὺ δεῖ ἀπʼ αὐτῶν ἀποκοπῆναι a great deal must be cut away from them Hs 9, 9, 2.—M-M. TW.

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  • 744 ἀρήν

    ἀρήν, ἀρνός, ὁ nom. found only in early ins (VII–VI B.C., HSearles, A Lexicograph. Study of the Gk. Ins. 1898, 21; Meisterhans3-Schw. §58, 1; Kühner-Bl. I 429, 14; s. L-S-J-M s.v.), but the oblique cases Hom.+. Gen. pl. ἀρνῶν; acc. ἄρνας lamb as an animal for slaughter B 2:5 (Is 1:11). As a type of weakness ὡς ἄρνας ἐν μέσῳ λύκων Lk 10:3 (cp. Kaibel 1038, 38 ὡς ἄρνας κατέχουσι λύκοι; Is 65:25; Just., A I, 58, 2.—The contrast is as old as Hom. [Il. 22, 263]).—DELG. M-M. TW.

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  • 745 ἁρπαγή

    ἁρπαγή, ῆς, ἡ (s. ἁρπάζω; since Solon 3, 13 AnthLG Diehl3 [ἀφαρπαγῇ West]; Aeschyl.; ins, pap, LXX; TestAbr A 19 p. 102, 10 [Stone p. 52]; Test12Patr; GrBar 8:5; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 200; Tat. 37, 1; 39, 3; Ath., R. 76, 12)
    the act of seizure, robbery, plunder (Aeschyl.; Thu. 4, 104, 2; SIG 679, 85; BGU 871, 5; PLips 64, 53; 4 Macc 4:10; Jos., Ant. 5, 25; TestJud 23:3) of forcible confiscation of property in a persecution Hb 10:34. καθῆσθαι εἰς ἁρπαγήν sit (waiting) for prey B 10:10. Pl. robberies (Appian, Liby. 115 § 545; 1 Macc 13:34; GrBar 8:5) D 5:1; B 20:1.
    the product of seizure, what has been stolen, plunder (so Trag.; Thu. 8, 62, 2; mostly LXX; Jos., Vi. 380) of cup and dish ἔσωθεν γέμουσιν ἐξ ἁρπαγῆς Mt 23:25. The Luke parallel refers not to the cup, but to the Pharisees themselves, so that ἀ. takes on mng. 3.
    the inner state of mind that leads to seizure, greediness, rapacity (w. πονηρία) Lk 11:39 (X., Cyr. 5. 2, 17).—DELG s.v. ἁρπάζω. M-M. TW.

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  • 746 ἐκεῖνος

    ἐκεῖνος, η, ο demonstr. pron. (Hom.+) pert. to an entity mentioned or understood and viewed as relatively remote in the discourse setting, that person, that thing, that (‘that over there’; opp. οὗτος ‘this’)
    abs.
    α. denoting contrast to another entity Lk 18:14 (Just., A I, 43, 2, D. 85, 1). τοῦτο ἢ ἐκεῖνο this or that Js 4:15. ἡμῖν … ἐκείνοις Mt 13:11; Mk 4:11; cp. 2 Cor 8:14. ἐκεῖνον … ἐμέ J 3:30. ἐκεῖνοι … ἡμεῖς 1 Cor 9:25; Hb 12:25; 1J 4:17. ἄλλοι … ἐκεῖνος J 9:9. Opp. a certain pers.: Jesus Mk 16:19f; the Judeans J 2:20f et al.
    β. referring back to and resuming a word immediately preceding, oft. weakened to he, she, it (X., An. 4, 3, 20; Just., D. 1, 3 al.) Mk 16:10f. Esp. oft. so in J: 5:37; 8:44; 10:6; 11:29; 12:48; 13:6 v.l.; 14:21, 26; 16:14 al. Hence 19:35 perh. the eyewitness (just mentioned) is meant, who then, to be sure, would be vouching for his own credibility and love of the truth (s. aγ).—Interchanging w. αὐτός (cp. Thu. 1, 32, 5; X., Cyr. 4, 5, 20; Lysias 14, 28; Kühner-G. I 649) ἐζωγρημένοι ὑπʼ αὐτοῦ εἰς τὸ ἐκείνου θέλημα under the spell of his will 2 Ti 2:26. ἐκεῖνος for ἀυτός Lk 9:34 v.l.; 23:12 v.l. Used to produce greater emphasis: ἐκεῖνον λαβών take that one Mt 17:27; cp. J 5:43. τῇ ἐκείνου χάριτι by his grace Tit 3:7. Sim. after a participial subj. (X., Cyr. 6, 2, 33 ὁ γὰρ λόγχην ἀκονῶν, ἐκεῖνος καὶ τὴν ψυχήν τι παρακονᾷ=the one who sharpens his spear, he is the one who sharpens his inner self) τὸ ἐκπορευόμενον ἐκεῖνο κοινοῖ Mk 7:20. ὁ πέμψας ἐκεῖνος J 1:33; cp 5:37 v.l. (for αὐτός) ὁ ποιήσας με ὑγιῆ ἐκεῖνος 5:11. ὁ λαλῶν ἐκεῖνός ἐστιν 9:37. ὁ εἰσερχόμενος ἐκεῖνος κλέπτης ἐστίν 10:1. τῷ λογιζομένῳ … ἐκείνῳ κοινόν Ro 14:14 al.
    γ. w. ref. to well-known or notorious personalities (Just., A I, 4 ὡς ἐκεῖνος [Πλάτων] ἔφη; Kühner-G. I 650; Arrian, Periplus 1, 1 ὁ Ξενοφῶν ἐκεῖνος) Jesus (cp. Mel., P. 80, 593 σὺ ἐχόρευες, ἐκεῖνος δὲ ἐθάπτετο): J 7:11; 9:12, 28; 1J 2:6; 3:3, 5, 7, 16; 4:17. The ἐ. J 19:35 appears to refer to ὁ ἑωρακώς, the eyewitness mentioned at the beginning of the vs. (Some scholars refer to the Johannine writer [cp. Jos., Bell. 3, 7, 16–202], who allegedly seeks to corroborate another’s statement, and support has been offered in the use of ἐ. in indirect discourse in which speakers refer to themselves as ἐ. [Isaeus 8, 22a; Polyb. 3, 44, 10; 12, 16, 5] on the ground that the narrator of the 4th Gospel could no more use the I-form than could the speaker in indirect discourse. But contexts of the passages cited contain some indication of the referent. Some refer to Jesus [Erasmus, Zahn; ESchwartz, NGG 1907, 361; Lagrange; others cited RBrown, comm. ad loc.—Acc. to Iambl., Vi. Pyth. 35, 255, as well as Aristoxenus, Fgm. 33 p. 17, 3 οἱ Πυθαγόρειοι παρʼ ἐκείνου μαθόντες, the Pythagoreans called their master after his death simply ἐκεῖνος]. Yet how much more clearly this idea might have been conveyed in J by simply using ὁ κύριος!). S. FBlass, StKr 75, 1902, 128–33.—W. an unfavorable connotation (Themistocles, Ep. 16 p. 755, 14; 27; Lucian, Pereg. 13 of Jesus; Julian, Letter 60 p. 379a of the Christians; Just., D. 67, 2 of Jews by Hellenes) of the Jews B 2:9; 3:6; 4:6; 8:7 al.
    δ. w. relative foll. (cp. Just., D. 128, 4 ἀναλυόμενοι εἰς ἐκεῖνο ἐξ οὗπερ γεγόνασιν): ἐκεῖνός ἐστιν ᾧ ἐγὼ βάψω J 13:26. ἐκεῖνον … ὑπὲρ οὗ Ro 14:15. ἐκείνης ἀφʼ ἧς Hb 11:15. W. ὅτι foll. (Ael. Aristid. 39 p. 747 D.; Just., A I, 19, 5) Mt 24:43.
    used w. nouns
    α. to differentiate pers. or things already named, fr. others: τῇ οἰκίᾳ ἐκείνῃ that (particular) house Mt 7:25; cp. vs. 27. τῇ πόλει ἐκείνῃ that city (just mentioned) 10:15; 18:32; Mk 3:24f; Lk 6:48f; J 18:15; Ac 1:19; 3:23 (Dt 18:19); 8:8; 14:21; 16:3 and oft. (cp. Just., D. 4, 2 αὐτοῦ ἐκείνου τοῦ βασιλικοῦ νοῦ μέρος ‘a portion of that same governing mind’).
    β. of time
    א. of the past, when the time cannot (or is not to) be given w. exactness: ἐν τ. ἡμέραις ἐκείναις in those days (Ex 2:11; Judg 18:1; 1 Km 28:1; Jdth 1:5; PsSol 17:44; 18:6; AscIs 3, 20; 23; 27) Mt 3:1, cp. 24:38; Mk 1:9; 8:1; Lk 2:1. Of a definite period (1 Macc 1:11; 9:24; 11:20) Lk 4:2; 9:36.
    ב. of the future (ἐκείνη ἡ ἡμέρα; Plut., Gai. Marc. 231 [35, 6]; Epict. 3, 17, 4; Ael. Aristid. 19, 8 K.=41 p. 765 D.) Mt 24:22ab, 29; ἐν ἐκ. τ. ἡμέραις 24:19; Ac 2:18 (Jo 3:2); Rv 9:6. Also in sg. ἐν ἐκείνῃ τ. ἡμέρᾳ (Jdth 11:15) Lk 17:31; J 16:23, 26; AcPlCor 2:32; esp. of God’s climactic judgment day Mt 7:22; Lk 6:23; 10:12; 2 Th 1:10; 2 Ti 1:12, 18; cp. Rv 16:14 v.l. ὁ αἰὼν ἐ. (opp. αἰὼν οὗτος) the age to come Lk 20:35 (s. αἰών 2b).
    ג. of a period ascertainable fr. the context Mt 13:1; Mk 4:35; J 1:39 (Jos., Ant. 7, 134 μεῖναι τὴν ἡμέραν ἐκείνην) al. ἀπʼ ἐκείνης τ. ἡμέρας (Jos., Bell. 4, 318, Ant. 7, 382; Mel. HE 4, 26, 3 ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς ἡμέραις) Mt 22:46. κατὰ τὸν καιρὸν ἐ. at that time Ac 19:23. κατʼ ἐ. τὸν καιρόν (Jos., Ant. 1, 171 al.; Just., A I, 26, 3 al.: κατʼ ἐκεῖνο τοῦ καιροῦ, D. 103, 3 ἐκείνου τοῦ καιροῦ) 12:1. ἐν ἐ. τῇ ὥρᾳ Rv 11:13.
    For ἐκείνης, the adverbial gen. of ἐκεῖνος, s. the preceding entry.—IndogF 19, 1906, 83ff. S. κἀκεῖνος. M-M.

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  • 747 ἐκπλέκω

    ἐκπλέκω 1 aor. ἐξέπλεξα (πλέκω ‘twist’, opp. ἐμπλέκω; BGU II, 665 II, 5 [I A.D.]; PTebt 315, 21; 29 [II A.D.]; POxy 1490, 6 et al. pap) disentangle (oneself) ὥστε ἀπὸ τ. ἀκανθῶν … μὴ δύνασθαι ἐκπλέξαι τὰ πρόβατα so that the sheep could not disentangle themselves fr. the thorn-bushes Hs 6, 2, 6 (cp. Artem. 4, 57 ἄκανθαι … τὰς ἐμπλοκάς).

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  • 748 ἐνέργημα

    ἐνέργημα, ατος, τό (s. ἐνέργεια, ἐνεργέω; since Epicurus p. 4, 10 Us.)
    activity as expression of capability, activity (Polyb. 2, 42, 7; 4, 8, 7; Diod S 4, 51, 6; Vett. Val. 264, 13; EpArist 156; Philo, Det. Pot. Ins. 114; PGM 1, 194; 12, 317) ἐνεργήματα δυνάμεων activities that express themselves in miracles = miraculous powers 1 Cor 12:10 (ἐνέργεια,-αι vv.ll.). διαιρέσεις ἐνεργημάτων vs. 6. Cp. Ox 850, 34 of a transcendent hostile power.
    activity as someth. that impacts on another, experience (Plut., Mor. 899d; Herm. Wr. 1, 22) τὰ συμβαίνοντά σοι ἐνεργήματα the experiences that befall you D 3:10; B 19:6.—M-M. TW.

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  • 749 ἐξηγέομαι

    ἐξηγέομαι (s. next entry) mid. dep. fut. 3 pl. ἐξηγήσονται; Job 12:8; 1 aor. ἐξηγησάμην. Pass.: aor. 3 sg. ἐξηγήθη (Just., D. 68, 6); inf. ἐξήγηθῆναι (Just., D. 55, 3); pf. ptc. ἐξηγημένα (Just., D. 79, 1; 126, 5) (Hom. et al.) prim. mng. ‘lead’ (s. ἡγέομαι 1), but never so in our lit.
    to relate in detail, tell, report, describe, chiefly narrative (so Hdt.; ins, pap, LXX, EpArist; Philo, Leg. All. 3, 21; Berosus: 680 Fgm. 8a 140 Jac. [in Jos., C. Ap. 1, 140]; Just., D. 58, 4; but 112, 1 ‘interpret’, 68, 7 ‘translate’) τὶ someth. τὰ ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ their experiences on the way Lk 24:35. πάντα GPt 11:45. τ. δεσμὸν τ. ἀγάπης τ. θεοῦ describe the bond of the love of God 1 Cl 49:2. τί τινι relate someth. to someone (Judg 7:13) Ac 10:8; Hv 4, 2, 5; GJs 19:3. καθʼ ἓν ἕκαστον one by one Ac 21:19. ἐ. καθὼς ὁ θεὸς ἐπεσκέψατο 15:14. ὅσα ἐποίησεν ὁ θεός vs. 12. ἐξηγουμένου Παύλου ἃ πέπονθεν ἐν Φιλίπποις AcPl Ha 6, 4.
    to set forth in great detail, expound. Oft. as t.t. for the activity of priests and soothsayers who impart information or reveal divine secrets; also used w. ref. to divine beings themselves (Pla., Trag., Thu., X.; Wetstein on J 1:18.—Arrian, Anab. 2, 3, 3 of soothsayers: τὰ θεῖα ἐξηγεῖσθαι; 6, 2, 3; Ael. Aristid. 13 p. 219 D.: τὰ μέλλοντα ὥσπερ μάντις ἐξηγεῖτο, 45, 30 K. of the proclamation of the Sarapis-miracles; Pollux 8, 124 ἐξηγηταὶ δʼ ἐκαλοῦντο οἱ τὰ περὶ τῶν διοσημιῶν καὶ τὰ τῶν ἄλλων ἱερῶν διδάσκοντες=they are termed interpreters/expounders who teach things about portents and other sacred matters; Jos. of the interpr. of the law: Bell. 1, 649; 2, 162, Ant. 18, 81; Lucian, Peregr. 11 τῶν βίβλων τὰς μὲν ἐξηγεῖτο καὶ διεσάφει). ἐκεῖνος ἐξηγήσατο he has made known or brought news of (the invisible God) J 1:18 (so also JMichael, JTS 22, 1921, 14–16 against RHarris, The Origin of the Prologue 1917, 35; s. Hdb.3 ad loc.; APersson, D. Exegeten u. Delphi 1918).—B. 1238. M-M. TW. Spicq.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἐξηγέομαι

