Translation: from greek to english

from english to greek

to slaughter for themselves

  • 661 βουλή

    βουλή, ῆς, ἡ (s. βουλεύω)
    that which one thinks about as possibility for action, plan, purpose, intention (Hom.+; s. also Iren. 5, 5, 2 [Harv. II 332, 10]: β. τοῦ θεοῦ) purpose, counsel 1 Cl 61:2; Hv 1, 2, 4; Hs 9, 28, 4f; pl. 9, 28, 8; βουλαὶ τῆς καρδίας motives of the heart 1 Cor 4:5; μεστοὶ ὁσίας βουλῆς full of holy plans 1 Cl 2:3; perh. B 10:10 (Ps 1:1), but s. 3 below.
    that which one decides, resolution, decision
    of humans (Jos., Ant. 2, 23) Lk 23:51 (w. πρᾶξις as Philo, Poster. Cai. 86).—Ac 5:38. β. τίθεσθαι (Judg 19:30; Ps 12:3) decide 27:12 (w. inf. foll.). στρατιωτῶν β. ἐγένετο (w. ἵνα foll.) vs. 42. βουλὴν βουλεύεσθαι of evil designs (Vi. Aesopi I, 33 p. 298, 6 Eberh.): βουλεύεσθαι βουλὴν πονηράν form an evil plot B 6:7 (Is 3:9); λαμβάνειν β. πονηρὰν κατά τινος plot evil against someone (but in Leontius 11 p. 21, 11 λαμβάνει βουλήν τινος=he receives [bad] advice from someone) 19:3; D 2:6. Cp. Hs 6, 3, 5.
    of the divine will (Herm. Wr. 1, 8; 18; 31; Quint. Smyrn. 6, 141 βουλῇ Διός; oft. LXX; Jos., Ant. 4, 42; SibOr 3, 574.—Dodd 126–32) 1 Cl 57:4f (Pr 1:25, 30); Ac 2:23; 4:28; 13:36; 20:27; Dg 8:10; ἡ ἔνδοξος β. Hv 1, 3, 4; τὸ ἀμετάθετον τῆς β. αὐτοῦ the unchangeable nature of his resolve Hb 6:17; κατὰ τὴν β. τοῦ θελήματος αὐτοῦ acc. to the purpose of his will Eph 1:11; cp. Ac 19:1 D; τὴν β. τοῦ θεοῦ ἠθέτησαν εἰς ἑαυτούς they frustrated the purpose of God for themselves Lk 7:30. οὐδὲν λέληθεν τὴν β. αὐτοῦ nothing is hidden from God’s directing counsel 1 Cl 27:6.
    an assembly that takes up proposals or deliberates, council meeting (Hom. et al.; Diod S 14, 4, 5; Philo; PsSol 8:20; Jos., Bell. 2, 641 al.; loanw. in rabb.) B 11:7 (Ps 1:5); B 10:10 (Ps 1:1, but see 1 above).—DELG s.v. βούλομαι. M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > βουλή

  • 662 διαμερίζω

    διαμερίζω impf. διεμέριζον; fut. διαμεριῶ (LXX, Just.); 1 aor. διεμέρισα. Mid.: 3 pl. διαμερίσονται (TestAbr B 12 p. 116, 26f [Stone p. 80]); 1 aor. διεμερισάμην. Pass.: fut. 3 pl. διαμερισθήσονται Zech 14:1; 1 aor. διεμερίσθην; pf. ptc. διαμεμερισμένος (s. μερίζω, διαμερισμός; Pla. et al.; pap, LXX; TestAbr A 14 p. 94, 18 [Stone p. 36]; B 12 p. 116, 26f [Stone p. 80]; TestJob; EpArist 183; Joseph.; Just., D. 113, 3).
    to divide into separate parts, divide, separate (Pla., Leg. 8, 849d; Gen 10:25) the nations 1 Cl 29:2 (Dt 32:8).—Mid. διαμεριζόμεναι γλῶσσαι ὡσεὶ πυρός divided tongues, just like fire (cp. NRSV) Ac 2:3 prob. in imagery of the jagged effect produced by a flame; but s. 2.
    to distribute objects to a series of pers., distribute (Pla., Polit. 289c; LXX) εἴς τινα share with someone Lk 22:17 (Appian, Bell. Civ. 1, 96 §448 ἐς τούσδε διεμέριζεν; PLond III, 982, 4 [IV A.D.] p. 242 διεμερίσαμεν εἰς ἑαυτούς. Cp. the treatment of a defeated enemy Diod S 17, 70, 5). τί τινι (2 Km 6:19; Ezk 47:21) Ac 2:45 (cp. Just., D. 113, 3 γῆν ἑκάστῳ).—Mid. divide among themselves (Jos., Bell. 5, 440) clothes (cp. Artem. 2, 53 γυμνοὶ σταυροῦνται) Mt 27:35; Mk 15:24; Lk 23:34; J 19:24 (B-D-F §310, 2); GP 4:12 (all after Ps 21:19). Some would interpret Ac 2:3 in this sense: like tongues of fire distributed among them (REB).
    to be divided into opposing units, be divided, fig. ext. of 1, and only pass. (Lucian, Gall. 22 πρὸς τοσαύτας φροντίδας διαμεριζόμενος) ἐπί τινα against someone Lk 11:17f; 12:53; also ἐπί τινι 12:52f. For this sense s. also διαμερισμός.—DELG s.v. μείρομαι. M-M.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > διαμερίζω

