Translation: from greek to english

from english to greek

to slaughter for themselves

  • 721 συναγωγή

    συναγωγή, ῆς, ἡ (Thu. et al.; ins, pap, LXX, Just.). The term ς. is fluid, and its use as a loanword in Eng. in connection with cult suggests a technical usage that belies the extraordinary breadth of use of ς. Orig. in act. sense ‘a bringing together, assembling’, then in LXX and contemporary documents ‘a gathering’ or ‘place of assembly’.—For ins evidence relating to cultic usage s. ROster, NTS 39, ’93, 181 n. 14 (the principal corpora); for synonyms, p. 186; cp. New Docs 4, 202f.
    a place where someth. collects, gathering place of the basins in which water is gathered at the creation (Gen 1:9; cp. Jos., Ant. 15, 346 ς. ὑδάτων; Did., Gen. 25, 14 ς., ἣν καλεῖν εἰώθασιν ὠκεανόν) 1 Cl 20:6.
    a place of assembly (Cybeleins [Bilderatlas z. Religionsgesch. 9–11, 1926 p. xix no. 154] ἐν τῇ τοῦ Διὸς συναγωγῇ; s. New Docs 3, 43. Sb 4981, 6f [restored].—On συναγωγή as a room for meetings cp. συνέδρια of the meeting-houses of the Pythagoreans Polyb. 2, 39, 1).
    of the Jewish synagogue (it is used for a place of assembly for Jews in Philo, Omn. Prob. Lib. 81 [w. ref. to the Essenes]; Jos., Bell. 2, 285; 289; 7, 44, Ant. 19, 300; 305; CIG 9894; 9904; BCH 21, 1897 p. 47; Συναγωγὴ Ἑβραίων in Corinth [s. Κόρινθος, end], in Rome [CIG IV, 9909] and ILydiaKP III, 42 p. 32ff.—S. AvHarnack, Mission4 II 1924, p. 568, 2; GKittel, TLZ 69, ’44, 11f.—Orig., C. Cels. 6, 23, 3; Hippol., Ref. 9, 12, 7); people came to the συν. to worship God Mt 4:23; 6:2, 5; 9:35; 12:9; 13:54; Mk 1:39; 3:1; 6:2; Lk 4:15; 6:6; J 18:20. In the same buildings court was also held and punishment was inflicted: Mt 10:17; 23:34; Mk 13:9; Lk 12:11; 21:12; Ac 22:19; 26:11 (HKee, NTS 36, ’90, 1–24 perceives Acts as reading a post-70 situation into Paul’s career; rejoinder ROster, ibid 39, ’93, 178–208, with caution against reliance on mere transliteration of ς. and w. conclusion that Luke is not guilty of anachronism; response by Kee, ibid. 40, ’94, 281–83 [also 41, ’95, 481–500], w. observation that the inscription from the syngagogue of Theodotus in Jerusalem [s. Dssm. LO 378–80=LAE 439–41; Boffo, Iscrizioni no. 31] may well be no earlier than IV A.D.; for critique of Kee’s views s. also ESanders, Jewish Law from Jesus to the Mishnah, ’87, 341–43 notes 28 and 29. For early use in reference to a Jewish synagogue, s. New Docs 4, 202, IBerenike 16, 5 [55 A.D.] of a building, ln. 3 of members meeting in it). Synagogues are also mentioned as existing in Antioch in Pisidia 13:14; Athens 17:17; Berea vs. 10; Damascus 9:20; Ephesus 18:19 (GHorsley, The Inscriptions of Ephesus and the NT: NovT 34, ’92, 105–68); Capernaum Mk 1:21; Lk 4:33; 7:5; J 6:59 (HKohl and CWatzinger, Antike Synagogen in Galiläa 1916; HVincent, RB 30, 1921, 438ff; 532ff; GOrfali, Capharnaum et ses ruines 1922); Corinth Ac 18:4 (s. New Docs 3, 121); Ephesus 19:8; Nazareth Lk 4:16; Salamis on the island of Cyprus Ac 13:5; Thessalonica 17:1.—ESukenik, Ancient Synagogues in Palestine and Greece ’34.—On the building of synagogues by patrons s. TRajak, Benefactors in the Greco-Jewish Diaspora, in MHengel Festschr. I ’96, 307 n. 7 lit.—On the relationship betw. συναγωγή and προσευχή (q.v. 2) s. SKrauss, Synagogale Altertümer 1922, 11; Boffo, Iscrizioni 39–46; Pauly-W. 2d ser. IV ’32, 1284–1316; ERivkin, AHSilver Festschr. ’63, 350–54.—AGroenman, De Oorsprong der Joodsche Synagoge: NThT 8, 1919, 43–87; 137–88; HStrack, RE XIX 221–26; Elbogen2 444ff; 571ff; Billerb. IV, 115–52 (the Syn. as an institution), 153–88 (the Syn. services); GDalman, Jesus-Jeshua (tr. PLevertoff) 1929, 38–55; SSafrai, MStern et al., The Jewish People in the 1st Century II, ’77, 908–44; LLevine, The Second Temple Synagogue, The Formative Years: The Synagogue in Late Antiquity ’87, 7–31; Schürer II 423–63; III 138–49; s. also lit. cited by Oster, Kee, and Boffo above.
    an assembly-place for Judeo-Christians (Nazarenes) can also be meant in Js 2:2 (so LRost, PJ 29, ’33, 53–66, esp. 54f but s. 4 below). εἰς ς. πλήρη ἀνδρῶν Hm 11:14 (cp. the superscription on a Marcionite assembly-place near Damascus συναγωγὴ Μαρκιωνιστῶν [OGI 608, 1 fr. 318/19 A.D.]; Harnack, SBBerlAK 1915, 754ff). S. 5 below.
    the members of a synagogue, (the congregation of a) synagogue (Just., D. 53, 4 al.; references for this usage in Schürer II 423f; III 81–86; EPeterson, Byz.-Neugriech. Jahrbücher 2, 1921, 208)
    of localized synagogues Ac 6:9 (Schürer II 428; cp. CIJ 683 [=Corpus Ins. Regni Bosporani ’65 no. 70], for translation and ill. see RMackennan, Bar 22/2, ’96, 47); 9:2.
    in a limited sense, of those who consider themselves Ἰουδαῖοι but are hostile to Christians (who also identify themselves as Ἰουδαῖοι whether Israelite by descent or believers from the nations—on the mixed composition of the followers of Jesus Christ s. Ac 13:43; ISm 1:2), and are called (instead of συναγωγὴ κυρίου: Num 16:3; 20:4; 27:17; Josh 22:16; Ps 73:2) συναγωγὴ τοῦ σατανᾶ synagogue of Satan Rv 2:9; 3:9 (cp. Just., D. 104, 1 ἡ ς. τῶν πονηρευομένων; s. 5 below).
    a synagogal meeting, a meeting, gathering for worship, of the Judeans λυθείσης τῆς συναγωγῆς Ac 13:43 (s. λύω 3).—Transferred to meetings of Judeo-Christian congregations (cp. TestBenj 11:2, 3; Just., D. 63, 5; 124, 1; Theoph. Ant. 2, 14 [p. 136, 12]) ἐὰν εἰσέλθῃ εἰς συναγωγὴν ὑμῶν Js 2:2 (this is the preferred interpr.: HermvSoden, Ropes, Meinertz, FHauck; s. 2b above). συναγωγὴ ἀνδρῶν δικαίων Hm 11:9, 13, cp. 14. πυκνότερον συναγωγαὶ γινέσθωσαν meetings (of the congregation) should be held more often IPol 4:2. (συναγ. is also found outside Jewish and Christian circles for periodic meetings; s. the exx. in MDibelius, Jakobus 1921 p. 124, 1. Also Philo Bybl.: 790 Fgm. 4, 52 Jac. [in Eus., PE 1, 10, 52] Ζωροάστρης ἐν τῇ ἱερᾷ συναγωγῇ τῶν Περσικῶν φησι; OGI 737, 1 [II B.C.] ς. ἐν τῷ Ἀπολλωνείῳ; PLond 2710 recto, 12: HTR 29, ’36, 40; 51.—Sb 8267, 3 [5 B.C.] honorary ins of a polytheistic ς.=association. W. ref. to the imperial cult BGU 1137, 2 [6 B.C.]. On the Christian use of the word s. also ADeissmann, Die Urgeschichte des Christentums im Lichte der Sprachforschung 1910, 35f).
    a group of pers. who band together, freq. with hostile intent, band, gang ς. πονηρευομένων (Ps 21:17) B 5:13; 6:6; GJs 15:1 v.l. (for σύνοδος).—SSafrai, The Synagogue: CRINT I/2, 908–44; WSchrage, BHHW III 1906–10; Kl. Pauly V 451f.—S. ἀρχισυναγωγός and New Docs 4, 213–20. DELG s.v. ἄγω. EDNT. DLNT 1141–46. M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > συναγωγή

  • 722 συνέρχομαι

    συνέρχομαι (since Il. 10, 224 [in tmesis]; ins, pap, LXX, pseudepigr., Philo, Joseph., Just.; Ath., R. 23, p. 77, 8) impf. συνηρχόμην; fut. συνελεύσομαι; 2 aor. συνῆλθον (συνῆλθα B-D-F §81, 3; W-S. §13, 13; Mlt-H. 208); pf. ptc. συνεληλυθώς; plpf. 3 pl. συνεληλύθεισαν, ptc. fem. pl. συνεληλυθεῖαι.
    to come together w. others as a group, assemble, gather συνέρχεται ὁ ὄχλος Mk 3:20. συνέρχονται πάντες οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς 14:53.—Ac 1:6 (s. B-D-F §251; Rob. 695); 2:6, 37 D; 5:16; 10:27; 16:13; 19:32; 21:22 v.l.; 22:30; 28:17; 1 Cor 14:26. W. the addition of εἰς w. acc. of place (Pla., Leg. 6, 13, 767c; Diod S 13, 100, 7 συνῆλθον εἰς Ἔφεσον; Zech 8:21) Ac 5:16 v.l.; ἐν w. dat. of place (POxy 1187, 6) ἐν ἐκκλησίᾳ 1 Cor 11:18; αὐτοῦ Mk 6:33 v.l.; ὅπου J 18:20; ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό (s. αὐτός 3b; ς. ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό Josh 9:2; Syntipas p. 75, 16) 1 Cor 11:20; 14:23; B 4:10. Foll. by a dat. come together with someone, assemble at someone’s house (PTebt 34, 4 [I B.C.] συνελθεῖν Ὥρῳ; Jos., Bell. 2, 411) Mk 14:53 v.l.; D 14:2. πρός τινα come together to (meet) someone (Ex 32:26) Mk 6:33 v.l. Foll. by an inf. of purpose Lk 5:15; by εἰς denoting purpose 1 Cor 11:33; IEph 13:1. εἰς can also introduce a result that was not intended οὐκ εἰς τὸ κρεῖσσον ἀλλὰ εἰς τὸ ἧσσον συνέρχεσθε you hold your meetings in such a way that they turn out not to your advantage, but to your disadvantage 1 Cor 11:17. εἰς κρίμα vs. 34 (on the solemnity of a celebration cp. the schol. on Aristoph., Pax 967f: to the question ‘τίς τῇδε;’ [=“who is here?”] the group answers ‘πολλοὶ κἀγαθοί’. τοῦτο δὲ ἐποίουν οἱ σπένδοντες, ἵνα οἱ συνειδότες τι ἑαυτοῖς ἄτοπον ἐκχωροῖεν τ. σπονδῶν=“many good men.” Now, those who pour the libations were accustomed to do this [ask the question], so that those who were aware of anything inappropriate about themselves might absent themselves from the libation). W. indication of the nature and manner of the meeting συνέρχεσθε ἐν μιᾷ πίστει IEph 20:2.
    to come/go with one or more pers., travel together with someone (BGU 380, 13; 596, 4 [84 A.D.]) τινί (EpArist 35; Jos., Ant. 9, 33) τοὺς συνελθόντας αὐτῇ Ἰουδαίους J 11:33. ἦσαν συνεληλυθυῖαι ἐκ τῆς Γαλιλαίας αὐτῷ Lk 23:55. Cp. Ac 1:21; 9:39; 10:23, 45; 11:12. ς. τινι εἰς τὸ ἔργον 15:38. σύν τινι instead of the dat. alone 21:16. συνελθόντων ἐνθάδε prob. means (because of συνκαταβάντες 25:5) they came back here with (me) 25:17.
    to unite in an intimate relationship, come together in a sexual context (X., Mem. 2, 2, 4; Diod S 3, 58, 4; Ps.-Apollod. 1, 3, 3; Philo, Virt. 40; 111; Jos., Ant. 7, 168; 213) ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό ς. 1 Cor 7:5 v.l. In πρὶν ἢ συνελθεῖν αὐτούς Mt 1:18 domestic and marital relations are combined. (In marriage contracts in pap πρὸς γάμον τινὶ συνελθεῖν means ‘marry’. Also without πρὸς γάμον: BGU 970, 13 [II A.D.] συνηρχόμην τῷ προγεγραμμένῳ μου ἀνδρί).—M-M. TW.