  • 750 ἐξουσία

    ἐξουσία, ας, ἡ (Soph., Thu.+; ins, pap, LXX, En, pseudepigr., Philo, Joseph., Just.; Tat. 30, 1; Mel., P. 104, 810 [Bodm.]) from ἔξεστιν.
    a state of control over someth., freedom of choice, right (e.g., the ‘right’ to act, decide, or dispose of one’s property as one wishes: BGU 1158, 13 [9 B.C.] = Mitt-Wilck. II/2, 234, 13 legal t.t., esp. in wills: POxy 272, 13; BGU 183, 25 ἔχειν αὐτὴν τὴν ἐ. τῶν ἰδίων πάντων; PTebt 319, 21.—Sir 30:11) ἐξουσίαν ἔχειν have the right 2 Th 3:9 (Just., D 16, 4). W. inf. foll. (Teles p. 23, 14; 24, 11; Tob 2:13 S; 7:10 S) J 10:18; 1 Cor 9:4ff; Hb 13:10; Rv 13:5; B 4:2. W. obj. gen. foll. (τίς οὖν ἔτι ἔχει μου ἐξουσίαν; Epict. 3, 24, 70; διδόναι ἐξουσίαν τῶν πετεινῶν Did., Gen. 61, 24) εἰ ἄλλοι τῆς ὑμῶν ἐ. μετέχουσι 1 Cor 9:12. Also ἐ. ἐπὶ τὸ ξύλον τῆς ζωῆς the right to the tree of life Rv 22:14. W. verbs of two constr. ἔχει ἐ. ὁ κεραμεὺς τοῦ πηλοῦ ἐκ τοῦ αὐτοῦ φυράματος the potter has a right over the clay, to make fr. the same lump Ro 9:21. ἐ. ἔχειν περί τινος (4 Macc 4:5) be at liberty w. regard to a thing (opp. ἀνάγκην ἔχειν) 1 Cor 7:37; cp. 8:9; ἐ. ἐν τ. εὐαγγελίῳ a right in the gospel 9:18. ἐν τῇ σῇ ἐ. ὑπῆρχεν was at your disposal Ac 5:4 (Esth 4:17b; Appian, Liby. 52 §226 ἐν ἐ. εἶναι τί τινι=someth. is at someone’s disposal, is within one’s power).
    potential or resource to command, control, or govern, capability, might, power (on capacity for someth. cp. Did., Gen. 162, 5: ἡ προσαιρέσεως ἐξουσία; cp. 1 Esdr 4:28, 40; 2 Macc 7:16 the king can do what he pleases because he has the capability for doing so) ἡ ἐ. τ. ἵππων ἐν τ. στόματι αὐτῶν ἐστιν Rv 9:19; cp. vs. 3; 13:2, 4; 18:1; Mt 9:8; Ac 8:19. W. inf. foll. to indicate the thing that one is able to do (En 25:4 ἅψασθαι; Diod S 4, 52, 4 ἀμύνασθαι εἶχεν ἐξουσίαν; Mel., P. 104 πάντα κρίνει); ἐκβάλλειν τ. δαιμόνια [b]Mk 3:15. ἐμβαλεῖν εἰς τ. γέενναν Lk 12:5; cp. J 1:12; 7:1 v.l.; Rv 9:10; 11:6. W. gen. of the inf. foll. τοῦ πατεῖν ἐπάνω ὄφεων Lk 10:19; ποιεῖν ἐ. exercise power Rv 13:12. ἐ. ἔχειν τινός have power over someone (Epict. 4, 12, 8) GPt 3:7; ἑαυτοῦ IPol 7:3; also ἐ. ἔχειν ἐπί τινος Rv 20:6; cp. AcPl Ha 1, 3. Esp. of God’s power (Theodor. Prodr. 5, 313 ἡ θεῶν ἐ.; Da 4:17; Jos., Ant. 5, 109; 18, 214) Lk 12:5 (cp. 2 Cl 5:4); Ac 1:7; Jd 25; Hs 9, 23, 4. πάντων τ. ἐξουσίαν power over all Hm 4, 1, 11; Hs 9, 28, 8. πᾶσα ἡ ἐ. 5, 7, 3 (En 9:5). τὴν κατὰ πάντων ἐ. MPol. 2:1. τέλους ἐ. power over the end PtK 2 p. 13, 22. ἐ. ἐπὶ τ. πληγάς control over the plagues Rv 16:9. Also of Satan’s power Ac 26:18; ending of Mk in the Freer ms.; B 2:1.—The power that comes fr. God can involve transcendent knowledge, and both may be expressed by ἐ. (Herm. Wr. 1, 13; 14; 32). So his hearers conclude fr. Jesus’ teaching that he must have ἐ. (i.e. it is not necessary for him to first ask what the traditional practice or interpretation requires) Mk 1:22 (‘license’ of a Jewish teacher L-S-J-M Suppl., ’68; against this AArgyle, ET 80, ’68/69, 343); cp. Mt 7:29 (Rtzst., Poim. 48, 3, Mysterienrel.3 302; 363; JStarr, HTR 23, 1930, 302–5; HWindisch, Pls. u. Christus ’34, 151ff; DDaube, JTS 39, ’38, 45–59; HFlowers, ET 66, ’55, 254 [‘like a king’]; DHudson, ET 67, ’55/56, 17; JCoutts, JTS 8, ’57, 111–18 [Jesus and the 12]). The prep. expr. κατʼ ἐξουσίαν in accordance w. knowledge and power Mk 1:27 and ἐν ἐ. Lk 4:32 belong to this classification; cp. 4:36. The close relation of ἐ. w. ‘gnosis’ and teaching also B 18:1.—But it is not always possible to draw a hard and fast line betw. this sense and
    the right to control or command, authority, absolute power, warrant (Sextus 36: the πιστός has ἐ. fr. God) ἐ. καὶ ἐπιτροπή (cp. Ps.-Pla., Defin. p. 415c ἐξουσία, ἐπιτροπὴ νόμου) authority and commission Ac 26:12. ἐν ποίᾳ ἐξουσίᾳ ταῦτα ποιεῖς; by whose authority are you doing this? Mt 21:23, 24, 27; Mk 11:28, 29, 33; Lk 20:2, 8. ἐ. διδόναι τινί put someone in charge (Diod S 13, 36, 2; 14, 81, 6; cp. Vi. Aesopi G 11 p. 39, 6 P.; En 9:7; TestJob 3:6; Jos., Ant. 2, 90; 20, 193) Mk 13:34; PtK 2 p. 14, 13. οἷς ἔδωκεν τοῦ εὐαγγελίου τὴν ἐ. to whom he gave rights over the Gospel (for its proclamation) B 8:3. ὅτι τὸ ἄρχειν ἐξουσίας ἐστίν that ruling depends on authority 6:18. Of apostolic authority 2 Cor 10:8; 13:10; ISm 4:1. Of Jesus’ total authority Mt 28:18 (cp. Herm. Wr. 1, 32; Da 7:14; DStanley, CBQ 29, ’67, 555–73); Hs 5, 6, 1. W. gen. of the one who has authority ἐ. τοῦ Χριστοῦ Rv 12:10 (Just., A I, 40, 7). W. gen. of that over which the authority is exercised (Diod S 2, 27, 3; IDefixWünsch 4, 21; Ps 135:8, 9; Wsd 10:14; Sir 17:2; Jos., Vi. 190) ἐ. πνευμάτων ἀκαθάρτων over the unclean spirits Mt 10:1; Mk 6:7; cp. J 17:2; Hm 4, 3, 5; PtK 2 p. 14, 13; 1 Cl 61:2; ISm 4:1; τούτου τοῦ λαοῦ Hs 8, 3, 3. Also ἐπί w. acc. (cp. Sir 33:20) Lk 9:1; cp. Rv 6:8; 13:7. Likew. ἐπί w. gen. (cp. Da 3:97) Rv 2:26; 11:6b; 14:18. παρά τινος (also ἀπό τινος Orig., C. Cels. 2, 13, 56) indicates the source of the authority (s. παρά A3b) Ac 9:14; 26:10; Hs 5, 6, 4 (restored from the Lat.; ἐ. λαμβάνειν as Diod S 11, 42, 6; TestJob 8:2f; 16:4; Vi. Aesopi G 11 p. 39, 4 P.) and κατά τινος the one against whom it is directed (TestJob 16:2 κατʼ ἐμοῦ; 8:2 κατὰ τῶν ὑπαρχόντων μου ‘over my possessions’; Sb 8316, 6f κύριε Σάραπι δὸς αὐτῷ κατεξουσίαν κατὰ τῶν ἐχθρῶν αὐτοῦ; Orig., C. Cels. 7, 43, 25) J 19:11 (HvCampenhausen, TLZ 73, ’48, 387–92); B 4:13. W. pres. inf. foll. (cp. X., Mem. 2, 6, 24 and 35; Diod S 12, 75, 4; 1 Macc 10:35; 11:58; Jos., Ant. 4, 247) Mt 9:6; Mk 2:10; Lk 5:24; J 5:27. W. aor. inf. foll. (Jdth 8:15; 1 Esdr 8:22; 1 Macc 1:13) 19:10. Foll. by gen. of the pres. inf. (4 Macc 5:15) Hm 12, 4, 2.—RDillon, ‘As One Having Authority’ (Mark 1:22): CBQ 57, ’95, 92–113.
    power exercised by rulers or others in high position by virtue of their office, ruling power, official power (Ps.-Pla., Alc. 1, 135b al.; LXX; Jos., Bell. 2, 140, Vi. 80) ἐ. ὡς βασιλεύς Rv 17:12f (Diod S 2, 45, 1 βασιλικὴν ἐ. ἔχειν; 14, 32, 5 ἐ. λαμβάνειν); ἐ. τοῦ ἡγεμόνος Lk 20:20; cp. J 19:10f, s. 3 above. ἐ. ἐπάνω δέκα πόλεων Lk 19:17. ἄνθρωπος ὑπὸ ἐξουσίαν τασσόμενος a man under authority 7:8 (MFrost, ET 45, ’34, 477f); cp. Mt 8:9; Hs 1:3.—The power of a particular office (Diod S 1, 70, 1; 14, 113, 6 ἡ ὑπατικὴ ἐξουσία; Plut., Mar. 406 [2, 1], Caes. 734 [58, 1]) ἐπαρχικὴ ἐ. the power of prefect Phlm subscr.
    human authorities, officials, government (Dionys. Hal. 8, 44; 11, 32; POxy 261, 15) Lk 12:11 (here and elsewh. in NT w. ἀρχή, as also in Pla.); Ro 13:1, 2, 3 (with 13:1b cp. the express. ‘ancient saying’ [s. Hes., Theogony 96 ἐκ δὲ Διὸς βασιλῆες. On this HFränkel, Dichtung u. Philos. des frühen Griechentums ’62, 111 n. 6] in Artem. 2, 36 p. 135, 24; 2, 69 p. 161, 17 τὸ κρατοῦν δύναμιν ἔχει θεοῦ=the ruling power has its authority from God; Wsd 6:3; Jos., Bell. 2, 140 οὐ δίχα θεοῦ περιγενέσθαι τινὶ τὸ ἄρχειν … ἐξουσίαν); Tit 3:1. For the view that the ἐ. of Ro 13 are spirit powers, as b below, s. OCullmann, Christ and Time (tr. Filson) ’50, 191–210.—On the subj. in gener. s. LGaugusch, D. Staatslehre d. Ap. Pls nach Ro 13: ThGl 5, ’34, 529–50; JUitman, Onder Eig. Vaandel 15, ’40, 102–21; HvCampenhausen, ABertholet Festschr. ’50, 97–113; OCullmann, Zur neuesten Diskussion über die ἐξουσίαι in Rö 13:1: TZ 10, ’54, 321–36, D. Staat im NT ’612 (Eng. tr.: The State in the NT ’56, 93–114); against him AStrobel, ZNW 47, ’56, 67–93.—GCaird, Princip. and Powers ’56; RMorgenthaler TZ 12, ’56, 289–304; CMorrison, The Powers That Be ’60; EBarnikol, Rö 13. Der nichtpaulinische Ursprung der absoluten Obrigkeitsbejahung v. Rö 13:1–7 ’61, 65–133; HSchlier, Principalities and Powers in the NT ’61 (Eng. tr.); MBorg, NTS 19, ’72/73, 205–18. οἱ ἐπʼ ἐξουσίαν ἀχθέντες those who are brought before the authorities Hs 9, 28, 4.
    of transcendent rulers and functionaries: powers of the spirit world (TestLevi 3:8; TestSol 20:15 B), sg. (w. ἀρχή and δύναμις) 1 Cor 15:24; Eph 1:21; Col 2:10. Pl. (w. ἀρχαί as Just., D. 41, 1; cp. Orig., C. Cels. 4, 29, 22) Eph 3:10; 6:12; Col 1:16; 2:15; (w. ἄγγελοι, δυνάμεις) 1 Pt 3:22. Cp. the v.l. for ἄρχειν Papias (4).
    the sphere in which power is exercised, domain (4 Km 20:13; Ps 113:2) Lk 4:6. ἐκ τ. ἐξουσίας Ἡρῴδου ἐστίν he comes fr. Herod’s jurisdiction 23:7. ἐ. τοῦ σκότους domain of darkness 22:53; Col 1:13 (opp. the βασιλεία of Christ). Hence ἐ. τοῦ ἀέρος simply domain of the air Eph 2:2; s. ἀήρ 2b.
    Various opinions are held about the mng. of 1 Cor 11:10 ὀφείλει ἡ γυνὴ ἐξουσίαν ἔχειν ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς διὰ τοὺς ἀγγέλους. Many now understand it as a means of exercising power (cp. δύναμις 1b.—It is abstract for concrete, as βασιλεία [1] in Diod S 1, 47, 5: a stone figure ἔχουσα τρεῖς βασιλείας ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς=that wears three symbols of royal power [diadems] on its head), that is to say, the veil (κάλυμμα is v.l. for ἐ. here; s. critical apparatus in N.) by which women at prayer (when they draw near to the heavenly realm) protect themselves fr. the amorous glances of certain angels. But the veil may also have been simply a symbol of womanly dignity, esp. befitting a Christian woman, and esp. in the presence of holy angels (s. Cadbury below).—WWeber, ZWT 46, 1903, 487–99; Dibelius, Geisterwelt 12–23 al.; EFehrle, Die kultische Keuschheit im Altertum1910, 39; RPerdelwitz, StKr 86, 1913, 611–13; LBrun, ZNW 14, 1913, 298–308; GKittel, Rabbinica 1920, 17ff; Billerb. III 423–35; KBornhäuser, NKZ 41, 1930, 475–88; WFoerster, ZNW 30, ’31, 185f; MGinsburger, RHPR 12, ’32, 245–47; OMotta, ET 44, ’33, 139–41; CSpicq, RB 48, ’39, 557–62; EBlakeney, ET 55, ’44, 138; SLösch, TQ 127, ’47, 216–61; JFitzmyer, NTS 3, ’57, 48–58; HCadbury, HTR 51, ’58, 1f (Qumran parallels); MHooker, NTS 10, ’64, 410–16; AIsaksson, Marriage and Ministry in the NT ’65, 176–81; GSchwartz, ZNW 70, ’79, 249 (Aramaic background).—LCerfaux et JTondriau, Un Concurrent du Christianisme, ’57. S. on ἄγγελος 2c.—V.l. for ἄρχειν Papias (4).—DELG s.v. εἰμί. New Docs 2, 83f. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἐξουσία

  • 751 ἐπάγω

    ἐπάγω (s. ἄγω) fut. ἐπάξω; 1 aor. ptc. ἐπάξας (B-D-F §75; W-S. §13, 10; Mlt-H. 226; Rob. 348); 2 aor. ἐπήγαγον. Pass.: aor. subj. 3 sg. ἐπάχθῃ Sir 2:4, impv. ἐπάχθητι (Mel., Fgm. 8b 14), ptc. ἐπαχθείς 4 Macc 4:13 (cod. A for ὑπ-); pf. ptc. ἐπηγμένην 2 Macc 7:38 (Hom.+; also Just., A I, 3, 1, D. 39, 2 al., and 129, 4 ἐπήγαγον of words ‘I added’) to cause a state or condition to be or occur, bring on, bring someth. upon someone, mostly someth. bad, τινί τι (Hes., Op. 240 πῆμά τινι ἐ. al.; OGI 669, 43 πολλοῖς ἐ. κινδύνους; PRyl 144, 21 [38 A.D.] … μοι ἐ. αἰτίας; Bar 4:9, 10, 14, 29; Da 3:28, 31; TestJud 22:1; Philo, Mos. 1, 96; Jos., Vi. 18; SibOr 7, 154; Just., D. 39, 2 τὴν κρίσιν, 55, 2 κατάραν al.) κατακλυσμὸν κόσμῳ ἐπάξας 2 Pt 2:5 (cp. Gen 6:17; 3 Macc 2:4 of the deluge ἐπαγαγὼν αὐτοῖς ἀμέτρητον ὗδωρ). λύπην τῷ πνεύματι bring grief upon the spirit Hm 3:4. ἑαυτοῖς ταχινὴν ἀπώλειαν bring swift destruction upon themselves 2 Pt 2:1 (cp. ἑαυτοῖς δουλείαν Demosth. 19, 259). Also ἐπί τινά τι (Ex 11:1; 33:5; Jer 6:19; Ezk 28:7 al.; TestJud 23:3; ApcEsdr 2:20 p. 26, 12 Tdf.) ἐφʼ ἡμᾶς τὸ αἷμα τ. ἀνθρώπου τούτου bring this man’s blood upon us Ac 5:28 (cp. Judg 9:24 B ἐπαγαγεῖν τὰ αἵματα αὐτῶν, τοῦ θεῖναι ἐπὶ Ἀβιμελεχ, ὸ̔ς ἀπέκτεινεν αὐτούς). ἐ. τισὶ διωγμὸν κατά τινος stir up, within a group, a persecution against someone Ac 14:2 D.—M-M.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἐπάγω

  • 752 ἐπάνωθεν

    ἐπάνωθεν adv. (s. prec. entry; Eur., Thu., Pla.+; LXX; EpArist 105) from above αὐτοὶ περιεσχίσαντο ἐ. ἕως κάτω they (themselves) tore (their garments) from top to bottom GJs 24:3 (v.l. ἀπὸ ἄνωθεν; cp. Mt. 27:51; Mk 15:38).