  • 663 εἰμί

    εἰμί (Hom.+) impv. ἴσθι, ἔσο IPol 4:1, ἔστω—also colloq. ἤτω (BGU 276, 24; 419, 13; POxy 533, 9; Ps 103:31; 1 Macc 10:31) 1 Cor 16:22; Js 5:12; 1 Cl 48:5; Hv 3, 3, 4;—3 pers. pl. ἔστωσαν (ins since 200 B.C. Meisterhans3-Schw. 191; PPetr III, 2, 22 [237 B.C.]) Lk 12:35; 1 Ti 3:12; GJs 7:2. Inf. εἶναι. Impf. 1 pers. only mid. ἤμην (Jos., Bell. 1, 389; 631; s. further below); ἦν only Ac 20:18 D, 2 pers. ἦσθα (Jos., Ant. 6, 104) Mt 26:69; Mk 14:67 and ἦς (Lobeck, Phryn. 149 ‘say ἦσθα’; Jos., Ant. 17, 110 al.; Sb 6262, 16 [III A.D.]) Mt 25:21, 23 al., 3 sg. ἦν, 1 pl. ἦμεν. Beside this the mid. form ἤμην (pap since III B.C.; Job 29:16; Tob 12:13 BA), s. above, gives the pl. ἤμεθα (pap since III B.C.; Bar 1:19) Mt 23:30; Ac 27:37; Eph 2:3. Both forms in succession Gal. 4:3. Fut. ἔσομαι, ptc. ἐσόμενος. The mss. vary in choice of act. or mid., but like the edd. lean toward the mid. (W-S. §14, 1; Mlt-H. 201–3; Rob. index; B-D-F §98; Rdm.2 99; 101f; Helbing 108f; Reinhold 86f). Also s. ἔνι.
    be, exist, be on hand a pred. use (for other pred. use s. 3a, 4, 5, 6, 7): of God (Epicurus in Diog. L. 10, 123 θεοί εἰσιν; Zaleucus in Diod S 12, 20, 2 θεοὺς εἶναι; Wsd 12:13; Just., D. 128, 4 angels) ἔστιν ὁ θεός God exists Hb 11:6; cp. 1 Cor 8:5. ὁ ὢν καὶ ὁ ἦν the one who is and who was (cp. SibOr 3, 16; as amulet PMich 155, 3 [II A.D.] ὁ ὢν θεὸς ὁ Ἰάω κύριος παντοκράτωρ=the god … who exists.) Rv 11:17; 16:5. ὁ ὢν καὶ ὁ ἦν καὶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος, in this and the two preceding passages ἦν is treated as a ptc. (for the unusual use of ἦν cp. Simonides 74 D.: ἦν ἑκατὸν φιάλαι) 1:4; 4:8 (cp. Ex 3:14; Wsd 13:1; Paus. 10, 12, 10 Ζεὺς ἦν, Ζ. ἔστι, Ζ. ἔσσεται; cp. Theosophien 18. S. OWeinreich, ARW 19, 1919, 178f). οὐδʼ εἶναι θεὸν παντοκράτορα AcPlCor 1:11. ἐγώ εἰμι (ins in the Athena-Isis temple of Saïs in Plut., Is. et Os. 9, 354c: ἐγώ εἰμι πᾶν τὸ γεγονὸς κ. ὸ̓ν κ. ἐσόμενον. On the role of Isis in Gk. rel. s. IBergman, Ich bin Isis ’68; RMerkelbach, Isis Regina—Zeus Sarapis ’95; for further lit. s. MGustafson in: Prayer fr. Alexander to Constantine, ed. MKiley et al. ’97, 158.) Rv 1:8 (s. ἐγώ beg.). ὁ ὤν, … θεός Ro 9:5 is classed here and taken to mean Christ by JWordsworth ad loc. and HWarner, JTS 48, ’47, 203f. Of the λόγος: ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν ὁ λ. J 1:1 (for ἦν cp. Herm. Wr. 1, 4; 3, 1b ἦν σκότος, Fgm. IX 1 p. 422, 23 Sc. γέγονεν ἡ ὕλη καὶ ἦν).—Of Christ πρὶν Ἀβραὰμ γενέσθαι, ἐγὼ εἰμί before Abraham was born, I am 8:58 (on the pres. εἰμί cp. Parmenides 8, 5: of the Eternal we cannot say ἦν οὐδʼ ἔσται, only ἔστιν; Ammonius Hermiae [Comm. in Aristotl. IV 5 ed. ABusse 1897] 6 p. 172: in Timaeus we read that we must not say of the gods τὸ ἦν ἢ τὸ ἔσται μεταβολῆς τινος ὄντα σημαντικά, μόνον δὲ τὸ ἔστι=‘was’ or ‘will be’, suggesting change, but only ‘is’; Ps 89:2; DBall, ‘I Am’ in John’s Gospel [JSNT Suppl. 124] ’96).—Of the world πρὸ τοῦ τὸν κόσμον εἶναι before the world existed 17:5. Satirically, of the beast, who parodies the Lamb, ἦν καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν Rv 17:8. Of God’s temple: ἔστιν B 16:6f it exists. τὸ μὴ ὄν that which does not exist, the unreal (Sallust. 17 p. 32, 7 and 9; Philo, Aet. M. 5; 82) Hm 1:1. τὰ ὄντα that which exists contrasted w. τὰ μὴ ὄντα Ro 4:17; cp. 1 Cor 1:28; 2 Cl 1:8. Of God κτίσας ἐκ τοῦ μὴ ὄντος τὰ ὄντα what is out of what is not Hv 1, 1, 6 (on the contrast τὰ ὄντα and τὰ μὴ ὄντα cp. Ps.-Arist. on Xenophanes: Fgm. 21, 28; Artem. 1, 51 p. 49, 19 τὰ μὴ ὄντα ὡς ὄντα; Ocellus Luc. 12; Sallust. 17, 5 p. 30, 28–32, 12; Philo, Op. M. 81; PGM 4, 3077f ποιήσαντα τὰ πάντα ἐξ ὧν οὐκ ὄντων εἰς τὸ εἶναι; 13, 272f τὸν ἐκ μὴ ὄντων εἶναι ποιήσαντα καὶ ἐξ ὄντων μὴ εἶναι; Theoph. Ant. 1, 4 [p. 64, 21] τὰ πάντα ὁ θεὸς ἐποίησεν ἐξ οὐκ ὄντων εἰς τὸ εἶναι).—Of existing in the sense be present, available, provided πολλοῦ ὄχλου ὄντος since a large crowd was present Mk 8:1. ὄντων τῶν προσφερόντων those are provided who offer Hb 8:4. οὔπω ἦν πνεῦμα the Spirit had not yet come J 7:39. ἀκούσας ὄντα σιτία when he heard that grain was available Ac 7:12.—Freq. used to introduce parables and stories (once) there was: ἄνθρωπός τις ἦν πλούσιος there was (once) a rich man Lk 16:1, 19. ἦν ἄνθρωπος ἐκ τ. Φαρισαίων there was a man among the Pharisees J 3:1.There is, there are ὥσπερ εἰσὶν θεοὶ πολλοί as there are many gods 1 Cor 8:5. διαιρέσεις χαρισμάτων εἰσίν there are various kinds of spiritual gifts 12:4ff; 1J 5:16 al. Neg. οὐκ ἔστι there is (are) not, no (Ps 52:2; Simplicius in Epict. p. 95, 42 as a quot. from ‘tragedy’ οὐκ εἰσὶν θεοί) δίκαιος there is no righteous man Ro 3:10 (Eccl 7:20). ἀνάστασις νεκρῶν οὐκ ἔστιν there is no resurr. of the dead 1 Cor 15:12; οὐδʼ εἶναι ἀνάστασιν AcPlCor 1:12; 2:24; cp. Mt 22:23; Ac 23:8 (cp. 2 Macc 7:14). εἰσὶν οἵ, or οἵτινες there are people who (Hom. et al.; LXX; Just., D. 47, 2 εἰ μήτι εἰσὶν οἱ λέγοντες ὅτι etc.—W. sing. and pl. combined: Arrian, Ind. 24, 9 ἔστι δὲ οἳ διέφυγον=but there are some who escaped) Mt 16:28; 19:12; Mk 9:1; Lk 9:27; J 6:64; Ac 11:20. Neg. οὐδείς ἐστιν ὅς there is no one who Mk 9:39; 10:29; Lk 1:61; 18:29. As a question τίς ἐστιν ὅς; who is there that? Mt 12:11—In an unusual (perh. bureaucratic terminology) participial construction Ac 13:1 ἡ οὖσα ἐκκλησία the congregation there (cp. Ps.-Pla., Eryx. 6, 394c οἱ ὄντες ἄνθρωποι=the people with whom he has to deal; PLond III 1168, 5 p. 136 [18 A.D.] ἐπὶ ταῖς οὔσαις γειτνίαις=on the adjoining areas there; PGen 49; PSI 229, 11 τοῦ ὄντος μηνός of the current month); cp. 14:13.—αἱ οὖσαι (sc. ἐξουσίαι) those that exist Ro 13:1 (cp. UPZ 180a I, 4 [113 B.C.] ἐφʼ ἱερέων καὶ ἱερειῶν τῶν ὄντων καὶ οὐσῶν).
    to be in close connection (with), is, freq. in statements of identity or equation, as a copula, the equative function, uniting subject and predicate. On absence of the copula, Mlt-Turner 294–310.
    gener. πραΰς εἰμι I am gentle Mt 11:29. ἐγώ εἰμι Γαβριήλ Lk 1:19. σὺ εἶ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ Mk 3:11; J 1:49 and very oft. ἵνα … ὁ πονηρὸς … ἐλεγχθῇ [το? s. app. in Bodm.] μὴ ὢν θεός AcPlCor 2:15 (Just., D. 3, 3 φιλολόγος οὖν τις εἶ σύ).—The pred. can be supplied fr. the context: καὶ ἐσμέν and we are (really God’s children) 1J 3:1 (Eur., Ion 309 τ. θεοῦ καλοῦμαι δοῦλος εἰμί τε. Dio Chrys. 14 [31], 58 θεοφιλεῖς οἱ χρηστοὶ λέγονται καὶ εἰσίν; Epict. 2, 16, 44 Ἡρακλῆς ἐπιστεύθη Διὸς υἱὸς εἶναι καὶ ἦν.—The ptc. ὤν, οὖσα, ὄν used w. a noun or adj.and serving as an if-, since-, or although-clause sim. functions as a copula πονηροὶ ὄντες Mt 7:11; 12:34.—Lk 20:36; J 3:4; 4:9; Ac 16:21; Ro 5:10; 1 Cor 8:7; Gal 2:3 al.).—W. adv. of quality: οὕτως εἶναι be so preceded by ὥσπερ, καθώς or followed by ὡς, ὥσπερ Mt 13:40; 24:27, 37, 39; Mk 4:26; Lk 17:26. W. dat. of pers. οὕτως ἔσται ὁ υἱὸς τ. ἀ. τῇ γενεᾷ ταύτῃ so the Human One (Son of Man) will be for this generation 11:30. εἰμὶ ὡσ/ὥσπερ I am like Mt 6:5; Lk 18:11. W. dat. ἔστω σοι ὥσπερ τελώνης he shall be to you as a tax-collector Mt 18:17. εἰμὶ ὥς τις I am like someone of outward and inward similarity 28:3; Lk 6:40; 11:44; 22:27 al. καθώς εἰμι as I am Ac 22:3; 1J 3:2, 7; 4:17.—W. demonstr. pron. (Just., A I, 16, 1 ἃ ἔφη, ταῦτά ἐστι: foll. by a quotation; sim. 48, 5 ἔστι δὲ ταῦτα; and oft.) τὰ ὀνόματά ἐστιν ταῦτα Mt 10:2. αὕτη ἐστὶν ἡ μαρτυρία J 1:19. W. inf. foll. θρησκεία αὕτη ἐστίν, ἐπισκέπτεσθαι Js 1:27. W. ὅτι foll. αὕτη ἐστὶν ἡ κρίσις, ὅτι τὸ φῶς ἐλήλυθεν J 3:19; cp. 21:24; 1J 1:5; 3:11; 5:11. W. ἵνα foll. τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ ἔργον, ἵνα πιστεύητε J 6:29; cp. vs. 39f; 15:12; 17:3; 1J 3:11, 23; 5:3. W. τηλικοῦτος: τὰ πλοῖα, τηλικαῦτα ὄντα though they are so large Js 3:4. W. τοσοῦτος: τοσοῦτων ὄντων although there were so many J 21:11. W. τοιοῦτος: τοιοῦτος ὤν Phlm 9 (cp. Just., A I, 18, 4 ὅσα ἄλλα τοιαῦτά ἐστι).—W. interrog. pron. ὑμεῖς τίνα με λέγετε εἶναι; who do you say I am? Mt 16:15; cp. 21:10; Mk 1:24; 4:41; 8:27, 29; Lk 4:34 al.; σὺ τίς εἶ; J 1:19; 8:25; 21:12 al. (cp. JosAs 14:6 τίς εἶ συ tell me ‘who you are’). σὺ τίς εἶ ὁ κρίνων; (Pla., Gorg. 452b; Strabo 6, 2, 4 σὺ τίς εἶ ὁ τὸν Ὅμηρον ψέγων ὡς μυθογράφον;) Ro 14:4; ἐγὼ τίς ἤμην; (cp. Ex 3:11) Ac 11:17; τίς εἰμι ἐγὼ ὅτι who am I, that GJs 12:2 (Ex 3:11). W. πόσος: πόσος χρόνος ἐστίν; how long a time? Mk 9:21. W. ποταπός of what sort Lk 1:29.—W. relative pron. οἷος 2 Cor 10:11; ὁποῖος Ac 26:29; 1 Cor 3:13; Gal 2:6; ὅς Rv 1:19; ὅστις Gal 5:10, 19.—W. numerals ἦσαν οἱ φαγόντες πεντακισχίλιοι ἄνδρες 6:44 (cp. Polyaenus 7, 25 ἦσαν οἱ πεσόντες ἀνδρῶν μυριάδες δέκα); cp. Ac 19:7; 23:13. Λάζαρος εἷς ἦν ἐκ τῶν ἀνακειμένων L. was one of those at the table J 12:2; cp. Gal 3:20; Js 2:19. τῶν πιστευσάντων ἦν καρδία καὶ ψυχὴ μία Ac 4:32. εἷς εἶναι be one and the same Gal 3:28. ἓν εἶναι be one J 10:30; 17:11, 21ff; 1 Cor 3:8.—οὐδʼ εἶναι τὴν πλάσιν τὴν τῶν ἀνθρώπων τοῦ θεοῦ (that) the creation of humankind is not God’s doing AcPlCor 1:13.—To establish identity the formula ἐγώ εἰμι is oft. used in the gospels (corresp. to Hebr. אֲנִי הוּא Dt 32:39; Is 43:10), in such a way that the predicate must be understood fr. the context: Mt 14:27; Mk 6:50; 13:6; 14:62; Lk 22:70; J 4:26; 6:20; 8:24, 28; 13:19; 18:5f and oft.; s. on ἐγώ.—In a question μήτι ἐγώ εἰμι; surely it is not I? Mt 26:22, 25.