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  • 723 συντίθημι

    συντίθημι 1 aor. συνέθηκα LXX. Mid.: 2 aor. συνεθέμην; plpf. συνετεθείμην, ptc. συντεθειμένος (Just.). Pass.: 2 aor. sg. (as mid.) συνετέθης (Just., D. 67, 11), ptc. pl. συντεθέντες (Ar. 13, 7) (Hom.+)
    to place someth. together with someth. else so as to be side by side, put/place with σκεῦος κενὸν μετὰ τῶν κενῶν συντιθέμενον pass. an empty vessel placed beside the (other) empty ones (in such a way that it knocks against them) Hm 11:13 (cp. X., Cyr. 8, 5, 4; POxy 1631, 17; Ar. 13, 7).
    to work out a mutually agreeable contract, agree, mid., w. someone (Hdt. et al.) συνέθεντο αὐτῷ ἀργύριον δοῦναι where, no matter how the dat. is construed, the sense is they came to an agreement with him, to pay him money Lk 22:5.
    to reach a decision in group discussion, decide, through agreement among themselves, mid. (Jos., Vi. 196; TestZeb 1:6) foll. by the articular inf. in the gen. (B-D-F §400, 7; Rob. 1068; TestJos 6:9) Ac 23:20. W. ἵνα foll. J 9:22.
    to be supportive by expressing agreement, agree, affirm, mid. (Lysias et al.; Dionys. Hal., Isocr. 18; Paus. 4, 15, 2; PSI 484, 2 [III B.C.]; 524, 4; Just., A II, 9, 2 al.) Ac 24:9 v.l.—M-M. Sv.

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  • 724 συστρατιώτης

    συστρατιώτης, ου, ὁ (s. στρατιώτης; X., Pla. et al.; BGU 814, 27 [soldier’s letter]; O. Wilck II, 1535 [II B.C.]; Jos., Ant. 4, 177) comrade in arms, fellow-soldier, in our lit. only fig. of those who devote themselves to the service of the gospel; as a term of honor (which in Polyaenus 8, 23, 22 makes the soldier equal to the commander-in-chief, and in Synes., Kingship 13 p. 12c makes the warrior equal to the king) applied to certain of Paul’s associates mentioned in Phil 2:25; Phlm 2 (on the Christian life as military service s. πανοπλία 2).—DELG s.v. στρατός. M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > συστρατιώτης

  • 725 σφαγή

    σφαγή, ῆς, ἡ (σφάζω; Trag., X., Pla. et al.; LXX; En 16:1; PsSol 8:1; TestSol 17:1; Philo; Jos., Ant. 1, 102; 7, 39; Ar. 8, 6 [G]; Mel., P. 3, 17 al.; Ath. 14, 1) slaughter πρόβατα σφαγῆς sheep to be slaughtered (cp. Zech 11:4, 7) Ro 8:36 (Ps 43:23). προσφέρειν ἐπὶ τὴν σφαγήν bring to be slain B 8:2. Pass. ἐπὶ σφ. ἄγεσθαι Ac 8:32; 1 Cl 16:7; B 5:2 (in each case Is 53:7. Cp. Lucian, Dem. 40 the question βοῦν ἐπὶ σφαγὴν ἤγομεν; in imagery w. ref. to Demosth.). ἡμέρα σφαγῆς day of slaughter (Jer 12:3; En 16:1; cp. Syntipas p. 13, 1 ἡμέρα … τ. σφαγῆς.—σφ.=massacre, blood-bath: Appian, Bell. Civ. 2, 24 §91) of the Day of Judgment (Beyschlag, Spitta, FHauck, Meinertz et al.) or of a day of misfortune, when things turned out badly for the poor, but not for the rich (Windisch, MDibelius) Js 5:5 (‘day of slaughter’, in the sense of Rv 18:24; σφ. w. reference to humans: Diod S 13, 48, 1; 8).—DELG s.v. σφάζω. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > σφαγή

  • 726 σφάζω

    σφάζω fut. σφάξω; 1 aor. ἔσφαξα. Pass. 2 fut. 3 pl. σφαγήσονται Num 11:22; 2 aor. 2 sg. ἐσφάγης, 3 pl. ἐσφάγησαν (Ar. 13, 6), ptc. σφαγείς (LXX, Mel.), inf. σφαγῆναι (Is 14:21; Ar. 10, 8); pf. ptc. ἐσφαγμένος (Hom. et al. [Att. σφάττω; Tat. 10, 2; Ath. 1, 3; s. B-D-F §71; Mlt-H. 404]; ins, pap, LXX; pseudepigr., apolog.; Orig., C. Cels. 6, 35, 26; Theoph. Ant.) slaughter w. acc. ἀρνίον Rv 5:6, 12; 13:8 (in all these passages pass., ἀρνίον ἐσφαγμένον). Abs. B 8:1. Of the killing of a person by violence (Pind. et al.; Theoph. Ant. 3, 5 [p. 214, 1]) σφάζειν τινά butcher or murder someone (4 Km 10:7; Jer 52:10; Manetho: 609 Fgm. 8, 76 Jac. [in Jos., C. Ap. 1, 76]; Demetr. [?]: 722 Fgm. 7; Ar. 10, 9) 1J 3:12; Rv 6:4. Pass. (Hdt. 5, 5) 5:9; 6:9; 18:24. κεφαλὴ ὡς ἐσφαγμένη εἰς θάνατον a head that seemed to be mortally wounded 13:3.—DELG. M-M. TW.

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  • 727 σχίσμα

    σχίσμα, ατος, τό(σχίζω; Aristot. et al.; ‘split, division’)
    the condition resulting from splitting or tearing, tear, crack (Aristot., HA 2, 1; Physiogn. I 372, 6; En 1:7) in a garment Mt 9:16; Mk 2:21; in a stick Hs 8, 5, 1; in a stone 9, 8, 3.
    the condition of being divided because of conflicting aims or objectives, division, dissension, schism fig. ext. of 1 (PLond 2710 recto, 13 [=Sb 7835—I B.C.] the ἡγούμενος of the brotherhood of Zeus Hypsistos forbids σχίσματα most strictly; Cat. Cod. Astr. XI/2 p. 122, 24 πολέμους, φόνους, μάχας, σχίσματα; Hippol., Ref. 6, 35, 5 w. διαφορά; Iren. 4, 33, 7 [Harv. II 261, 1], opp.: ἡ ἕνωσις τῆς ἐκκλησίας) J 7:43; 9:16; 10:19; 1 Cor 1:10; 11:18; 12:25; 1 Cl 46:9; 49:5 (ἔσονται σχίσματα καὶ αἱρέσεις Just., D. 35, 3 [Gospel quot. of unknown origin; s. Unknown Sayings 59–61]). W. στάσις 2:6; w. στάσις, ἔρις 54:2. ἔρεις, θυμοί, διχοστασίαι, σχίσματα, πόλεμος 46:5. ποιεῖν σχίσμα cause a division D 4:3; B 19:12. σχίσματα ἐν ἑαυτοῖς ἐποίησαν they brought about divisions (of opinion) in their own minds (or among themselves; s. ἑαυτοῦ 2) Hs 8, 9, 4.—MMeinertz, BZ n.s. 1, ’57, 114–18.—M-M. DELG s.v. σχίζω. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > σχίσμα