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἐπάνωθεν

  • 753 ἐπί

    ἐπί prep. w. gen., dat., or acc.; s. the lit. on ἀνά, beg. (Hom.+). The basic idea is ‘upon’ (opp. ὑπό) Kühner-G. I 495; s. also Rob 600–605. (In the foll. classifications case use is presented seriatim; in earlier editions of this lexicon all sections, except 13, 17, and 18 [of time], were included under the general rubric ‘Place’.)
    marker of location or surface, answering the question ‘where?’ on, upon, near
    w. gen., marking a position on a surface ἐ. (τῆς) γῆς on (the) earth (cp. En 9:1; 98:1; ἐ. γῆς 25:6; PsSol 17:2) Mt 6:10, 19; 9:6; 23:9; Mk 6:47 al. (Ar. 12, 1; Just., A I, 54, 7 al.). ἐ. τῆς θαλάσσης on the sea (cp. Job 9:8; Dio Chrys. 10 [11], 129 βαδίζειν ἐ. τῆς θαλ.; Lucian, Philops. 13 βαδίζειν ἐφʼ ὕδατος, VH 2, 4; Artem. 3, 16 ἐ. τ. θαλάσσης περιπατεῖν; schol. on Nicander, Ther. 15 p. 5, 26ff relying on the testimony of Hesiod: Orion was given a gift [δωρεά] by the gods καὶ ἐ. κυμάτων πορεύεσθαι καὶ ἐ. τῆς γῆς) Mt 14:26; Mk 6:48f; J 6:19 (w. acc. P75; s. 4bβ below). ἐ. τῶν νεφελῶν on the clouds Mt 24:30; 26:64 (Da 7:13; cp. Philo, Praem. 8). ἐ. κλίνης 9:2; Lk 17:34. ἐ. τοῦ δώματος on the roof vs. 31; Mt 24:17; 10:27 foll. by pl. W. verbs: κάθημαι ἐ. τινος sit on someth. (Job 2:8; ἐ. τοῦ ἅρματος GrBar 6:2; cp. JosAs 27:1 ἐ. τοῦ ὀχήματος καθεζόμενος; Just., D. 90, 5 ἐ. λίθου καθεζόμενος) Mt 24:3; 27:19; Ac 8:28; Rv 6:16; 9:17 (the same prep. used in Rv w. κάθημαι and dat. s. bα below, and w. acc. cα). ἑστηκέναι ἐ. τινος stand on someth. Ac 21:40; Rv 10:5, 8 (Just., D. 86, 2 ἐστηρίχθαι). With parts of the body: ἐ. χειρῶν αἴρειν carry on (i.e. in/with) their hands Mt 4:6; Lk 4:11 (both Ps 90:12). ἐ. κεφαλῆς on the head (Hdt. 5, 12, 4) J 20:7; 1 Cor 11:10; Rv 12:1. ἐ. τοῦ μετώπου Rv 7:3; 9:4. ἐ. γυμνοῦ on the naked body Mk 14:51. Cp. use of ἐπί w. καθίζω and gen., and ἐπί w. κάθημαι and acc. Mt 19:28.—In a gener. and fig. sense Ac 21:23.
    w. dat., gener. suggesting contiguity on, in, above.
    α. answering the question ‘where?’ (Hom. et al.; ins, pap, LXX; Just., D. 105, 5 ἐ. τῷ σταυρῷ; Tat., 9:1 ἐ. τοῖς ὄρεσι; Ath. 20, 1 ἐ. τῷ μετώπῳ; Mel., P. 19, 131 ἐ. σάκκῳ καὶ σποδῷ) ἐ. πίνακι on a platter Mt 14:8, 11; Mk 6:25, 28. ἀνακλῖναι ἐ. τῷ χλωρῷ χόρτῳ on the green grass 6:39. ἐ. τοῖς κραβάττοις vs. 55. ἐπέκειτο ἐπʼ αὐτῷ lay on it (or before it) J 11:38. καθήμενος ἐ. τῷ θρόνῳ Rv 4:9 (cp. gen. w. καθ. 1a above, and acc. cα below) 5:13; 7:10 and oft. ἐφʼ ἵπποις λευκοῖς on white horses 19:14. ἐ. σανίσιν on planks Ac 27:44. ἐ. τῇ στοᾷ in the colonnade 3:11. τὰ ἐ. τοῖς οὐρανοῖς what is above (or in) the heavens Eph 1:10. ἐπʼ αὐτῷ above him, at his head Lk 23:38 (=Mt 27:37 ἐπάνω τ. κεφαλῆς αὐτοῦ).
    β. answering the question ‘whither?’ on, upon (Hom. et al.) w. verbs that indicate a direction: οἰκοδομεῖν ἐ. τινι build upon someth. Mt 16:18. ἐποικοδομεῖν Eph 2:20. ἐπιβάλλειν ἐπίβλημα ἐ. ἱματίῳ παλαιῷ put a patch on an old garment Mt 9:16. ἐπιπίπτειν ἐ. τινι Ac 8:16. ἐκάθισεν ἐ. τῷ θρόνῳ he sat down on the throne GJs 11:1. λίθον ἐπʼ αὐτῇ βαλέτω J 8:7 v.l. (cp. 12a below).
    w. acc., answering the question ‘where?’ (Hom. et al.; LXX; JosAs 29:2 φορῶν ἐ. τὸν μηρὸν αὐτοῦ ῥομφαίαν; Just., D. 53, 1 ζυγὸν ἐ. αὐχένα μὴ ἔχων)
    α. on, over someth. καθεύδειν ἐ. τι sleep on someth. Mk 4:38. καθῆσθαι ἐ. τι sit on someth. Mt 19:28 (in the same vs. καθίζω w. gen., s. a above) J 12:15; Rv 4:4; 6:2; 11:16 al.; cp. Lk 21:35b; κεῖσθαι ἐ. τι lie upon someth. 2 Cor 3:15. κατακεῖσθαι Lk 5:25. ἑστηκέναι ἐ. τὸν αἰγιαλόν stand on the shore Mt 13:2; cp. Rv 14:1. ἑστῶτας ἐ. τὴν θάλασσαν standing beside the sea 15:2. ἔστη ἐ. τὴν κεφαλὴν τοῦ παιδίου (the star) remained stationary over the head of the child GJs 21:3. σκηνοῦν ἐ. τινα spread a tent over someone Rv 7:15. ἐ. τὴν δεξιάν at the right hand 5:1. λίθος ἐ. λίθον stone upon stone Mt 24:2.
    β. ἐ. τὸ αὐτό at the same place, together (Ps.-X., Respublica Athen. [The Old Oligarch] 2, 2; Pla., Rep. 329a; SIG 736, 66 [92 B.C.]. In pap=‘in all’: PTebt 14, 20 [114 B.C.]; PFay 102, 6.—2 Km 2:13; En 100:2) εἶναι ἐ. τὸ αὐτό be together Lk 17:35; Ac 1:15; 2:1, 44. In 1 Cor 7:5 it is a euphemistic expr. for sexual union. κατοικεῖν ἐ. τὸ αὐτό live in the same place (Dt 25:5) Hm 5, 1, 4. Also w. verbs of motion (Sus 14 Theod.) συνέρχεσθαι ἐ. τὸ αὐτό come together to the same place 1 Cor 11:20; 14:23; cp. B 4:10 (Just., A I, 67, 3 συνέλευσις γίνεται). συνάγεσθαι (Phlegon of Tralles [Hadr.]: 257 Fgm. 36 III 9 Jac.; PsSol 2:2; TestJob 28:5 Jos., Bell. 2, 346) Mt 22:34; Ac 4:26 (Ps 2:2); 1 Cl 34:7. ἐ. τὸ αὐτὸ μίγνυσθαι be mixed together Hm 10, 3, 3. προσετίθει ἐ. τὸ αὐτό added to their number Ac 2:47.
    γ. at, by, near someone or someth. καθῆσθαι ἐ. τὸ τελώνιον sit at the tax-office Mt 9:9 (ἐ. τὰς ὡραίας πύλας GrBar prol. 2); Mk 2:14. ἑστηκέναι ἐ. τὴν θύραν stand at the door Rv 3:20. σὺ ἔστης ἐ. τὸ θυσιαστήριον you are standing (ἕστηκας deStrycker) as priest at the altar GJs 8:2. ἐφʼ ὑμᾶς among you 2 Th 1:10; cp. Ac 1:21.—Of pers., over whom someth. is done ὀνομάζειν τὸ ὄνομα Ἰησοῦ ἐ. τινα speak the name of Jesus over someone Ac 19:13. ἐπικαλεῖν τὸ ὄνομά τινος ἐ. τινα=to claim someone for one’s own (Jer 14:9; 2 Ch 7:14; 2 Macc 8:15) Ac 15:17 (Am 9:12); Js 2:7; Hs 8, 6, 4. προσεύχεσθαι ἐ. τινα pray over someone Js 5:14.
    marker of presence or occurrence near an object or area, at, near
    w. gen., of immediate proximity to things at, near (Hdt. 7, 115; X., An. 4, 3, 28 al.; LXX, Just.) ἐ. τ. θυρῶν at the gates (Plut., C. Gracch. 841 [14, 3]; PRyl 127, 8f [29 A.D.] κοιμωμένου μου ἐ. τῆς θύρας; 1 Macc 1:55; Just., D. 111, 4) Ac 5:23 (s. b below for dat. in 5:9). ἐ. τῆς θαλάσσης near the sea (Polyb. 1, 44, 4; Ex 14:2; Dt 1:40; 1 Macc 14:34) J 21:1. ἐ. τῆς ὁδοῦ by the road Mt 21:19. ἐσθίειν ἐ. τῆς πραπέζης τινός eat at someone’s table Lk 22:30 (cp. POxy 99, 14 [55 A.D.] τράπεζα, ἐφʼ ἧς Σαραπίων καὶ μέτοχοι; Da 11:27 LXX ἐ. μιᾶς τραπέζης). ἐ. τοῦ (τῆς) βάτου at the thornbush = in the passage about the thornbush (i.e. Ex 3:1ff) Mk 12:26; Lk 20:37.
    with dat., of immediate proximity at, near by (Hom.+) ἦν ἔτι ἐ. τῷ τόπῳ ὅπου was still at the place, where J 11:30 v.l. (for ἐν; cp. Just., D. 402). ἐ. τῇ θύρᾳ (ἐ. θύραις) at the door (Hom. et al.; Wsd 19:17; Jos., Ant. 17, 90; Just., D. 32, 3) Mt 24:33; Mk 13:29; Ac 5:9 (s. a above). ἐ. τοῖς πυλῶσιν Rv 21:12. ἐ. τῇ πηγῇ J 4:6 (Jos., Ant. 5, 58 ἐ. τινι πηγῇ; Just., A I, 64, 1 ἐ. ταῖς … πηγαῖς). ἐ. τῇ προβατικῇ (sc. πύλῃ) near the sheepgate 5:2; cp. Ac 3:10. ἐ. τῷ ποταμῷ near the river (since Il. 7, 133; Jos., Ant. 4, 176 ἐ. τ. Ἰορδάνῳ) Rv 9:14.—Of pers. (Diod S 14, 113, 6; Just., A I, 40, 7) ἐφʼ ὑμῖν among you 2 Cor 7:7; cp. Ac 28:14 v.l.
    marker of involvement in an official proceeding, before, w. gen., of pers., esp. in the language of lawsuits (Pla., Leg. 12, 943d; Isaeus 5, 1 al.; UPZ 71, 15; 16 [152 B.C.]; POxy 38, 11; Mitt-Wilck. I/2, 382, 23=BGU 909, 23; Jos., Vi. 258; Just., A II, 1, 1 ἐ. Οὐρβίκου). ἐ. τοῦ ἡγεμόνος in the governor’s presence Mt 28:14. ἐ. ἡγεμόνων καὶ βασιλέων Mk 13:9. ἐ. σου before you (the procurator) Ac 23:30. ἐ. Τερτούλλου Phlm subscr. v.l.; στάντος μου ἐ. τοῦ συνεδρίου Ac 24:20 (cp. Diod S 11, 55, 4 ἐ. τοῦ κοινοῦ συνεδρίου τ. Ἑλλήνων). γυναικὸς … διαβληθείσης ἐ. τοῦ κυρίου Papias (2:17). κρίνεσθαι ἐ. τῶν ἀδίκων go to law before the unrighteous 1 Cor 6:1. κριθήσεται ἐφʼ ὑμῶν before your tribunal D 11:11. μαρτυρεῖν ἐ. Ποντίου Πιλάτου testify before Pontius Pilate 1 Ti 6:13 (s. μαρτυρέω 1c). ἐ. τοῦ βήματος (POxy 37 I, 3 [49 A.D.]) ἑστὼς ἐ. τοῦ βήματος Καίσαρός εἰμι I am standing before Caesar’s tribunal Ac 25:10 (Appian says Prooem. c. 15 §62 of himself: δίκαις ἐν Ῥώμῃ συναγορεύσας ἐ. τῶν βασιλέων=I acted as attorney in lawsuits in Rome before the emperors).—Gener. in someone’s presence (Appian, Syr. 61 §324 ἐφʼ ὑμῶν=in your presence) ἐ. Τίτου before Titus 2 Cor 7:14. Cp.10 below.
    marker of movement to or contact w. a goal, toward, in direction of, on
    w. gen., marking contact with the goal that is reached, answering the question ‘whither?’ toward, on, at w. verbs of motion (Appian, Iber. 98 §427 ἀπέπλευσεν ἐπʼ οἴκου=he sailed [toward] home; PGM 4, 2468f ἀναβὰς ἐ. δώματος; JosAs 27:1 ἀνέδραμε … ἐ. πέτρας; Jos., Ant. 4, 91 ἔφευγον ἐ. τ. πόλεων; Tat. 33:3 Εὐρώπην ἐ. τοῦ ταύρου καθιδρύσαντος) βάλλειν τὸν σπόρον ἐ. τῆς γῆς Mk 4:26; also σπείρειν vs. 31. πίπτειν (Wsd 18:23; TestAbr A 3 p. 80, 11 [Stone p. 8]; JosAs 9:1) 9:20; 14:35. καθιέναι Ac 10:11. τιθέναι (Sir 17:4) Lk 8:16; J 19:19; Ac 5:15. ἔρχεσθαι Hb 6:7; Rv 3:10; γίνεσθαι ἐ. reach, be at J 6:21. γενόμενος ἐ. τοῦ τόπου when he reached the place Lk 22:40. καθίζειν take one’s seat ἐ. θρόνου (JosAs 7:1 al.) Mt 19:28 (s. 1a end); 23:2; 25:31; J 19:13 (ἐ. βήματος of Pilate as Jos., Bell. 2, 172; of Jesus Just., A I, 35, 6). κρεμαννύναι ἐ. ξύλου hang on a tree (i.e. cross) (Gen 40:19; cp. Just., D. 86, 6 σταυρωθῆναι ἐ. τοῦ ξύλου) Ac 5:30; 10:39; cp. Gal 3:13 (Dt 21:23).
    w. acc.
    α. specifying direction (En 24:2 ἐ. νότον ‘southward’ of position of the mountain) of motion that takes a particular direction, to, toward ἐκτείνας τ. χεῖρα ἐ. τοὺς μαθητάς Mt 12:49; cp. Lk 22:53 (JosAs 12:8). πορεύεσθαι ἐ. τὸ ἀπολωλός go after the one that is lost 15:4. ἐ. τὴν ῏Ασσον in the direction of Assos Ac 20:13. ἐπιστρέφειν ἐ. τι turn to someth. 2 Pt 2:22 (cp. Pr 26:11; En 99:5). ὡς ἐ. λῃστήν as if against a robber Mt 26:55; Mk 14:48; Lk 22:52.
    β. from one point to another across, over w. motion implied (Hom.+; LXX) περιπατεῖν, ἐλθεῖν ἐ. τ. θάλασσαν or ἐ. τ. ὕδατα Mt 14:25, 28f; J 6:19 P75. Of spreading across the land (PsSol 17:10): famine Ac 7:11; 11:28; darkness Mt 27:45; Lk 23:44. ἐ. σταδίους δώδεκα χιλιάδων across twelve thousand stades Rv 21:16 v.l. (Polyaenus 5, 44, 4 ἐ. στάδια δέκα); ἐ. πλεῖον further (1 Esdr 2:24; 2 Macc 10:27) Ac 4:17.
    γ. of goal attained (Hom. et al.; LXX) on, upon someone or someth. πέσατε ἐφʼ ἡμᾶς Lk 23:30 (Hos 10:8). ἔπεσεν ἐ. τὰ πετρώδη Mt 13:5; cp. Lk 13:4. ἔρχεσθαι ἐ. τινα come upon someone Mt 3:16; also καταβαίνειν fr. above J 1:33; cp. Rv 16:21. ἀναβαίνειν (Jos., Ant. 13, 138; Just., A II, 12, 7) Lk 5:19. ἐπιβαίνειν Mt 21:5 (Zech 9:9).—Ac 2:3; 9:4 al.; διασωθῆναι ἐ. τ. γῆν be brought safely to the land 27:44; cp. vs. 43; Lk 8:27. ἐ. τὸ πλοῖον to the ship Ac 20:13. ἀναπεσεῖν ἐ. τὴν γῆν lie down or sit down on the ground Mt 15:35. ἔρριψεν αὐτὸν χαμαὶ ἐ. τὸν σάκκον he threw himself down on the sackcloth GJs 13:1. τιθέναι τι ἐ. τι put someth. on someth. (JosAs 16:11) Mt 5:15; Lk 11:33; Mk 8:25 v.l.; likew. ἐπιτιθέναι (JosAs 29:5) Mt 23:4; Mk 8:25; Lk 15:5; J 9:6, 15; Ac 15:10. ἐπιβάλλειν τ. χεῖρας ἐ. τινα (Gen 22:12 al.) Mt 26:50; Lk 21:12; Ac 5:18. Mainly after verbs of placing, laying, putting, bringing, etc. on, to: ἀναβιβάζω, ἀναφέρω, βάλλω, γράφω, δίδωμι, ἐγγίζω, ἐπιβιβάζω, ἐπιγράφω, ἐποικοδομέω, ἐπιρ(ρ)ίπτω, θεμελιόω, ἵστημι, κατάγω, οἰκοδομέω, σωρεύω; s. these entries. Sim. βρέχειν ἐ. τινα cause rain to fall upon someone Mt 5:45 (cp. PsSol 17:18); also τ. ἥλιον ἀνατέλλειν ἐ. τινα cause the sun to rise so that its rays fall upon someone *ibid. τύπτειν τινὰ ἐ. τὴν σιαγόνα strike on the cheek Lk 6:29. πίπτειν ἐ. (τὸ) πρόσωπον (Jdth 14:6) on the face Mt 17:6; 26:39; Lk 5:12; 17:16; 1 Cor 14:25; Rv 7:11.To, upon w. acc. of thing πορεύεσθαι ἐ. τὴν ὁδόν go to the road Ac 8:26; cp. 9:11. ἐ. τὰς διεξόδους Mt 22:9. ἵνα μὴ πνέῃ ἄνεμος ἐ. πᾶν δένδρον so that no wind should blow upon any tree Rv 7:1.