    to describe a special connection betw. the subject and a predicate noun ἡμεῖς ναὸς θεοῦ ἐσμεν ζῶντος we are a temple of the living God 2 Cor 6:16. ἡ ἐπιστολὴ ὑμεῖς ἐστε you are our letter (of recommendation) 3:2. σφραγίς μου τῆς ἀποστολῆς ὑμεῖς ἐστε you are the seal of my apostleship 1 Cor 9:2 and oft.
    in explanations:
    α. to show how someth. is to be understood is a representation of, is the equivalent of; εἰμί here, too, serves as copula; we usually translate mean, so in the formula τοῦτʼ ἔστιν this or that means, that is to say (Epict., Ench. 33, 10; Arrian, Tact. 29, 3; SIG 880, 50; PFlor 157, 4; PSI 298, 9; PMert 91, 9; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 16; ApcMos 19; Just., D. 56, 23; 78, 3 al.) Mk 7:2; Ac 19:4; Ro 7:18; 9:8; 10:6, 8; Phlm 12; Hb 7:5 al.; in the sense that is (when translated) (Polyaenus 8, 14, 1 Μάξιμος ἀνηγορεύθη• τοῦτο δʼ ἄν εἴη Μέγιστον) Mt 27:46; Ac 1:19. So also w. relative pron.: ὅ ἐστιν Mk 3:17; 7:11, 34; Hb 7:2. After verbs of asking, recognizing, knowing and not knowing (Antiphanes Com. 231, 1f τὸ ζῆν τί ἐστι;) μάθετε τί ἐστιν learn what (this) means Mt 9:13. εἰ ἐγνώκειτε τί ἐστιν 12:7; cp. Mk 1:27; 9:10; Lk 20:17; J 16:17f; Eph 4:9. W. an indir. question (Stephan. Byz. s.v. Ἀγύλλα: τὶς ἠρώτα τί ἂν εἴη τὸ ὄνομα) τί ἂν εἴη ταῦτα Lk 15:26; τί εἴη τοῦτο 18:36. τίνα θέλει ταῦτα εἶναι what this means Ac 17:20; cp. 2:12, where the question is not about the mng. of terms but the significance of what is happening.—Esp. in interpr. of the parables (Artem. 1, 51 p. 48, 26 ἄρουρα οὐδὲν ἄλλο ἐστὶν ἢ γυνή=field means nothing else than woman) ὁ ἀγρός ἐστιν ὁ κόσμος the field means the world Mt 13:38; cp. vss. 19f, 22f; Mk 4:15f, 18, 20; Lk 8:11ff (cp. Gen 41:26f; Ezk 37:11; Ath. 22, 4 [Stoic interpr. of myths]). On τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ σῶμά μου Mt 26:26; Mk 14:22; Lk 22:19 and its various interpretations, see lit. s.v. εὐχαριστία. Cp. Hipponax (VI B.C.) 45 Diehl αὕτη γάρ ἐστι συμφορή=this means misfortune.
    β. to be of relative significance, be of moment or importance, amount to someth. w. indef. pron. εἰδωλόθυτόν τί ἐστιν meat offered to idols means anything 1 Cor 10:19. Esp. εἰμί τι I mean someth. of pers. 1 Cor 3:7; Gal 2:6; 6:3; and of things vs. 15. εἰμί τις Ac 5:36.—Of no account ἐμοὶ εἰς ἐλάχιστόν ἐστιν (telescoped fr. ἐλάχ. ἐστιν and εἰς ἐλάχ. γίνεται, of which there are many exx. in Schmid, I 398; II 161, 237; III 281; IV 455) it is of little or no importance to me 1 Cor 4:3.
    be in reference to location, persons, condition, or time, be
    of various relations or positions involving a place or thing: w. ἀπό: εἶναι ἀπό τινος be or come from a certain place (X., An. 2, 4, 13) J 1:44.—W. ἐν: ἐν τοῖς τ. πατρός μου in my father’s house Lk 2:49 (cp. Jos., Ant. 16, 302 καταγωγὴ ἐν τοῖς Ἀντιπάτρου). ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ on the way Mk 10:32. ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ Mt 24:26. ἐν ἀγρῷ Lk 15:25. ἐν δεξιᾷ τ. θεοῦ at God’s right hand Ro 8:34; in heaven Eph 6:9.—W. εἰς: τὴν κοίτην Lk 11:7; τὸν κόλπον J1:18.—W. ἐπὶ w. gen. be on someth. of place, roof Lk 17:31; head J 20:7 (cp. 1 Macc 1:59); also fig., of one who is over someone (1 Macc 10:69; Jdth 14:13 ὁ ὢν ἐπὶ πάντων τῶν αὐτοῦ) Ro 9:5 (of the angel of death Mel., P. 20, 142 ἐπὶ τῶν πρωτοτόκων); also ἐπάνω τινός J 3:31.—W. dat. be at someth. the door Mt 24:33; Mk 13:29.—W. acc. be on someone: grace Lk 2:40; Ac 4:33; spirit (Is 61:1) Lk 2:25; εἶναι ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό be in the same place, together (Gen 29:2 v.l.) Ac 1:15; 2:1, 44; 1 Cor 7:5.—W. κατά w. acc. εἶναι κατὰ τὴν Ἰουδαίαν be in Judea Ac 11:1; εἶναι ἐν Ἀντιοχείᾳ κατὰ τὴν οὖσαν ἐκκλησίαν were at Antioch in the congregation there 13:1.—W. ὑπό w. acc. τι or τινα of place be under someth. J 1:48; 1 Cor 10:1.—W. παρά w. acc. παρὰ τὴν θάλασσαν by the sea- (i.e. lake-) shore Mk 5:21; Ac 10:6.—W. πρός τι be close to, facing someth. Mk 4:1.—W. adv. of place ἐγγύς τινι near someth. Ac 9:38; 27:8. μακρὰν (ἀπό) Mk 12:34; J 21:8; Eph 2:13; also πόρρω Lk 14:32. χωρίς τινος without someth. Hb 12:8. ἐνθάδε Ac 16:28. ἔσω J 20:26. ἀπέναντί τινος Ro 3:18 (Ps 35:2). ἐκτός τινος 1 Cor 6:18; ἀντίπερά τινος Lk 8:26; ὁμοῦ J 21:2; οὗ Mt 2:9; ὅπου Mk 2:4; 5:40. ὧδε Mt 17:4; Mk 9:5; Lk 9:33. Also w. fut. mng. (ESchwartz, GGN 1908, 161 n.; on the fut. use of the pres. cp. POxy 531, 22 [II A.D.] ἔστι δὲ τοῦ Τῦβι μηνὸς σοὶ ὸ̔ θέλεις) ὅπου εἰμί J 7:34, 36; 12:26; 14:3; 17:24. As pred., to denote a relatively long stay at a place, stay, reside ἴσθι ἐκεῖ stay there Mt 2:13, cp. vs. 15; ἐπʼ ἐρήμοις τόποις in lonely places Mk 1:45; ἦν παρὰ τὴν θάλασσαν he stayed by the lakeside 5:21.
    involving humans or transcendent beings: w. adv. ἔμπροσθέν τινος Lk 14:2. ἔναντί τινος Ac 8:21; ἐνώπιόν τινος Lk 14:10; Ac 4:19; 1 Pt 3:4; Rv 7:15; ἐντός τινος Lk 17:21; ἐγγύς τινος J 11:18; 19:20; Ro 10:8 (Dt 30:14).—W. prep. ἐν τινί equiv. to ἔκ τινος εἶναι be among Mt 27:56; cp. Mk 15:40; Ro 1:6. Of God, who is among his people 1 Cor 14:25 (Is 45:14; Jer 14:9); of the Spirit J 14:17. Of persons under Christ’s direction: ἐν θεῷ 1J 2:5; 5:20 (s. Norden, Agn. Th. 23, 1). ἔν τινι rest upon, arise from someth. (Aristot., Pol. 7, 1, 3 [1323b, 1] ἐν ἀρετῇ; Sir 9:16) Ac 4:12; 1 Cor 2:5; Eph 5:18.—εἴς τινα be directed, inclined toward Ac 23:30; 2 Cor 7:15; 1 Pt 1:21.—κατά w. gen. be against someone (Sir 6:12) Mt 12:30; Mk 9:40 and Lk 9:50 (both opp. ὑπέρ); Gal 5:23.—σύν τινι be with someone (Jos., Ant. 7, 181) Lk 22:56; 24:44; Ac 13:7; accompany, associate w. someone Lk 8:38; Ac 4:13; 22:9; take sides with someone (X., Cyr. 5, 4, 37; 7, 5, 77; Jos., Ant. 11, 259 [of God]) Ac 14:4.—πρός τινα be with someone Mt 13:56; Mk 6:3; J 1:1f. I am to be compared w. IMg 12.—μετά and gen. be with someone (Judg 14:11) Mt 17:17; Mk 3:14; 5:18; J 3:26; 12:17; ἔστω μεθʼ ὑμῶν εἰρήνη AcPlCor 2:40; of God, who is with someone (Gen 21:20; Judg 6:13 al.; Philo, Det. Pot. Ins. 4; Jos., Ant. 6, 181; 15, 138) Lk 1:66; J 3:2; 8:29; Ac 10:38 al.; also be with in the sense be favorable to, in league with (Ex 23:2) Mt 12:30; Lk 11:23; of punishment attending a pers. τὸ πῦρ ἐστι μετʼ αὐτοῦ AcPlCor 2:37.—παρά and gen. come from someone (X., An. 2, 4, 15; Just., D. 8, 4 ἔλεος παρὰ θεοῦ) fr. God J 6:46; 7:29; w. dat. be with, among persons Mt 22:25; Ac 10:6. W. neg. be strange to someone, there is no … in someone Ro 2:11; 9:14; Eph 6:9.—ὑπέρ w. gen. be on one’s side Mk 9:4 and Lk 9:50 (both opp. κατά); w. acc. be superior to (Sir 25:10; 30:16) Lk 6:40.
    of condition or circumstance: κατά w. acc. live in accordance with (Sir 28:10; 43:8; 2 Macc 9:20) κατὰ σάκρα, πνεῦμα Ro 8:5. οὐκ ἔστιν κατὰ ἄνθρωπον not human (in origin) Gal 1:11.—Fig. ὑπό w. acc. be under (the power of) someth. Ro 3:9; 6:14f; Gal 3:10, 25.—W. ἐν of existing ἐν τῷ θεῷ εἶναι of humankind: have its basis of existence in God Ac 17:28. Of states of being: ἐν δόξῃ 2 Cor 3:8; ἐν εἰρήνῃ Lk 11:21; ἐν ἔχθρᾳ at enmity 23:12; ἐν κρίματι under condemnation vs. 40. ἐν ῥύσει αἵματος suffer from hemorrhages Mk 5:25; Lk 8:43 (cp. Soph., Aj. 271 ἦν ἐν τῇ νόσῳ; cp. TestJob 35:1 ἐν πληγαῖς πολλαῖς). Periphrastically for an adj. ἐν ἐξουσίᾳ authoritative Lk 4:32. ἐν βάρει important 1 Th 2:7. ἐν τῇ πίστει true believers, believing 2 Cor 13:5. Be involved in someth. ἐν ἑορτῇ be at the festival=take part in it J 2:23. ἐν τούτοις ἴσθι devote yourself to these things 1 Ti 4:15 (cp. X., Hell. 4, 8, 7 ἐν τοιούτοις ὄντες=occupied w. such things; Jos., Ant. 2, 346 ἐν ὕμνοις ἦσαν=they occupied themselves w. the singing of hymns).—Fig., live in the light 1J 2:9; cp. vs. 11; 1 Th 5:4; in the flesh Ro 7:5; 8:8; AcPlCor 1:6. ἐν οἷς εἰμι in the situation in which I find myself Phil 4:11 (X., Hell. 4, 2, 1; Diod S 12, 63, 5; 12, 66, 4; Appian, Hann. 55 §228 ἐν τούτοις ἦν=he was in this situation; Jos., Ant. 7, 232 ἐν τούτοις ἦσαν=found themselves in this sit.; TestJob 35:6 ἐν τίνι ἐστίν; s. ZPE VIII 170). ἐν πολλοῖς ὢν ἀστοχήμασι AcPlCor 2:1. Of characteristics, emotions, etc. ἔν τινί ἐστιν, e.g. ἀδικία J 7:18; ἄγνοια Eph 4:18; ἀλήθεια J 8:44; 2 Cor 11:10 (cp. 1 Macc 7:18); ἁμαρτία 1J 3:5.
    of time ἐγγύς of καιρός be near Mt 26:18; Mk 13:28. πρὸς ἑσπέραν ἐστίν it is toward evening Lk 24:29 (Just., D. 137, 4 πρὸς δυσμὰς … ὁ ἥλιός ἐστι).
    to be alive in a period of time, live, denoting temporal existence (Hom., Trag., Thu. et al.; Sir 42:21; En 102:5 Philo, De Jos. 17; Jos., Ant. 7, 254) εἰ ἤμεθα ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις τῶν πατέρων ἡμῶν if we had lived in the days of our fathers Mt 23:30. ὅτι οὐκ εἰσὶν because they were no more 2:18 (Jer 38:15). ἦσαν ἐπὶ χρόνον ἱκανόν (those who were healed and raised by Christ) remained alive for quite some time Qua.