  • 728 σῶμα

    σῶμα, ατος, τό (Hom.+) ‘body.’
    body of a human being or animal, body
    dead body, corpse (so always in Hom. [but s. HHerter, σῶμα bei Homer: Charites, Studien zur Altertumswissenschaft, ELanglotz Festschr., ed. KvonSchauenburg ’57, 206–17] and oft. later, e.g. Memnon: 434 Fgm. 1, 3, 3 Jac. καίειν τὸ ς.=burn the corpse; ins, pap, LXX; PsSol 2:27; TestJob 52:11; ApcMos 34 al.; Philo, Abr. 258; Jos., Bell. 6, 276, Ant. 18, 236; Ar. 4, 3; Mel., P. 28, 196) Mt 14:12 v.l.; 27:59; Mk 15:45 v.l.; Lk 17:37; Ac 9:40; GPt 2:4; pl. J 19:31. W. gen. Mt 27:58; Mk 15:43; Lk 23:52, 55; 24:3, 23; J 19:38ab, 40; 20:12; Jd 9; GPt 2:3. Pl. Mt 27:52; Hb 13:11. AcPlCor 2:27.
    the living body (Hes. et al.) of animals Js 3:3.—Mostly of human beings Mt 5:29f; 6:22f; 26:12; Mk 5:29; 14:8; Lk 11:34abc; J 2:21; Ro 1:24; 1 Cor 6:18ab; IRo 5:3. τὰ τοῦ σώματος the parts of the body 4:2. Of women αἱ ἀσθενεῖς τῷ σώματι 1 Cl 6:2; cp. Hv 3, 11, 4.—W. and in contrast to πνεῦμα (4 Macc 11:11) Ro 8:10, 13; 1 Cor 5:3; 7:34; Js 2:26. W. and in contrast to ψυχή (Pla., Gorg. 47, 493a; Diod S 34 + 35 Fgm. 2, 30; Appian, Bell. Civ. 5, 112 §467; Ael. Aristid. 45, 17f K.=8 p. 88f D.; Lucian, Imag. 23; PGM 7, 589; Wsd 1:4; 8:19f; 2 Macc 7:37; 14:38; 4 Macc 1:28; ApcEsdr 7:3 p. 32, 13 Tdf.; EpArist 139; Philo; Jos., Bell. 3, 372–78; 6, 55; Just., A I, 8, 4; D. 6, 2 al.; Tat. 13, 1; Ath. 1, 4; Did., Gen. 56, 4; Theoph. Ant. 1, 5 [p. 66, 2]) Mt 6:25ab; 10:28ab; Lk 12:4 v.l., 22f; 2 Cl 5:4 (a saying of Jesus, fr. an unknown source); 12:4; MPol 14:2; AcPl Ha 1, 4. τὸ πνεῦμα καὶ ἡ ψυχὴ καὶ τὸ σῶμα (s. the Christian POxy 1161, 6 [IV A.D.]) 1 Th 5:23. W. and in contrast to its parts (ApcSed 11:13; Mel., P. 78, 563) Ro 12:4; 1 Cor 12:12abc (Ltzm. ad loc.), 14–20 (PMich 149, 4, 26 [II A.D.] ἧπαρ … ὅλον τὸ σῶμα); Js 3:6; 1 Cl 37:5abcd. The body as the seat of sexual function Ro 4:19; 1 Cor 7:4ab (rights over the σῶμα of one’s spouse as Artem. 1, 44 p. 42, 14f; Iren. 1, 13, 3 [Harv. I 119, 10]).—The body as seat of mortal life εἶναι ἐν σώματι be in the body = alive, subject to mortal ills (TestAbr A 9 p. 87, 3 [Stone p. 22]; Poryphr., Abst. 1, 38) Hb 13:3. ἐνδημεῖν ἐν τῷ σώματι 2 Cor 5:6 (s. ἐνδημέω). ἐκδημῆσαι ἐκ τοῦ σώματος vs. 8 (s. ἐκδημέω). διὰ τοῦ σώματος during the time of one’s mortal life (cp. Lucian, Menipp. 11, end, Catapl. 23) vs. 10 (s. κομίζω 3, but s. also below in this section). Paul does not know whether, in a moment of religious ecstasy, he was ἐν σώματι or ἐκτὸς (χωρὶς) τοῦ σώματος 12:2f (of Epimenides [A2: Vorsokrat.5 I p. 29] it was said ὡς ἐξίοι ἡ ψυχὴ ὁπόσον ἤθελε καιρὸν καὶ πάλιν εἰσῄει ἐν τῷ σώματι; Clearchus, Fgm. 7: καθάπερ ὁ Κλέαρχος ἐν τοῖς περὶ ὕπνου φησίν, περὶ τῆς ψυχῆς, ὡς ἄρα χωρίζεται τοῦ σώματος καὶ ὡς εἴσεισιν εἰς τὸ σῶμα καὶ ὡς χρῆται αὐτῷ οἷον καταγωγίῳ [a resting-place]. In Fgm. 8 Clearchus tells about Cleonymus the Athenian, who seemed to be dead, but awakened after 3 days and thereupon reported everything that he had seen and heard ἐπειδὴ χωρὶς ἦν τοῦ σώματος. His soul is said finally to have arrived εἴς τινα χῶρον ἱερὸν τῆς Ἑστίας; Maximus Tyr. 38, 3a–f Ἀριστέας ἔφασκεν τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτῷ καταλιποῦσαν τὸ σῶμα in order to wander through the universe. He finds faith everywhere. Similarly 10, 2f. See also the story of Hermotimus in Apollon. Paradox. 3 as well as Lucian, Musc. Enc. [The Fly] 7.—On the two kinds of transcendent vision [with or without the body] s. Proclus, In Pla. Rem Publ. II p. 121, 26ff Kroll: οἱ μὲν μετὰ τοῦ σώματος τῶν τοιούτων [like Ἐμπεδότιμος] ἵστορες [=eyewitnesses], οἱ δὲ ἄνευ σώματος [like Κλεώνυμος]. καὶ πλήρεις αἱ παραδόσεις τούτων.). ἀπὼν τῷ σώματι (παρὼν δὲ τῷ πνεύματι) 1 Cor 5:3. ἡ παρουσία τοῦ σώματος 2 Cor 10:10 (παρουσία 1). The body is the instrument of human experience and suffering 4:10ab; Gal 6:17 (allusion AcPlCor 2, 35); Phil 1:20; the body is the organ of a person’s activity: δοξάσατε τὸν θεὸν ἐν τῷ σώματι ὑμῶν glorify God through your body, i.e. by leading an upright life 1 Cor 6:20; cp. Ro 12:1. This may be the place (s. above in this section) for διὰ τοῦ σώματος 2 Cor 5:10 which, in that case, would be taken in an instrumental sense with or through the body (cp. Pla., Phd. 65a; Ps.-Pla., Axioch. 13, 371c; Aelian, NA 5, 26 τὰ διὰ τοῦ σώματος πραττόμενα). In some of the last-named passages (such as Ro 12:1; Phil 1:20; also Eph 5:28 w. parallel in Plut., Mor. 142e: s. HAlmqvist, Plut. u. d. NT ’46, 116f) the body is almost synonymous w. the whole personality (as Aeschin., Or. 2, 58; X., An. 1, 9, 12 τὰ ἑαυτῶν σώματα=themselves. Appian, Syr. 41 §218 παρεδίδου τὸ σῶμα τοῖς ἐθέλουσιν ἀπαγαγεῖν=[Epaminondas] gave himself up to those who wished to take him away, Mithr. 27 §107 ἐς τὸ σῶμα αὐτοῦ=against his person, Bell. Civ. 2, 106 §442 Caesar’s person [σῶμα] is ἱερὸς καὶ ἄσυλος=sacred and inviolable; 3, 39 §157 ἔργον … σῶμα=course of action … person; Mitt-Wilck. I/2, 55, 7 [III B.C.] ἑκάστου σώματος=for every person. See Wilcken’s note).—Because it is subject to sin and death, man’s mortal body as τὸ σῶμα τῆς σαρκός (σάρξ 2cα) Col 2:11 is a σῶμα τῆς ἁμαρτίας Ro 6:6 or τοῦ θανάτου 7:24; cp. 8:11. In fact, σῶμα can actually take the place of σάρξ 8:13 (cp. Herm. Wr. 4, 6b ἐὰν μὴ πρῶτον τὸ σῶμα μισήσῃς, σεαυτὸν φιλῆσαι οὐ δύνασαι; 11, 21a.—Cp. Hippol., Ref. 5, 19, 6). As a σῶμα τῆς ταπεινώσεως lowly body it stands in contrast to the σῶμα τῆς δόξης glorious body of the heavenly beings Phil 3:21. In another pass. σῶμα ψυχικόν of mortals is opposed to the σῶμα πνευματικόν after the resurrection 1 Cor 15:44abc.—Christ’s earthly body, which was subject to death (Orig., C. Cels. 2, 9, 13) Ro 7:4; Hb 10:5 (Ps 39:7 v.l.), 10; 1 Pt 2:24; AcPlCor 2:16f. τὸ σῶμα καὶ τὰ ὀστᾶ καὶ τὸ πνεῦμα Χριστοῦ 2:32. τὸ σῶμα τῆς σαρκὸς αὐτοῦ Col 1:22. Esp. in the language of the Eucharist (opp. αἷμα) Mt 26:26; Mk 14:22; Lk 22:19; 1 Cor 10:16 (GBornkamm, NTS 2, ’56, 202–6); 11:24, 27, 29. S. the lit. s.v. ἀγάπη 2 and εὐχαριστία 3, also JBonsirven, Biblica 29, ’48, 205–19.—ἓν σῶμα a single body 1 Cor 6:16 (cp. Jos., Ant. 7, 66 Δαυίδης τήν τε ἄνω πόλιν κ. τὴν ἄκραν συνάψας ἐποίησεν ἕν σῶμα; Artem. 3, 66 p. 196, 9; RKempthorne, NTS 14. ’67/68, 568–74).
    pl. σώματα slaves (Herodas 2, 87 δοῦλα σώματα; Polyb. et al.; oft. Vett. Val.; ins, pap; Gen 36:6; Tob 10:10; Bel 32; 2 Macc 8:11; Jos., Ant. 14, 321; cp. our colloq. ‘get some bodies for the job’) Rv 18:13 (cp. Ezk 27:13; the abs. usage rejected by Atticists, s. Phryn. 378 Lob.).
    plant and seed structure, body. In order to gain an answer to his own question in 1 Cor 15:35 ποίῳ σώματι ἔρχονται; (i.e. the dead after the resurrection), Paul speaks of bodies of plants (which are different in kind fr. the ‘body’ of the seed which is planted.—Maximus Tyr. 40, 60e makes a distinction betw. the σώματα of the plants, which grow old and pass away, and their σπέρματα, which endure.—σώματα of plants also in Apollon. Paradox. 7 [after Aristot.]) vs. 37f, and of σώματα ἐπουράνια of the heavenly bodies vs. 40 (cp. Ps.-Aristot., De Mundo 2, 2 the stars as σώματα θεῖα; Maximus Tyr. 21, 8b οὐρανὸς κ. τὰ ἐν αὐτῷ σώματα, acc. to 11, 12a οἱ ἀστέρες; 40, 4h; Sallust. 9 p. 18, 5).
    substantive reality, the thing itself, the reality in imagery of a body that casts a shadow, in contrast to σκιά (q.v. 3) Col 2:17.
    a unified group of people, body fig. ext. of 1, of the Christian community or church (cp. Cyr. Ins. 58, ‘body of the Hellenes’; Polyaenus, Exc. 18, 4 of the phalanx; Libanius, Or. 1 p. 176, 25 F. τὸ τῆς πόλεως ς.; Plut., Philop. 360 [8, 2]), esp. as the body of Christ, which he fills or enlivens as its Spirit (in this case the head belongs with the body, as Appian, Bell. Civ. 3, 26 §101, where a severed head is differentiated from τὸ ἄλλο σῶμα=the rest of the body), or crowns as its Head (Hdt. 7, 140; Quint. Smyrn. 11, 58; SIG 1169, 3; 15 κεφαλή w. σῶμα as someth. equally independent; Orig., C. Cels. 6, 79, 27): οἱ πολλοὶ ἓν σῶμά ἐσμεν ἐν Χριστῷ Ro 12:5. Cp. 1 Cor 10:17; 12:13, 27; Eph (s. Schlier s.v. ἐκκλησία 3c) 1:23; 2:16; 4:12, 16; 5:23, 30; Col 1:18, 24; 2:19; 3:15; ISm 1:2; Hs 9, 17, 5; 9, 18, 3f. ἓν σῶμα καὶ ἓν πνεῦμα Eph 4:4; cp. Hs 9, 13, 5; 7 (Iambl., Vi. Pyth. 30, 167: all as ἓν σῶμα κ. μία ψυχή; also Just., D. 42, 3) διέλκομεν τὰ μέλη τοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ στασιάζομεν πρὸς τὸ σῶμα τὸ ἴδιον 1 Cl 46:7.—T Schmidt, Der Leib Christi (σῶμα Χριστοῦ) 1919; EKäsemann, Leib u. Leib Christi ’33 (for a critique s. SHanson, Unity of the Church in the NT ’46, 113–16); ÉMersch, Le Corps mystique du Christ2 ’36; AWikenhauser, D. Kirche als d. myst. Leib Christi, nach dem Ap. Pls2 ’40; EPercy, D. Leib Christi in d. paulin. Homologumena u. Antilegomena ’42; RHirzel, Die Person: SBMünAk 1914 H. 10 p. 6–28 (semantic history of σῶμα); WKnox, Parallels to the NT use of σῶμα: JTS 39, ’38, 243–46; FDillistone, How Is the Church Christ’s Body?: Theology Today 2, ’45/46, 56–68; WGoossens, L’Église corps de Christ d’après St. Paul2 ’49; CCraig, Soma Christou: The Joy of Study ’51, 73–85; JRobinson, The Body: A Study in Pauline Theol. ’52; RBultmann, Theol. of the NT, tr. KGrobel ’51, 192–203; HClavier, CHDodd Festschr. ’56, 342–62; CColpe, Zur Leib-Christi Vorstellung im Eph, ’60, 172–87; KGrobel, Bultmann Festschr. ’54, 52–59; HHegermann, TLZ 85, ’60, 839–42; ESchweizer, ibid. 86, ’61, 161–74; 241–56; JMeuzelaar, D. Leib des Messias, ’61; MDahl, The Resurrection of the Body, ’62; RJewett, Paul’s Anthropological Terms, ’71, 201–304; JZiegler, NovT 25, ’83, 133–45 (LXX); JDunn: JSNT Suppl. 100, ’94, 163–81 (Col.).—B. 198. New Docs 4, 38f. DELG. M-M. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > σῶμα

  • 729 ταράσσω

    ταράσσω impf. ἐτάρασσον; fut. 3 sg. ταράξει LXX; 1 aor. ἐτάραξα. Pass.: impf. ἐταρασσόμην; fut. 3 sg. ταραχθήσεται; 1 aor. ἐταράχθην; pf. τετάραγμαι, ptc. τεταραγμένος (Hom.+; Ath., R. 3 p. 51, 30 [-ττ]).
    to cause movement by shaking or stirring, shake together, stir up of water (Hom. et al.; Aesop 155 P.=274b Halm/160 H-H; Babrius 166, 5=Fgm. 4 p. 144 L-P.; Athen. 7, 52, 298c ταραττομένου τοῦ ὕδατος; Hos 6:8; Is 24:14; Ezk 32:2, 13) J 5:3 [4] v.l.; pass. (Solon 11 Diehl3) be moved, be stirred vs 7.
    to cause inward turmoil, stir up, disturb, unsettle, throw into confusion, fig. ext. of 1 (Aeschyl., Hdt. et al., pap, LXX; Just., A I, 68, 7 [Hadrian]; Ath., R. 3 p. 51–30), in our lit. of mental and spiritual agitation and confusion (Menand., Epitr. 611 Kö. [but s. 931 S. mg.]; Philo, Conf. Lingu. 69), which can manifest themselves in outward tumult τὸν ὄχλον Ac 17:8; cp. vs. 13 (Hyperid. 1, 31, 8; POxy 298, 27; PGiss 40 II, 20 ταράσσουσι τὴν πόλιν). τὴν διάνοιάν τινος ταρ. 2 Cl 20:1 (Epict., Ench. 28 τ. γνώμην σου). Of mental confusion caused by false teachings ταρ. τινά Ac 15:24 (w. λόγοις foll.); Gal 1:7; 5:10. Of Jesus in John’s Gospel ἐτάραξεν ἑαυτόν he was troubled or agitated J 11:33 (difft. NRSV ‘deeply moved’. S. Hdb. ad loc.—Menand., Sam. 672 S. [327 Kö.] σαυτὸν ταράττεις; M. Ant. 4, 26 σεαυτὸν μὴ τάρασσε).—Pass. be troubled, frightened, terrified (Ps 47:6; Is 8:12; Jos., Ant. 7, 153; 12, 164; Just., D. 38, 2) Mt 2:3 (GJs 21:2); 14:26 (cp. Phlegon: 257 Fgm. 36, II, 3 w. θαρρεῖν, at a φάσμα); Mk 6:50; Lk 1:12; 24:38; MPol 5:1; 12:1; Hm 12, 4, 2. μηδὲ ταραχθῆτε do not let yourselves be intimidated 1 Pt 3:14 (Is 8:12). ἡ ψυχή μου τετάρακται J 12:27 (cp. Diod S 17, 112, 4 Alexander ἐταράττετο τὴν ψυχήν at the prediction of his death; Dio Chrys. 23 [40], 20 ταράξαι τὴν ψυχήν; Chion, Ep. 16, 7 ταράσσειν τὴν ψυχήν; Ps 6:4; TestZeb 8:6; TestDan 4:7b); also ἡ καρδία 14:1, 27 (cp. Ps 108:22; 54:5; TestDan 4:7a). ταραχθῆναι τῷ πνεύματι be inwardly moved 13:21; cp. 11:33 v.l. (Ps.-Callisth. 2, 12, 5 ἐταράσσετο τῇ ψυχῇ).—DELG. M-M. Spicq.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ταράσσω