    δ. of closeness to someth. or someone to, up to, in the neighborhood of, on ἐ. τὸ μνημεῖον up to the tomb Mk 16:2; Lk 24:1 v.l., 22, 24; cp. ἐ. τὸ μνῆμα Mk 16:2 v.l.; Lk 24:1. ἔρχεσθαι ἐ. τι ὕδωρ come to some water Ac 8:36. ἐ. τὴν πύλην τὴν σιδηρᾶν to the iron gate 12:10. καταβαίνειν ἐ. τὴν θάλασσαν go down to the sea J 6:16. ἐ. τὸν Ἰορδάνην Mt 3:13 (Just., D. 88, 3 al.). ἀναπίπτειν ἐ. τὸ στῆθος he leaned back on (Jesus’) breast J 13:25; 21:20. πίπτειν ἐ. τοὺς πόδας fall at (someone’s) feet Ac 10:25 (JosAs 14:10 ἔπεσεν ἐ πρόσωπον ἐ. τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ). ἐ. τ. ἀκάνθας among the thorns Mt 13:7.—W. acc. of pers. to someone ἐ. τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἐλθόντες they came to Jesus J 19:33; cp. Mt 27:27; Mk 5:21.
    ε. in imagery of goal or objective to, toward (Just., A II, 7, 6 ἐπʼ ἀμφότερα τρέπεσθαι) ἐπιστρέφειν, ἐπιστρέφεσθαι ἐ. τινα turn to (Dt 30:10; 31:20 al.; Ar. 2, 1 ἔλθωμεν καὶ ἐ. τὸ ἀνθρώπινον γένος ‘let us now turn to …’; Just., D. 56, 11 ἐ. τὰς γραφὰς ἐπανελθών) Lk 1:17; Ac 9:35; 11:21; 14:15; 26:20; Gal 4:9; 1 Pt 2:25.
    marker of manner, corresponding to an adv., w. dat. (Aeschyl., Suppl. 628 ἐπʼ ἀληθείᾳ; UPZ 162 VI, 3 [117 B.C.] κακοτρόπως καὶ ἐ. ῥαδιουργίᾳ; POxy 237 VI, 21 ἐ. τῇ τῶν ἀνθρ. σωτηρίᾳ; ἐφʼ ὁράσει En 14:8; Just., A I, 9, 3 ἐφʼ ὕβρει; 55, 7 ἐ. τούτῳ τῷ σχήματι ‘in this form’; Tat. 17, 1 ἐπʼ ἀκριβείᾳ; Ath. 33, 2 ἐφʼ ἑνὶ γάμῳ) ὁ σπείρων ἐπʼ εὐλογίαις (in contrast to ὁ σπείρων φειδομένως one who sows sparingly) one who sows in blessing (i.e. generously) 2 Cor 9:6. ἐπʼ εὐλογίαις θερίζειν reap generously ibid.
    marker of basis for a state of being, action, or result, on, w. dat. (Hom. et al.)
    ἐπʼ ἄρτῳ ζῆν live on bread Mt 4:4; Lk 4:4 (both Dt 8:3. cp. Ps.-Pla., Alcib. 1, 105c; Plut., Mor. 526d; Alciphron 3, 7, 5; SibOr 4, 154). ἐ. τῷ ῥήματί σου depending on your word Lk 5:5. οὐ συνῆκαν ἐ. τοῖς ἄρτοις they did not arrive at an understanding (of it) (by reflecting) on (the miracle of) the loaves Mk 6:52 (cp. Demosth. 18, 121 τί σαυτὸν οὐκ ἐλλεβορίζεις ἐ. τούτοις [sc. λόγοις];=why do you not come to an understanding concerning these words?). ἐ. τῇ πίστει on the basis of faith Ac 3:16; Phil 3:9. ἐπʼ ἐλπίδι on the basis of hope, supporting itself on hope Ac 2:26 (? s. ἐλπίς 1bα); Ro 4:18; 8:20; 1 Cor 9:10; Tit 1:2.—Ac 26:6 ἐπʼ ἐλπίδι gives the basis of the trial at law, as does ἐ. εὐεργεσίᾳ 4:9. ἀπολύειν τ. γυναῖκα ἐ. πορνείᾳ Mt 19:9 (cp. Dio Chrys. 26 [43], 10 ἀπολύειν ἐπʼ ἀργυρίῳ; Ath. 2, 3 κρίνεσθαι … μὴ ἐ. τῷ ὀνόματι, ἐ. δὲ τῷ ἀδικήματι). γυναικὸς ἐ. πόλλαις ἁμαρτίαις διαβληθείσης Papias (2:17). On the basis of the testimony of two witnesses (cp. Appian, Iber. 79 §343 ἤλεγχον ἐ. μάρτυσι) Hb 10:28 (Dt 17:6); sim. use of ἐ. τινί on the basis of someth.: 8:6; 9:10, 15 (here it may also be taken in the temporal sense; s. 18 below), 17. ἁμαρτάνειν ἐ. τῷ ὁμοιώματι τ. παραβάσεως Ἀδάμ Ro 5:14 (ὁμοίωμα 1). δαπανᾶν ἐ. τινι pay the expenses for someone Ac 21:24. ἀρκεῖσθαι ἐ. τινι be content w. someth. 3J 10.
    w. verbs of believing, hoping, trusting: πεποιθέναι (Wsd 3:9; Sus 35; 1 Macc 10:71; 2 Macc 7:40 and oft.) Lk 11:22; 18:9; 2 Cor 1:9; Hb 2:13 (2 Km 22:3). πιστεύειν Lk 24:25; Ro 9:33; 10:11; 1 Pt 2:6 (the last three Is 28:16). ἐλπίζειν (2 Macc 2:18; Sir 34:7) Ro 15:12 (Is 11:10); 1 Ti 4:10; 6:17; cp. 1J 3:3. παρρησιάζεσθαι Ac 14:3.
    after verbs which express feelings, opinions, etc.: at, because of, from, with (Hom. et al.) διαταράσσεσθαι Lk 1:29. ἐκθαυμάζειν Mk 12:17. ἐκπλήσσεσθαι Mt 7:28; Mk 1:22; Lk 4:32; Ac 13:12. ἐξίστασθαι (Jdth 11:16; Wsd 5:2 al.) Lk 2:47. ἐπαισχύνεσθαι (Is 1:29) Ro 6:21. εὐφραίνεσθαι (Sir 16:1; 18:32; 1 Macc 11:44) Rv 18:20. θαμβεῖσθαι Mk 10:24; cp. Lk 5:9; Ac 3:10. θαυμάζειν (Lev 26:32; Jdth 10:7 al.; Jos., Ant. 10, 277) Mk 12:17 v.l. μακροθυμεῖν (Sir 18:11; 29:8; 35:19) Mt 18:26, 29; Lk 18:7; Js 5:7. μετανοεῖν (Plut., Ag. 803 [19, 5]; Ps.-Lucian, Salt. 84; Prayer of Manasseh [=Odes 12] 7; Just., A I, 61, 10; D. 95, 3 al.) 2 Cor 12:21. ὀδυνᾶσθαι (cp. Tob 6:15) Ac 20:38. ὀργίζεσθαι Rv 12:17. σπλαγχνίζεσθαι Mt 14:14; Lk 7:13. συλλυπεῖσθαι Mk 3:5. στυγνάζειν 10:22. χαίρειν (PEleph 13, 3; Jos., Ant. 1, 294; Tob 13:15; Bar 4:33; JosAs 4:2; Ar. 15, 7) Mt 18:13; Lk 1:14; 13:17; Ro 16:19 al. χαρὰν καὶ παράκλησιν ἔχειν Phlm 7. χαρὰ ἔσται Lk 15:7; cp. vs. 10 (Jos., Ant. 6, 116 ἡ ἐ. τῇ νίκῃ χαρά). Also w. verbs that denote aroused feelings παραζηλοῦν and παροργίζειν make jealous and angry at Ro 10:19 (Dt 32:21). παρακαλεῖν 1 Th 3:7a (cp. Just., D. 78:8 παράκλησιν ἐχουσῶν ἐ.), as well as those verbs that denote an expression of the emotions ἀγαλλιᾶσθαι (cp. Tob 13:15; Ps 69:5) Lk 1:47; Hs 8, 1, 18; 9, 24, 2. καυχᾶσθαι (Diod S 16, 70; Sir 30:2) Ro 5:2. κοπετὸν ποιεῖν (cp. 3 Macc 4:3) Ac 8:2. ὀλολύζειν Js 5:1. αἰνεῖν (cp. X., An. 3, 1, 45 al.) Lk 2:20. δοξάζειν (Polyb. 6, 53, 10; cp. Diod S 17, 21, 4 δόξα ἐ. ἀνδρείᾳ=fame because of bravery) Ac 4:21; 2 Cor 9:13. εὐχαριστεῖν give thanks for someth. (s. εὐχαριστέω 2; UPZ 59, 10 [168 B.C.] ἐ. τῷ ἐρρῶσθαί σε τ. θεοῖς εὐχαρίστουν) 1 Cor 1:4; cp. 2 Cor 9:15; 1 Th 3:9.—ἐφʼ ᾧ = ἐπὶ τούτῳ ὅτι for this reason that, because (Diod S 19, 98; Appian, Bell. Civ. 1, 112 §520; Ael. Aristid. 53 p. 640 D.; Synes., Ep. 73 p. 221c; Damasc., Vi. Isid. 154; Syntipas p. 12, 9; 127, 8; Thomas Mag. ἐφʼ ᾧ ἀντὶ τοῦ διότι; cp. W-S. §24, 5b and 12f. S. WKümmel, D. Bild des Menschen im NT ’48, 36–40) Ro 5:12 (SLyonnet, Biblica 36, ’55, 436–56 [denies a causal sense here]. On the probability of commercial idiom s. FDanker, FGingrich Festschr. ’72, 104f, also Ro 5:12, Sin under Law: NTS 14, ’68, 424–39; against him SPorter, TynBull 41, ’90, 3–30, also NTS 39, ’93, 321–33; difft. JFitzmyer, Anchor Bible Comm.: Romans, ad loc. ‘w. the result that all have sinned’); 2 Cor 5:4; Phil 3:12; for, indeed 4:10.
    marker of addition to what is already in existence, to, in addition to. W. dat. (Hom. et al.; PEleph 5, 17 [284/283 B.C.] μηνὸς Τῦβι τρίτῃ ἐπʼ εἰκάδι; Tob 2:14; Sir 3:27; 5:5) προσέθηκεν τοῦτο ἐ. πᾶσιν he added this to everything else Lk 3:20 (cp. Lucian, Luct. [On Funerals], 24). ἐ. τ. παρακλήσει ἡμῶν in addition to our comfort 2 Cor 7:13. λύπη ἐ. λύπῃ grief upon grief Phil 2:27 v.l. (cp. Soph., Oed. C. 544, also Polyb. 1, 57, 1 πληγὴ ἐ. πληγῇ; Plut., Mor. 123f; Polyaenus 5, 52 ἐ. φόνῳ φόνον; Quint. Smyrn. 5, 602 ἐ. πένθει πένθος=sorrow upon sorrow; Sir 26:15). ἐ. τῇ σῇ εὐχαριστίᾳ to your prayer of thanks 1 Cor 14:16. So perh. also Hb 8:1. ἐ. πᾶσι τούτοις to all these Col 3:14; Lk 16:26 v.l. (X., Mem. 1, 2, 25 al.; Sir 37:15; cp. 1 Macc 10:42; Just., D. 133, 1 ἐ. τούτοις πᾶσι).—W. acc.: addition to someth. of the same kind Mt 6:27; Lk 12:25; Rv 22:18a. λύπην ἐ. λύπην sorrow upon sorrow Phil 2:27 (cp. Is 28:10, 13; Ezk 7:26; Ps 68:28).
    marker of perspective, in consideration of, in regard to, on the basis of, concerning, about, w. gen. (Antig. Car. 164 ἐ. τῶν οἴνων ἀλλοιοῦσθαι; 4 Macc. 2:9 ἐ. τῶν ἑτέρων … ἔστιν ἐπιγνῶναι τοῦτο, ὅτι …; Ath. 29, 2 τὰ ἐ. τῆς μανίας πάθη) ἐ. δύο ἢ τριῶν μαρτύρων on the evidence of two or three witnesses 1 Ti 5:19 (cp. TestAbr A 13 p. 92, 22ff. [Stone p. 32]). Sim. in the expr. ἐ. στόματος δύο μαρτύρων (Dt 19:15) Mt 18:16; 2 Cor 13:1. ἐπʼ αὐτῆς on the basis of it Hb 7:11. ἐπʼ ἀληθείας based on truth = in accordance w. truth, truly (Demosth. 18, 17 ἐπʼ ἀληθείας οὐδεμιᾶς εἰρημένα; POxy 255, 16 [48 A.D.]; Da 2:8; Tob 8:7; En 104:11) Mk 12:14, 32; Lk 4:25; 20:21; Ac 4:27. ἐφʼ ἑαυτοῦ based on himself = to or by himself (X., An. 2, 4, 10; Demosth. 18, 224 ἐκρίνετο ἐφʼ ἑαυτοῦ; Dionys. Hal., Comp. Verb. 16 ἐ. σεαυτοῦ. Cp. Kühner-G. I 498e) 2 Cor 10:7.—To introduce the object which is to be discussed or acted upon λέγειν ἐ. τινος speak of, about someth. (Pla., Charm., 155d, Leg. 2, 662d; Isocr. 6, 41; Aelian, VH 1, 30; Jer 35:8; EpArist 162; 170; Ath. 5:1 ἐ. τοῦ νοητοῦ … δογματίζειν) Gal 3:16. Do someth. on, in the case of (cp. 1 Esdr 1:22) σημεῖα ποιεῖν ἐ. τῶν ἀσθενούντων work miracles on the sick J 6:2.—On B 13:6 s. τίθημι 1bζ.—In ref. to someth. (Aristot., Pol. 1280a, 17; 4 Macc 12:5 τῶν ἐ. τῆς βασιλείας … πραγμάτων; Just., A I, 5, 1 ἐφʼ ἡμῶν ‘in our case’, D. 131, 4; Ath. 15, 3 ἐ. τῆς ὕλης καὶ τοῦ θεοῦ ‘as respects God and matter, so …’) ἐ. τινων δεῖ ἐγκρατεύεσθαι in certain matters one must practice self-control Hm 8:1. οὔτε … οἴδασι τὸν ἐ. τοῦ πυροῦ σπόρον nor do they comprehend (the figurative sense of) the sowing of wheat AcPlCor 2:26 (cp. 1 Cor 15:36f).
    marker of power, authority, control of or over someone or someth., over
    w. gen. (Hdt. 5, 109 al.; Mitt-Wilck. I/1, 124, 1=BGU 1120, 1 [5 B.C.] πρωτάρχῳ ἐ. τοῦ κριτηρίου; 287, 1; LXX; AscIs 2:5 τοῦ ἐ. τῶν πραγματε[ι] ῶν=Denis p. 109) βασιλεύειν ἐ. τινος (Judg 9:8, 10; 1 Km 8:7) Rv 5:10. ἔχειν βασιλείαν ἐ. τῶν βασιλέων 17:18. ἐξουσίαν ἔχειν ἐ. τινος have power over someone 20:6. διδόναι ἐξουσίαν ἐ. τινος 2:26. καθιστάναι τινὰ ἐ. τινος set someone over, put someone in charge, of someth. or someone (Pla., Rep. 5, 460b; Demosth. 18, 118; Gen 39:4f; 1 Macc 6:14; 10:37; 2 Macc 12:20 al.; EpArist 281; τεταγμένος En 20:5) Mt 24:45; Lk 12:42; Ac 6:3. εἶναι ἐ. τινος (Synes., Ep. 79 p. 224d; Tob 1:22; Jdth 14:13; 1 Macc 10:69) ὸ̔ς ἦν ἐ. πάσης τῆς γάζης αὐτῆς who was in charge of all her treasure 8:27. Of God ὁ ὢν ἐ. πάντων (Apollonius of Tyana [I A.D.] in Eus., PE 4, 13) Ro 9:5; cp. Eph 4:6. ὁ ἐ. τινος w. ὤν to be supplied (Demosth. 18, 247 al.; Diod S 13, 47, 6; Plut., Pyrrh. 385 [5, 7], Aemil. Paul. 267 [23, 6]; PTebt 5, 88 [118 B.C.] ὁ ἐ. τ. προσόδων; 1 Macc 6:28; 2 Macc 3:7; 3 Macc 6:30 al.; EpArist 110; 174) ὁ ἐ. τοῦ κοιτῶνος the chamberlain Ac 12:20.
    w dat. (X., Cyr. 1, 2, 5; 2, 4, 25 al., An. 4, 1, 13; Demosth. 19, 113; Aeschines 2, 73; Esth 8:12e; Just., A II, 5, 2 ἀγγέλοις οὓς ἐ. τούτοις ἔταξε; cp. Ath. 24, 3; Ath. 6, 4 τὸν ἐ. τῇ κινήσει τοῦ σώματος λόγον) Mt 24:47; Lk 12:44.
    w. acc. (X., Hell. 3, 4, 20 al.; Dionys. Byz. §56 θεῷ ἐ. πάντα δύναμις; LXX; PsSol 17:3, 32) βασιλεύειν ἐ. τινα rule over someone (Gen 37:8; Judg 9:15 B al.) Lk 1:33; 19:14, 27; Ro 5:14. καθιστάναι τινὰ ἐ. τινα set someone over someone (X., Cyr. 4, 5, 58) κριτὴν ἐφʼ ὑμᾶς as judge over you Lk 12:14; ἡγούμενον ἐπʼ Αἴγυπτον Ac 7:10; cp. Hb 2:7 v.l. (Ps 8:7); 3:6; 10:21. ἐξουσίαν ἔχειν ἐ. τι Rv 16:9. ἐξουσίαν διδόναι ἐ. τι (Sir 33:20) Lk 9:1; 10:19; Rv 6:8; cp. 22:14. φυλάσσειν φυλακὰς ἐ. τι Lk 2:8 (cp. En 100:5). ὑπεραίρεσθαι ἐ. τινα exalt oneself above someone 2 Th 2:4 (cp. Da 11:36); but here the mng. against is also poss. (s. 12b below). πιστὸς ἐ. τι faithful over someth. Mt 25:21, 23.
    marker of legal proceeding, before, w. acc. in the lang. of the law-courts ἐ. ἡγεμόνας καὶ βασιλεῖς ἄγεσθαι be brought before governors and kings Mt 10:18; cp. Lk 21:12 (cp. BGU 22, 36 [114 A.D.] ἀξιῶ ἀκθῆναι [=ἀχθῆναι] τ. ἐνκαλουμένους ἐ. σὲ πρὸς δέουσαν ἐπέξοδον; Just., A II, 2, 12 ἐ. Οὔρβικον). ὑπάγεις ἐπʼ ἄρχοντα you are going before the magistrate Lk 12:58; cp. Ac 16:19. ἤγαγον αὐτὸν ἐ. τὸν Πιλᾶτον Lk 23:1. ἐ. τοὺς ἀρχιερεῖς Ac 9:21. ἐ. Καίσαρα πορεύεσθαι come before the emperor 25:12. ἐ. τὰς συναγωγάς Lk 12:11. ἐ. τὸ βῆμα Ac 18:12. Cp. 3 above. Here the focus is on transfer to the judiciary.