    to be the time at which someth. takes place w. indications of specific moments or occasions, be (X., Hell. 4, 5, 1, An. 4, 3, 8; Sus 13 Theod.; 1 Macc 6:49; 2 Macc 8:26; Jos., Ant. 6, 235 νουμηνία δʼ ἦν; 11, 251): ἦν ὥρα ἕκτη it was the sixth hour (=noon acc. to Jewish reckoning) Lk 23:44; J 4:6; 19:14.—Mk 15:25; J 1:39. ἦν ἑσπέρα ἤδη it was already evening Ac 4:3. πρωί̈ J 18:28. ἦν παρασκευή Mk 15:42. ἦν ἑορτὴ τῶν Ἰουδαίων J 5:1. σάββατόν ἐστιν vs. 10 et al. Short clauses (as Polyaenus 4, 9, 2 νὺξ ἦν; 7, 44, 2 πόλεμος ἦν; exc. 36, 8 ἦν ἀρίστου ὥρα; Jos., Ant. 19, 248 ἔτι δὲ νὺξ ἦν) χειμὼν ἦν J 10:22; ἦν δὲ νύξ (sim. Jos., Bell. 4, 64) 13:30; ψύχος it was cold 18:18; καύσων ἔσται it will be hot Lk 12:55.
    to take place as a phenomenon or event, take place, occur, become, be, be in (Hom., Thu. et al.; LXX; En 104:5; 106:6.—Cp. Just., D. 82, 2 of Christ’s predictions ὅπερ καὶ ἔστι ‘which is in fact the case’.) ἔσται θόρυβος τοῦ λαοῦ a popular uprising Mk 14:2. γογγυσμὸς ἦν there was (much) muttering J 7:12. σχίσμα there was a division 9:16; 1 Cor 1:10; 12:25. ἔριδες … εἰσίν quarrels are going on 1:11. δεῖ αἱρέσεις εἶναι 11:19. θάνατος, πένθος, κραυγή, πόνος ἔσται Rv 21:4. ἔσονται λιμοὶ κ. σεισμοί Mt 24:7. Hence τὸ ἐσόμενον what was going to happen (Sir 48:25) Lk 22:49. πότε ταῦτα ἔσται; when will this happen? Mt 24:3. πῶς ἔσται τοῦτο; how can this be? Lk 1:34. Hebraistically (הָיָה; s. KBeyer, Semitische Syntax im NT, ’62, 63–65) καὶ ἔσται w. fut. of another verb foll. and it will come about that Ac 2:17 (Jo 3:1); 3:23 (w. δέ); Ro 9:26 (Hos 2:1).—W. dat. ἐστί τινι happen, be granted, come, to someone (X., An. 2, 1, 10; Jos., Ant. 11, 255; Just., D. 8, 4 σοὶ … ἔλεος ἔσται παρὰ θεοῦ) Mt 16:22; Mk 11:24; Lk 2:10; GJs 1:1; 4:3; 8:3; τί ἐστίν σοι τοῦτο, ὅτι what is the matter with you, that GJs 17:2.—Of becoming or turning into someth. become someth. εἰς χολὴν πικρίας εἶναι become bitter gall Ac 8:23. εἰς σάρκα μίαν Mt 19:5; Mk 10:8; 1 Cor 6:16; Eph 5:31 (all Gen 2:24. Cp. Syntipas p. 42, 24 οὐκ ἔτι ἔσομαι μετὰ σοῦ εἰς γυναῖκα); τὰ σκολιὰ εἰς εὐθείας Lk 3:5 (Is 40:4); εἰς πατέρα 2 Cor 6:18; Hb 1:5 (2 Km 7:14; 1 Ch 22:10; 28:6); εἰς τὸ ἕν 1J 5:8. Serve as someth. (IPriene 50, 39 [c. II B.C.] εἶναι εἰς φυλακὴν τ. πόλεως; Aesop., Fab. 28 H.=18 P.; 26 Ch.; 18 H-H. εἰς ὠφέλειαν; Gen 9:13; s. also εἰς 4d) 1 Cor 14:22; Col 2:22; Js 5:3.—Of something being ἀνεκτότερον ἔσται it will be more tolerable τινί for someone Lk 10:12, 14.
    to exist as possibility ἔστιν w. inf. foll. it is possible, one can (Περὶ ὕψους 6; Diog. L. 1, 110 ἔστιν εὑρεῖν=one can find; Just., A I, 59, 10 ἔστι ταῦτα ἀκοῦσαι καὶ μαθεῖν; D. 42, 3 ἰδεῖν al.; Mel., P. 19, 127); neg. οὐκ ἔστιν νῦν λέγειν it is not possible to speak at this time Hb 9:5. οὐκ ἔστιν φαγεῖν it is impossible to eat 1 Cor 11:20 (so Hom. et al.; UPZ 70, 23 [152/151 B.C.] οὐκ ἔστι ἀνακύψαι με πώποτε … ὑπὸ τῆς αἰσχύνης; 4 Macc 13:5; Wsd 5:10; Sir 14:16; 18:6; EpJer 49 al.; EpArist 163; Jos., Ant. 2, 335; Ath. 22, 3 ἔστιν εἰπεῖν).
    to have a point of derivation or origin, be,/come from somewhere ἐκ τῆς ἐξουσίας Ἡρῴδου from Herod’s jurisdiction Lk 23:7; ἐκ Ναζαρέτ (as an insignificant place) J 1:46; ἐκ τῆς γῆς 3:31; ἐκ γυναικός 1 Cor 11:8 al. ἐξ οὐρανοῦ, ἐξ ἀνθρώπων be of heavenly (divine), human descent Mt 21:25; Mk 11:30; Lk 20:4. Be generated by (cp. Sb 8141, 21f [ins I B.C.] οὐδʼ ἐκ βροτοῦ ἤεν ἄνακτος, ἀλλὰ θεοῦ μεγάλου ἔκγονος; En 106:6) Mt 1:20. Esp. in Johannine usage ἐκ τοῦ διαβόλου εἶναι originate from the devil J 8:44; 1J 3:8. ἐκ τοῦ πονηροῦ 3:12; ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου J 15:19; 17:14, 16; 1J 4:5. ἐκ τῆς ἀληθείας εἶναι 2:21; J 18:37 etc. Cp. 9 end.
    to belong to someone or someth. through association or genetic affiliation, be, belong w. simple gen. (X., Hell. 2, 4, 36; Iambl., Vi. Pyth. 33, 230 τῶν Πυθαγορείων) οἱ τῆς ὁδοῦ ὄντες those who belong to the Way Ac 9:2. εἰμὶ Παύλου I belong to Paul 1 Cor 1:12; 3:4; cp. Ro 8:9; 2 Cor 10:7; 1 Ti 1:20; Ac 23:6. ἡμέρας εἶναι belong to the day 1 Th 5:8, cp. vs. 5. W. ἔκ τινος 1 Cor 12:15f; Mt 26:73; Mk 14:69f; Lk 22:58 al. (cp. X., Mem. 3, 6, 17; oft LXX). ἐκ τοῦ ἀριθμοῦ τῶν δώδεκα belong to the twelve 22:3. ὅς ἐστιν ἐξ ὑμῶν who is a fellow-countryman of yours Col 4:9.—To belong through origin 2 Cor 4:7. Of Mary: ἦν τῆς φυλῆς τοῦ Δαυίδ was of David’s line GJs 10:1. Cp. 8 above.
    to have someth. to do with someth. or someone, be. To denote a close relationship ἐξ ἔργων νόμου εἶναι rely on legal performance Gal 3:10. ὁ νόμος οὐκ ἔστιν ἐκ πίστεως the law has nothing to do with faith vs. 12.—To denote a possessor Mt 5:3, 10; l9:14; Mk 12:7; Lk 18:16; 1 Cor 6:19. Esp. of God who owns the Christian Ac 27:23; 1 Cor 3:23; 2 Ti 2:19 (Num 16:5). οὐδʼ εἶναι τὸν κόσμον θεοῦ, ἀλλὰ ἀγγέλων AcPlCor 1:15 (cp. Just., A II, 13, 4 ὅσα … καλῶς εἴρηται, ἡμῶν τῶν χριστιανῶν ἐστι).—W. possess. pron. ὑμετέρα ἐστὶν ἡ βασιλεία Lk 6:20. οὐκ ἔστιν ἐμὸν δοῦναι Mk 10:40 (cp. Just., A I, 4, 2 ὑμέτερον ἀγωνιᾶσαί ἐστι ‘it is a matter for your concern’).—To denote function (X., An. 2, 1, 4) οὐχ ὑμῶν ἐστιν it is no concern of yours Ac 1:7—Of quality παιδεία οὐ δοκεῖ χαρᾶς εἶναι discipline does not seem to be (partake of) joy Hb 12:11.—10:39.
    as an auxiliary: very commonly the simple tense forms are replaced by the periphrasis εἶναι and the ptc. (B-D-F §352–55; Mlt. 225–27, 249; Mlt-H. 451f; Rdm.2 102, 105, 205; Kühner-G. I 38ff; Rob. 374–76, 1119f; CTurner, Marcan Usage: JTS 28, 1927 349–51; GKilpatrick, BT 7, ’56, 7f; very oft. LXX).
    (as in Hom et al.) w. the pf. ptc. to express the pf., plpf. and fut. pf. act. and pass. (s. Mayser 329; 377) ἦσαν ἐληλυθότες they had come Lk 5:17. ἦν αὐτῶν ἡ καρδία πεπωρωμένη their hearts were hardened Mk 6:52. ἠλπικότες ἐσμέν we have set our hope 1 Cor 15:19. ὁ καιρὸς συνεσταλμένος ἐστίν the time has become short 7:29. ἦν ἑστώς (En 12:3) he was standing (more exactly he took his stand) Lk 5:1.
    w. pres. ptc. (B-D-F §353).
    α. to express the pres. ἐστὶν προσαναπληροῦσα τὰ ὑστερήματα supplies the wants 2 Cor 9:12 (Just., A I, 26, 5 Μαρκίων … καὶ νῦν ἔτι ἐστὶ διδάσκων; Mel., P. 61, 441 ἐστὶν … κηρυσσόμενον).
    β. impf. or aor. ἦν καθεύδων he was sleeping Mk 4:38. ἦσαν ἀναβαίνοντες … ἦν προάγων 10:32; cp. Lk 1:22; 5:17; 11:14 al. (JosAs 1:3 ἦν συνάγων τὸν σίτον; Mel., P. 80, 580 ἦσθα εὐφραινόμενος). ἦν τὸ φῶς τὸ ἀλήθινόν … ἐρχόμενον εἰς τὸν κόσμον the true light entered the world J 1:9, w. ἦν introducing a statement in dramatic contrast to the initial phrase of vs. 8.—To denote age (Demetr.: 722 Fgm. 1, 2 al. Jac.; POxy 275, 9 [66 A.D.] οὐδέπω ὄντα τῶν ἐτῶν; Tob 14:11) Mk 5:42; Lk 3:23; Ac 4:22; GJs 12:3.—Mussies 304–6.
    γ. fut. ἔσῃ σιωπῶν you will be silent Lk 1:20; cp. 5:10; Mt 24:9; Mk 13:13; Lk 21:17, 24 al.; 2 Cl 17:7 Bihlm. (the child) shall serve him (God).
    w. aor. ptc. as plpf. (Aelian, NA 7, 11; Hippiatr. 34, 14, vol. I p. 185, 3 ἦν σκευάσας; ISyriaW 2070b ἦν κτίσας; AcThom 16; 27 [Aa II/2 p. 123, 2f; p. 142, 10]; B-D-F §355 m.—JVogeser, Z. Sprache d. griech. Heiligenlegenden, diss. Munich 1907, 14; JWittmann, Sprachl. Untersuchungen zu Cosmas Indicopleustes, diss. Munich 1913, 20; SPsaltes, Gramm. d. byzant. Chroniken 1913, 230; Björck [διδάσκω end] 75; B-D-F §355). ἦν βληθείς had been thrown Lk 23:19; J 18:30 v.l.—GPt 6:23; 12:51. (Cp. Just., A II, 10, 2 διʼ εὑρέσεως … ἐστὶ πονηθέντα αὐτοῖς ‘they achieved through investigation’).
    Notice esp. the impersonals δέον ἐστίν it is necessary (Pla. et al.; POxy 727, 19; Sir praef. ln. 3; 1 Macc 12:11 δέον ἐστὶν καὶ πρέπον) Ac 19:36; εἰ δέον ἐστίν if it must be 1 Pt 1:6 (s. δεῖ 2a); 1 Cl 34:2; πρέπον ἐστίν it is appropriate (Pla. et al.; POxy 120, 24; 3 Macc 7:13) Mt 3:15; 1 Cor 11:13.
    In many cases the usage w. the ptc. serves to emphasize the duration of an action or condition (BGU 183, 25 ἐφʼ ὸ̔ν χρόνον ζῶσα ᾖ Σαταβούς); JosAs 2:1 ἦν … ἐξουθενοῦσα καὶ καταπτύουσα πάντα ἄνδρα). ἦν διδάσκων he customarily taught Mk 1:22; Lk 4:31; 19:47. ἦν θέλων he cherished the wish 23:8. ἦσαν νηστεύοντες they were keeping the fast Mk 2:18. ἦσαν συλλαλοῦντες they were conversing for a while 9:4. ἦν προσδεχόμενος he was waiting for (the kgdm.) 15:43. ἦν συγκύπτουσα she was bent over Lk 13:11.
    to emphasize the adjectival idea inherent in the ptc. rather than the concept of action expressed by the finite verb ζῶν εἰμι I am alive Rv 1:18. ἦν ὑποτασσόμενος he was obedient Lk 2:51. ἦν ἔχων κτήματα πολλά he was very rich Mt 19:22; Mk 10:22. ἴσθι ἐξουσίαν ἔχων you shall have authority Lk 19:17 (Lucian, Tim. 35 ἴσθι εὐδαιμονῶν). ἦν καταλλάσσων (God) was reconciling 2 Cor 5:19 (cp. Mel., P. 83, 622 οὗτος ἦν ὁ ἐκλεξάμενός σε; Ath. 15, 2 οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ … καρπούμενος).—LMcGaughy, Toward a Descriptive Analysis of ΕΙΝΑΙ as a Linking Verb in the Gk. NT, diss. Vanderbilt, ’70 (s. esp. critique of treatment of εἰμί in previous edd. of this lexicon pp. 12–15).—Mlt. 228. B. 635. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > εἰμί