  • 730 τέκνον

    τέκνον, ου, τό (τίκτω ‘engender, bear’; Hom.+ ‘child’)
    an offspring of human parents, child
    without ref. to sex Mt 10:21a (on the complete dissolution of family ties s. Lucian, Cal. 1; GrBar 4:17; ApcEsdr 3:14 p. 27, 23 Tdf.; Just., A I, 27, 3f; Orig., C. Cels. 6, 43, 25 [Job’s children]); Mk 13:12a; Lk 1:7; Ac 7:5; Rv 12:4. Pl. Mt 7:11; 10:21b; 18:25; 19:29; 22:24 (=σπέρμα, cp. Dt 25:5f, but σπ. and τ. are contrasted Ro 9:7); Mk 13:12b; Lk 1:17; 14:26; 1 Cor 7:14 (on the baptism of children s. HWood, EncRelEth II 392ff; JLeipoldt, D. urchr. Taufe 1928, 73–78; AOepke, LIhmels Festschr. 1928, 84–100, ZNW 29, 1930, 81–111 [against him HWindisch, ZNW 28, 1929, 118–42]; JJeremias, Hat d. Urkirche d. Kindertaufe geübt? ’38; 2d ed. ’49; Die Kindert. in d. ersten 4 Jhdtn. ’58; revisited D. Anfänge d. Kindert. ’62; s. also ZNW 40, ’42, 243–45. KAl-and, D. Saülingst. im NT u. in d. alten Kirche ’62, 2d ed. ’63; Die Stellung d. Kinder in d. frühe christl. Gemeinden, und ihre Taufe ’67. KBarth, Z. kirchl. Lehre v. d. Taufe2 ’43; D. Taufe als Begründung d. christlichen Lebens in Kirchliche Dogmatik IV, 4, ’67; for discussion of Barth’s views, s. EJüngel, K. Barths Lehre v. d. Taufe ’68; KViering (ed.), Zu K. Barth’s Lehre v. d. Taufe ’71; K. Aland, Taufe u. Kindertaufe ’71; HHubert, D. Streit um d. Kindertaufe, ’72. FFr̓vig, TTK 11, ’40, 124–31; EMolland, NorTT 43, ’42, 1–23; F-JLeenhardt, Le Baptème chrétien ’46; OCullmann, D. Tauflehre d. NT ’48; P-HMenoud, Verbum Caro 2, ’48, 15–26; HSchlier, TLZ 72, ’47, 321–26; GFleming, Baptism in the NT ’49; GBeasley-Murray, Baptism in the New Testament ’62; WKümmel, TRu 18, ’50, 32–47; GDelling, D. Taufe im NT ’63; EDinkler, Die Taufaussagen d. NT ’71 [in: KViering, s. above, 60–153]; JDidier, Le baptême des enfants ’59; HKraft, Texte z. Gesch. d. Taufe bes. d. Kindert. i. d. alten Kirche, Kl. T. no. 174, 2d ed. ’69); 2 Cor 12:14ab (simile); 1 Th 2:7 (simile), 11 (simile); 1 Ti 3:4, 12; 5:4 al. In the table of household duties (s. MDibelius Hdb. exc. after Col 4:1; KWeidinger, Die Haustafeln 1928) Eph 6:1 (τὰ τέκνα voc.), 4; Col 3:20 (τὰ τ. voc.), 21. In the case of φονεῖς τέκνων B 20:2; D 5:2, what follows shows that murders of their own children are meant.—The unborn fetus is also called τέκνον B 19:5; D 2:2 (like παιδίον: Hippocr., π. σαρκ. 6 vol. VIII 592 L. On Jesus’ attitude toward children, cp. JKalogerakos, Aristoteles’ Bild von der Frau: ΠΛΑΤΩΝ 46, ’94, 159–83, esp. p. 174 and notes [cp. Aristot., EN 1161b].).
    The sex of the child can be made clear by the context, son (Herodian 7, 10, 7; PGen 74, 1ff; PAmh 136, 1f; POxy 930, 18; Jos., Ant. 14, 196; Just., D. 56, 5; 134, 4) Mt 21:28a; Phil 2:22 (simile); Rv 12:5; GJs 22;3. The voc. τέκνον as an affectionate address to a son Mt 21:28b; Lk 2:48; 15:31. In a more general sense the pl. is used for
    descendants from a common ancestor, descendants, posterity Ῥαχὴλ κλαίουσα τὰ τέκνα αὐτῆς Mt 2:18 (Jer 38:15).—27:25; Ac 2:39; 13:33. A rich man is addressed by his ancestor Abraham as τέκνον Lk 16:25. τὰ τέκνα τῆς σαρκός the physical descendants Ro 9:8a.
    one who is dear to another but without genetic relationship and without distinction in age, child
    in the voc. gener. as a form of familiar address my child, my son (Herodian 1, 6, 4; ParJer 5:30; Achilles Tat. 8, 4, 3. Directed to fully grown persons, Vi. Aesopi G 60 P., where a peasant addresses Aesop in this way) Mt 9:2; Mk 2:5.
    of a spiritual child in relation to master, apostle, or teacher (PGM 4, 475.—Eunap. p. 70 the sophist applies this term to his students) 2 Ti 1:2; Phlm 10. τέκνον ἐν κυρίῳ 1 Cor 4:17. τέκ. ἐν πίστει 1 Ti 1:2. τέκ. κατὰ κοινὴν πίστιν Tit 1:4. Pl. 1 Cor 4:14; 2 Cor 6:13; 3J 4. In direct address (voc.): sing. (on dir. address in the sing. cp. Sir 2:1 and oft.; Herm. Wr. 13, 2ab; PGM 13, 226; 233; 742; 755.—S. also Norden, Agn. Th. 290f; Boll 138f): 1 Ti 1:18; 2 Ti 2:1; D 3:1, 3–6; 4:1. Pl.: Mk 10:24; B 15:4.—1 Cl 22:1 understands the τέκνα of Ps 33:12 as a word of Christ to Christians. Cp. B 9:3. The address in Gal 4:19 is intended metaphorically for children for whom Paul is once more undergoing the pains of childbirth.—The adherents of false teachers are also called their τέκνα Rv 2:23.
    of the members of a congregation 2J 1; 4; 13. In Hermas the venerable lady, who embodies the Christian communities, addresses the believers as τέκνα Hv 3, 9, 1. In Gal 4:31 οὐκ ἐσμὲν παιδίσκης τέκνα ἀλλὰ τῆς ἐλευθέρας posts a dramatic image = ‘we belong not to a community dependent on the rules of Sinai, but to one that adheres to the promises made to Abraham’.
    one who has the characteristics of another being, child
    of those who exhibit virtues of ancient worthies: children of Abraham Mt 3:9; Lk 3:8; J 8:39; Ro 9:7. True Christian women are children of Sarah 1 Pt 3:6.
    of those who exhibit characteristics of transcendent entities: the believers are (τὰ) τέκνα (τοῦ) θεοῦ (cp. Is 63:8; Wsd 16:21; SibOr 5, 202; Just., D. 123, 9; 124, 1. On the subj. matter s. HHoltzmann, Ntl. Theologie I2 1911, 54; Bousset, Rel.3 377f; ADieterich, Mithrasliturgie 1903, 141ff; Hdb. on J 1:12; WGrundmann, Die Gotteskindschaft in d. Gesch. Jesu u. ihre relgesch. Voraussetzungen ’38; WTwisselmann, D. Gotteskindsch. der Christen nach dem NT ’39; SLegasse, Jésus et L’enfant [synopt.], ’69), in Paul as those adopted by God Ro 8:16f, 21; 9:7, 8b (opp. σπέρμα); Phil 2:15, s. also Eph 5:1; in John as those begotten by God J 1:12; 11:52; 1J 3:1f, 10a; 5:2. Corresp. τὰ τέκνα τοῦ διαβόλου 1J 3:10b (on this subj. s. Hdb. on J 8:44).—Cp. Ac 17:28, where the idea of kinship w. deity is complex because of semantic components not shared by polytheists and those within Israelite tradition.—Cp. 6 below.
    inhabitants of a city, children, an Hebraistic expression (Rdm.2 p. 28; Mlt-H. 441; s. Jo 2:23; Zech 9:13; Bar 4:19, 21, 25 al.; 1 Macc 1:38; PsSol 11:2) Mt 23:37; Lk 13:34; 19:44; Gal 4:25.
    a class of persons with a specific characteristic, children of. τ. is used w. abstract terms (for this Hebraism s. prec.; ἀνάγκης, ἀγνοίας Just., A I, 61, 10) τέκνα ἀγάπης B 9:7; ἀγ. καὶ εἰρήνης 21:9 (ἀγάπη 1bα). εὐφροσύνης 7:1 (s. εὐφροσύνη). δικαιοσύνης AcPlCor 2:19. κατάρας 2 Pt 2:14 (s. κατάρα). ὀργῆς Eph 2:3; AcPlCor 2:19. ὑπακοῆς 1 Pt 1:14. φωτός Eph 5:8; cp. IPhld 2:1. On the ‘children of wisdom’, i.e. those who attach themselves to her and let themselves be led by her Mt 11:19 v.l.; Lk 7:35 s. δικαιόω 2bα. Cp. 4b above.—Billerbeck I 219f, 371–74; BHHW II 947–49; III 1935–37.—DELG s.v. τίκτω. Frisk. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > τέκνον

  • 731 τελώνης

    τελώνης, ου, ὁ (τέλος, ὠνέομαι or the related noun ὠνή ‘buying, purchasing’; Aristoph., Aeschin. et al.; ins, pap, ostraca) tax-collector, revenue officer (cp. τέλος 5; Goodsp., Probs. 28; on the semantic range of τελώνη s. New Docs 5, 103; cp. JVergote, Eos 48, ’56, 149–60, s. p. 149). The τελ. in the synoptics (the only part of our lit. where they are mentioned) are not the holders (Lat. publicani) of the ‘taxfarming’ contracts themselves, but subordinates (Lat. portitores) hired by them; the higher officials were usu. foreigners, but their underlings were, as a rule, taken fr. the native population. The prevailing system of tax collection afforded a collector many opportunities to exercise greed and unfairness. Hence tax collectors were particularly hated and despised as a class (s. these condemnatory judgments on the τελῶναι: Demochares [300 B.C.] 75 Fgm. 4 Jac. τελ. βάναυσος; Xeno Com. III 390 Kock πάντες τελῶναι ἅρπαγες; Herodas 6, 64; Diogenes, Ep. 36, 2; Lucian, Necyom. 11; Artem. 1, 23; 4, 42; 57; Heraclid. Crit., Reisebilder 7 p. 76, 6 Pfister; Ps.-Dicaearchus p. 143, 7 Fuhr.; Iambl. Erot. 34; Cicero, De Off. 1, 150; UPZ 113, 9; 16 [156 B.C.]; O. Wilck I 568f; PPrinc II, 20, 1ff [on this OReinmuth, ClPh 31, ’36, 146–62]; Philo, Spec. Leg. 2, 93ff. Rabbinic material in Schürer I 374–76; Billerb. I 377f, 498f). A strict Israelite was further offended by the fact that tax-collectors had to maintain continual contact w. non-Israelites in the course of their work; this rendered an Israelite tax-collector ceremonially unclean. The prevailing attitude is expressed in these combinations: τελῶναι καὶ ἁμαρτωλοί (s. ἁμαρτωλός bβ) Mt 9:10f; 11:19; Mk 2:15, 16ab (RPesch, BRigaux Festschr., ’70, 63–87; cp. Theophr., Characters 6, 47); Lk 5:30; 7:34; 15:1 (JJeremias, ZNW 30, ’31, 293–300). ὁ ἐθνικὸς καὶ ὁ τελώνης Mt 18:17. οἱ τελῶναι καὶ αἱ πόρναι 21:31f. As typically selfish 5:46.—Lk 3:12 (Sb 8072, 6 [II A.D.] a prefect reprimands τελ. who demand τὰ μὴ ὀφιλόμενα αὐτοῖς); 5:29; 7:29. A Pharisee and a tax-collector Lk 18:10f, 13. Μαθθαῖος ὁ τελώνης Mt 10:3 (Jos., Bell. 2, 287 Ἰωάννης ὁ τελώνης). τελ. ὀνόματι Λευί Lk 5:27 (cp. Λευί 4).—Schürer I 372–76; JMarquardt, Staatsverw. II2 1884, 261ff; 289ff; AJones, Studies in Rom. Gov’t. and Law, ’60, 101–14; JDonahue, CBQ 33, ’71, 39–61; EBadian, Publicans and Sinners ’72; WWalker, JBL 97, ’78, 221–38; FHerrenbrück, ZNW 72, ’81, 178–94, Jesus und die Zöllner ’90; DBraud, Gabinus, Caesar, and the ‘publicani’ of Judaea: Klio 65, ’83, 241–44; MGoodman, The Ruling Class of Judaea ’87. S. κῆνσος.—Kl. Pauly V 1551; BHHW III 2245f.—New Docs 5, 103, also 8, 47–56. DELG s.v. τέλο and ὀνέομαι. Frisk s.v. τέλο and ὦνο. M-M. EDNT. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > τελώνης