    marker of purpose, goal, result, to, for, w. acc. (Demetr.: 722 Fgm. 2, 3 Jac. ἐ. κατοικίαν) ἐ. τὸ βάπτισμα for baptism=to have themselves baptized Mt 3:7 (cp. Just., A I, 61, 10 ἐ. τὸ λουτρόν; D. 56, 1 ἐ. τὴν … κρίσιν πεμφθεῖσι). ἐ. τὴν θεωρίαν ταύτην for (i.e. to see) this sight Lk 23:48 (sim. Hom. et al.; POxy 294, 18 [22 A.D.]; LXX; Tat. 23, 2 ἐ. τὴν θέαν). ἐ. τὸ συμφέρον to (our) advantage Hb 12:10 (cp. Tat. 6, 1; 34, 2 οὐκ ἐ. τι χρήσιμον ‘to no purpose’). ἐ. σφαγήν Ac 8:32 (Is 53:7); cp. Mt 22:5; ἐ. τ. τελειότητα Hb 6:1. ἐ. τοῦτο for this (X., An. 2, 5, 22; Jos., Ant. 12, 23) Lk 4:43. ἐφʼ ὅ; for what (reason)? Mt 26:50 v.l. (s. ὅς 1bα and 1iβ). Cp. 16.
    marker of hostile opposition, against
    w. dat. (Hom. et al.; 2 Macc 13:19; Sir 28:23 v.l.; fig. Ath. 22, 7 τοὺς ἐπʼ αὐτοῖς λόγους ‘counter-evidence’) Lk 12:52f (s. use of acc. b below); Ac 11:19. Cp. J 8:7 v.l. (1bβ above).
    w. acc. (Hdt. 1, 71; X., Hell. 3, 4, 20 al.; Jos., Ant. 13, 331; LXX; En; TestJud 3:1 al.; JosAs 19:2; Just., D. 103, 7; Tat. 36, 2) ὥρμησαν ἐ. αὐτόν Ac 7:57. ἔρχεσθαι Lk 14:31. ἐπαναστήσονται τέκνα ἐ. γονεῖς Mt 10:21; Mk 13:12; cp. ἔθνος ἐ. ἔθνος Mt 24:7; Mk 13:8. ἐφʼ ἑαυτόν divided against himself Mt 12:26; Mk 3:24f, 26; Lk 11:17f; cp. J 13:18 (s. Ps 40:10); Ac 4:27; 13:50 al.—Lk 12:53 (4 times; the first and third occurrences w. the acc. are prob. influenced by usage in Mic 7:6; the use of the dat. Lk 12:52f [s. a above] w. a verb expressing a circumstance is in accord with older Gk. [Il. et al.], which prefers the acc. with verbs of motion in ref. to hostility). Cp. 15.
    marker of number or measure, w. acc. (Hdt. et. al.; LXX; GrBar 3:6) ἐ. τρίς (CIG 1122, 9; PHolm α18) three times Ac 10:16; 11:10. So also ἐ. πολύ more than once Hm 4, 1, 8. ἐ. πολύ (also written ἐπιπολύ) in a different sense to a great extent, carefully (Hdt., Thu. et al.; Lucian, D. Deor. 6, 2; 25, 2; 3 Macc 5:17; Jos., Ant. 17, 107) B 4:1. ἐ. πλεῖον to a greater extent, further (Hdt., Thu. et al.; Diod S 11, 60, 5 al.; prob. 2 Macc 12:36; TestGad 7:2; Ar. 4, 3; Ath. 7, 1 ἐ. το πλεῖστον) 2 Ti 3:9; 1 Cl 18:3 (Ps 50:4). ἐ. τὸ χεῖρον 2 Ti 3:13. ἐφʼ ὅσον to the degree that, in so far as (Diod S 1, 93, 2; Maximus Tyr. 11, 3c ἐφʼ ὅσον δύναται; Hierocles 14 p. 451) Mt 25:40, 45; B 4:11; 17:1; Ro 11:13.
    marker indicating the one to whom, for whom, or about whom someth. is done, to, on, about
    w. dat. πράσσειν τι ἐ. τινι do someth. to someone Ac 5:35 (thus Appian, Bell. Civ. 3, 15 §51; cp. δρᾶν τι ἐ. τινι Hdt. 3, 14; Aelian, NA 11, 11); about γεγραμμένα ἐπʼ αὐτῷ J 12:16 (cp. Hdt. 1, 66). προφητεύειν ἐ. τινι Rv 10:11. μαρτυρεῖν bear witness about Hb 11:4; Rv 22:16. ἐ. σοὶ … φανερώσει κύριος τὸ λύτρον the Lord will reveal the salvation to you GJs 7:2.
    w. acc.
    α. ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἐφʼ ὸ̔ν γεγόνει τὸ σημεῖον the man on whom the miracle had been performed Ac 4:22 (cp. Just., D. 128, 1 κρίσεως γεγενημένης ἐ. Σόδομα). ἐφʼ ὸ̔ν λέγεται ταῦτα the one about whom this was said Hb 7:13 (cp. ἐ. πόρρω οὖσαν [γενεὰν] ἐγὼ λαλῶ En 1:2). γέγραπται ἐπʼ αὐτόν Mk 9:12f; cp. Ro 4:9; 1 Ti 1:18; βάλλειν κλῆρον ἐ. τι for someth. Mk 15:24; J 19:24 (Ps 21:19). ἀνέβη ὁ κλῆρος ἐ. Συμεών the lot came up in favor of Simeon GJs 24:4.
    β. of powers, conditions, etc., which come upon someone or under whose influence someone is: on, upon, to, over ἐγένετο ῥῆμα θεοῦ ἐ. Ἰωάννην the word of God came to John Lk 3:2 (cp. Jer 1:1). Of divine blessings (cp. En 1:8; ParJer 5:28) Mt 10:13; 12:28; Lk 10:6; 11:20; cp. 10:9; Ac 10:10. ἵνα ἐπισκηνώσῃ ἐπʼ ἐμὲ ἡ δύναμις τ. Χριστοῦ that the power of Christ may rest upon me 2 Cor 12:9. χάρις θεοῦ ἦν ἐπʼ αὐτό Lk 2:40. Various verbs are used in ref. to the Holy Spirit, either in pass. or act. role, in connection w. ἐ. τινα: ἐκχεῖν Ac 2:17f (Jo 3:1f); cp. 10:45; Tit 3:6. ἀποστέλλειν (ἐξαποστέλλειν v.l.) Lk 24:49. ἐπέρχεσθαι 1:35; Ac 1:8 (Just., D. 87, 3; cp. ἔρχεσθαι A I, 33, 6; D. 49, 7 ἀπὸ τοῦ Ἠλίου ἐ. τὸν Ἰωάννην ἐλθεῖν). ἐπιπίπτειν 10:44. καταβαίνειν Lk 3:22; J 1:33. τίθεσθαι Mt 12:18 (cp. Is 42:1). Also εἶναι Lk 2:25. μένειν J 1:32f. ἀναπαύεσθαι 1 Pt 4:14. Of unpleasant or startling experiences Lk 1:12, 65; 4:36; Ac 13:11; 19:17; Rv 11:11.—Lk 19:43; 21:35, cp. vs. 34; J 18:4; Eph 5:6; cp. Rv 3:3.—Ro 2:2, 9; 15:3 (Ps 68:10). Of the blood of the righteous, that comes over or upon the murderers Mt 23:35; 27:25; Ac 5:28. Of care, which one casts on someone else 1 Pt 5:7 (Ps 54:23).
    marker of feelings directed toward someone, in, on, for, toward, w. acc., after words that express belief, trust, hope: πιστεύειν ἐ. τινα, w. acc. (Wsd 12:2; Just., D. 16:4 al.) Ac 9:42; 11:17; 16:31; 22:19; Ro 4:24. πίστις Hb 6:1. πεποιθέναι (Is 58:14) Mt 27:43; 2 Th 3:4; 2 Cor 2:3. ἐλπίζειν (1 Ch 5:20; 2 Ch 13:18 al.; PsSol 9:10; 17:3; Just., D. 16:4 al.) 1 Pt 1:13; 1 Ti 5:5. After words that characterize an emotion or its expression: for κόπτεσθαι (Zech 12:10) Rv 1:7; 18:9. κλαίειν Lk 23:28; Rv 18:9 (cp. JosAs 15:9 χαρήσεται ἐ. σέ). σπλαγχνίζεσθαι Mt 15:32; Mk 8:2; 9:22; Hm 4, 3, 5; Hs 9, 24, 2. χρηστός toward Lk 6:35. χρηστότης Ro 11:22; Eph 2:7; cp. Ro 9:23. Esp. also if the feelings or their expressions are of a hostile nature: toward, against (cp. λοιδορεῖν Just., D. 137, 2) ἀποτομία Ro 11:22. μαρτύριον Lk 9:5. μάρτυς ἐ. τ. ἐμὴν ψυχήν a witness against my soul (cp. Dssm., LO 258; 355 [LAE 304; 417]) 2 Cor 1:23. ἀσχημονεῖν 1 Cor 7:36. μοιχᾶσθαι Mk 10:11. τολμᾶν 2 Cor 10:2 (En 7:4). βρύχειν τ. ὀδόντας Ac 7:54. Cp. 12.
    marker of object or purpose, with dat. in ref. to someth. (Hom., Thu. et al.; SIG 888, 5 ἐ. τῇ τῶν ἀνθρ. σωτηρίᾳ; PTebt 44, 6 [114 B.C.] ὄντος μου ἐ. θεραπείᾳ ἐν τῷ Ἰσιείω; LXX; TestJob 3:5 ὁ ἐ. τῇ σωτηρίᾳ τῆς ἐμῆς ψυχῆς ἐλθών; Jos., Ant. 5, 101; Just., A I, 29, 1 ἐ. παίδων ἀναστροφῇ; D. 91, 4 ἐ. σωτηρίᾳ τῶν πιστευόντων) καλείν τινα ἐ. τινι call someone for someth. Gal 5:13 (on ἐπʼ ἐλευθερίᾳ cp. Demosth. 23, 124; [59], 32); ἐ. ἀκαθαρσίᾳ for impurity, i.e. so that we should be impure 1 Th 4:7. κτισθέντες ἐ. ἔργοις ἀγαθοῖς for good deeds Eph 2:10. λογομαχεῖν ἐ. καταστροφῇ τῶν ἀκουόντων for the ruin of those who hear 2 Ti 2:14 (cp. Eur., Hipp. 511; X., Mem. 2, 3, 19 ἐ. βλάβη; Hdt. 1, 68 ἐ. κακῷ ἀνθρώπου; Polyb. 27, 7, 13 and PGM 4, 2440 ἐπʼ ἀγαθῷ=‘for good’). Cp. 11.
    marker in idiom of authorization, w. dat.: the formula ἐ. τῷ ὀνοματί τινος, in the name of someone, used w. many verbs (Just., D. 39, 6 w. γίνεσθαι, otherw. ἐ. ὀνόματος, e.g. A I, 61, 13; w. διὰ τοῦ ὀ. and in oaths κατὰ τοῦ ὀ. A II, 6, 6, D. 30, 3; 85, 2.—Ath. 23, 1 ἐ. ὀνόματι εἰδώλων.—ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι LXX; JosAs 9:1), focuses on the authorizing function of the one named in the gen. (cp. WHeitmüller [‘Im Namen Jesu’ 1903, 13ff], ‘in connection with, or by the use of, i.e. naming, or calling out, or calling upon the name’ [88]): βαπτίζειν Ac 2:38. δέχεσθαί τινα Mt 18:5; Mk 9:37; Lk 9:48. διδάσκειν Ac 4:18; 5:28. δύναμιν ποιεῖν Mk 9:39. ἐκβάλλειν δαιμόνια Lk 9:49 v.l. ἔρχεσθαι Mt 24:5; Mk 13:6; Lk 21:8. κηρύσσειν 24:47. λαλεῖν Ac 4:17; 5:40. Semantically divergent from the preceding, but formulaically analogous, is καλεῖν τινα ἐ. τῷ ὀν. τινος name someone after someone (2 Esdr 17:63) Lk 1:59.—ὄνομα 1dγג.—M-M.
    marker of temporal associations, in the time of, at, on, for
    w. gen., time within which an event or condition takes place (Hom.+) in the time of, under (kings or other rulers): in the time of Elisha Lk 4:27 (cp. Just., D. 46, 6 ἐ. Ἠλίου). ἐ. τῆς μετοικεσίας at the time of the exile Mt 1:11. Under=during the rule or administration of (Hes., Op. 111; Hdt. 6, 98 al.; OGI 90, 15; PAmh 43, 2 [173 B.C.]; UPZ 162 V, 5 [117 B.C.]; 1 Esdr 2:12; 1 Macc 13:42; 2 Macc 15:22; Jos., Ant. 12, 156 ἐ. ἀρχιερέως Ὀ.) ἐ. Ἀβιαθὰρ ἀρχιερέως under, in the time of, Abiathar the high priest Mk 2:26. ἐ. ἀρχιερέως Ἅννα καὶ Καιάφα Lk 3:2. ἐ. Κλαυδίου Ac 11:28 (Just., A I, 26, 2). ἐ. τῶν πατέρων in the time of the fathers 1 Cl 23:3. ἐπʼ ἐσχάτων τῶν ἡμερῶν in the last days (Gen 49:1; Num 24:14; Mi 4:1; Jer 37:24; Da 10:14) 2 Pt 3:3; Hs 9, 12, 3; cp. Hb 1:2. ἐπʼ ἐσχάτου τοῦ χρόνου in the last time Jd 18. ἐπʼ ἐσχάτου τῶν χρόνων at the end of the times/ages 1 Pt 1:20. ἐ. τῶν προσευχῶν μου when I pray, in my prayers (cp. PTebt 58, 31 [111 B.C.] ἐ. τ. διαλόγου, ‘in the discussion’; 4 Macc 15:19 ἐ. τ. βασάνων ‘during the tortures’; Sir 37:29; 3 Macc 5:40; Demetr.: 722, Fgm. 1, 14 Jac. ἐ. τοῦ ἀρίστου; Synes., Ep. 121 p. 258c ἐ. τῶν κοινῶν ἱερῶν) Ro 1:10; Eph 1:16; 1 Th 1:2; Phlm 4.
    w. dat., time at or during which (Hom. et al.; PTebt 5, 66 [118 B.C.]; PAmh 157; LXX; Just., A I, 13, 3 ἐ. χρόνοις Τίερίου) at, in, at the time of, during: ἐ. τοῖς νῦν χρόνοις in these present times 2 Cl 19:4. ἐ. τῇ πρώτῃ διαθήκῃ at the time of the first covenant Hb 9:15. ἐ. συντελείᾳ τ. αἰώνων at the close of the age 9:26 (Tat. 13, 1 ἐ. ς. τοῦ κόσμου; cp. Sir 22:10 and PLond III, 954, 18 p. 154 [260 A.D.] ἐ. τέλει τ. χρόνου; POxy 275, 20 [66 A.D.] ἐ. συνκλεισμῷ τ. χρόνου; En 27:3 ἐπʼ ἐσχάτοις αἰώσιν). ἐ. τῇ θυσίᾳ at the time of, together with, the sacrifice Phil 2:17. ἐ. πάσῃ τῇ μνείᾳ ὑμῶν at every remembrance of you Phil 1:3. ἐ. παροργισμῷ ὑμῶν during your wrath, i.e. while you are angry Eph 4:26. ἐ. πάσῃ τῇ ἀνάγκῃ in all (our) distress 1 Th 3:7b. ἐ. πάσῃ τῇ θλίψει 2 Cor 1:4. ἐ. τούτῳ in the meanwhile J 4:27 (Lucian, Dial. Deor. 17, 2, cp. Philops. 14 p. 41; Syntipas p. 76, 2 ἐφʼ ἡμέραις ἑπτα; 74, 6).
    w. acc.
    α. answering the question ‘when?’ on: ἐ. τὴν αὔριον (Sb 6011, 14 [I B.C.]; PRyl 441 ἐ. τὴν ἐπαύριον) (on) the next day Lk 10:35; Ac 4:5. ἐ. τὴν ὥραν τ. προσευχῆς at the hour of prayer 3:1 (Polyaenus 8, 17 ἐ. ὥραν ὡρισμένην).
    β. answering the qu. ‘how long?’ for, over a period of (Hom. et al.; Mitt-Wilck. II/2, 170, 8=BGU 1058, 9 [13 B.C.]; POxy 275, 9; 15 ἐ. τὸν ὅλον χρόνον; PTebt 381, 19 ἐφʼ ὸ̔ν χρόνον περίεστιν ἡ μήτηρ; LXX; En 106:15; TestJob 30:2 ἐ. ὥρας τρεῖς; TestJud 3:4; TestGad 5:11; Jos., Ant. 11, 2; Just., D. 142, 1 ἐ. ποσόν ‘for awhile’) ἐ. ἔτη τρία for three years (Phlegon: 257 Fgm. 36, 2, 1 Jac.) Lk 4:25. ἐ. τρεῖς ἡμέρας for three days (Diod S 13, 19, 2; Arrian, Anab. 4, 9, 4; GDI 4706, 119 [Thera] ἐπʼ ἀμέρας τρεῖς) GPt 8:30 al. ἐ. ἡμέρας πλείους over a period of many days (Jos., Ant. 4, 277) Ac 13:31.—16:18 (ἐ. πολλὰς ἡμέρας as Appian, Liby. 29 §124; cp. Diod S 3, 16, 4); 17:2; 19:8, 10, 34; 27:20; Hb 11:30. ἐ. χρόνον for a while (cp. Il. 2, 299; Hdt. 9, 22, 1; Apollon. Rhod. 4, 1257; Jos., Vi. 2) Lk 18:4. ἐ. πλείονα χρόνον (Diod S 3, 16, 6; Hero Alex. I p. 344, 17) Ac 18:20. ἐφʼ ὅσον χρόνον as long as Ro 7:1; 1 Cor 7:39; Gal 4:1. Also ἐφʼ ὅσον as long as Mt 9:15; 2 Pt 1:13 (for other mngs. of ἐφʼ ὅσον s. above under 13). ἐφʼ ἱκανόν (sc. χρόνον) for a considerable time (EpArist 109) Ac 20:11. ἐ. χρόνον ἱκανόν Qua. ἐ. πολύ for a long time, throughout a long period of time (Thu. 1, 7; 1, 18, 1; 2, 16, 1 al.; Appian, Liby. 5 §21; Arrian, Cyneg. 23, 1; Lucian, Toxar. 20; Wsd 18:20; Sir 49:13; JosAs 19:3; Jos., Vi. 66: Just., A I, 65, 3) Ac 28:6. ἐ. πλεῖον the same (schol. on Pind., N. 7, 56b; PLille 3, 16 [III B.C.]; Jdth 13:1; Sir prol. l. 7; Jos., Ant. 18, 150) Ac 20:9; any longer (Lucian, D. Deor. 5, 3; Appian, Hann. 54 §227; 3 Macc 5:8; Wsd 8:12; Ath. 12, 3) Ac 24:4; 1 Cl 55:1.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἐπί

  • 754 ἐπιδείκνυμι

    ἐπιδείκνυμι fut. ἐπιδείξω; 1 aor. ἐπέδειξα; pf. ptc. ἐπιδεδειχώς (Ath. 20, 1); pass. ptc. ἐπιδεδειγμένους 3 Macc 6:26 v.l. (Pind., Hdt.+)
    to cause to be seen, show, point out τινί τι someth. to someone (IAndrosIsis, Kyme 22 Ἐγὼ μυήσεις ἀνθρώποις ἐπέδειξα I [Isis] made humans acquainted w. initiations [into mystery rites]; Jos., Ant. 10, 31) Mt 22:19; 24:1. τὰς χεῖρας καὶ τοὺς πόδας Lk 24:40 v.l.; μαρτύριον MPol 1:1. ἐ. ἑαυτόν τινι show oneself to someone Lk 17:14 (Appian, Mithrid. 89 §407 Ἀλέξανδρος αὑτὸν ἐπέδειξεν). ἐ. τινὶ σημεῖον ἐκ. τ. οὐρανοῦ show someone (=do in someone’s presence) a sign from heaven Mt 16:1; cp. GJs 8:3. ἵνα μοι ἐπιδείξῃ ὸ̔ ἐπηγγείλατο ὅραμα so that you may grant me sight of the promised vision Hv 3, 2, 3. Without dat. ὅλον ἑαυτὸν ἐπιδίξας revealing himself completely (a lion) AcPl Ha 4, 29. Also the mid. in the same mng. show τ. φυλάρχοις τὰς σφραγῖδας (cp. SIG 1157, 46f) 1 Cl 43:5. The mid. is found in a special sense Ac 9:39 ἐπιδεικνύμεναι χιτῶνας, where the women show the garments on themselves, i.e. as they are wearing them (Socrat., Ep. 23, 3 τοιαῦτα ἐπιδεικνύμενοι=show such things on oneself).
    to claim a characteristic or quality for someth., represent, fig. extension of mng. 1 (Pla.; X., Symp. 3, 3 al.) τὸ ψεῦδός μου ἀληθὲς ἐπέδειξα my lies I represented as truth Hm 3:3.
    to demonstrate that someth. is true, demonstrate, show (Aristoph., Pla. et al.; Herm. Wr. 4, 7; PEleph 1, 7; PGiss 2 I, 24; LXX, esp. 4 Macc; Just., D. 24, 1) τὶ someth., give proof Hb 6:17. ἐ. ἑαυτόν reveal oneself Dg 8:5; cp. vs. 6. τινί w. indir. quest. foll. B 6:13. W. ὅτι foll. (Philo, Agr. 22) 5:7. W. διά τινος (Jos., C. Ap. 2, 1 διὰ τοῦ βιβλίου) θεὸς … διὰ γνώσεως ζωὴν ἐπιδεικνύς showing that life depends on knowledge Dg 12:3 and acc. foll. Ac 18:28. Likew. the mid. (oft. Philo) 1 Cl 24:1. W. ὅτι foll. MPol 2:2.—M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἐπιδείκνυμι

  • 755 ἐπισπάω

    ἐπισπάω (σπάω) in our lit. ἐ. only mid. (which is found Hdt.+; Herm. Wr., ins, pap, LXX; TestReub 5:1; JosAs 5:9 cod. A [p. 46, 2 Bat.]; Philo; Jos., Ant. 14, 424, C. Ap. 2, 31) fut. 3 pl. ἐπισπάσονται (TestReub 5:1); 1 aor. ἐπεσπασάμην LXX.
    to cause to come to oneself, draw to oneself lit. τινί τι an animal MPol 3:1 (cp. Diod S 17, 13, 2 ἐπισπᾶσθαι πληγάσ=draw the blows [of the enemies] to oneself [in order to die more quickly]).
    to be responsible for bringing someth. on oneself, bring upon, fig. ext. of 1 (Hdt. 3, 7, 72; Polyb. 3, 98, 8; Anth. Pal. 11, 340, 2 ἔχθραν; OGI 13, 6 τ. κρίσιν; Wsd 1:12) τί τινι someth. (on) someone αἰχμαλωτισμὸν ἑαυτοῖς bring captivity on themselves Hv 1, 1, 8. ἀσθένειαν τῇ σαρκὶ αὐτῶν v 3, 9, 3. μεγάλην ἁμαρτίαν ἑαυτῷ m 4, 1, 8. ἑαυτῷ λύπην Hs 9, 2, 6.
    medical t.t. to pull the foreskin over the end of the penis, pull over the foreskin (Soranus, Gynaec. 2, 34 p. 79, 1 of a nurse: ἐπισπάσθω τὴν ἀκροποσθίαν) to conceal circumcision 1 Cor 7:18 (this special use of the word is not found elsewh., not even 4 Macc 5:2, where ἐπισπᾶσθαι means ‘drag up’, as 10:12). On epispasm [rabbinic מָשַׁךְ], as done by Hellenizing Israelites, esp. ephebes, to undo their circumcision s. 1 Macc 1:15; Jos., Ant. 12, 241; Billerb. IV 33f; MHengel, Judaism and Hellenism ’74, I 74, II 51f, n. 138 [lit.]; RHall, Epispasm—Circumcision in Reverse: BR 18/4, ’92, 52–57.—M-M.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἐπισπάω

  • 756 ἐργάζομαι

    ἐργάζομαι impf. ἠργαζόμην (εἰργ-edd., Ac 18:3); fut. 2 sg. ἐργᾷ; 3 sg.; ἐργᾶται and 3 pl. ἐργῶνται (all LXX); 1 aor. εἰργασάμην ( 2J 8; other edd. ἠρ.); pf. 3 sg. εἴργασται LXX; ptc. εἰργασμένος (for augment s. Mayser 332; Meisterhans3-Schw. 171; B-D-F §67, 3; Moulton, ClR 15, 1901, p. 35f; Mlt-H. 189f); pass. fut. 3 sg. ἐργασθήσεται Ezk 36:34; En 10:18 (s. ἔργον and next entry; Hom.+).
    to engage in activity that involves effort, work, intr. work, be active (Hes., Hdt. et al.) D 12:3. ταῖς χερσίν work w. one’s hands 1 Cor 4:12 (ἐ. ἰδίαις χερσίν as Biogr. p. 253; on depreciation of manual labor cp. Jos., Ant. 17, 333); 1 Th 4:11 (s. ἴδιος 3a). Also διὰ τῶν χειρῶν B 19:10. νυκτὸς καὶ ἡμέρας work night and day 1 Th 2:9; 2 Th 3:8. ἐν τῷ ἀμπελῶνι in the vineyard Mt 21:28. Abs. Lk 13:14; J 9:4b; Ac 18:3; 1 Cor 9:6; 2 Th 3:10, 12. τῷ ἐργαζομένῳ to the worker Ro 4:4; cp. vs. 5 (ἐργαζόμενοι καλοί, OdeSol 11:20) and Lk 6:5 D (Unknown Sayings 49–54). Of God and Christ: work, be busy J 5:17 (cp. Maximus Tyr. 15, 6ef: Heracles must work without ceasing, since Zeus his father does the same).—Of financial enterprise: a sum of money (five talents) ἐ. ἐν αὐτοῖς do business/ trade with them (Demosth. 36, 44 ἐ. ἐν ἐμπορίῳ καὶ χρήμασιν) Mt 25:16.—MBalme, Attitudes to Work and Leisure in Ancient Greece: Greece and Rome 2d ser. 31, ’84, 140–52.
    to do or accomplish someth. through work, trans.
    do, accomplish, carry out w. acc. (Ael. Aristid. 42, 13 K.=6 p. 69 D.: ταῦτα ἐργαζομένου σου τοῦ κυρίου [Asclepius]) ἔργον (X., An. 6, 3, 17 κάλλιστον ἔργον ἐ.; Pla., Polit. 1, 346d; Appian, Celt. 18 §2, Bell. Civ. 2, 58 §238 al.; Arrian, Anab. 7, 17, 3; PPetr II, 9 [2], 4 [III B.C.]; Sir 51:30; TestSol D 4:8 τὸ ἔ. ὑμῶν; Just. D. 88, 8 τεκτονικὰ ἔργα) Ac 13:41 (Hab 1:5); 1 Cl 33:8. τὰ ἔργα τοῦ θεοῦ do the work of God (cp. Num 8:11) J 6:28; 9:4. τὸ ἔργον κυρίου the Lord’s work 1 Cor 16:10. ἐ. τι εἴς τινα do someth. to someone (Ps.-Demosth. 53, 18): ἔργον καλὸν εἴς τινα do a fine thing to someone Mt 26:10; cp. B 21:2; 3J 5. Also ἔν τινι Mk 14:6. In a different sense ἔργα ἐν θεῷ εἰργασμένα deeds performed in God J 3:21. ἐ. τὸ ἀγαθόν do what is good (cp. Dio Chrys. 16 [33], 15; GrBar 11:9; and Jos., Ant. 6, 208 ἀγαθά) Ro 2:10; Eph 4:28; Hm 2:4. Opp. ἐ. πονηρόν (Lucian, Catapl. 24) m 10, 2, 3. ἐ. ἀγαθὸν πρὸς πάντας do good to all people Gal 6:10. κακὸν ἐ. (Dio Chrys. 13 [7], 33; Palaeph. 1 and 3; Just., D. 95, 1 κακά; Ath. 11, 2 ἀεί τι ἐ. … κακόν): κακὸν τῷ πλησίον ἐ. do wrong to one’s neighbor Ro 13:10 (cp. Pr 3:30; EpArist 273). Gener. someth. Col 3:23; 2J 8; μηδὲν ἐ. do no work 2 Th 3:11. οὐδὲν τῇ δικαιοσύνῃ do nothing for righteousness Hs 5, 1, 4 (Ps.-Aristot., Mirabilia 142 οὐδὲν ἐργ.=accomplish nothing).—Also used with attributes, etc. (in Isocr. w. ἀρετήν, σωφροσύνην; Philo, Gig. 26 τελειότητα) δικαιοσύνην (Ps 14:2) do what is right Ac 10:35; Hb 11:33; Hv 2, 2, 7; m 5, 1, 1; Hs 9, 13, 7. ἐ. δικαιοσύνην θεοῦ do what is right in God’s sight Js 1:20 (but s. c below; v.l. κατεργάζεσθαι, q.v.). τὴν ἀνομίαν (Ps 5:6; 6:9 al.) Mt 7:23. ἁμαρτίαν commit sin Js 2:9 (Jos., Ant. 6, 124 τὸ ἁμάρτημα). Of the effect: τί ἐργάζῃ; what work are you doing? J 6:30 (cp. Philo, Leg. All. 3, 83; Tat. 25, 1 τί μέγα … ἐ. φιλόσοφοι;).
    practice, perform, officiate at (τέχνην, etc., X., Pla. et al.) τὰ ἱερά the temple rites 1 Cor 9:13 (cp. Num 8:11).
    bring about, give rise to as proceeds from work (s. next entry 4; Soph., Ant. 326; Epict., Fgm. Stob. 14 πενία λύπην ἐργάζεται; Just., A I, 45, 6 ὅπερ … κόλασιν διὰ πυρὸς αἰωνίαν ἐργάζεται). μετάνοιαν 2 Cor 7:10. ἐ. δικαιοσύνην θεοῦ bring about the righteousness that will stand before God (but s. a above) Js 1:20. θάνατον ἑαυτοῖς ἐ. bring death on themselves Hs 8, 8, 5 (Just., D. 124, 4).
    work (on) (τὴν γῆν Gen 2:5; En 10:18; ApcMos 24) τὴν θάλασσαν work on the sea for a livelihood (Aristot., Probl. 38, 2, 966b, 26; Dionys. Hal. 3, 46; Appian, Liby. 2 §5; 84 §397; Lucian, Electr. 5) Rv 18:17 (s. CLindhagen, ΕΡΓΑΖΕΣΘΑΙ, ’50: Uppsala Univ. Årsskrift ’50, 5, 5–26).
    work for/earn food (Hes., Op. 43 βίον ἐ.; Hdt. 1, 24 χρήματα; cp. Pla., Hipp. Mai. 282d, Laches 183a; X., Mem. 2, 8, 2; Theod. Pr 21:6. Also βρῶμα: Palaeph. p. 28, 10) ἐ. τὴν βρῶσιν J 6:27: in this context βρῶσις appears to be the free gift of the Human One (Son of Man).—As in the similar case of the Samaritan woman (cp. J 6:35 w. 4:14) hearers are simply prepared for the statement that they are to accept what is freely given. But ἐργάζεσθαι can also mean, when used w. food, prepare for use, digest, assimilate sc. τὴν τροφήν (Aristot., De Vita et Morte 4; Maximus Tyr. 15, 5a [ἐργ. τὴν τροφήν of the activity of the jaws]; more often ἐργασία τ. τροφῆς). The compound κατεργάζεσθαι is more common in this sense, but it is avoided in this passage for the sake of wordplay w. ἐργάζεσθαι in vs. 28.—DELG s.v. ἔργον. M-M. EDNT. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἐργάζομαι

  • 757 ἑαυτοῦ

    ἑαυτοῦ, ῆς, οῦ, pl. ἑαυτῶν, reflexive pron. (Hom.+; JosAs 7:6 [oft. cod. A; 3:2 αὐτοῦ]). Editors variously replace contract forms αὑτοῦ and αὑτῶν of later mss. w. uncontracted forms or w. αὐτοῦ, αὐτῶν; cp., e.g., the texts of Mk 9:16; Lk 23:12; J 2:24; 20:10; Ac 14:17; Ro 1:24; Eph 2:15; Hb 5:3; 1J 5:10; Rv 8:6; 18:7 in GNT1–3 w. GNT4; s. also Merk’s treatment of these same pass. Cp. the ms. evidence for Phil 3:21 in GNT1–3 w. its absence in GNT4. (W-S. §223 16; B-D-F §64, 1; Mayser 305; I2/2, 65; Rob. 226; Mlt-Turner 190; M-M. s.v. αὑτοῦ; RBorger, TRu 52, ’88, 17–19).
    indicator of identity w. the pers. speaking or acting, self
    of the third pers. sing. and pl. ταπεινοῦν ἑαυτόν humble oneself Mt 18:4; 23:12. Opp. ὑψοῦν ἑ. exalt oneself 23:12; δοξάζειν ἑ. glorify oneself Rv 18:7 v.l. ἀπαρνεῖσθαι ἑ. deny oneself 16:24; Mk 8:34 (Mel, P. 26, 181). ἀμάρτυρον ἑ. ἀφεῖναι leave oneself without witness Ac 14:17 v.l.; ἑτοιμάζειν ἑ. prepare oneself Rv 8:6 v.l. εὐνουχίζειν ἑ. make a eunuch of oneself Mt 19:12; σῴζειν ἑ. (Jos., Ant. 10, 137) 27:42; κατακόπτειν ἑ. beat oneself Mk 5:5; πιστεύειν ἑαυτόν τινι J 2:24 v.l. et al.; ἀγοράζειν τι ἑαυτῷ buy someth. for oneself Mt 14:15; Mk 6:36; θησαυρίζων ἑαυτῷ lay up assets for oneself Lk 12:21. ὑποτάσσειν ἑ. Phil 3:21 v.l. W. the middle (cp. X., Mem. 1, 6, 13 ποιεῖσθαι ἑαυτῷ φίλον; Sir 37:8): διεμερίσαντο ἑαυτοῖς they divided among them J 19:24 (Ps 21:19).—The simple dat. may also be used to emphasize the subject as agent (Hdt. 1, 32; Strabo 2, 1, 35; POxy 2351, 49; Ps 26:12; SSol 1:8) βαστάζων ἑαυτῷ τὸν σταυρόν bearing the cross without help J 19:17; ἑαυτοῖς κρίμα λήμψονται they themselves will be responsible for the judgment they are to receive Ro 13:2; οὐκ ἐπαινοῦμεν τοὺς προσιόντας ἑαυτοῖς we do not commend those who take the initiative in advancing themselves MPol 4; cp. στρῶσον σεαυτῷ make your own bed Ac 9:34.—Rydbeck 51–61.—Used esp. w. prep.
    α. ἀφʼ ἑαυτοῦ (ἀπό 5eα; TestAbr A 19 p. 101, 6 [Stone p. 50]; Just., A I, 43, 8 ἀφʼ ἑαυτοῦ ἑλόμενος τὸ ἀγαθόν; Tat. 17, 4 ἐχθρὸν ἀμυνεῖται): ποιεῖν τι do someth. of one’s own accord J 5:19. λαλεῖν speak on one’s own authority (Diod S 12, 66, 2 ἐκήρυξέ τις ἀφʼ ἑαυτοῦ; i.e. without orders from a higher authority) 7:18; 16:13; λέγειν 11:51; 18:34 v.l. (M. Ant. 11, 19 τοῦτο οὐκ ἀπὸ σαυτοῦ μέλλεις λέγειν). καρπὸν φέρειν bear fruit by itself 15:4. ἱκανὸν εἶναι be competent by oneself 2 Cor 3:5 (ἀφʼ ἑαυτῶν interchanging w. ἐξ ἑαυτῶν; s. also 1aδ). γινώσκειν know by oneself Lk 21:30. κρίνειν judge for oneself 12:57 (ἐξετάζειν Ath. 18, 1).
    β. διʼ ἑαυτοῦ (POxy 273, 21; PTebt 72, 197; TestJob 16:4): κοινὸς διʼ ἑαυτοῦ unclean in itself Ro 14:14 (EpJer 26; Just., A I, 54, 8; A II, 10, 8; D. 56, 1).
    γ. ἐν ἑαυτῷ to or in oneself, εὐπαρεπέστατον ἦν ἐν αὑτῷ τὸ ὄρος Hs 9, 1, 10. J 13:32 v.l.; Ro 1:24 v.l.; Eph 2:15 v.l. Otherw. mostly w. verbs of speaking, in contrast to audible utterance; s. διαλογίζομαι 1, εἶπον 6, λέγω 1bζ; otherw. ἔχειν τι ἐν ἑαυτῷ have someth. in oneself (cp. Jdth 10:19; Jos., Ant. 8, 171; Just., D. 8, 2; Ath. 10, 2) J 5:26, 42; 6:53; 17:13; 2 Cor 1:9. Gener., of what takes place in the inner consciousness διαπορεῖν Ac 10:17. Esp. γίνεσθαι ἐν ἑαυτῷ come to one’s senses 12:11 (X., An. 1, 5, 17 ὁ Κλέαρχος ἐν ἑαυτῷ ἐγένετο; Polyb. 1, 49, 8; Chariton 3, 9, 11 ἐν ἑαυτῷ γενόμενος). Also:
    δ. ἐξ ἑαυτῶν (Soph., El. 343 ἐκ σαυτῆς; Theophr. Fgm. 96 [in Ps.-Demetr. 222] ἐξ αὑτοῦ) of (our) own strength 2 Cor 3:5.
    ε. εἰς ἑαυτὸν ἔρχεσθαι come to one’s senses Lk 15:17 (Diod S 13, 95, 2; Epict. 3, 1, 15; GrBar 17:3).
    ζ. καθʼ ἑαυτόν by oneself (X., Mem. 3, 5, 4; Plut., Anton. 940 [54, 1 and 2]; 2 Macc 13:13; Just., D. 4, 5; 74:2; Ath. 15, 2 al.) μένειν live by oneself (in a private house) Ac 28:16. πίστις νεκρά ἐστιν καθʼ ἑαυτήν faith (when it remains) by itself is dead Js 2:17 (Diog. L. 1, 64 from a letter of Solon: religion and lawgivers can do nothing καθʼ ἑαυτά=if they are dependent on themselves alone).—βασιλεία μερισθεῖσα καθʼ ἑαυτῆς a kingdom that is divided against itself Mt 12:25.—μεθʼ ἑαυτοῦ, μεθʼ ἑαυτῶν with oneself, themselves (cp. 1 Km 9:3; 24:3 ἔλαβεν μεθʼ ἑ.) Mt 12:45; 25:3.
    η. παρʼ ἑαυτῷ τιθέναι τι put someth. aside 1 Cor 16:2 (X., Mem. 3, 13, 3; cp. Jos., Ant. 9, 68 οἴκαδε παρʼ αὑτῷ; Tat. 7, 2 λόγου δύναμις ἔχουσα παρʼ ἑαυτῇ τὸ προγνωστικόν ‘has in itself’).
    θ. περὶ ἑ. προσφέρειν make offering for himself Hb 5:3. τὰ περι ἑαυτοῦ the passages about himself Lk 24:27.
    ι. πρὸς ἑαυτὸν προσεύχεσθαι pray to oneself (=in silence) 18:11 (cp. Aristaen., Ep. 1, 6; 2 Macc 11:13; Jos., Ant. 11, 210; Vi. Aesopi G 9 P. πρὸς ἑαυτὸν εἶπεν; 38; Just., D. 62, 2 πρὸς ἑαυτὸν ἔλεγεν ὁ θεός … πρὸς ἑαυτοὺς λέγομεν). ἀπῆλθεν πρὸς ἑαυτόν, θαυμάζων τὸ γέγονος (Peter) went home, (all the while) marveling at what had taken place Lk 24:12 (FNeirynck, ETL 54, ’78, 104–18). ἀπέρχεσθαι πρὸς ἑαυτούς go home J 20:10 v.l. (for αὐτούς, cp. Polyb. 5, 93, 1; Num 24:25; Jos., Ant. 8, 124; s. MBlack, An Aramaic Approach3, ’67, 102f). Lk 23:12 v.l.
    for the first and second pers. pl. (gener. H. Gk.; s. FKälker, Quaest. de elocut. Polyb. 1880, 277; Mlt. 87; B-D-F §64, 1; Mayser 303, w. further lit. in note 3; Rob. 689f) ἑαυτούς = ἡμᾶς αὐτούς (Themistocl., Ep. 15; Jos., Bell. 5, 536; Just., A I, 53, 3; D. 32, 5; 34, 1 al.; Tat. 30, 1; Ath. 12, 1) 1 Cor 11:31. ἐν ἑαυτοῖς = ἐν ἡμῖν αὐτοῖς Ro 8:23; 2 Cor 1:9; =ἐν ὑμῖν αὐτοῖς Ro 11:25 v.l. (En 6:2 ἐκλεξώμεθα ἑαυτοῖς γυναῖκας). διʼ ἑαυτῶν = διʼ ἡμῶν αὐ. 1 Cl 32:4; παρʼ ἑαυτοῖς = παρʼ ὑμῖν αὐτοῖς Ro 11:25 (cp. Just., D. 141, 1 and Tat. 11:2 διʼ ἑαυτούς). ἑαυτοῖς = ὑμῖν αὐτοῖς (cp. En 15:3; TestJob 45:3; TestDan 6:1; Jos., Ant. 4, 190; 8, 277) Mt 23:31; Ro 11:25 v.l.; 1 Cl 47:7.—This replacement of the first and second pers. by the third is very much less common in the sg. (Ps.-Pla., Alc. 2, 143c; Dio Chrys. 30 [47], 6 σὺ … αὑτόν; Aelian, VH 1, 21; Galen, Protr. 10 p. 30, 10 John; Syntipas p. 115, 10 μεθʼ ἑαυτοῦ=with me; TestJob 2:3 διελογιζόμην ἐν ἑαυτῷ; GrBar 17:3 εἰς ἑαυτὸν ἐλθὼν δόξαν ἔφερον τῷ θεῷ. Transjordanian ins: NGG Phil.-Hist. Kl. Fachgr. V n.s. I/1 ’36, p. 3, 1; other exx. in Mlt. 87, n. 2; Mayser 304; Hauser 100), and can hardly be established w. certainty for the NT gener.: s. J 18:34 v.l.; Ro 13:9 v.l.; cp. ISm 4:2 (v.l. ἐμαυτόν); Hv 4, 1, 5 Joly (ἐμαυτῷ B.); Hs 2:1.
    marker of reciprocal relationship, for the reciprocal pron. ἀλλήλων, ἀλλήλοις, ἀλλήλους (also in earlier auth., Kühner-G. I 573; pap in Mayser 304; LXX; 4 [6] Esdr [POxy 1010] ἔδονται τὰ(ς) σάρκας αὐτῶν καὶ τὸ αἱμα αὐτῶν πίονται; Tat. 3, 3.—W-S. §22, 13; B-D-F §287; Rob. 690) each other, one another συζητεῖν πρὸς ἑαυτούς Mk 9:16 v.l. (s. VTaylor, Comm. ad. loc.; ASyn. app., w. correction of Tdf. app.); λέγοντες πρὸς ἑαυτούς as they said to each other Mk 10:26; cp. J 12:19 (πρὸς ἑ. as Antig. Car. 39 μάχεσθαι πρὸς αὑτούς; Lucian, Philops. 29, Ver. Hist. 1, 35; Tat. 26, 3 πολεμοῦντες … ἑαυτοῖς ἀλλήλους καθαιρεεῖτε). χαρίζεσθαι ἑαυτοῖς forgive one another Eph 4:32; Col 3:13. νουθετεῖν ἑαυτούς admonish one another vs. 16. εἰρηνεύειν ἐν ἑαυτοῖς live in peace w. one another 1 Th 5:13; τὴν εἰς ἑαυτοὺς ἀγάπην 1 Pt 4:9.
    marker of possession by the pers. spoken of or acting, in place of the possessive pron. his, her (Mayser 304f; Mlt. 87f) Mt 8:22; 21:8; 25:1; Lk 2:39; 9:60; 11:21; 12:36 al. ESchwartz, Index lectionum 1905, 8f; DTabachovitz, Eranos 93, ’55, 76ff; ADihle, Noch einmal ἑαυτῷ: Glotta 39, ’60, 83–92; s. Rydbeck (1a beg.).—DELG. M-M.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἑαυτοῦ

  • 758 Ἑβραῖος

    Ἑβραῖος, ου, ὁ (W-H. Ἐβ.; s. their Introd.2 §408; B-D-F §39, 3) ‘a Hebrew’ (Paus. 1, 5, 5; Appian, Bell. Civ. 2, 71; Plut.; Porphyr., Vi. Pyth. 11; Sallust. 9 p. 18, 17; Damasc., Vi. Isidori 56 ὁ Ἑβραίων θεός; 141; PGM 4, 3019, corresp. to what Jews oft. called themselves; LXX; TestSol 6:8; JosAs 1:7; ch. 11 cod. A and Pal. 364 [p. 54, 6 Bat.]; Ezk. Trag., Philo, Joseph., SibOr; TestJos 12:2; 3; ins [exx. in Schürer III 97, 29]; συναγωγὴ Ἑβραίων s. on συναγωγή 2a; MDibelius, Hdb.2 on Phil 3:5 exc.; Just., D. 1, 3)
    ethnic name for an Israelite, Hebrew in contrast to other nations (in this sense Eus. applies the term Ἑβρ. to such Jews as Philo [Eus., HE 2, 4, 2] and Aristobulus [PE 8, 8, 56/Holladay T 11 (10) p. 123] who spoke Gk. and were Gk. scholars; s. the Jew. grave-ins in Rome and Lydia: Ltzm., Hdb.3 on 2 Cor 11:22 exc.; MAMA III, 32; Just., D. 1, 3) 2 Cor 11:22; Phil 3:5 (on these pass. s. 2). The word prob. has this mng. in the title πρὸς Ἑβρ. of Hb, as well as in the name of the GHb in the old orig. Gk. in Clem. Al. and Origen (Kl. T. 83, p. 7, 2; 12; note on ln. 8; cp. p. 5, 9f; 18; 22; 11, 25f) τὸ καθʼ Ἑβραίους εὐαγγέλιον. Papias (2:17). The author of GJs 6:1; 7:2; 18:1 compares Palestinian and Egyptian conditions (deStrycker 147, n. 2).
    Hebrew-/Aramaic-speaking Israelite in contrast to a Gk.-speaking Israelite, Hebrew-speaking Israelite (s. Ἑλληνισταί; GWetter, ARW 21, 1922, 410ff; Haenchen) Ac 6:1 in contrast to Gk.-speaking Israelites (Philo, Conf. Ling. 129, makes a difference betw. Ἑβρ. and ἡμεῖς, who speak Gk. [Congr. Erud. Grat. 43f]). Windisch proposes that Paul emphasizes his fluency in his ancestral language 2 Cor 11:22; Phil 3:5 (s. 1).—S. on Ἰσραήλ, end. HKosmala, Hebräer-Essener-Christen ’59; MHengel, ZTK 72, ’75. 151–206.—M-M. EDNT. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > Ἑβραῖος

  • 759 ἔκστασις

    ἔκστασις, εως, ἡ (s. ἐξίστημι; Hippocr.+)
    a state of consternation or profound emotional experience to the point of being beside oneself (‘distraction, confusion, perplexity, astonishment’ in var. aspects: Menand., Fgm. 149 Kock [=136, 2 Kö.] πάντα δὲ τὰ μηδὲ προσδοκώμενʼ ἔκστασιν φέρει; Περὶ ὕψους 1, 4; SIG 1240, 14; 1 Km 11:7; 2 Ch 14:13; Ps 30:23) amazement/astonishment ἐξέστησαν μεγάλῃ ἐκστάσει they were quite beside themselves w. amazement Mk 5:42 (cp. Gen 27:33; Ezk 26:16; 27:35 al.); ἔ. ἔλαβεν ἅπαντας Lk 5:26. [κατ]εῖχεν αὐτὰς ἔκστασις [μεγάλη] AcPl Ha 5, 29. W. τρόμος Mk 16:8. W. θάμβος Ac 3:10.
    a state of being in which consciousness is wholly or partially suspended, freq. associated with divine action, trance, ecstasy (Galen XIX 462 K. ἔ. ἐστιν ὀλιγοχρόνιος μανία; Philo, Rer. Div. Her. 257; 258; 264; 265 [after Gen 2:21; 15:12], Vi. Cont. 40; Plotinus 6, 9, 11; PGM 4, 737; Just., D. 115, 3 ἐν ἐκστάσει [opp. ἐν καταστάσει]; Orig., C. Cels. 7, 3, 39) γενέσθαι ἐν ἐκστάσει fall into a trance Ac 22:17; ἐγένετο (ἐπέπεσεν v.l.) ἐπʼ αὐτὸν ἔ. a trance came over him 10:10. Cp. 11:5.—ERohde, Psyche3 II 18ff; WInge, Ecstasy: EncRelEth V 157–59; ASharma, Ecstasy: EncRel V 11–17.—RAC IV 944–87. B. 1094. DELG s.v. ἵστημι. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἔκστασις

  • 760 ἔμπροσθεν

    ἔμπροσθεν (also ἐνπ-; Hdt.+; also in OT quotes w. and against LXX; Mel., P. 61, 444 [ἀπέναντι Dt 28:66]) ἔμπροσθε (SIG 371, 13 [289/288 B.C.]; 915, 27) ApcPt 3:6; orig. adv. of place, then used as prep. (B-D-F §104, 2; 214, 1; 6; Mlt-H. 329).
    pert. to a position in front of an object
    gener. adv. as marker of something that is relatively removed in distance in front, ahead (opp. ὄπισθεν, as X., Equ. 1, 3; Polyb. 12, 15, 2; Aelian, VH 12, 21; Palaeph. 29, 2; 2 Ch 13:14; Ezk 2:10) Rv 4:6. As subst.: εἰς τὸ ἔ. toward the front (Diod S 11, 18, 5; 19, 26, 10; 19, 83, 2; Jos., C. Ap. 1, 203) προδραμὼν εἰς τὸ ἔ. he ran ahead Lk 19:4 (where εἰς τὸ ἔ. is pleonast., as Artem. 2, 9 p. 93, 2 προϊέναι εἰς τοὔμπροσθεν; B-D-F §484; Semitism [?]: MBlack, An Aramaic Approach3, ’67, 116); τὰ ἔ. (sc. ὄντα; cp. X., An. 6, 3, 14; 1 Macc 13:27; TestJob 27:1; location in a dialogue Just., D. 126, 6; 140, 4) what lies ahead (as a goal) Phil 3:13.Forward, ahead πορεύεσθαι ἔ. (X., Cyr. 4, 2, 23) Lk 19:28. αἱ ἔ. ἐκκλησίαι the congregations/churches farther on or principal churches (s. JKleist, tr., ’46, ad loc. w. note) IPol 8:1.
    indicating more immediate presence of the object that is in front, with ἔ. functioning as prep. w. gen. (s. on ἀνά, beg.) in front of, before in a variety of aspects
    α. purely local (X., Cyr. 3, 2, 5; Jos., Bell. 6, 366) Hs 9, 2, 7 (opp. ὀπίσω); ἔ. τοῦ ναοῦ before the shrine (Cebes, Tab. 1, 1) 1 Cl 41:2; ἔ. τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου Mt 5:24; ἔ. τοῦ βήματος Ac 18:17; ἔ. τοῦ Ἰησοῦ Lk 5:19; cp. 14:2; ApcPt 3:6; GPt 4:12. γονυπετεῖν ἔ. τινος kneel before someone Mt 27:29; πίπτειν ἔ. τῶν ποδῶν τινος fall at someone’s feet Rv 19:10; 22:8; βάλλειν ἔ. τινος Mt 7:6 (PGM 4, 1229 βάλε ἔ. αὐτοῦ κλῶνας ἐλαίας). μαστιγοῦντες ἑαυτοὺς ἔ. τούτων τῶν εἰδώλων flagellating themselves before these images ApcPt Bodl. (as restored by EWinstedt, s. MJames, JTS 1910, 12, 157).
    β. of position without ref. to motion toward, before, in the presence of (Gen 45:5) ὁμολογεῖν and ἀρνεῖσθαι Mt 10:32f; 26:70; Lk 12:8; cp. Gal 2:14. Esp. of appearance before a judge Mt 27:11; also before the divine judge 25:32; Lk 21:36; 1 Th 2:19; 3:13; GPt 11:48; cp. 2 Cor 5:10. But the judicial element is not decisive in all the pass. in which pers. stand or come ἔ. τοῦ θεοῦ or ἔ. τ. χυρίου; cp. 1 Th 1:3; 3:9; 1J 3:19.
    γ. of appearance before a large assemblage to discharge an obligation, before, in the sight of (SIG 1173, 14 [138 A.D.] the man who was healed through the intervention of Asklepios ηὐχαρίστησεν ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ δήμου) Mt 5:16; 6:1; 17:2; 23:13 in the face of; Mk 2:12; 9:2; Lk 19:27; J 12:37; Ac 10:4.
    δ. as a reverential way of expressing oneself, when one is speaking of an eminent pers., and esp. of God, not to connect the subject directly w. what happens, but to say that it took place ‘before someone’ (s. Dalman, Worte 171–74): ἐπακοῦσαι ἔ. αὐτοῦ ἔθνη that the nations should give heed (or obey) (before) God B 12:11 (Is 45:1). ποιεῖν τὸ πονηρὸν ἔ. τοῦ κυρίου Hm 4, 2, 2 (cp. Judg 2:11; 3:12; 4:1). εὐδοκία ἔ. σου pleasing to you Mt 11:26; Lk 10:21; θέλημα ἔ. τ. πατρὸς ὑμῶν Mt 18:14.
    ε. before, ahead of, w. motion implied ἔ. τινος (UPZ 78, 15 [159 B.C.] ἔμπροσθεν αὐτῶν ἐπορευόμην) J 10:4; B 11:4 (Is 45:2); προπορεύεσθαι ἔ. τινος 3:4 (Is 58:8); cp. 4:12; ἀποστέλλεσθαι ἔ. τινος (Gen 24:7; 32:4) J 3:28; σαλπίζειν ἔ. τινος blow a trumpet before someone Mt 6:2; τὴν ὁδὸν κατασκευάζειν ἔ. τινος Mt 11:10; Lk 7:27.
    ζ. of rank (Pla., Leg. 1, 631d; 5, 743e; 7, 805d; Demosth. 56, 50 εἶναι ἔ. τινος; Gen 48:20) ἔ. τινος γίνεσθαι rank before (i.e. higher than) someone J 1:15, 30 (Plut., Pericl. 158 [11, 1] οἱ ἀριστοκρατικοὶ … Περικλέα … πρόσθεν ὁρῶντες γεγονόντα τῶν πολιτῶν). If ἔ. τινος γ. is to be understood temporally here (as 3 Km 3:12; 16:25, 33; 4 Km 18:5; Eccl 1:16; 2:7, 9; Jos, Ant. 1, 109; cp. Demetr.: 722 Fgm. 1, 12 Jac. ἔτει ἑνὶ ἔμπροσθεν)=‘be earlier than someone’, the foll. ὅτι πρῶτός μου ἦν, which gives the reason for it, would simply be an instance of tautology (but s. OCullmann, ConNeot 11, ’47, 31, who holds that the ὅτι-clause refers to the absolute time of the Prologue while the preceding words merely give the order in which the ministries of John and Jesus began). S. on ὀπίσω 2b.
    on the front surface of someth., in front (opp. ὄπισθεν, as cp. Ezk 2:10) Rv 4:6.—DELG s.v. πρόσθε(ν). M-M.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἔμπροσθεν

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