  • 664 ζάω

    ζάω contr. ζῶ (Hom.+) impf. ἔζων (Ro 7:9 B ἔζην; on this form s. Schwyzer I 675; B-D-F §88; Mlt-H. 194, both w. ref.); fut. ζήσω (uniformly attested Ro 6:2; Hb 12:9); the later (since Hippocr. VII p. 536 L.; LXX; AscIs 3:9; Jos., Ant. 1, 193 al.) form ζήσομαι (B-D-F §77; Rob. 356) is more common (on the fut. forms s. JLee, NovT 22, ’80, 289–98; GKilpatrick, ibid. 25, ’83, 146–51); 1 aor. ἔζησα. On the LXX usage s. Thackeray 269; for forms in pap, Gignac II 370.
    to be alive physically, live
    of physical life in contrast to death
    α. gener. Ac 22:22; Ro 7:1, 2, 3; 14:8ac; 1 Cor 7:39; 2 Cor 5:15a; 6:9; Hb 9:17. ψυχὴ ζῶσα a living soul (Gen 1:20 al.; Just., D. 6, 1 ζῇ ψυχῇ) 1 Cor 15:45 (Gen 2:7); Rv 16:3 v.l. ὅσα ἔτη ζῇ as many years as he lives B 10:6 (cp. SIG 663, 6; Sb 173, 6 Αὐρήλιος ζήσας ἔτη νε´; En 10:10). τὸ ζῆν life (Attic wr., ins, pap, LXX) ὥστε ἐξαπορηθῆναι ἡμᾶς καὶ τοῦ ζῆν so that we even despaired of life 2 Cor 1:8. διὰ παντὸς τοῦ ζῆν during the whole lifetime Hb 2:15 (cp. Diod S 1, 74, 3 διατελεῖν πάντα τὸν τοῦ ζῆν χρόνον; 4, 46, 4). ἔτι ζῶν while he was still living= before his death Mt 27:63 (CB I/2 660 no. 618 Ζώσιμος ἔτι ζῶν κατεσκεύασεν; 3 Km 12:6). ζῶντες ἐβλήθησαν … εἰς τὴν λίμνην τοῦ πυρός they were thrown alive into the lake of fire Rv 19:20. ζῶσα τέθνηκεν though alive she is dead 1 Ti 5:6 (cp. Sextus 7). ἡμεῖς οἱ ζῶντες we during our (earthly) life 2 Cor 4:11; the same phrase= we who are still living 1 Th 4:15, 17. Here the opp. is νεκροί, as in Mt 22:32; Mk 12:27; Lk 20:38a. ζῶντες καὶ νεκροί the living and the dead Ac 10:42; Ro 14:9b; 2 Ti 4:1; 1 Pt 4:5; 2 Cl 1:1; B 7:2.—Occasionally the contrast betw. νεκρός and ζῆν is used fig. with ref. to the realm of religion and ethics Lk 15:24 v.l., 32.
    β. of dead persons who return to life become alive again: of humans in general (3 Km 17:23) Mt 9:18; Ac 9:41; 20:12; Rv 20:4, 5; AcPl Ha 11, 7. Of Jesus Mk 16:11; Lk 24:5, 23; Ac 1:3; 25:19; Ro 14:9a; 2 Cor 13:4a; Rv 1:18b; 2:8 (Just., D. 69, 6 νεκροὺς … ζῆν ποιήσας).
    γ. of sick persons, if their illness terminates not in death but in recovery be well, recover (Artem. 4, 4 ἔζησεν ὁ παῖς=became well; 5, 71; 72; PGM 1, 188; 4 Km 1:2; 8:8 εἰ ζήσομαι ἐκ τῆς ἀρρωστίας μου ταύτης; Jos., Vi. 421) Mk 5:23; J 4:50, 51, 53.—Of removal of anxiety 1 Th 3:8.
    δ. also of healthy persons live on, remain alive (X., An. 3, 2, 39 ὅστις δὲ ζῆν ἐπιθυμεῖ πειράσθω νικᾶν; Ep. 56 of Apollonius of Tyana [Philostrat. I 359, 14]; ApcMos 31 διὰ τί σὺ ἀποθνῄσκεις καγὼ ζῶ;) Ac 25:24; 28:4. ἐὰν ὁ κύριος θελήσῃ ζήσομεν Js 4:15. ὸ̓ς ἔχει τὴν πληγὴν τῆς μαχαίρης καὶ ἔζησεν Rv 13:14.
    ε. of beings that in reality, or as they are portrayed, are not subject to death: of Melchizedek Hb 7:8 (opp. ἀποθνῄσκοντες ἄνθρωποι). Jesus as everlasting high priest πάντοτε ζῶν 7:25.—In this sense it is most comprehensively applied to God (s. CBurchard, Untersuch. zu JosAs p. 103) (ὁ) θεὸς (ὁ) ζῶν (cp. 4 Km 19:4, 16; Is 37:4, 17; Hos 2:1; Da 6:21 Theod.; 3 Macc 6:28; TestAbr A 17 p. 99, 10 [Stone p. 46]; TestJob 37:2; JosAs 49:3 al.; SibOr 3, 763; POxy 924, 11 [IV A.D., Gnostic]; PGM 4, 1038 ὁ μέγας ζῶν θεός; 7, 823; 12, 79; Philo, Decal. 67 ὁ ζῶν ἀεὶ θεός; Orig., C. Cels. 8, 59, 18.—The phrase ‘the living God’ is not found in Joseph.) Mt 16:16; 26:63; J 6:69 v.l.; Ac 14:15; Ro 9:26 (Hos 2:1); 2 Cor 3:3; 6:16; 1 Th 1:9; 1 Ti 3:15; 4:10; 6:17 v.l.; Hb 3:12; 9:14; 10:31; 12:22; Rv 1:18a; 4:10; 7:2; 10:6; 2 Cl 20:2; GJs 20:1; AcPl Ha 2, 32; also ὁ ζῶν πατήρ J 6:57. W. the addition εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων Rv 15:7; cp. 4:9 (cp. Tob 13:2; Sir 18:1). God takes a sovereign oath in the words ζῶ ἐγώ as surely as I live (Num 14:28 al.) Ro 14:11 (Is 49:18; classical parallels GStählin, NovT 5, ’62, 142 n. 2). ζῇ κύριος ὁ θεός [μου] as surely as the Lord my God lives GJs 4:1; 6:1; 13:3; 15:3; 19:3 (Judg 8:19; 1 Km 25:34 al; GrBar 1:7; cp. ApcEsdr 2:7); in expanded form καὶ ζῇ ὁ Χριστὸς αὐτοῦ 15:4 (s. deStrycker ad loc.).—Christ lives διὰ τὸν πατέρα because of the Father J 6:57b (s. Bultmann, comm. ad loc.).
    w. mention of that upon which life depends ἐπί τινι on the basis of someth. (Andoc. 1, 100; Isocr. 10, 18; Ael. Aristid. 28, 103 K.=49 p. 525 D.) ζ. ἐπʼ ἄρτῳ live on bread Mt 4:4; Lk 4:4 (both Dt 8:3). ζ. ἔκ τινος obtain one’s living fr. someth. (Aristoph., Eccl. 591; Demosth. 57, 36; POxy 1117, 19; 1557, 12; TestJob 47:1f) 1 Cor 9:14.
    w. more precise mention of the sphere (Artem. 3, 62 ἐν ἀγορᾷ ζ.=spend his life in the marketplace) ζ. ἐν σαρκί live in the flesh in contrast to the heavenly life Phil 1:22; Gal 2:20c; ζ. ἐν κόσμῳ live in the world Col 2:20. ζ. ἐν θεῷ, live in God (as the Being who penetrates and embraces everything) Ac 17:28 (s. κινέω 3). For AcPl Ha 1, 15 s. 2a end.
    to live in a transcendent sense, live, of the sanctified life of a child of God (ζῆν in the sense of a higher type of life than the animal: X., Mem. 3, 3, 11; Cass. Dio 69, 19: after years of public service, Similis retires and prepares this epitaph: Σίμιλις ἐνταύθα κεῖται βιοὺς μὲν ἔτη τόσα, ζήσας δὲ ἔτη ἑπτά=Here lies Similis, existing for so many years, but alive for only seven.).
    in the world ἐγὼ ἔζων χωρὶς νόμου ποτέ I was once (truly) alive without law (this has been interpr. to mean when no law existed; Paul is then regarded as speaking fr. the viewpoint of humanity in paradise before the command Gen 2:16 f; 3:3. Another interpr. thinks of Paul as referring to the period in his life when he was not conscious of the existence and significance of the law. In view of Paul’s climactic affirmation in Ro 7:25, Paul probably illustrates in the first person the perils of a Christian who succumbs to the illusion that moral action is connected with law rather than with the ‘spirit of life in Christ’ Ro 8:2) Ro 7:9. Even now those who listen to the voice of the Son of God enjoy this life J 5:25; cp. 11:26; likew. those who receive him into their being ὁ τρώγων τὸν ἄρτον 6:57c; cp. Ro 6:11, 13 (ἐκ νεκρῶν ζῶντας); Gal 2:19; Rv 3:1. This heavenly life on earth is a ζ. πνεύματι Gal 5:25 or a life not of mere human achievement, but of Christ who lives in Christians 2:20ab. Also of the superhuman power of the apostle ζήσομεν σὺν αὐτῷ ἐκ δυνάμεως θεοῦ εἰς ὑμᾶς we shall live with him (Christ) through God’s power in our dealings with you 2 Cor 13:4. ὁ κύριος βούλεται ζῆν ἡμᾶς ἐν θεῷ=the Lord wills that we live under God’s direction AcPl Ha 1, 15 (opp. ἀποθανεῖν ἐν ἁμαρτίαις; s. 1c end)
    in the glory of the life to come (Sir 48:11; cp. Dt 4:1; 8:1; 30:16).
    α. abs. Lk 10:28; J 11:25; 14:19; Ro 8:13b; Hb 12:9. ἐμοὶ τ. ζῆν Χριστός= life is possible for me only where Christ is (hence death is gain) Phil 1:21 (s. OSchmitz, GHeinrici Festschr. 1914, 155–69). Another common interpr. is for me to live is Christ, i.e. while I am alive I experience real life in connection with Christ; w. death comes life in all fullness in the presence of Jesus.
    β. More specifically εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα have eternal life (Ps.-Lucian, Philopatr. 17 ζῆν εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα; PsSol 14:2) J 6:51, 58 (in J the blessed life which the follower of Jesus enjoys here and now in the body is simply continued in the heavenly life of the future. In other respects also the dividing line betw. the present and the future life is somet. nonexistent or at least not discernible); B 6:3; 8:5; 9:2; 11:10f; ἅμα σὺν αὐτῷ (i.e. Χριστῷ) ζ. live together with Christ 1 Th 5:10; ζ. διʼ αὐτοῦ (i.e. Chr.) 1J 4:9; ζ. κατὰ θεὸν πνεύματι live, as God (lives), in the Spirit 1 Pt 4:6. ὁ δίκαιος ἐκ πίστεως ζήσεται (cp. Hab 2:4) he that is just through faith will have life Ro 1:17 (AFeuillet, NTS 6, ’59, 52–80; but s. Fitzmyer, Ro [AB] ad loc.); Gal 3:11; Hb 10:38. This life is τὸ ἀληθινὸν ζῆν ITr 9:2; IEph 11:1. Christ is called τὸ ἀδιάκριτον ἡμῶν ζῆν our unshakable or inseparable life 3:2. τὸ διὰ παντὸς ἡμῶν ζῆν our total life 1 Mg 1:2—The law-directed pers. believes concerning legal performance: ὁ ποιήσας αὐτὰ ζήσεται ἐν αὐτοῖς (Lev 18:5) Gal 3:12; cp. Ro 10:5 (cp. Dio Chrys. 58 [75], 1 οἱ τοῦτον [= τ. νόμον] φυλάττοντες ἔχονται τῆς σωτηρίας=those who observe law have a firm grip on security).
    to conduct oneself in a pattern of behavior, live (Hom. et al.)
    used w. adverbs or other modifiers: adv. (Sallust. 19 p. 34, 25 κακῶς ζῆν [Just., A I, 4, 7]; SIG 889, 13ff; Wsd 14:28; Philo; Jos., Ant. 12, 198; Ath. 3, 1 δίκην θηρίων) ἀσώτως Lk 15:13. ἐθνικῶς and ἰουδαϊκῶς Gal 2:14. εὐσεβῶς 2 Ti 3:12. πανούργως Hm 3, 3. σωφρόνως κ. δικαίως κ. εὐσεβῶς Tit 2:12 (Plut., Mor. 1108c ζῆν σωφρόνως κ. δικαίως; cp. Diog. L. 10, 132; 140; Ar. 15, 10).—Φαρισαῖος live as a Pharisee Ac 26:5. ἐν πίστει Gal 2:20d. ἐν ἁμαρτίᾳ Ro 6:2; ζ. ἐν τούτοις live in these (sins) Col 3:7. κατὰ ἀλήθειαν in keeping w. the truth IEph 6:2 (cp. Philo, Post. Cai. 73 κατὰ βούλημα τὸ τοῦ θεοῦ ζ.; Jos., Ant. 4, 302 κατὰ τ. νόμους ζ.; Just., D. 47, 4 κατὰ τὸν νόμον; Orig., C. Cels. 7, 12, 7 κατὰ τὰς θείας γραφάς). κατὰ θεόν 8:1 (cp. SIG 910 A and B). κατὰ Ἰησοῦν Χριστόν IPhld 3:2. κατὰ Χριστιανισμόν live in accordance w. (our) commitment to Christ IMg 10:1. κατὰ σάρκα Ro 8:12f; Dg 5:8; κατὰ κυριακὴν ζ. (opp. σαββατίζειν) include the observance of the Lord’s day in one’s life IMg 9:1. Of a married woman ζ. μετὰ ἀνδρός live w. her husband Lk 2:36 (for the added acc. of extent of time cp. Ael. Aristid. 46 p. 332 D.; Pr 28:16; ἥτις ἔζησεν καλῶς μετʼ ἐμοῦ ἔτη 28, μῆνας 4, ἡμέρας 5: SEG II, 384, 6–8 [restored]; s. also FDanker, Jesus and the New Age ’88, 71).
    τινί live for someone or someth., for the other’s benefit (Hom. et al.; Demosth. 7, 17 οἳ οὐκ αἰσχύνονται Φιλίππῳ ζῶντες καὶ οὐ τῇ ἑαυτῶν πατρίδι; Dionys. Hal. 3, 17 … παῖδες, τῷ πατρὶ ζῶντες) ζ. τῷ θεῷ (4 Macc 7:19; 16:25; Philo, Mut. Nom. 13, Rer. Div. Her. 111; s. SAalen, NTS 13, ’67, 10) Lk 20:38b (cp. Soph., Ajax 970); Ro 6:10, 11; Gal 2:19; Hm 3:5; AcPl Ha 10, 7; τῷ κυρίῳ Ro 14:8b (cp. Plut., Cleom. 819 [31, 5]). For Christ 2 Cor 5:15; τῷ ἐμῷ βασιλεῖ AcPl Ha 9, 26 (restored after Aa I 112, 14) τῇ δικαιοσύνῃ ζ. 1 Pt 2:24; ἑαυτῷ ζ. live for oneself (Menand., Fgm. 646 Kö. οὐχ ἑαυτῷ ζῆν μόνον; Diod S 10, 33, 2 ζ. ἑαυτοῖς=live for themselves) Ro 14:7.
    to be full of vitality, be lively the ptc. is used fig. w. respect to things (cp. τῶν δένδρων τῶν ζῶντων ParJer 9:3), of spring water in contrast w. cistern water ὕδωρ ζῶν (Gen 26:19; Lev 14:5; Jer 2:13 v.l.; Zech 14:8.—Stagnant water is called ὕ. νεκρόν: Synes., Ep. 114, 254d) J 4:10f (Hdb. exc. on J 4:14); 7:38; D 7:1f (Wengst p. 77 n. 57). ζώσας πηγάς Rv 7:17 v.l.
    to be life-productive, offer life ptc. used w. respect to things (SIG 1173 [138 A.D.], 5 ζῶσαι ἀρεταὶ ἐγένοντο=miracles full of divine life occurred) λόγια ζῶντα words that meant life Ac 7:38. λόγος ζῶν θεοῦ 1 Pt 1:23; cp. Hb 4:12. ὁδὸς ζῶσα a living way 10:20. ἐλπὶς ζῶσα a living hope 1 Pt 1:3.—ζ. is also used of things which serve as descriptions of pers. who communicate divine life: of Christ ὁ ἄρτος ὁ ζῶν J 6:51a. λίθος ζῶν 1 Pt 2:4. Of Christians: θυσία ζῶσα a living sacrifice Ro 12:1. λίθοι ζῶντες 1 Pt 2:5.—τὰ παρὰ ζώσης φωνῆς καὶ μενούσης the (words) of a living and abiding voice Papias (2:4) (opp. ἐκ τῶν βιβλίων).—Lit. s. ζωή end. DELG s.v. ζώω.M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ζάω