  • 732 τιμή

    τιμή, ῆς, ἡ (s. τιμάω; Hom.+; loanw. in rabb.).
    the amount at which someth. is valued, price, value (s. ApcMos 18 νόησον τὴν τιμήν τοῦ ξύλου Eden’s tree) esp. selling price (Hdt. et al.; O. Wilck II, 318, 3; POxy 1382, 18 [II A.D.]) συνεψήφισαν τὰς τιμὰς αὐτῶν (s. συμψηφίζω) Ac 19:19. Also concrete the price received in selling someth. 5:2. W. the gen. of that for which the price is paid (Is 55:1; Jos., Vi. 153, Ant. 4, 284; TestZeb 3:2) ἡ τιμὴ τοῦ χωρίου the price paid for the piece of ground vs. 3. ἡ τιμὴ τοῦ τετιμημένου (τιμάω 1) Mt 27:9. τιμὴ αἵματος the money paid for a bloody deed (αἷμα 2a), blood money vs. 6. Pl. (Diod S 5, 71, 3; 6=prize, price, reward) τὰς τιμὰς τῶν πιπρασκομένων Ac 4:34. τὰς τιμὰς αὐτῶν the prices that they received for themselves 1 Cl 55:2.—W. the gen. of price ᾧ (by attr. of the rel. for ὅ) ὠνήσατο Ἀβραὰμ τιμῆς ἀργυρίου which Abraham had bought for a sum of silver Ac 7:16. Abs. τιμῆς at or for a price, for cash (Hdt. 7, 119; PTebt 5, 185; 194; 220 [118 B.C.]; BGU 1002, 13 δέδωκά σοι αὐτὰ τιμῆς.—B-D-F §179, 1; Rob. 510f; Dssm., LO 275f [LAE 323f]) ἠγοράσθητε τιμῆς 1 Cor 6:20; 7:23 (ἀγοράζω 2).—οὐκ ἐν τιμῇ τινι Col 2:23 may be a Latinism (cp. Ovid, Fasti 5, 316 nec in pretio fertilis hortus; Livy 39, 6, 9; Seneca, Ep. 75, 11. See Lohmeyer ad loc.) are of no value (NRSV). See also s.v. πλησμονή.—GBornkamm, TLZ 73 ’48, col. 18, 2 observes that τ. here has nothing to do with ‘honor’, as it does in the expr. ἐν τιμῇ εἶναι X., An. 2, 5, 38; Herodian 4, 2, 9; Arrian, Anab. 4, 21, 10; Lucian, De Merc. Cond. 17.
    manifestation of esteem, honor, reverence
    act., the showing of honor, reverence, or respect as an action (X., Cyr. 1, 6, 11; Diod S 17, 76, 3; Herodian 4, 1, 5; 2 Macc 9:21; Just., A I, 13, 1; Tat. 32, 1; Ath. 30, 2; Theoph. Ant. 1, 11 [p. 82, 5]; usually as a commendation for performance; s. Reader, Polemo 280) 1 Ti 6:1. ταύτῃ τῇ τιμῇ τιμήσωμεν τ. υἱὸν τοῦ θεοῦ GPt 3:9. So perh. τῇ τιμῇ ἀλλήλους προηγούμενοι Ro 12:10 (s. προηγέομαι 3). Pl. οἵ πολλαῖς τιμαῖς ἐτίμησαν ἡμᾶς Ac 28:10 (cp. Diod S 11, 38, 5 τιμαῖς ἐτίμησε τὸν Γέλωνα; OGI 51, 13 τοὺς τοιούτους τιμᾶν ταῖς πρεπούσαις τιμαῖς; Jos., Ant. 20, 68. In 1 Th 4:4 τιμή may well be understood in this sense, if σκεῦος refers to a female member of the household; s. also c.—For the τιμαί that belong to the physician, s. Sir 38:1; s. 3 below). Of the demonstrations of reverence that characterize polytheistic worship (OGI 56, 9 αἱ τιμαὶ τῶν θεῶν; Himerius, Or. 8 [=23], 11 ἡ θεῶν τιμή.—S. Orig., C. Cels. 8, 57, 29) Dg 2:8; Judean worship 3:5a.
    pass. the respect that one enjoys, honor as a possession. The believers are promised τιμή 1 Pt 2:7 (it is given them w. Christ, the λίθος ἔντιμος vs. 6) but see 4 below; cp. IMg 15. τιμὴν ἔχειν be honored (Hdt. 1, 168) J 4:44; Hb 3:3. τιμήν τινι (ἀπο)διδόναι Ro 13:7; 1 Cor 12:24; Rv 4:9 (w. δόξαν). τιμήν τινι ἀπονέμειν (Ath. 32, 3) 1 Pt 3:7; 1 Cl 1:3; MPol 10:2. τιμήν τινι περιτιθέναι 1 Cor 12:23. λαβεῖν τιμήν (w. δόξαν) 2 Pt 1:17; (w. δόξαν and δύναμιν; cp. FPfister, Philol 84, 1929, 1–9) Rv 4:11; 5:12 (w. δύναμις, as Plut., Mor. 421e: the divinity grants both of them if it is addressed by its various names). τ. τιμῆς μεταλαβεῖν Dg 3:5b. ἑαυτῷ τιμὴν περιποιεῖσθαι Hm 4, 4, 2 (w. δόξαν).—εἰς τιμήν for honor=to be honored σκεῦος, a vessel that is honored (or dishonored) by the use to which it is put Ro 9:21; 2 Ti 2:20f. εἰς τιμήν τινος for someone’s honor=that the pers. might be honored (Cornutus 28 p. 55, 7 εἰς τιμὴν τῆς Δήμητρος; OGI 111, 26 εἰς τιμὴν Πτολεμαίου; εἰς τιμὴν τῶν Αἰώνων Iren. 1, 5, 1 [Harv. I 42, 16]; εἰς τ. γονέων Did., Gen. 50, 21) IEph 2:1; 21:1, 2; IMg 3:2; ITr 12:2; ISm 11:2; IPol 5:2b; cp. vs. 2a (εἰς τιμὴν τῆς σαρκὸς τοῦ κυρίου). On εἰς λόγον τιμῆς IPhld 11:2 s. λόγος 2c.—An outstanding feature of the use of τ., as already shown in several passages, is its combination w. δόξα (Dio Chrys. 4, 116; 27 [44], 10; Appian, Bell. Civ. 3, 18 §68; Arrian, Ind. 11, 1; Plut., Mor. 486b; Jos., Ant. 12, 118; Iren. 1, 2, 6 [Harv. I 23, 8]): of earthly possessions τὴν δόξαν καὶ τὴν τιμὴν τῶν ἐθνῶν Rv 21:26 (τιμή concr.=an object of value: Ezk 22:25). Of the unique, God-given position of the ruler 1 Cl 61:1, 2 (in the latter pass. w. ἐξουσία). Mostly of heavenly possessions: Ro 2:7 (w. ἀφθαρσία), vs. 10 (w. εἰρήνη); 1 Pt 1:7 (w. ἔπαινος); 1 Cl 45:8. Christ is (acc. to Ps 8:6) crowned w. δόξα and τιμή Hb 2:7, 9. God is called (amid many other predicates) φῶς, τιμή, δόξα, ἰσχύς, ζωή Dg 9:6.—Hence esp. in the doxological formulas (God as the recipient of τ.: Eur., Bacch. 323 θεῷ τιμὴν διδόναι; Paus. 9, 13, 2; Ps 28:1 [w. δόξα]; 95:7 [w. δόξα]; TestAbr B 14 p. 119, 3 [Stone p. 86]; ApcEsdr 7:16 [w. δόξα, κράτο]; Philo; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 206) 1 Ti 1:17 (w. δόξα); 6:16 (w. κράτος αἰώνιον); w. δόξα and κράτος Jd 25 v.l.; Rv 5:13 (w. δόξα et al.); 7:12 (w. δόξα et al.); 1 Cl 64 (w. δόξα et al.); 65:2 (w. δόξα et al.); MPol 20:2; 21 (both w. δόξα et al.).
    as a state of being, respectability (cp. τίμιος 1c) 1 Th 4:4 (w. ἁγιασμός). If τιμή is here to be understood as a nomen actionis, the pass. belongs in a.
    place of honor, (honorable) office (Hom. et al. [s. FBleek on Hb 5:4]; pap. In Joseph. of the high-priestly office: Ant. 12.42 Ἐλεαζάρῳ τῷ ἀρχιερεῖ ταύτην λαβόντι τὴν τιμήν; 157 and oft.) οὐχ ἑαυτῷ τις λαμβάνει τὴν τιμήν no one takes the office of his own accord Hb 5:4.
    honor conferred through compensation, honorarium, compensation (testament of Lycon [III B.C.] Fgm. 15 W., in Diog. L. 5, 72, a physician’s honorarium; Sir 38:1; s. 2a above), so prob. 1 Ti 5:17 (MDibelius, Hdb. ad loc. and see s.v. διπλοῦς).—Mng. 2b is also poss. In that case cp. Ael. Aristid. 32, 3 K.=12 p. 134 D.: διπλῇ τιμῇ τιμῆσαι.—MGreindl (s. δόξα, end).
    a right that is specially conferred, privilege 1 Pt 2:7 (FDanker, ZNW 58, ’67, 96), difft. REB ‘has great worth’; NRSV ‘is precious’.—B. 825; 1143. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > τιμή

  • 733 φέρω

    φέρω (Hom.+) impf. ἔφερον; fut. οἴσω J 21:18; Rv 21:26; 1 aor. ἤνεγκα, ptc. ἐνέγκας; 2 aor. inf. ἐνεγκεῖν (B-D-F §81, 2); pf. ἐνήνοχα (LXX, JosAs). Pass.: 1 aor. ἠνέχθην 2 Pt 1:17, 21a, 3 pl. ἐνέχθησαν Hs 8, 2, 1.
    to bear or carry from one place to another, w. focus on an act of transport
    lit.
    α. carry, bear (Aristoph., Ra. [Frogs] 27 τὸ βάρος ὸ̔ φέρεις; X., Mem. 3, 13, 6 φορτίον φέρειν; GrBar 12:1 κανίσκια ‘baskets’) ἐπέθηκαν αὐτῷ τὸν σταυρὸν φέρειν ὄπισθεν τοῦ Ἰησοῦ Lk 23:26 (s. σταυρός 1).—In imagery drawn from Gen 2 οὗ ξύλον φέρων καὶ καρπὸν αἱρῶν if you bear the tree (of the word) and pluck its fruit Dg 12:8. For Papias (3:2) s. 3a.
    β. bring with one, bring/take along (Diod S 6, 7, 8 γράμματα φέρων; GrBar 12:7 φέρετε ὸ̔ ἠνέγκατε ‘bring here what you have brought’, for the nuance of φέρετε s. 2a; PTebt 418, 9; 421, 6; 8) φέρουσαι ἃ ἡτοίμασαν ἀρώματα Lk 24:1. Cp. J 19:39.
    fig.
    α. carry a burden οὗτος τὰς ἁμαρτίας ἡμῶν φέρει 1 Cl 16:4 (Is 53:4).
    β. bear a name τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ κυρίου bear the name of the Lord, i.e. of a Christian Pol 6:3 (cp. Just., D. 35, 6).
    γ. bear/grant a favor χάριν τινὶ φέρειν (Il. 5, 211; Od. 5, 307; cp. Aeschyl., Ag. 421f; but not Andoc., De Reditu 9 ‘express gratitude’) ἐλπίσατε ἐπὶ τὴν φερομένην ὑμῖν χάριν ἐν ἀποκαλύψει Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ hope for the favor that is being granted you in connection w. the revelation of Jesus Christ (i.e. when he is revealed) 1 Pt 1:13.
    to cause an entity to move from one position to another, w. focus on the presentation or effecting of someth.
    a thing bring (on), produce (GrBar 12:7 φέρετε ‘bring here’ [what you have brought with you, s. 1aβ])
    α. bring (to), fetch τὶ someth. Mk 6:27, 28 (ἐπὶ πίνακι. On the bringing in of a head at a banquet cp. Diog. L. 9, 58: the presence of a severed head did not necessarily disturb the mood at a meal. Appian, Bell. Civ. 4, 20, §81 relates concerning Antony that he had the head of Cicero placed πρὸ τῆς τραπέζης); Lk 13:7 D; 15:22 v.l. for ἐξ-; Ac 4:34, 37; 5:2; 2 Ti 4:13; B 2:5; MPol 11:2; Hs 8, 1, 16 (w. double acc., of obj. and pred.); 9, 10, 1; δῶρα GJs 1:2; 5:1. Pass. Mt 14:11a (ἐπὶ πίνακι); Hv 3, 2, 7; 3, 5, 3; Hs 8, 2, 1ab; 9, 4, 7; 9, 6, 5–7; 9, 9, 4f. τινί τι (JosAs 16:1 φέρε δή μοι καὶ κηρίον μέλιτος; ApcMos 6) someth. to someone Mt 14:18 (w. ὧδε); Mk 12:15. θυσίαν τῷ θεῷ 1 Cl 4:1 (s. Gen 4:3; cp. Just., A I, 24, 2 θυσίας). The acc. is supplied fr. the context Mt 14:11b; J 2:8a. The dat. and acc. are to be supplied οἱ δὲ ἤνεγκαν Mk 12:16; J 2:8b. φέρειν πρός τινα w. acc. of the thing to be supplied (X., Cyr. 8, 3, 47; Ex 32:2) Hs 8, 4, 3; 9, 10, 2. φ. τι εἰς (1 Km 31:12) Rv 21:24, 26. μή τις ἤνεγκεν αὐτῷ φαγεῖν; do you suppose that anyone has brought him anything to eat? J 4:33. S. φόρος.
    β. Fig. bring (about) (Hom.+; Mitt-Wilck. I/2, 284, 11 [II B.C.] αἰσχύνην; PTebt 104, 30; POxy 497, 4; 1062, 14; Jos., Vi. 93, C. Ap. 1, 319; SibOr 3, 417; Just., A I, 27, 5 [βλάβην]) τὸ βάπτισμα τὸ φέρον ἄφεσιν the baptism which brings (about) forgiveness B 11:1.
    a living being, animal or human, lead, bring
    α. animals (TestAbr A 2 p. 79, 8 [Stone p. 6] ἵππους; ibid. B 2 p. 106, 21 [Stone p. 60] μόσχον) Mk 11:2, 7 (πρός τινα); Lk 15:23; Ac 14:13 (ἐπὶ τ. πυλῶνας); GJs 4:3.
    β. people: bring or lead τινά someone ἀσθενεῖς Ac 5:16. κακούργους GPt 4:10. τινὰ ἐπὶ κλίνης (Jos., Ant. 17, 197) Lk 5:18. τινά τινι someone to someone Mt 17:17 (w. ὧδε); Mk 7:32; 8:22. Also τινὰ πρός τινα Mk 1:32; 2:3; 9:17, 19f. φέρουσιν αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τὸν Γολγοθᾶν τόπον 15:22 (TestAbr A 11 p. 88, 27 [Stone p. 24] ἐπὶ τὴν ἀνατολήν). ἄλλος οἴσει (σε) ὅπου οὐ θέλεις J 21:18.
    to cause to follow a certain course in direction or conduct, move out of position, drive, the pass. can be variously rendered: be moved, be driven, let oneself be moved
    lit., by wind and weather (Apollon. Rhod. 4, 1700; Chariton 3, 5, 1; Appian, Bell. Civ. 1, 62 §278 in spite of the storm Marius leaped into a boat and ἐπέτρεψε τῇ τύχῃ φέρειν let himself be driven away by fortune; Jer 18:14; PsSol 8:2 πυρὸς … φερομένου; TestNapht 6:5; Ar. 4, 2 ἄστρα … φερόμενα; Tat. 26, 1 τῆς νεὼς φερομένης) Ac 27:15, 17.Move, pass (s. L-S-J-M s.v. φέρω B 1) φέρεσθαι δὲ διʼ αὐτοῦ … ἰχῶρας foul discharges were emitted … through it (Judas’s penis) Papias (3:2).
    fig., of the Spirit of God, by whom people are moved (cp. Job 17:1 πνεύματι φερόμενος) ὑπὸ πνεύματος ἁγίου φερόμενοι 2 Pt 1:21b. Cp. Ac 15:29 D. τῇ πίστει φερόμενος ὁ Παῦλος AcPl Ha 5, 1. Of the impulse to do good Hs 6, 5, 7. Of the powers of evil (Ps.-Plut., Hom. 133 ὑπὸ ὀργῆς φερόμενοι; Jos., Bell. 6, 284; Ath. 25, 4) PtK 2 p. 14, 11; Dg 9:1; Hs 8, 9, 3.
    also of the wind itself (Ptolem., Apotel. 1, 11, 3 οἱ φερόμενοι ἄνεμοι; Diog. L. 10, 104 τ. πνεύματος πολλοῦ φερομένου; Quint. Smyrn. 3, 718) φέρεσθαι rush Ac 2:2.
    of various other entities: of fragrance φέρεσθαι ἐπί τινα be borne or wafted to someone (Dio Chrys. 66 [16], 6 ‘rush upon someone’) ApcPt 5:16.—Of writings (Diog. L. 5, 86 φέρεται αὐτοῦ [i.e. Heraclid. Pont.] συγγράμματα κάλλιστα; Marinus, Vi. Procli 38; cp. Arrian, Anab. 7, 12, 6 λόγος ἐφέρετο Ἀλεξάνδρου=a saying of Alexander was circulated) οὗ (=τοῦ Εἰρηναίου) πολλὰ συγγράμματα φέρεται of whom there are many writings in circulation EpilMosq 2.—Of spiritual development ἐπὶ τὴν τελειότητα φερώμεθα let us move on toward perfection Hb 6:1.
    to move an object to a particular point, put, place φέρειν τὸν δάκτυλον, τὴν χεῖρα put or reach out the finger, the hand J 20:27a (ὧδε), vs. 27b.
    to cause to continue in a state or condition, sustain, fig., of the Son of God φέρων τὰ πάντα τῷ ῥήματι τῆς δυνάμεως αὐτοῦ who bears up the universe by his mighty word Hb 1:3 (cp. Plut., Lucull. 6, 3 φέρειν τὴν πόλιν; Num 11:14; Dt 1:9).
    to afford passage to a place, lead to, of a gate, lead somewhere (cp. Hdt. 2, 122; Thu. 3, 24, 1 τὴν ἐς Θήβας φέρουσαν ὁδόν; Ps.-Demosth. 47, 53 θύρα εἰς τὸν κῆπον φέρουσα; SIG 1118, 5; POxy 99, 7; 17 [I A.D.]; 69, 1 [II A.D.] θύρα φέρουσα εἰς ῥύμην) τήν πύλην τὴν φέρουσαν εἰς τὴν πόλιν Ac 12:10 (X., Hell. 7, 2, 7 αἱ εἰς τὴν πόλιν φέρουσαι πύλαι; Diog. L. 6, 78 παρὰ τῇ πύλῃ τῇ φερούσῃ εἰς τὸν Ἰσθμόν; Jos., Ant. 9, 146).—See Fitzmyer s.v. ἄγω.
    to bring a thought or idea into circulation, bring, utter, make a word, speech, announcement, charge, etc. (TestAbr B 6 p. 110, 8/Stone p. 68 [ParJer 7:8] φάσιν ‘news’; Jos., Vi. 359, C. Ap. 1, 251; Just., A I, 54, 1 ἀπόδειξιν ‘proof’, A II, 12, 5 ἀπολογίαν), as a judicial expr. (cp. Demosth. 58, 22; Polyb. 1, 32, 4; PAmh 68, 62; 69; 72) κατηγορίαν J 18:29. Cp. Ac 25:7 v.l., 18 (Field, Notes 140); 2 Pt 2:11. Perh. this is the place for μᾶλλον ἑαυτῶν κατάγνωσιν φέρουσιν rather they blame themselves 1 Cl 51:2. διδαχήν 2J 10. ὑποδείγματα give or offer examples 1 Cl 55:1 (Polyb. 18, 13, 7 τὰ παραδείγματα). τοῦτο φέρεται ἐν this is brought out = this is recorded in EpilMosq 4.—Of a divine proclamation, whether direct or indirect (Diod S 13, 97, 7 τ. ἱερῶν φερόντων νίκην; Just., D. 128, 2 τοῦ πατρὸς ὁμιλίας [of the Logos]) 2 Pt 1:17, 18, 21a.
    to demonstrate the reality of someth., establish θάνατον ἀνάγκη φέρεσθαι τοῦ διαθεμένου the death of the one who made the will must be established Hb 9:16.
    to hold out in the face of difficulty, bear patiently, endure, put up with (X., An. 3, 1, 23; Appian, Samn. 10 §13 παρρησίαν φ.=put up with candidness, Iber. 78 §337; Jos., Ant. 7, 372; 17, 342; AssMos Fgm. j βλασφημίαν; Just., D. 18, 3 πάντα; Mel., HE 4, 26, 6 θανάτου τὸ γέρας) μαλακίαν 1 Cl 16:3 (Is 53:3). τὸν ὀνειδισμὸν αὐτοῦ (i.e. Ἰησοῦ) Hb 13:13 (cp. Ezk 34:29). τὸ διαστελλόμενον 12:20. εὐκλεῶς 1 Cl 45:5. Of God ἤνεγκεν ἐν πολλῇ μακροθυμίᾳ σκεύη ὀργῆς Ro 9:22. φῶς μέγα … ὥστε τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς μὴ φέρειν a light so bright that their eyes could not endure it GJs 19:2.
    to be productive, bear, produce of a plant and its fruits, lit. and in imagery (Hom. et al.; Diod S 9, 11, 1; Aelian, VH 3, 18 p. 48, 20; Jo 2:22; Ezk 17:8; Jos., Ant. 4, 100) Mt 7:18ab; Mk 4:8; J 12:24; 15:2abc, 4f, 8, 16; Hs 2:3f, 8.—B. 707. DELG. Schmidt, Syn. III 167–93. M-M. EDNT. TW.