  • 665 ζόφος

    ζόφος, ου, ὁ (Hom., Trag. et al.; Plut., Lucian; Epict., Fgm. p. 487, 2 Sch.; Sym., Philo; Ath., R. 19 p. 71, 30).
    darkness ranging from partial to total state, with suggestion of foreboding, darkness, gloom Hb 12:18.
    esp. darkness of the nether regions, gloom (Od. 20, 356), and these regions themselves (Il. 15, 191; 21, 56; Od. 11, 57) ὁ ζόφος τοῦ σκότους either black darkness or the darkest nether regions 2 Pt 2:17; Jd 13 (the juxtaposition of ζ. and σκότος as Ael. Aristid. 24, 44 K.=44 p. 838 D.; Lucian, Catapl. 2); σειραὶ ζόφου chains of hell 2 Pt 2:4. ὑπὸ ζόφον in (lit. ‘under’) darkness (cp. Aeschyl., Pers. 839; Eur., Hipp. 1416.—Quint. Smyrn. 2, 619 ὑπὸ ζ. of the underworld) Jd 6. S. ταρταρόω.—DELG. M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ζόφος

  • 666 ζωή

    ζωή, ῆς, ἡ (Hom.+; in Hom. ‘living’=‘substance, property’, without which there would not be life; after Hom. ‘life, existence’ opp. death, then ‘way of life’ Hdt. 4, 112)
    life in the physical sense, life ἐν σαρκὶ ζ. Orig., C. Cels. 6, 59, 8)
    opp. θάνατος (Pind. et al.; Lucian, Tox. 38; Sir 37:18; Pr 18:21; Philo; Just., A I, 57, 3; Mel., P. 49, 355) Ro 8:38; 1 Cor 3:22; Phil 1:20. ἐν τῇ ζωῇ σου during your life Lk 16:25 (s. Sir 30:5); cp. 12:15; Ac 8:33 (Is 53:8); Js 4:14; 1 Cl 16:8 (Is 53:8); 17:4 (cp. Job 14:5); 20:10; Hm 3:3. πᾶς χρόνος τῆς ζωῆς ἡμῶν B 4:9 (cp. PsSol 17:2; JosAs 13:12). πάσας τὰς ἡμέρας τῆς ζωῆς αὐτῶν Hs 9, 29, 2; cp. GJs 4:1; τὰς λοιπὰς τῆς ζωῆς ἡμέρας Hv 4, 2, 5; cp. v 5, 2; m 12, 2; Hs 6, 3, 6. τὴν ἐσχάτην ἡμέραν τῆς ζωῆς αὐτοῦ Hv 3, 12, 2. ἐν τῇ ζ. ταύτῃ in this life 1 Cor 15:19; also ζ. ἡ νῦν (opp. ἡ μέλλουσα) 1 Ti 4:8 (Tat. 14, 2). τέλος ζωῆς end of life Hb 7:3 (TestAbr A 1 p. 78, 5 [Stone p. 4]). ζωὴ κ. πνοή life and breath Ac 17:25 (cp. Gen 2:7; 7:22). πνεῦμα ζωῆς breath of life Rv 11:11 (cp. Gen 6:17; 7:15; TestAbr A 18 p. 100, 31 [Stone p. 48]). ψυχὴ ζωῆς living thing 16:3 (cp. Gen 1:30; Just., D. 6, 1 ἡ ψυχὴ ἤτοι ζωή ἐστιν ἢ ζωὴν ἔχει). πρὸς ζωῆς necessary for life 1 Cl 20:10. Of the indestructible life of those clothed in the heavenly body 2 Cor 5:4. The life of the risen Christ also has this character Ro 5:10; 2 Cor 4:10f; ζ. ἀκατάλυτος Hb 7:16. ὁδοὶ ζωῆς Ac 2:28 (Ps 15:11). Christ is ἐν θανάτῳ ζ. ἀληθινή IEph 7:2.
    means of sustenance, livelihood (Hdt. et al.; Sir 4:1; 29:21) Hs 9, 26, 2.
    the course or mode of one’s life (cp. βίος 1) Hm 8, 4 and 9; 11, 7 and 16; Hs 9, 16, 2 al. In some of these pass. a transition to the moral aspect is apparent.
    transcendent life, life
    God and Christ
    α. God as ζωή Dg 9:6b; as ζωὴ αἰώνιος 1J 5:20. Of the cross IEph 18:1. It is true of God that ἔχει ζωὴν ἐν ἑαυτῷ J 5:26a. God’s commandment is eternal life 12:50 (cp. Philo, Fug. 198 God is the πρεσβυτάτη πηγὴ ζωῆς; Herm. Wr. 11, 13; 14; 12, 15 God the πλήρωμα τ. ζωῆς; PGM 3, 602 [s. Rtzst., Mysterienrel.3 286, ln. 11]; the deity called Νοῦς as ζωή and φῶς Herm. Wr. 1:9, 12, 17, 21, 32; 13:9, 18, 19. Cp. also Ps 35:10; 55:14; SibOr Fgm. 3, 34; JosAs 8:10f al.).
    β. of Christ, who received life fr. God J 5:26b (ἡ ζωὴ τῆς πίστεως ParJer 9:14). ἐν αὐτῷ ζ. ἦν 1:4a; cp. 1J 5:11b. He is the ἀρχηγὸς τ. ζωῆς Ac 3:15, the λόγος τ. ζωῆς 1J 1:1; cp. vs. 2, the ἄρτος τ. ζωῆς J 6:35, 48; cp. vs. 33 (EJanot, Le pain de vie: Gregorianum 11, 1930, 161–70), also simply ζωή 11:25; 14:6 or ἡ ζ. ὑμῶν Col 3:4; cp. B 2, 10; IMg 9:1. Since the life in him was τὸ φῶς τ. ἀνθρώπων J 1:4b, people through following him obtain τὸ φῶς τ. ζωῆς 8:12 (on the combination of light and life cp. 1QS 3, 7 and the Orph. Hymns to Helios no. 8, 18 Qu. ζωῆς φῶς, as well as Christian ins of Rome [Ramsay, Luke the Physician 1908 p. 375, 238 A.D.], where a father calls his dead son γλυκύτερον φωτὸς καὶ ζοῆς; s. also α above).—SBartina, La vida como historia en J 1:1–18, Biblica 49, ’68, 91–96.
    The discussion now turns naturally to the life of the believers, which proceeds fr. God and Christ.
    α. without (clear) eschatol. implications, of the life of grace and holiness ἐν καινότητι ζωῆς περιπατεῖν walk in (i.e. live) a new life Ro 6:4; cp. IEph 19:3. ἀπηλλοτριωμένοι τ. ζωῆς τ. θεοῦ estranged fr. the life of God Eph 4:18 (cp. Philo, Post. Cai. 69 τῆς θεοῦ ζωῆς ἀπεσχοινίσθαι). ἡ ζωὴ τ. ἀνθρώπων the (true) life of persons (in God) Hm 2:1.—Of the life of salvation and of glory. It is ζ. κυρίου B 1:4 (cp. PGM 12, 255 κύριε τ. ζωῆς; 13, 783) or ζ. ἐν Χρ. Ἰησοῦ 2 Ti 1:1; cp. ζωὴν ὑμῖν ὁ κύριος χαρίζεται Hs 9, 28, 6; effected by his words or by the proclamation of the gospel: ῥήματα ζ. αἰωνίου J 6:68; cp. vs. 63. τὰ ῥήματα τῆς ζ. ταύτης Ac 5:20. λόγος ζωῆς word of life Phil 2:16; cp. 2 Ti 1:10; 2 Cor 4:12. Hence the apostle, proclaiming the gospel, can term himself the bearer of the ‘fragrance of Christ’, leading those appointed to this bliss, the rescued ἐκ ζωῆς εἰς ζωήν from life to life (i.e., as it seems, ever more deeply into the divine life) 2 Cor 2:16.—The Spirit stands w. Christ as the power of life πνεῦμα τῆς ζωῆς ἐν Χρ. Ἰησοῦ the spirit of life in Chr. J. Ro 8:2; cp. vss. 6, 10 and J 6:63.—Like the words of Christ, the divine ἐντολή is also to bring life Ro 7:10; Hm 7:5; Hs 8, 7, 6. This ζ. is regarded as God’s gift ζ. ἐν ἀθανασίᾳ 1 Cl 35:2. W. ἀφθαρσία 2 Ti 1:10; 2 Cl 14:5; IPol 2:3. W. γνῶσις D 9:3; Dg 12:3–7. W. εὐσέβεια 2 Pt 1:3. W. εἰρήνη Ro 8:6. W. σωτηρία 2 Cl 19:1. ἀγάπην ἥτις ἐστὶν ἀρχὴ ζωὴς καὶ τέλος IEph 14:1. Christians, who truly belong to the ἐκκλησία τῆς ζωῆς 2 Cl 14:1, are heirs of life, the gift of grace 1 Pt 3:7. This life, as long as they are in the body, κέκρυπται σὺν τ. Χριστῷ ἐν τῷ θεῷ is hidden with Christ in God Col 3:3. Those who forfeit their ζ. (=their real life in contrast to their physical existence as ψυχή) are excluded fr. the life of glory Hv 1, 1, 9; Hs 6, 2, 3; 8, 6, 4; 6; 8, 8, 2f; 5; 9, 21, 4.—Cp. also Ac 11:18 (s. 1QS 3, 1); 13:46, 48. ἡ ὁδὸς τῆς ζ. D 1:2; 4:14. τὰς τρίβους τῆς ζ. Hs 5, 6, 3. Esp. in Johannine usage the term ζ. is copiously employed, as a rule to designate the result of faith in Christ; in most cases it is stated expressly that the follower of Jesus possesses life even in this world: ἔχειν ζωήν (Theophr. in a scholion on Pla. 631c εἰ ζωὴν εἶχεν ὁ πλοῦτος=‘had life, were alive’) J 3:15f, 36a; 5:24a, 40; 6:40, 47, 51, 53f; 10:10; 20:31; 1J 3:15; 5:12ab, 13. διδόναι ζωήν (cp. Sb 8202, 3 [105 B.C.]) J 10:28; 17:2; 1J 5:11.—Cp. 5:16. ὁρᾶν ζωήν J 3:36b. μεταβεβηκέναι ἐκ τ. θανάτου εἰς τ. ζωήν to have passed fr. death into life J 5:24; 1J 3:14. Hence in the eschatol. pass. J 5:29 ἀνάστασις ζωῆς means not a resurrection to enter life (cp. 2 Macc 7:14 and MPol 14:2, where ἀνάστασις ζωῆς αἰ., it seems, is res. to everlasting life), but a resurrection which corresponds to the Christian’s possession of life here and now, a resurrection proceeding from life. J is fond of calling this Life ζ. αἰώνιος, as in many pass. just cited (s. αἰώνιος 3) J 3:15f, 36; 4:14, 36; 5:24, 39; 6:27, 40, 47, 54, 68; 10:28; 12:25, 50; 17:2f; 1J 1:2; 2:25; 3:15; 5:11, 13, 20. But the use of this expr. in our lit. is by no means limited to J and 1J; it is also found in Mt, Mk, Lk, Ac, Ro, Gal, 1 Ti, Tit, Jd, 2 Cl, Ign, MPol, Hermas, Didache (Just., Mel., Ath.; Orig., C. Cels. 2, 77, 31 [w. ἀνάστασις]; cp. αἴδιος ζ. Tat. 14, 2) w. unmistakable eschatol. connotation.
    β. ζ. (and ζ. αἰώνιος; cp. 1QS 4:7 and s. J 3:15 al.; opp. ἀπώλεια TestAbr B 8 p. 113, 2 [Stone p. 74]) is used of life in the blessed period of final consummation, in the foll. pass.: ἐν τῷ αἰῶνι τῷ ἐρχομένῳ ζ. αἰ. in the coming age eternal life Mk 10:30; Lk 18:30; cp. Mt 19:29 (Ar. 15, 3 ζ. τοῦ μέλλοντος αἰώνος). τί ποιήσω ἵνα ζ. αἰ. κληρονομήσω; Mk 10:17; cp. Lk 18:18; 10:25; Mt 19:16f (PsSol 14:10). As a result of the Last Judgment ἀπελεύσονται οἱ δίκαιοι εἰς ζ. αἰ. Mt 25:46 (cp. PsSol 13:11); s. also Ro 2:7 (cp. 1QS 4:6–8).—Cp. also Mt 7:14; 18:8f; Mk 9:43, 45; Ro 5:17f, 21; 6:22f; ζ. ἐκ νεκρῶν life for those who have come out of the state of death 11:15.—Gal 6:8; 1 Ti 1:16; 6:12, 19; 1 Pt 3:10 (Ps 33:13); Jd 21; 2 Cl 8:4, 6; Dg 9:1, 6a. For 2 Cor 5:4 s. 1a. Of martyrs τὴν αἰώνιον ζ. ἐξαγοραζόμενοι purchasing eternal life for themselves MPol 2:3 (Mosquensis, other Gk. codd. κόλασιν). W. ἀνάπαυσις τ. μελλούσης βασιλείας 2 Cl 5:5. This life is called ἡ ὄντως ζ. the real, true life (the redundancy may derive from awareness of a distinction sometimes made in the Gr-Rom. world between real living ζωή and biological existence βίος; s., e.g., IPriene 105, 10=OGI 458, 10; cp. Cass. Dio 69, 19) 1 Ti 6:19; ζωῆς ἀληθοῦς Dg 12:4; ἡ ἐπουράνιος ζ. 2 Cl 20:5; ἀί̈διος ζ. IEph 19:3 (s. ἀί̈διος). Hope is directed toward it, ζωῆς ἐλπίς B 1:6; cp. Tit 1:2; 3:7; Hs 9, 26, 2.—The references to future glory include the foll. expressions: βίβλος or βιβλίον (τῆς) ζωῆς (s. βίβλος 2) Phil 4:3; Rv 3:5; 13:8; 17:8; 20:12, 15; 21:27; Hv 1, 3, 2. τὸ ξύλον (τῆς) ζωῆς the tree of life (4 Macc 18:16; cp. Pr 3:18; Gen 2:9; PsSol 14:3; ParJer 9:16 [δένδρον]; ApcEsdr 2:11; ApcMos 19 al.; Philo.—ξύλον 3) Rv 2:7; 22:2, 14, 19; Dg 12:3f. στέφανος τ. ζωῆς (s. Bousset, Rel.3 277f; MDibelius on Js 1:12; FCumont, Études syriennes 1917, 63–69; s. στέφανος) Js 1:12; Rv 2:10. ὕδωρ (τῆς) ζωῆς (Just., D. 19, 2 βάπτισμα; cp. ὕδωρ 2) 21:6; 22:1, 17. πηγὴ ζωῆς B 11:2 (cp. Jer 2:13; Ps 35:10; OdeSol 11:6). ζωῆς πηγαὶ ὑδάτων springs of living water Rv 7:17. For ἄρτος τῆς ζωῆς s. ἄρτος 2 end.—FBurkitt, ZNW 12, 1911, 228–30; RCharles, A Critical Hist. of the Doctrine of a Fut. Life in Israel, in Judaism and in Christianity2 1913; FLindblom, D. ewige Leben 1914; Bousset, Rel.3 269–95; JFrey, Biblica 13, ’32, 129–68.—EvDobschütz, D. Gewissheit des ew. Leb. nach d. NT: ‘Dienet einander’ 29, 1920/21, 1–8; 43–52; 65–71; 97–101; JUbbink, Het eeuwige leven bij Pls 1917; ESommerlath, D. Ursprung d. neuen Lebens nach Pls2 1926; JMüller, D. Lebensbegr. d. Hl. Pls ’40; NvArseniew, D. neue Leben nach dem Eph: Internat. Kirchl. Ztschr. 20, 1930, 230–36; EvSchrenk, D. joh. Anschauung vom ‘Leben’ 1898; JFrey, ‘Vie’ dans l’Év. de St. Jean: Biblica 1, 1920, 37–58; 211–39; RBultmann, D. Eschatol. d. Joh Ev.: Zwischen d. Zeiten 6, 1928, 1ff; HPribnow, D. joh. Anschauung v. ‘Leben’ ’34; DLyons, The Concept of Eternal Life in J ’38; JKoole, Diorama Johanneum. Ζωή: GereformTT 43, ’42, 276–84; FMussner, ΖΩΗ (Joh. lit.), diss. Munich ’52; DHill, Gk. Words and Hebrew Mngs. ’67, 163–201.—B. 285. S. βίος and Schmidt, Syn. IV 40–53. DELG s.v. ζώω 1. EDNT. M-M. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ζωή

  • 667 θύω

    θύω impf. ἔθυον; fut. θύσω LXX; 1 aor. ἔθυσα; pf. τέθυκα LXX. Pass.: 1 aor. ἐτύθην, ptc. τυθείς (Just. D. 111, 3), θυθείς (Mel., P. 71, 516 ); pf. ptc. τεθυμένος (Hom.+).
    [b] to make a cultic offering, sacrifice (this is the primary mng. and the one most commonly found) τινί τι someth. in honor of someone (Diod S 16, 18, 5; 17, 100, 1; Lucian, Dial. Deor. 2, 4; SIG 589, 48; 993, 11f; Gen 46:1; Jos., Bell. 2, 214 τῷ θεῷ χαριστήρια; SibOr 3, 626) 1 Cor 10:20 (Dt 32:17). τ. θεῷ θυσίαν offer a sacr. to God 1 Cl 52:3 (Ps 49:14). τινί in honor of someone (X., Cyr. 8, 7, 3; Mitt-Wilck. I/2, 116, 2 θύε πᾶσι τοῖς θεοῖς; BGU 287, 7; LXX; EpArist 138; Jos., Bell. 1, 56 τῷ θεῷ; Just., D. 46, 7; 136, 3 τῇ Βάαλ; Ath. 1, 1 Ποσειδῶνι) Ac 14:18; 2 Cl 3:1. Abs. (Lucian, Jupp. Trag. 22, beg.; PHib 28, 7; LXX; Ath. 13, 1; 26, 2) Ac 14:13; MPol 12:2. (Used also of human sacrifice: Apollodorus [II B.C.]: 244 Fgm. 125 Jac.=Porph., De Abst. 2, 55; Ar. 9, 1 τὰ ἴδια τέκνα to Cronos; Just., D. 19, 6 τὰ τέκνα ὑμῶν ἐθύετε τοῖς δαιμονίοις al.)
    to take life, kill, slaughter, in a gener. sense
    humans (Eur., Iph. T. 621; Sir 34:20; 1 Macc 7:19) abs. in agricultural imagery J 10:10, which also requires placement in b.
    animals J 10:10 (GKilpatrick, BT 12, ’61, 130–32, kill for food; in this sense also the killing of a rooster by thieves Aesop, Fab. 122 P.=195 H.; sheep 143 P.=262 H.; oxen [subject to slaughtering instead of professional butchering] 290 P.=Babr. 21. S. also Tob 7:8; Jos., Ant. 1, 197 μόσχον; Tat. 23, 2 ζῶα); calf Lk 15:23, 27, 30; pass. Mt 22:4.
    to kill ceremonially, slaughter sacrifically (on the close relation betw. sacrifice and slaughter s. Ltzm., Hdb. on 1 Cor 10:25) τὸ πάσχα the Passover lamb (Ex 12:21; Dt 16:2, 5f; 1 Esdr 1:6; 7:12) Mk 14:12. Pass. Lk 22:7; hence τὸ πάσχα ἡμῶν ἐτύθη Χριστός 1 Cor 5:7 (Just., D. 111, 3; Mel., P. 71, 516 B.; θύω of the sacrifice of a person, s. 1 above). Abs. Ac 10:13; 11:7
    celebrate, but perh. only when an animal is slaughtered in connection with a celebration (Polyaenus 1, 44. θ. εὐαγγέλια=‘a joyous festival’; Appian, Syr. 4 §17; 16 §69 γάμους both times; Athen. 12, 43, 532e θ. τὰ ἐπινίκια; Achilles Tat. 8, 19, 3 θ. τοὺς γάμους.—Philochorus no. 328 Fgm. 65 Jac. uses θυσία of domestic family festivals) Mk 14:12; Lk 22:7 (s. 3 above).—DELG s.v. 2 θύω B1. TRE XXV 253–71. M-M. EDNT. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > θύω