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  • 734 φύσις

    φύσις, εως, ἡ (φύω; Hom.+)
    condition or circumstance as determined by birth, natural endowment/condition, nature, esp. as inherited fr. one’s ancestors, in contrast to status or characteristics that are acquired after birth (Isocr. 4, 105 φύσει πολίτης; Isaeus 6, 28 φύσει υἱός; Pla., Menex. 245d φύσει βάρβαροι, νόμῳ Ἕλληνες; Just., A I, 1, 1 Καίσαρος φύσει υἱῷ; SIG 720, 3; OGI 472, 4; 558, 6 al.; PFay 19, 11.—Theoph. Ant. 1, 13 [p. 86, 16]) ἡμεῖς φύσει Ἰουδαῖοι Gal 2:15 (cp. Ptolemaeus, Περὶ Ἡρῴδου τ. βασιλέως: no. 199 Jac. [I A.D.] Ἰουδαῖοι … ἐξ ἀρχῆς φυσικοί; Jos., Ant. 7, 130; φύσει Λιμναίου IK XXXVII, 15, 3 of the birth daughter of L. in contrast to her adoptive relationship w. one named Arsas). ἡ ἐκ φύσεως ἀκροβυστία the uncircumcision that is so by nature (a ref. to non-Israelites, who lack the moral cultivation of those who are circumcised and yet ‘observe the upright requirements of the law’ [Ro 2:26]. Israelites who violate their responsibilities to God, despite their privileged position indicated by receipt of circumcision and special revelation, run the risk of placing themselves in the condition of the uncircumcised) Ro 2:27. ἤμεθα τέκνα φύσει ὀργῆς we were, in our natural condition (as descendants of Adam), subject to (God’s) wrath Eph 2:3 (the position of φύσει betw. the two words as Plut., Mor. 701a; DTurner, Grace Theological Journal 1, ’80, 195–219). The Christians of Tralles have a blameless disposition οὐ κατὰ χρῆσιν, ἀλλὰ κατὰ φύσιν not from habit, but by nature ITr 1:1 (here the contrast is between perfunctory virtue and spontaneous or instinctive behavior; Pindar sim. extolled the virtues of athletes who, in contrast to those w. mere acquired learning, reflected their ancestral breeding for excellence: O. 7, 90–92; P. 10, 11–14; N. 3, 40–42; 6, 8–16). οἱ κατὰ φύσιν κλάδοι the natural branches Ro 11:21, 24c. ἡ κατὰ φύσιν ἀγριέλαιος a tree which by nature is a wild olive vs. 24a; opp. παρὰ φύσιν contrary to nature vs. 24b; s. lit. s.v. ἀγριέλαιος and ἐλαία 1. On κατὰ and παρὰ φύσιν s. MPohlenz, Die Stoa I ’48, 488c.
    the natural character of an entity, natural characteristic/disposition (χρυσὸς … τὴν ἰδίαν φ. διαφυλάττει Iren. 1, 6, 2 [Harv. I 55, 2]; Hippol., Ref. 5, 8, 12) ἡ φύσις ἡ ἀνθρωπίνη human nature (Pla., Tht. 149b, Tim. 90c; Aristot. 1286b, 27; Epict. 2, 20, 18; Philo, Ebr. 166 al.; Aelian, VH 8, 11 τῶν ἀνθρώπων φύσις θνητή; TestJob 3:3 ἡ ἀνθρωπίνη φ.; Orig., C. Cels. 1, 52, 13; Just., A II, 6, 3 τῇ φύσει τῶν ἀνθρώπων) Js 3:7b (unless the sense should be humankind, s. 4 below). Euphemistically: παρθένος ἐγέννησεν, ἃ οὐ χωρεῖ ἡ φύσις αὐτῆς while remaining a virgin, a virgin has had a child or a virgin has given birth, something that does not accord w. her natural condition (as a virgin) GJs 19:3. τὸ ἀδύνατον τῆς ἡμετέρας φύσεως the weakness of our nature Dg 9:6. θείας κοινωνοὶ φύσεως sharers in the divine nature 2 Pt 1:4 (cp. ὅσοι φύσεως κοινωνοῦντες ἀνθρω[πίν]ης IReisenKN, p. 371, 46f; Jos., C. Ap. 1, 232 θείας μετεσχηκέναι φύσεως; Himerius, Or. 48 [=Or. 14], 26 of Dionysus: πρὶν εἰς θεῶν φύσιν ἐλθεῖν=before he attained to the nature of the gods; Ar. 13, 5 μία φ. τῶν θεῶν. Difft. AWolters, Calvin Theological Journal 25, ’90, 28–44 ‘partners of the Deity’).—Also specif. of sexual characteristics (Diod S 16, 26, 6 originally παρθένοι prophesied in Delphi διὰ τὸ τῆς φύσεως ἀδιάφθορον=because their sexuality was uncorrupted. φύσις of sex and its change Dicaearchus, Fgm. 37 W.; ἑρμαφροδίτου φ. Iren. 1, 11, 5 [Harv. I 108, 8]. Obviously φ. also has the concrete mng. ‘sex organ’: Nicander, Fgm. 107; Diod S 32, 10, 7 φ. ἄρρενος corresponding to φ. θηλείας following immediately; Anton. Lib. 41, 5; Phlegon: 257 Fgm. 36, 2, 1 Jac.). In the context of Mary’s virginal delivery ἐραυνήσω τὴν φύσιν αὐτῆς= I will examine whether she remains a virgin GJs 19:3b; 20:1 (where Tdf. with codd. reads ἔβαλε Σαλώμη τὸν δάκτυλον αὐτῆς εἰς τὴν φύσιν αὐτῆς [cp. J 20:25]). The hyena παρʼ ἐνιαυτὸν ἀλλάσσει τὴν φύσιν changes its nature every year, fr. male to female and vice versa B 10:7 (s. ὕαινα). Polytheists worship τοῖς φύσει μὴ οὖσιν θεοῖς beings that are by nature no gods at all Gal 4:8 (s. CLanger, Euhemeros u. die Theorie der φύσει u. θέσει θεοί: Αγγελος II 1926, 53–59; Mel., P. 8, 58 φύσει θεὸς ὢν καὶ ἄνθρωπος; Synes., Prov. 1, 9 p. 97c τοῖς φύσει θεοῖς; Diod S 3, 9, 1 differentiates between two kinds of gods: some αἰώνιον ἔχειν κ. ἄφθαρτον τὴν φύσιν, others θνητῆς φύσεως κεκοινωνηκέναι κ. διʼ ἀρετὴν … τετευχέναι τιμῶν ἀθανάτων=some ‘have an everlasting and incorruptible nature’, others ‘share mortal nature and then, because of their personal excellence, … attain immortal honors’).—ὅταν ἔθνη φύσει τὰ τοῦ νόμου ποιῶσιν when gentiles spontaneously (i.e. without extraneous legal instruction; cp. the prophetic ideal Jer 31:32–34) fulfill the demands of the (Mosaic) law Ro 2:14 (s. WMundle, Theol. Blätter 13, ’34, 249–56 [the gentile as Christian under direction of the πνεῦμα]; difft. s. 3 below).
    the regular or established order of things, nature (Ar. 4, 2 κατὰ ἀπαραίτητον φύσεως ἀνάγκην=in accordance with the non-negotiable order of things; Ath. 3, 1 νόμῳ φύσεως) μετήλλαξαν τὴν φυσικὴν χρῆσιν εἰς τὴν παρὰ φύσιν they exchanged the natural function for one contrary to nature Ro 1:26 (Diod S 32, 11, 1 παρὰ φύσιν ὁμιλία; Appian, Bell. Civ. 1, 109 §511; Athen. 13, 605d οἱ παρὰ φύσιν τῇ Ἀφροδίτῃ χρώμενοι=those who indulge in Aphrodite contrary to nature; TestNapht 3:4; Philo, Spec. Leg. 3, 39 ὁ παιδεραστὴς τὴν παρὰ φύσιν ἡδονὴν διώκει=a lover of boys pursues unnatural pleasure; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 273; Tat. 3:4; Ath. 26, 2; on φ. as definer of order s. JKube, ΤΕΧΝΗ und ΑΡΕΤΗ ’69, esp. 44–46; on relation to κτίσι in Paul, s. OWischmeyer, ZTK 93, ’96, 352–75). ὅταν ἔθνη φύσει τὰ τοῦ νόμου ποιῶσιν when gentiles fulfil the law’s demands by following the natural order (of things) Ro 2:14 (cp. Ltzm., Hdb., exc. on Ro 2:14–16; but s. 2 above). ἡ φύσις διδάσκει ὑμᾶς 1 Cor 11:14 (Epict. 1, 16, 9f; Plut., Mor. 478d; Synes., Calv. [Baldhead] 14 p. 78c φύσις as well as νόμος prescribes long hair for women, short hair for men.—Ltzm., Hdb. ad loc.). τὸ ὄνομα, ὸ̔ κέκτησθε φύσει δικαίᾳ the name which you bear because of a just natural order IEph 1:1 (s. Hdb. ad loc.—τῇ φ. τὸ ἀγαθὸν ἀνώφορόν ἐστιν Did., Gen. 21, 5.—JKleist, transl. ’46, 119 n. 2 suggests ‘natural disposition’).—RGrant, Miracle and Natural Law ’52, 4–18.
    an entity as a product of nature, natural being, creature (X., Cyr. 6, 2, 29 πᾶσα φύσις=every creature; 3 Macc 3:29.—Diod S 2, 49, 4 plants are called φύσεις καρποφοροῦσαι; 3, 6, 2 θνητὴ φ.= a mortal creature. Ps.-Callisth. 1, 10, 1 ἀνθρωπίνη φ. = a human creature. It can also mean species [X. et al.; 4 Macc 1:20; Philo] and then at times disappear in translation: Ps.-Pla, Epin. 948d ἡ τῶν ἄστρων φύσις=the stars; X., Lac. 3, 4 ἡ τῶν θηλειῶν φύσις=the women; Aristot., Part. An. 1, 5 περὶ τῆς ζῳϊκῆς φ.=on animals) πᾶσα φύσις θηρίων κτλ. Js 3:7a. Also prob. ἡ φ. ἡ ἀνθρωπίνη humankind 3:7b; s. 2 above.—Kl. Pauly IV 841–44 (lit.).—DELG s.v. φύομαι C 6. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > φύσις