  • 668 καιρός

    καιρός, οῦ, ὁ (Hes.+; loanw. in rabb.)
    a point of time or period of time, time, period, freq. with implication of being esp. fit for someth. and without emphasis on precise chronology
    gener. (cp. Just., D. 32, 4 τὸν γὰρ καιρὸν [Da 7:26] ἑκατὸν ἔτη ἐξηγεῖσθε λέγεσθαι) κ. δεκτός a welcome time 2 Cor 6:2a (Is 49:8); cp. vs. 2b. καιροὶ χαλεποί difficult times 2 Ti 3:1. In ref. to times of crisis for the state λοιμικοῦ καιροῦ 1 Cl 55:1 (s. JFischer ad loc. note 322) καιροὶ καρποφόροι fruitful times or seasons (so Achmes 156, 15f: καρποφόρος is the καιρός in which the tree bears fruit, in contrast to late autumn, when there is no more) Ac 14:17 (OLagercrantz, ZNW 31, ’32, 86f proposes, on the basis of Mod. Gk., the mng., ‘weather’, but the pl. is against this mng.). καιροὶ ἐαρινοί 1 Cl 20:9.—ἔσται καιρὸς ὅτε there will come a time when 2 Ti 4:3; εἰς τίνα ἢ ποῖον κ. to what time or what sort of time (some, e.g. NRSV, interpret τίνα=the person, but cp. PTebt 25, 18 [117 B.C.] καὶ διὰ τίνος καὶ ἀπὸ ποίου ἐπιδείγματος; s. ποῖος 1aα, also ποτατός) 1 Pt 1:11. ἄχρι καιροῦ until (another) time, for a while Lk 4:13; Ac 13:11; ἐν καιρῷ ὀλίγῳ in a little time 1 Cl 23:4; ἐν παντὶ κ. at all times, always (Aristot. 117a, 35; Sir 26:4) Lk 21:36; Eph 6:18; Hm 5, 2, 3. κατὰ καιρόν from time to time, regularly (TestJob 36:4; Lucian, Hermot. 10; Plut., Mor. 984d) J 5:4 (s. 2 also); 1 Cl 24:2; GJs 3:3; πρὸς κ. for a limited time (perh. also for the present moment; cp. Strabo 6, 2, 3; Ps.-Plut., Fluv. 23; BGU 265, 20 [II A.D.]; 618, 19; 780, 14; Wsd 4:4; Philo, Post. Cai. 121; Jos., Bell. 6, 190; Tat. 13, 1) Lk 8:13; 1 Cor 7:5. πρὸς καιρὸν ὥρας (a combination of πρὸς κ. and πρὸς ὥραν [2 Cor 7:8; Gal 2:5; Phlm 15; J 5:35]) for a short time (cp. our ‘for a short space of time’) 1 Th 2:17.
    a moment or period as especially appropriate the right, proper, favorable time ἐν καιρῷ at the right time (X., An. 3, 1, 39; Diod S 36, 7, 2; Appian, Bell. Civ. 3, 8 §29; SIG 1268 [Praecepta Delphica II, 6; III B.C.]) Mt 24:45; Lk 12:42 (cp. on both Ps 103:27, w. v.l.). καιρῷ (Thu. 4, 59, 3 v.l.; Diog. L. 1, 41) Lk 20:10 (v.l. ἐν κ.). τῷ καιρῷ Mk 12:2. ὁ καιρὸς ὁ ἐμός, ὁ καιρὸς ὁ ὑμέτερος the proper time for me (you) J 7:6, 8 (Eunap., Vi. Iambl. p. 459 Didot: the worker of miracles acts ὅταν καιρὸς ᾖ). νῦν κ. ταῦτα ὑμᾶς μαθεῖν οὐκ ἔστιν now is not the time for you to learn this AcPl Ha 1, 26 (Just., D. 8, 1 ἃ νῦν κ. οὐκ ἔστι λέγειν al.).—καιρὸν λαβεῖν find a favorable time, seize the opportunity (Lysias, C. Agor. 6; Cleanthes [III B.C.]: Stoic. I no. 573; Diod S 2, 6, 5; EpArist 248; Jos., Bell. 1, 527, Ant. 4, 10; cp. PTebt 332, 9). καιρὸν μεταλαβεῖν (s. μεταλαμβάνω 2) Ac 24:25. λαβεῖν κ. εὔθετον find a convenient opportunity Pol 13:1. κ. ἔχειν have opportunity (Thu. 1, 42, 3; Pla., Ep. 7, 324b; Plut., Lucull. 501 [16, 4]; PFlor 259, 3; 1 Macc 15:34; Jos., Ant. 16, 73; 335; Ath., R. 23 p. 77, 6; Did., Gen. 112, 10) Gal 6:10; Hb 11:15; 2 Cl 16:1; ISm 9:1; IRo 2:1. ὀλίγον καιρὸν ἔχειν Rv 12:12. ἐξαγοράζεσθαι τὸν κ. make the most of the opportunity Col 4:5; Eph 5:16 (s. ἐξαγοράζω 2). On Ro 12:11 v.l. s. δουλεύω 2aβ and b. κατὰ κ. Ro 5:6 is more naturally construed with ἀπέθανεν than with ἀσεβῶν (cp. κατὰ καιρὸν θεριζόμενος reaped in its proper time Job 5:26).—The concept of the appropriate time oft. blends with that of
    a defined period for an event. definite, fixed time. Abs. καιροί festal seasons (Ex 23:14, 17; Lev 23:4.—So perh. also beside θυσίαι in the Ins de Sinuri ed. LRobert ’45 no. 42) Gal 4:10 (κ. w. ἡμέρα as Polyaenus 8, 23, 17). τὰς τῶν καιρῶν ἀλλαγὰς καταδιαιρεῖν … ἃ μὲν εἰς ἑορτάς, ἃς δὲ εἰς πένθη to set up periods of fasting and mourning in accord with changes in seasons Dg 4:5.—Not infreq. w. a gen., which indicates the reason why the time is set apart (Pla., Leg. 4, 709c χειμῶνος καιρός; Aesop, Fab. 258 P.=255 H-H./206 Ch. ἀπολογίας κ., also oft. LXX; Philo, Spec. Leg. 1, 191 κ. εὐφροσύνης; Jos., Ant. 18, 74; Tat. 36, 1 κατʼ ἐκεῖνον αὐτὸν … τὸν τοῦ πολέμου κ.; Hippol., Ref. 9, 30, 27 κ. τῆς παρουσίας; Did., Gen. 175, 2 κ. τοῦ ἐξελθεῖν εἰς τὴν γῆν) κ. θερισμοῦ time of harvest Mt 13:30 (JosAs 2:19). κ. τῶν καρπῶν time when the fruit is ripe 21:34; cp. vs. 41. κ. σύκων time when the figs are ripe Mk 11:13 (ParJer 5:31; cp. Horapollo 2, 92 ὁ κ. τῶν ἀμπέλων). κ. μετανοίας time for repentance 2 Cl 8:2. κ. πειρασμοῦ Lk 8:13b. ὁ κ. τῆς ἀναλύσεως the time of death 2 Ti 4:6. κ. ἐπισκοπῆς σου Lk 19:44. κ. διορθώσεως Hb 9:10. κ. ἡλικίας 11:11. κ. τῆς ἡγεμονίας Ποντίου Πιλάτου the time of the procuratorship of P. P. IMg 11. κατὰ τὸν καιρὸν τοῦ μαρτυρίου at the time of martyrdom EpilMosq 2 (cp. Mel., HE 4, 26, 3 ᾧ Σάγαρις καιρῷ ἐμαρτύρησεν). ἐν τῷ ἑαυτοῦ καιρῷ (Num 9:7) 2 Th 2:6. ὁ κ. αὐτῶν the time set for the fulfillment of Gabriel’s words Lk 1:20; cp. Dg 11:5 (s. διαγγέλλω 2). ὁ κ. μου my time=the time of my death Mt 26:18. κ. τοῦ ἰαθῆναι time to be healed 2 Cl 9:7. κ. τοῦ ἄρξασθαι τὸ κρίμα 1 Pt 4:17; cp. the extraordinary ἦλθεν ὁ κ. τῶν νεκρῶν κριθῆναι καὶ δοῦναι = ἵνα κριθῶσιν οἱ νεκροὶ καὶ δῷς Rv 11:18.—Pl. (Num 9:3 κατὰ καιρούς; Tob 14:4 S πάντα συμβήσεται τοῖς καιροῖς αὐτῶν; Heraclit. Sto. 11 p. 18, 18=the periods of time between; Maximus Tyr. 1, 2f πολλοὶ κ.; TestNapht 7:1 δεῖ ταῦτα πληρωθῆναι κατὰ τοὺς καιροὺς αὐτῶν; Ar. 4, 2 κατὰ καιρούς) καιροὶ ἐθνῶν times of the Gentiles (in which they may inflict harm on God’s people or themselves be converted) Lk 21:24.—κατὰ καιρόν at the appropriate time (Arrian, Anab. 4, 5, 1; PSI 433, 4 [261 B.C.]; Just., A I, 19, 4; Mel., HE 4, 26, 3) J 5:4; 1 Cl 56:15 (Job 5:26). Also ἐν καιρῷ (Himerius, Or 13 [Ecl. 14], 3): ἐν καιρῷ αὐτοῦ B 11:6, 8 (Ps 1:3). καιρῷ ἰδίῳ in due time Gal 6:9. Pl. καιροῖς ἰδίοις at the right time 1 Ti 2:6; 6:15; Tit 1:3; cp. 1 Cl 20:4 (Just., D. 131, 4 πρὸ τῶν ἰδίων κ.).—κατὰ τὸν ἴδιον καιρόν vs. 10.—πεπλήρωται ὁ κ. the time (determined by God) is fulfilled Mk 1:15. Pl. (cp. Ps 103:19) ὁρίσας προστεταγμένους καιρούς he (God) has determined allotted times (MDibelius, SBHeidAk ’38/39, 2. Abh. p. 6f, ‘seasons’; cp. 1QM 10, 12–15; FMussner, Einige Parallelen [Qumran and Areopagus speech], BZ 1, ’57, 125–30) Ac 17:26; cp. κατὰ καιροὺς τεταγμένους 1 Cl 40:1; ὡρισμένοις καιροῖς καὶ ὥραις vs. 2; τοῖς προστεταγμένοις κ. vs. 4.
    a period characterized by some aspect of special crisis, time
    gener.: the present (time) Ro 13:11; 12:11 v.l. ὁ καιρός (i.e. the crisis involving Christians) ἀπαιτεῖ σε the times call upon you IPol 2:3 (Diod S 17, 27, 2 ὑπὸ τῶν καιρῶν προεκλήθησαν=they were called out by the [critical circumstances of the] times). Also ὁ νῦν κ. (PSI 402, 7 [III B.C.] ἐν τῷ νῦν καιρῷ) Ro 3:26; 8:18; 11:5; 2 Cor 8:14; B 4:1. κ. ὁ νῦν τῆς ἀνομίας the present godless time 18:2 (s. also b below). ὁ κ. ὁ ἐνεστηκώς (Polyb. 1, 60, 9; Jos., Ant. 16, 162) Hb 9:9; ἐν ἐκείνῳ τῷ κ. at that time, then (Gen 21:22; Is 38:1; τῷ κ. ἐκείνῳ TestSol D 8, 2) Mt 11:25; 12:1; 14:1; cp. Eph 2:12. Also κατʼ ἐκεῖνον τὸν κ. (Jos., Ant. 1, 171, Vi. 49; GJs 10:2.—Diod S 2, 27, 1 and Vi. Aesopi G 81 P. κατʼ ἐκείνους τοὺς καιρούς=at that time. Cp. κατʼ ἐκεῖνο καιροῦ Hippol., Ref. 9, 12, 10.) Ac 12:1; 19:23. ἔτι κατὰ καιρὸν ὑπὲρ ἀσεβῶν for those who at that time were still godless Ro 5:6, though κατὰ κ. here prob.=at the right time, as in mng. 1b above (s. B-D-F §255, 3). τῷ τότε τῆς ἀδικίας καιρῷ … τὸν νῦν τῆς δικαιοσύνης Dg 9:1; cp. 9:2. Of the future κατὰ τ. καιρὸν τοῦτον at this time Ro 9:9 (Gen 18:10, 14). Cp. EpilMosq 2 in 2 above. ἐν αὐτῷ τῷ κ. just at that time (2 Esdr 5:3) Lk 13:1. W. attraction of the relative ἐν ᾧ κ. at that time, then Ac 7:20. κατὰ τὸν καιρὸν ὸ̔ν καὶ πέρυσι at the same time as in the year preceding Hv 2, 1, 1.
    One of the chief terms relating to the endtime: ὁ καιρός the time of crisis, the last times (FBusch, Z. Verständnis d. synopt. Eschatol. Mk 13 neu untersucht ’38; GDelling, D. Zeitverständn. des NTs ’40; WMichaelis, D. Herr verzieht nicht d. Verheissung ’42; WKümmel, Verheissung. u. Erfüllung ’45,3 ’56; OCullmann, Christus u. d. Zeit ’46 [tr. FFilson, Christ and Time ’50, 39–45; 79; 121]) ὁ κ. ἤγγικεν Lk 21:8. ὁ κ. ἐγγύς Rv 1:3; 22:10. οὐκ οἴδατε πότε ὁ καιρός ἐστιν Mk 13:33. Cp. Ro 13:11 (s. 3a above) if it is to be interpreted as eschatological (cp. Plut., Mor. 549f). πρὸ καιροῦ before the endtime and the judgment Mt 8:29; 1 Cor 4:5. ἐν καιρῷ 1 Pt 5:6. Also ἐν καιρῷ ἐσχάτῳ 1:5; D 16:2. Pl. πλήρωμα τῶν καιρῶν Eph 1:10. ἐπηρώτων … περὶ τῶν καιρῶν, εἰ ἤδη συντέλειά ἐστιν Hv 3, 8, 9. τὰ σημεῖα τ. καιρῶν the signs of the (Messianic) times Mt 16:3. τοὺς καιροὺς καταμάνθανε learn to understand the times IPol 3:2 (s. WBauer, Hdb. Suppl. vol. ad loc.) The Messianic times described as καιροὶ ἀναψύξεως Ac 3:20.—ἔσχατοι καιροί (or ὕστεροι καιροί 1 Ti 4:1) come before the ἔσχατος κ. IEph 11:1 (cp. ἐπʼ ἐσχάτων κ. AcPl Ha 8, 26 [restoration is certain=Ox 1601, 40/BMM recto 34]); χρόνοι ἢ καιροί times and seasons (cp. Iren. 1, 17, 2 [Harv. I 168, 9] and καιρῶν κατὰ χρόνους ἀλλαγή Theoph. Ant. 1, 6 [p. 70, 1]; Artem. 4, 2 p. 203, 25f the χρόνος is divided into καιροὶ καὶ ὧραι), which must be completed before the final consummation Ac 1:7 (Straton of Lamps. in FWehrli, Die Schule des Aristoteles, V Fgm. 10, 32f κατὰ τοὺς καιροὺς καὶ τοὺς χρόνους; quoted in JBarr, Biblical Words for Time, ’62, 33; see also Diog. L. 5, 64); cp. 1 Th 5:1. συντέμνειν τοὺς καιρούς shorten the (last) times B 4:3. Sim. in sg. ὁ καιρὸς συνεσταλμένος ἐστίν 1 Cor 7:29.—The expr. καιρὸν καὶ καιροὺς κ. ἥμισυ καιροῦ also belongs to the eschatol. vocab.; it means the apocalyptic time of 1 + 2 + ½ = 3½ years, during which acc. to Da 12:7 (cp. 7:25) a tyrranical enemy of God and God’s people is to reign on earth Rv 12:14 (in imagery of a serpentine monster, δράκων)—ὁ κ. οὗτος the present age (cp. αἰών 2a) Mk 10:30; Lk 12:56; 18:30. Also ὁ νῦν κ. B 4:1. As ruled by the devil: ὁ ἄνομος κ. 4:9. καταργεῖν τὸν κ. τοῦ ἀνόμου destroy the age of the lawless one 15:5. The soul seeks και[ρο]ῦ χρόνου αἰ̣ῶ̣νος ἀνάπαυσιν ἐ̣[ν] σιγῇ peace in silence, at the time of the aeon crisis GMary 463, 1.—On Dg 12:9 s. the editions of vGebh.-Harnack and Bihlmeyer.—JMánek, NTS 6, ’59, 45–51; JBarr, Biblical Words for Time, ’62.—B. 954. Schmidt, Syn. II 54–72. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > καιρός