  • 735 χορτάζω

    χορτάζω ( χόρτος) 1 aor. ἐχόρτασα. Pass.: 1 fut. χορτασθήσομαι; 1 aor. ἐχορτάσθην (Hes.; pap, LXX; TestSol 9:2; TestJob, TestJud) ‘to feed’
    to fill w. food, feed, fill
    of animals, pass. in act. sense πάντα τὰ ὄρνεα ἐχορτάσθησαν ἐκ τῶν σαρκῶν αὐτῶν all the birds gorged themselves with their flesh Rv 19:21 (cp. TestJud 21:8).
    of humans τινά someone Mt 15:33; 1 Cl 59:4 (τοὺς πεινῶντας). τινά τινος someone with someth. Mk 8:4 (cp. Ps 131:15). Pass. (Pamphilus [I B.C./I A.D.] in Ael. Dion. χ, 14 ed. HErbse ’50; Epict. 1, 9, 19; 3, 22, 66; TestJob 22:2; 25:10) Mt 14:20; 15:37; Mk 6:42; 7:27; 8:8; Lk 6:21 (οἱ πεινῶντες νῦν); 9:17; J 6:26; Phil 4:12 (opp. πεινᾶν); Js 2:16. ἀπό τινος (Ps 103:13) Lk 16:21. ἔκ τινος 15:16.
    to experience inward satisfaction in someth., be satisfied, fig. ext. of 1 pass. (Ps.-Callisth. 2, 22, 4 χορτάζεσθαι τῆς λύπης=find satisfaction in grief; Ps 16:15) be satisfied Mt 5:6 (χ. is also used in connection w. drink that relieves thirst: schol. on Nicander, Alexiph. 225 χόρτασον αὐτὸν οἴνῳ).—DELG s.v. χόρτος. M-M.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > χορτάζω

  • 736 ψυχή

    ψυχή, ῆς, ἡ (Hom.+; ‘life, soul’) It is oft. impossible to draw hard and fast lines in the use of this multivalent word. Gen. it is used in ref. to dematerialized existence or being, but, apart fr. other data, the fact that ψ. is also a dog’s name suggests that the primary component is not metaphysical, s. SLonsdale, Greece and Rome 26, ’79, 146–59. Without ψ. a being, whether human or animal, consists merely of flesh and bones and without functioning capability. Speculations and views respecting the fortunes of ψ. and its relation to the body find varied expression in our lit.
    (breath of) life, life-principle, soul, of animals (Galen, Protr. 13 p. 42, 27 John; Gen 9:4) Rv 8:9. As a rule of human beings (Gen 35:18; 3 Km 17:21; ApcEsdr 5:13 λαμβάνει τὴν ψυχὴν the fetus in its sixth month) Ac 20:10. When it leaves the body death occurs Lk 12:20 (cp. Jos., C. Ap. 1, 164; on the theme cp. Pind., I. 1, 67f). The soul is delivered up to death (the pass. in ref. to divine initiative), i.e. into a condition in which it no longer makes contact with the physical structure it inhabited 1 Cl 16:13 (Is 53:12), whereupon it leaves the realm of earth and lives on in Hades (Lucian, Dial. Mort. 17, 2; Jos., Ant. 6, 332) Ac 2:27 (Ps 15:10), 31 v.l. or some other place outside the earth Rv 6:9; 20:4; ApcPt 10:25 (GrBar 10:5 τὸ πεδίον … οὗπερ ἔρχονται αἱ ψυχαὶ τῶν δικαίων; ApcEsdr 7:3 ἀπέρχεται εἰς τὸν οὐρανόν; Himerius, Or. 8 [23]: his consecrated son [παῖς ἱερός 7] Rufinus, when he dies, leaves his σῶμα to the death-daemon, while his ψυχή goes into οὐρανός, to live w. the gods 23).—B 5:13 (s. Ps 21:21).
    the condition of being alive, earthly life, life itself (Diod S 1, 25, 6 δοῦναι τὴν ψυχήν=give life back [to the dead Horus]; 3, 26, 2; 14, 65, 2; 16, 78, 5; Jos., Ant. 18, 358 σωτηρία τῆς ψυχῆς; 14, 67; s. Reader, Polemo 354 [reff.]) ζητεῖν τὴν ψυχήν τινος Mt 2:20 (cp. Ex 4:19); Ro 11:3 (3 Km 19:10, 14). δοῦναι τὴν ψυχὴν ἑαυτοῦ (cp. Eur., Phoen. 998) Mt 20:28; Mk 10:45; John says for this τιθέναι τὴν ψυχὴν J 10:11, 15, 17, (18); 13:37f; 15:13; 1J 3:16ab; παραδιδόναι Ac 15:26; Hs 9, 28, 2. παραβολεύεσθαι τῇ ψυχῇ Phil 2:30 (s. παραβολεύομαι). To love one’s own life (JosAs 13:1 ἐγὼ ἀγαπῶ αὐτὸν ὑπὲρ τὴν ψυχήν μου) Rv 12:11; cp. B 1:4; 4:6; 19:5; D 2:7. Life as prolonged by nourishment Mt 6:25ab; Lk 12:22f. Cp. 14:26; Ac 20:24; 27:10, 22; 28:19 v.l.; Ro 16:4. S. also 2e below.
    by metonymy, that which possesses life/soul (cp. 3 below) ψυχὴ ζῶσα (s. Gen 1:24) a living creature Rv 16:3 v.l. for ζωῆς. Cp. ἐγένετο Ἀδὰμ εἰς ψυχὴν ζῶσαν 1 Cor 15:45 (Gen 2:7. S. πνεῦμα 5f). ψυχὴ ζωῆς Rv 16:3.
    seat and center of the inner human life in its many and varied aspects, soul
    of the desire for luxurious living (cp. the OT expressions Ps 106:9 [=ParJer 9:20, but in sense of d below]; Pr 25:25; Is 29:8; 32:6; Bar 2:18b; PsSol 4:17. But also X., Cyr. 8, 7, 4; ins in CB I/2, 477 no. 343, 5 the soul as the seat of enjoyment of the good things in life) of the rich man ἐρῶ τῇ ψυχῇ μου• ψυχή, ἀναπαύου, φάγε, πίε, εὐφραίνου Lk 12:19 (cp. PsSol 5:12; Aelian, VH 1, 32 εὐφραίνειν τὴν ψυχήν; X., Cyr. 6, 2, 28 ἡ ψυχὴ ἀναπαύσεται.—The address to the ψυχή as PsSol 3, 1; Cyranides p. 41, 27). Cp. Rv 18:14.
    of evil desires (PsSol 4:13; Tat. 23, 2) 2 Cl 16:2; 17:7.
    of feelings and emotions (Anacr., Fgm. 4 Diehl2 [15 Page]; Diod S 8, 32, 3; JosAs 6:1; SibOr 3, 558; Just., D. 2, 4; Mel., P. 18, 124 al.) περίλυπός ἐστιν ἡ ψυχή μου (cp. Ps 41:6, 12; 42:5) Mt 26:38; Mk 14:34. ἡ ψυχή μου τετάρακται J 12:27; cp. Ac 2:43 (s. 3 below).—Lk 1:46; 2:35; J 10:24; Ac 14:2, 22; 15:24; Ro 2:9; 1 Th 2:8 (τὰς ἑαυτῶν ψυχάς our hearts full of love); Hb 12:3; 2 Pt 2:8; 1 Cl 16:12 (Is 53:11); 23:3 (scriptural quot. of unknown origin); B 3:1, 5b (s. on these two passages Is 58:3, 5, 10b); 19:3; Hm 4, 2, 2; 8:10; Hs 1:8; 7:4; D 3:9ab. ἐμεγαλύνθη ἡ ψυχή μου GJs 5:2; 19:2 (s. μεγαλύνω 1). αὔξειν τὴν ψυχὴν τοῦ Παύλου AcPl Ha 6, 10. It is also said of God in the anthropomorphic manner of expr. used by the OT ὁ ἀγαπητός μου εἰς ὸ̔ν εὐδόκησεν ἡ ψυχή μου Mt 12:18 (cp. Is 42:1); cp. Hb 10:38 (Hab 2:4).—One is to love God ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ ψυχῇ Mt 22:37; Lk 10:27. Also ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ψυχῆς (Dt 6:5; 10:12; 11:13) Mk 12:30, 33 v.l. (for ἰσχύος); Lk 10:27 v.l. (Epict. 2, 23, 42; 3, 22, 18; 4, 1, 131; M. Ant. 12, 29; Sextus 379.—X., Mem. 3, 11, 10 ὅλῃ τῇ ψυχῇ). ἐκ ψυχῆς from the heart, gladly (Jos., Ant. 17, 177.—The usual form is ἐκ τῆς ψυχῆς: X., An. 7, 7, 43, Apol. 18 al.; Theocr. 8, 35) Eph 6:6; Col 3:23; ἐκ ψυχῆς σου B 3:5a (Is 58:10a); 19:6. μιᾷ ψυχῇ with one mind (Dio Chrys. 19 [36], 30) Phil 1:27; cp. Ac 4:32 (on the combination w. καρδία s. that word 1bη and EpArist 17); 2 Cl 12:3 (s. 1 Ch 12:39b; Diog. L. 5, 20 ἐρωτηθεὶς τί ἐστι φίλος, ἔφη• μία ψυχὴ δύο σώμασιν ἐνοικοῦσα).
    as the seat and center of life that transcends the earthly (Pla., Phd. 28, 80ab; Paus. 4, 32, 4 ἀθάνατός ἐστιν ἀνθρώπου ψ.; Just., A I, 44, 9 περὶ ἀθανασίας ψυχῆς; Ath. 27, 2 ἀθάνατος οὖσα. Opp. Tat. 13, 1, who argues the state of the ψ. before the final judgment and states that it is not immortal per se but experiences the fate of the body οὐκ ἔστιν ἀθάνατος). As such it can receive divine salvation σῴζου σὺ καὶ ἡ ψυχή σου be saved, you and your soul Agr 5 (Unknown Sayings 61–64). σῴζειν τὰς ψυχάς Js 1:21. ψυχὴν ἐκ θανάτου 5:20; cp. B 19:10; Hs 6, 1, 1 (on death of the ψ. s. Achilles Tat. 7, 5, 3 τέθνηκας θάνατον διπλοῦν, ψυχῆς κ. σώματος). σωτηρία ψυχῶν 1 Pt 1:9. περιποίησις ψυχῆς Hb 10:39. It can also be lost 2 Cl 15:1; B 20:1; Hs 9, 26, 3. Humans cannot injure it, but God can hand it over to destruction Mt 10:28ab; AcPl Ha 1, 4. ζημιωθῆναι τὴν ψυχήν (ζημιόω 1) Mt 16:26a; Mk 8:36 (FGrant, Introd. to NT Thought, ’50, 162); 2 Cl 6:2. There is nothing more precious than ψυχή in this sense Mt 16:26b; Mk 8:37. It stands in contrast to σῶμα, in so far as that is σάρξ (cp. Ar. 15, 7 οὐ κατὰ σάρκα … ἀλλὰ κατὰ ψυχήν; Tat. 15, 1 οὔτε … χωρὶς σώματος; Ath. 1, 4 τὰ σώματα καὶ τὰς ψυχάς; SIG 383, 42 [I B.C.]) Dg 6:1–9. The believer’s soul knows God 2 Cl 17:1. One Christian expresses the hope that all is well w. another’s soul 3J 2 (s. εὐοδόω). For the soul of the Christian is subject to temptations 1 Pt 2:11 and 2 Pt 2:14; longs for rest Mt 11:29 (ParJer 5:32 ὁ θεὸς … ἡ ἀνάπαυσις τῶν ψυχῶν); and must be purified 1 Pt 1:22 (cp. Jer 6:16). The soul must be entrusted to God 1 Pt 4:19; cp. 1 Cl 27:1. Christ is its ποιμὴν καὶ ἐπίσκοπος (s. ἐπίσκοπος 1) 1 Pt 2:25; its ἀρχιερεὺς καὶ προστάτης 1 Cl 61:3; its σωτήρ MPol 19:2. Apostles and congregational leaders are concerned about the souls of the believers 2 Cor 12:15; Hb 13:17. The Christian hope is called the anchor of the soul 6:19. Paul calls God as a witness against his soul; if he is lying, he will forfeit his salvation 2 Cor 1:23.—Also life of this same eternal kind κτήσεσθε τὰς ψυχὰς ὑμῶν you will gain (real) life for yourselves Lk 21:19.
    Since the soul is the center of both the earthly (1a) and the transcendent (2d) life, pers. can find themselves facing the question concerning the wish to ensure it for themselves: ὸ̔ς ἐὰν θέλῃ τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ σῶσαι, ἀπολέσει αὐτὴν• ὸ̔ς δʼ ἂν ἀπολέσει τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ ἕνεκεν ἐμοῦ, σώσει αὐτήν Mk 8:35. Cp. Mt 10:39; 16:25; Lk 9:24; 17:33; J 12:25. The contrast betw. τὴν ψυχὴν εὑρεῖν and ἀπολέσαι is found in Mt 10:39ab (s. HGrimme, BZ 23, ’35, 263f); 16:25b; σῶσαι and ἀπολέσαι vs. 25a; Mk 8:35ab; Lk 9:24ab; περιποιήσασθαι, ζῳογονῆσαι and ἀπολέσαι 17:33; φιλεῖν and ἀπολλύναι J 12:25a; μισεῖν and φυλάσσειν vs. 25b.
    On the combination of ψυχή and πνεῦμα in 1 Th 5:23; Hb 4:12 (Just., D. 6, 2; Tat. 15, 1 χρὴ … ζευγνύναι … τὴν ψυχὴν τῷ πνεύματι τῷ ἁγίῳ) s. πνεῦμα 3a, end.—A-JFestugière, L’idéal religieux des Grecs et l’Évangile ’32, 212–17.—A unique combination is … σωμάτων, καὶ ψυχὰς ἀνθρώπων, slaves and human lives Rv 18:13 (cp. Ezk 27:13; on the syntax s. Mussies 98).
    In var. Semitic languages the reflexive relationship is paraphrased with נֶפֶשׁ (Gr.-Rom. parallels in W-S. §22, 18b note 33); the corresp. use of ψυχή may be detected in certain passages in our lit., esp. in quots. fr. the OT and in places where OT modes of expr. have had considerable influence (B-D-F §283, 4; W-S. §22, 18b; Mlt. 87; 105 n. 2; Rob. 689; KHuber, Untersuchungen über d. Sprachcharakter des griech. Lev., diss. Zürich 1916, 67), e.g. Mt 11:29; 26:38; Mk 10:45; 14:34; Lk 12:19; 14:26; J 10:24; 12:27; 2 Cor 1:23; 3J 2; Rv 18:14; 1 Cl 16:11 (Is 53:10); B 3:1, 3 (Is 58:3, 5); 4:2; 17:1. Cp. also 2 Cor 12:15; Hb 13:17; GJs 2:2; 13:2; 15:3 (on these last s. ταπεινόω 2b).
    an entity w. personhood, person ext. of 2 by metonymy (cp. 1c): πᾶσα ψυχή everyone (Epict. 1, 28, 4; Lev 7:27; 23:29 al.) Ac 2:43; 3:23 (Lev 23:29); Ro 2:9; 13:1; Jd 15; 1 Cl 64; Hs 9, 18, 5.—Pl. persons, cp. our expression ‘number of souls’ (Pla. et al.; PTebt 56, 11 [II B.C.] σῶσαι ψυχὰς πολλάς; LXX) ψυχαὶ ὡσεὶ τρισχίλιαι Ac 2:41; cp. 7:14 (Ex 1:5); 27:37; 1 Pt 3:20.—This may also be the place for ἔξεστιν ψυχὴν σῶσαι ἢ ἀποκτεῖναι; is it permissible to rescue a person ( a human life is also poss.) or must we let the person die? Mk 3:4; Lk 6:9. Cp. 9:55 [56] v.l.—EHatch, Essays in Bibl. Gk. 1889, 112–24; ERohde, Psyche9–10 1925; JBöhme, D. Seele u. das Ich im homer. Epos 1929; EBurton, Spirit, Soul and Flesh 1918; FRüsche, Blut, Leben u. Seele 1930; MLichtenstein, D. Wort nefeš in d. Bibel 1920; WStaples, The ‘Soul’ in the OT: JSL 44, 1928, 145–76; FBarth, La notion Paulinienne de ψυχή: RTP 44, 1911, 316–36; ChGuignebert, RHPR 9, 1929, 428–50; NSnaith, Life after Death: Int 1, ’47, 309–25; essays by OCullmann, HWolfson, WJaeger, HCadbury in Immortality and Resurrection, ed. KStendahl, ’65, 9–53; GDautzenberg, Sein Leben Bewahren ’66 (gospels); R Jewett, Paul’s Anthropological Terms, ’71, 334–57; also lit. cited GMachemer, HSCP 95, ’93, 121, 13.—TJahn, Zum Wortfeld ‘Seele-Geist’ in der Sprache Homers (Zetemata 83) ’81.—B. 1087. New Docs 4, 38f (trichotomy). DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ψυχή

  • 737 ἀγαλλίασις

    ἀγαλλίασις, εως, ἡ (s. ἀγαλλιάω; only in Bibl. [incl. En 5:9; PsSol 5:1; Test12Patr] and eccl. wr. [s. Bauer’s Introduction in this lexicon, p. xxi, note]; freq. in Ps.) a piercing exclamation, exultation ἦν πολλὴ ἀ. Ac 11:28 D; w. χαρά Lk 1:14; 1 Cl 63:2; MPol 18:3; w. εὐφροσύνη 1 Cl 18:8; B 1:6; ἐν ἀ. full of exultation, joy Lk 1:44; Ac 2:46; Jd 24; MPol 18:3. ἔλαιον ἀγαλλιάσεως oil of gladness Hb 1:9 (Ps 44:8 שֶׁמֶן שָׂשׂוֹן i.e. the oil w. which people anointed themselves at festivals). ἀπόδος μοι τὴν ἀ. τοῦ σωτηρίου σου restore to me the joy of your salvation 1 Cl 18:12 (Ps 50:14).—BReicke, Diakonie, Festfreude u. Zelos, etc. ’51, 165–229.—TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἀγαλλίασις

  • 738 ἀγορά

    ἀγορά, ᾶς, ἡ (Hom.+; ins, pap, LXX; TestJob 22:3; ParJer 6:19 τῶν ἐθνῶν; Jos., Bell. 5, 513 al.; Ath.; loanw. in rabb.) market place as a place for children to play Mt 11:16; Lk 7:32. Place for people seeking work and for idlers (Harpocration, s.v. Κολωνέτας: the μισθωτοί are standing in the marketplace) Mt 20:3; cp. 23:7; Mk 12:38; Lk 11:43; 20:46. Scene of public events, incl. the healings of Jesus ἐν ταῖς ἀ. ἐτίθεσαν τοὺς ἀσθενοῦντας Mk 6:56. Scene of a lawsuit (so as early as Hom.; cp. Demosth. 43, 36 τῶν ἀρχόντων) against Paul Ac 16:19, 35 D. Of the Agora in Athens (in the Ceramicus), the center of public life 17:17 (s. ECurtius, Paulus in Athen: SBBerlAk 1893, 925ff; SHalstead, Paul in the Agora: Quantulacumque [KLake Festschr.] ’37, 139–43; RMartin, Recherches sur l’Agora greque ’51). ἀπʼ ἀγορᾶς (+ὅταν ἔλθωσιν [D it] is the correct interpr.) ἐὰν μὴ ῥαντίσωνται οὐκ ἐσθίουσιν when they return fr. the market place they do not eat unless they wash themselves (pregnant constr. as Vi. Aesopi G 40 P. πιεῖν ἀπὸ τοῦ βαλανείου=after returning from the bath; PHolm 20, 26 μετὰ τὴν κάμινον=after burning in the oven; Epict. 3, 19, 5 φαγεῖν ἐκ βαλανείου; Sir 34:25 βαπτιζόμενος ἀπὸ νεκροῦ) Mk 7:4. Since the mid. form ῥαντ. expresses someth. about the persons of those who eat, the words ἀπʼ ἀ. prob. refer to them, too, and so the interpr. of ἀπʼ ἀ.=‘(of) the things sold in the market’, though linguistically poss. (ἀ. in this sense X. et al.; simply=‘food’: Memnon [I B.C./I A.D.]: 434 Fgm. 1, 29, 9 p. 359, 12 Jac.; Appian, Sicil. 2 §10 and 4; Polyaenus 3, 10, 10; 5, 2, 10; Jos., Bell. 1, 308, Ant. 14, 472; pap in Preis.) is untenable.—B. 822. DELG. M-M.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἀγορά

  • 739 Ἀδάμ

    Ἀδάμ, ὁ indecl. (אָדָם) (LXX, pseudepigr., Philo, Just.; Mel., P. 83.—In Joseph. Ἄδαμος, ου [Ant. 1, 66]) Adam, the first human being 1 Ti 2:13; B 6:9 (cp. Gen 1:27ff). Ancestor of humanity Ro 5:14; Jd 14; 1 Cl 50:3. Hence πατὴρ ἡμῶν 6:3; people are υἱοὶ Ἀ. 29:2 (cp. Dt 32:8). In the genealogy of Jesus Lk 3:38. His fall Ro 5:14; 1 Ti 2:14. While A. was praying, Eve was seduced by the serpent GJs 13:1 (ApcMos 17). Some hold there existed the conception that at the end of the world the initial events will repeat themselves, and that hence Adam, who destroys all, is contrasted w. Christ, who gives life to all 1 Cor 15:22 (HGunkel, Schöpfung u. Chaos 1895). The parallel betw. Adam and Christ and the designation of Christ as future Ro 5:14 is well known. It is debatable whether the well-known (gnostic) myth of the first human being as a redeemer-god directly influenced Paul or whether he arrived at his view through Jewish perceptions (s. Bousset, Kyrios Christos 2, 1921, 140–45; Rtzst., Erlösungsmyst. 107ff and s. on ἄνθρωπος 1d). On the debate stimulated by KBarth, Christus u. Adam nach Römer 5, ’52, s. RBultmann, Adam u. Christus nach Röm. 5, ZNW 50, ’59, 145–68; EBrandenburger, Adam u. Christus, ’62; EJüngel, ZTK 60, ’63, 42–74.—BMurmelstein, Adam. E. Beitrag z. Messiaslehre: Wiener Ztschr. f. d. Kunde d. Morgenlandes 35, 1928, 242–75; 36, 1929, 51–86; Ltzm., exc. on 1 Cor 15:45–49; AVitti, Christus-Adam: Biblica 7, 1926, 121–45; 270–85; 384–401; ARawlinson, The NT Doctrine of the Christ 1926, 124ff; CKraeling, Anthropos and the Son of Man, 1927; AMarmorstein, ZNW 30, ’31, 271–77; OKuss, Ro 5:12–21. D. Adam-Christusparallele, diss. Bresl. 1930; GWestberg, The Two Adams: BiblSacra 94, ’37, 37–50; ARöder, D. Gesch.-philos. des Ap. Pls., diss. Frb. ’38; SHanson, Unity of the Church in the NT, ’46, 66–73; RScroggs, The Last Adam, ’66 (bibliog. 123–28); JFitzmyer, ABComm Ro 423–28 (lit.).—EDNT. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > Ἀδάμ

  • 740 ἀνάθεμα

    ἀνάθεμα, ατος, τό = ἀνατεθειμένον (ἀνατίθημι) ‘something placed’ or ‘set up’, H. Gk. form for the older (Hom. et al.) ἀνάθημα (Moeris 188; Phryn. 249 Lob.; s. SIG index).
    that which is dedicated as a votive offering, a votive offering set up in a temple (Plut., Pelop. 291 [25, 7]; 2 Macc 2:13; Philo, Mos. 1, 253) Lk 21:5 v.l.
    that which has been cursed, cursed, accursed (LXX as a rule=חֵרֶם: what is ‘devoted to the divinity’ can be either consecrated or accursed. The mng. of the word in the other NT passages moves definitely in the direction of the latter [like Num 21:3; Dt 7:26; Josh 6:17; 7:12; Judg 1:17; Zech 14:11, but also the curse-tablets from Megara, as IDefixWünsch 1, 17]) οὐδεὶς ἐν πνεύματι θεοῦ λαλῶν λέγει• ἀνάθεμα Ἰησοῦς no one who speaks by God’s Spirit says ‘Jesus be cursed’ 1 Cor 12:3 (on this subject Laud. Therap. 22 ὅταν ὁ δαίμων ἀλλοιώσας τὸν ἐνεργούμενον, ἐκεῖνος ὅλος λαλεῖ, τὸ στόμα τοῦ πάσχοντος ἴδιον τεχναζόμενος ὄργανον=when the divinity has altered the one it has influenced, then it is altogether the divinity that speaks, for it has skillfully made the victim’s mouth its own instrument; NBrox, BZ n.s. 12, ’68, 103–11). As a formula ἀνάθεμα ἔστω Gal 1:8f. For this ἤτω ἀ. 1 Cor 16:22. Likew. ηὐχόμην ἀνάθεμα εἶναι αὐτὸς ἐγὼ ἀπὸ τοῦ Χριστοῦ I could wish that I myself would be accursed ( and therefore separated) from Christ Ro 9:3 (CSchneider, D. Volks-u. Heimatgefühl b. Pls: Christentum u. Wissensch. 8, ’32, 1–14; PBratsiotis, Eine Notiz zu Rö 9:3 u. 10:1: NovT 5, ’62, 299f).
    the content that is expressed in a curse, a curse. The expr. ἀναθέματι ἀνεθεματίσαμεν ἑαυτοὺς μηδενὸς γεύσασθαι Ac 23:14 means that the conspirators bound themselves to the plot with a dreadful oath, so that if they failed the curse would fall upon them (ἀ. ἀναθεματίζειν as Dt 13:15; 20:17). S. Dssm., LO 74 (LAE 92f); Nägeli 49; Schürer II 432f; Billerb. IV 293–333: D. Synagogenbann.—S. also ἀνάθημα, a spelling that oft. alternates w. ἀνάθεμα in the texts, in so far as the fine distinction betw. ἀνάθημα=‘votive offering’ and ἀνάθεμα=‘a thing accursed’ is not observed.—GBornkamm, Das Ende des Gesetzes4 ’63, 123–32; KHofmann, RAC I 427–30.—EDNT I 80f. M-M. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἀνάθεμα

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