  • 669 κατά

    κατά (Hom.+) prep. (s. the lit. s.v. ἀνά beg., also LfgrE s.v. κατά 1346; with the gen. 74 times in NT; w. acc. 391 times in NT).
    A. w. the gen.
    of location that is relatively lower, down from someth. (Hom. et al.; LXX; Ath. 1, 4 κ. κόρρης προπηλακίζειν=to smack on one side of the head) ὁρμᾶν κ. τοῦ κρημνοῦ rush down (from) the bank (cp. Polyb. 38, 16, 7 κ. τῶν κρημνῶν ῥίπτειν; Jos., Bell. 1, 313) Mt 8:32; Mk 5:13; Lk 8:33. κ. κεφαλῆς ἔχειν have someth. on one’s head (lit. hanging down fr. the head, as a veil. Cp. Plut., Mor. 200f ἐβάδιζε κ. τῆς κεφαλῆς ἔχων τὸ ἱμάτιον.; Mitt-Wilck. I/2, 499, 5 of a mummy ἔχων τάβλαν κ. τοῦ τραχήλου) 1 Cor 11:4.
    of position relatively deep, into someth. (Od. 9, 330 κ. σπείους ‘into the depths of the cave’; Hdt. 7, 235; X., An. 7, 1, 30) ἡ κ. βάθους πτωχεία extreme (lit. ‘reaching down into the depths’; cp. Strabo 9, 3, 5 [419] ἄντρον κοῖλον κ. βάθους) or abysmal poverty 2 Cor 8:2. This may perh. be the mng. of πλήσσειν τινὰ κ. τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν strike someone deep into the eyes ApcPt 11:26 (cp. Demosth. 19, 197 ξαίνει κ. τοῦ νώτου; PPetr II, 18 [2b], 15 [246 B.C.] ἔτυπτεν αὐτὸν κ. τοῦ τραχήλου).—κ. γαστρός Just., D. 78, 3 for ἐν γαστρί Mt 1:18 (cp. Ath. 35, 2 τὸ κ. γαστρὸς ζῶον εἶναι).
    extension in various directions within an area, throughout (so in Luke’s writings; Polyb. 3, 19, 7 κ. τῆς νήσου διεσπάρησαν; PGiss 48, 8 κ. κυριακῆς γῆς; Jos., Ant. 8, 297; SibOr 3, 222; 4, 24; 5, 305) γνωστὸν γενέσθαι καθʼ ὅλης Ἰόππης become known throughout all Joppa Ac 9:42. καθʼ ὅλης τῆς Ἰουδαίας 9:31; 10:37; Lk 23:5. φήμη ἐξῆλθεν καθʼ ὅλης τῆς περιχώρου 4:14.
    down upon, toward, against someone or someth, fig. ext. of 1.
    w. verbs of swearing, to denote what one swears by (Thu. 5, 47, 8; Lysias 32, 13; Isaeus 7, 28; Demosth. 21, 119; 29, 26; SIG 526, 4ff; 685, 25; UPZ 110, 39 [164 B.C.]; BGU 248, 13; Jdth 1:12; Is 45:23; 2 Ch 36:13) by ἐξορκίζειν (q.v.) Mt 26:63. ὀμνύναι (q.v.) Hb 6:13, 16. ὁρκίζειν (q.v.) Hs 9, 10, 5. Sim. ἐρωτᾶν κ. τινος request, entreat by someone Hv 3, 2, 3.
    in a hostile sense, against
    α. after verbs that express hostile action, etc. διχάζειν Mt 10:35. ἐπαίρεσθαι 2 Cor 10:5. ἰσχύειν Ac 19:16. κακοῦν 14:2. στρατεύεσθαι 1 Pt 2:11. φυσιοῦσθαι 1 Cor 4:6
    β. after words and expressions that designate hostile speech, esp. an accusation ἔχειν (τι) κ. τινος have or hold someth. against someone Rv 2:4, 14, 20. φέρειν J 18:29. ἐγκαλεῖν Ro 8:33. ἐντυγχάνειν τινὶ κ. τινος 11:2 (TestJob 17:5). κατηγορεῖν Lk 23:14. ποιεῖν κρίσιν Jd 15a. τὸ κ. ἡμῶν χειρόγραφον the bond that stands against us Col 2:14. ἐμφανίζειν Ac 24:1; 25:2. αἰτεῖσθαί τι 25:3, 15. αἱ κ. τινος αἰτίαι vs. 27. εἰπεῖν πονηρόν Mt 5:11 (cp. Soph., Phil. 65 κακὰ λέγειν κ. τινος. X., Hell. 1, 5, 2; Isocr., C. Nic. 13; Plut., Mor. 2a λέγειν κ.; SIG 1180, 1 λέγειν κ. τινος; Just., A I, 23, 3; 49, 6 κ. τῶν … ὁμολογούντων). λαλεῖν ῥήματα Ac 6:13; cp. Jd 15b (TestDan 4:3; JosAs 23:15). μαρτυρεῖν κ. τ. θεοῦ give testimony in contradiction to God 1 Cor 15:15. ζητεῖν μαρτυρίαν κ. τινος testimony against someone Mk 14:55. ψευδομαρτυρεῖν 14:56f. ψευδομαρτυρία Mt 26:59. γογγύζειν 20:11. στενάζειν Js 5:9. διδάσκειν Ac 21:28. συμβούλιον διδόναι (ποιεῖν v.l.) Mk 3:6; ς. λαβεῖν Mt 27:1. ψεύδεσθαι Js 3:14 (Lysias 22, 7; X., Ap. 13; Ath. 35, 1 καθʼ ἡμῶν … κατεψεύσατο).
    γ. after expressions that designate such a position or state of mind in a different way εἶναι κ. τινος be against someone (opp. ὑπέρ) Mk 9:40 (WNestle, ZNW 13, 1912, 84–87; AFridrichsen, ibid., 273–80); Ro 8:31; (opp. μετά) Mt 12:30; Lk 11:23. δύνασθαί τι κ. τινος be able to do someth. against someone 2 Cor 13:8. ἔχειν τι κ. τινος have someth. against someone (in one’s heart) Mt 5:23; Mk 11:25; Hs 9, 24, 2; cp. ibid. 23, 2, where the acc. is to be supplied. ἐξουσίαν ἔχειν J 19:11. ἐπιθυμεῖν Gal 5:17. μερίζεσθαι καθʼ ἑαυτῆς Mt 12:25. Cp. 1 Cl 39:4 (Job 4:18).—κατά prob. means against also in ἔβαλεν κατʼ αὐτῆς ἄνεμος Ac 27:14. ἐτελείωσαν κ. τ. κεφαλῆς αὐτῶν τὰ ἁμαρτήματα they completed the full measure of sins against their own head GPt 5:17.
    B. w. acc. (so in the NT 399 times [besides καθʼ εἷς and κατὰ εἷς])
    of extension in space, along, over, through, in, upon (Hom. et al.; OGI 90, 7 ἐκ τῶν κ. τ. χώραν ἱερῶν; PHib 82, 19; PTebt 5, 188; LXX; Just.; Mel., HE 4, 26, 5) Ac 24:12. καθʼ ὅλην τ. πόλιν throughout the city Lk 8:39 (cp. Diod S 4, 10, 6 καθʼ ὅλην τὴν Ἐλλάδα). ἐγένετο λιμὸς κ. τὴν χώραν ἐκείνην 15:14. κ. τὰς κώμας 9:6. κ. πόλεις καὶ κώμας 13:22 (Appian., Maced. 9 §1 and 4 κ. πόλεις; Just., A I, 67, 3 κ. πόλεις ἢ ἀγρούς).—κ. τόπους in place after place Mt 24:7; Mk 13:8; Lk 21:11 (Theophr., περὶ σημ. 1, 4 p. 389 W.; Cat. Cod. Astr. III 28, 11 ἐν μέρει τ. ἀνατολῆς κ. τόπους, VIII/3, 186, 1 λιμὸς καὶ λοιμὸς καὶ σφαγαὶ κ. τόπους). οἱ ὄντες κ. τὴν Ἰουδαίαν those throughout Judea or living in Judea Ac 11:1. διασπαρῆναι κ. τὰς χώρας τῆς Ἰουδαίας be scattered over the regions of Judea 8:1. κ. τὴν οὖσαν ἐκκλησίαν in the congregation there 13:1. τοῖς κ. τὴν Ἀντιόχειαν καὶ Συρίαν καὶ Κιλικίαν ἀδελφοῖς 15:23. τοὺς κ. τὰ ἔθνη Ἰουδαίους the Judeans (dispersed) throughout the nations 21:21. τοῖς κ. τὸν νόμον γεγραμμένοις throughout the law = in the law 24:14b. κ. τὴν ὁδόν along or on the way (Lucian, Catapl. 4; Jos., Ant. 8, 404) Lk 10:4; Ac 25:3; 26:13. τὸ κ. Κιλικίαν καὶ Παμφυλίαν πέλαγος the sea along the coast of Cilicia and Pamphylia 27:5; but the geographical designation τὰ μέρη τ. Λιβύης τῆς κ. Κυρήνην 2:10 prob. belongs to b: the parts of Libya toward Cyrene.
    of extension toward, toward, to, up to ἐλθεῖν (γίνεσθαι v.l.) κ. τὸν τόπον come up to the place (Jos., Vi. 283) Lk 10:32. ἐλθόντες κ. τὴν Μυσίαν to Mysia Ac 16:7; cp. 27:7. πορεύεσθαι κ. μεσημβρίαν (s. μεσημβρία 2) toward the south 8:26 (cp. Jos., Bell. 5, 505). κ. σκοπὸν διώκειν run (over the course) toward the goal Phil 3:14. λιμὴν βλέπων κ. λίβα καὶ κ. χῶρον a harbor open to the southwest and northwest Ac 27:12 (s. βλέπω 8).—κ. πρόσωπον to the face (cp. Jos., Ant. 5, 205) Gal 2:11. ἔχειν τινὰ κ. πρόσωπον meet someone face to face (Thieme 19 has reff. for the use of κατὰ πρόσωπον as a legal formula) Ac 25:16. κ. πρόσωπον ταπεινός humble when personally present 2 Cor 10:1. κ. πρόσωπόν τινος in the presence of someone Lk 2:31; Ac 3:13. τὰ κ. πρόσωπον what lies before one’s eyes, i.e. is obvious 2 Cor 10:7. κ. ὀφθαλμοὺς προγράφειν portray before one’s eyes Gal 3:1.
    of isolation or separateness, by (Thu. 1, 138, 6 οἱ καθʼ ἑαυτοὺς Ἕλληνες ‘the Greeks by themselves’; Polyb. 1, 24, 4; 5, 78, 3; 11, 17, 6; Diod S 13, 72, 8; Gen 30:40; 43:32; 2 Macc 13:13; Philo, Migr. Abr. 87; 90; Just., D. 4, 5 αὐτὴ καθʼ ἑαυτήν γενομένη; Tat. 13, 1 ἡ ψυχὴ καθʼ ἑαυτήν; Ath. 15, 2 ὁ πηλὸς καθʼ ἑαυτόν) ἔχειν τι καθʼ ἑαυτόν keep someth. to oneself Ro 14:22 (cp. Jos., Ant. 2, 255; Heliod. 7, 16, 1). καθʼ ἑαυτὸν μένειν live by oneself of the private dwelling of Paul in Rome Ac 28:16. πίστις νεκρὰ καθʼ ἑαυτήν faith by itself is dead Js 2:17 (Simplicius in Epict. p. 3, 43 τὸ σῶμα καθʼ αὑτὸ νεκρόν ἐστιν). ἡ κατʼ οἶκον ἐκκλησία the congregation in the house Ro 16:5; 1 Cor 16:19. κατʼ ἰδίαν s. ἴδιος 5. κ. μόνας (Thu. 1, 32, 5; Menand., Epitr. 988 S. [658 Kö.], Fgm. 146 Kö. [158 Kock]; Polyb. 4, 15, 11; Diod S 4, 51, 16; BGU 813, 15 [s. APF 2, 1903, 97]; LXX) alone, by oneself Mk 4:10; Lk 9:18; Hm 11:8 (here, as well as BGU loc. cit. and LXX, written as one word καταμόνας).
    of places viewed serially, distributive use w. acc., x by x (Arrian., Anab. 4, 21, 10 κ. σκηνήν=tent by tent) or from x to x: κατʼ οἶκον from house to house (PLond III, 904, 20 p. 125 [104 A.D.] ἡ κατʼ οἰκίαν ἀπογραφή) Ac 2:46b; 5:42 (both in ref. to various house assemblies or congregations; w. less probability NRSV ‘at home’); cp. 20:20. Likew. the pl. κ. τοὺς οἴκους εἰσπορευόμενος 8:3. κ. τὰς συναγωγάς 22:19. κ. πόλιν (Jos., Ant. 6, 73) from city to city IRo 9:3, but in every (single) city Ac 15:21; 20:23; Tit 1:5. Also κ. πόλιν πᾶσαν (cp. Herodian 1, 14, 9) Ac 15:36; κ. πᾶσαν πόλιν 20:23 D. κ. πόλιν καὶ κώμην Lk 8:1; cp. vs. 4.
    marker of temporal aspect (Hdt. et al.; ins, pap, LXX, apolog.)
    in definite indications of time: at, on, during (Hdt. 8, 17; Polemon Soph. B 43 Reader κατʼ ἐκείνην τὴν ἡμέραν ‘in the course of that day’) κατʼ ἀρχάς in the beginning (cp. ἀρχή 1b) Hb 1:10 (Ps 101:26). κ. τὴν ἡμέραν τοῦ πειρασμοῦ in the day of trial 3:8 (Ps 94:8.—Cp. Antig. Car. 173 κ. τὸν σπόρου καιρόν). νεκροῦ … ἀνάστασιν κατʼ αὐτὸν γεγονυῖαν ἱστορεῖ (Papias) reports that a resurrection from the dead occurred in his time Papias (2, 9; so, with personal names, Hdt.; Just., D. 23, 1 τοῦ θεοῦ … τοῦ κ. τὸν Ἐνώχ; Tat. 31, 2 Θεαγένης … κ. Καμβύσην γεγονώς). Of the future: κ. τὸν καιρὸν τοῦτον at that time, then Ro 9:9 (Gen 18:10). Of the past: κ. ἐκεῖνον τὸν καιρόν at that time, then (2 Macc 3:5; TestJos 12:1; Jos., Ant. 8, 266; cp. κατʼ ἐκεῖνο τοῦ καιροῦ Konon: 26 Fgm. 3 p. 191, 25 Jac.; Just., A I, 17, 2; 26, 3 al.) Ac 12:1; 19:23. κ. καιρόν at that time, then Ro 5:6 (Just., D. 132, 1; cp. OGI 90, 28 καθʼ ὸ̔ν καιρόν), unless καιρός here means the right time (s. καιρός 1b end). κατʼ ὄναρ (as καθʼ ὕπνον Gen 20:6; Just., D 60, 5 κ. τοὺς ὕπνους) during a dream, in a dream Mt 1:20; 2:12 (s. s.v. ὄναρ for ins).
    with indefinite indications of time: toward, about κ. τὸ μεσονύκτιον about midnight Ac 16:25; cp. 27:27.—8:26 (s. μεσημβρία 1).
    distributively (cp. 1d): x period by x period: κατʼ ἔτος every year (s. ἔτος) Lk 2:41. Also κατʼ ἐνιαυτόν (s. ἐνιαυτός 1) Hb 9:25; 10:1, 3. καθʼ ἡμέραν daily, every day (s. ἡμέρα 2c) Mt 26:55; Mk 14:49; Lk 16:19; 22:53; Ac 2:46f; 3:2; 16:5; 17:11; 19:9; 1 Cor 15:31; Hb 7:27; 10:11. Also τὸ καθʼ ἡμέραν (s. ἡμέρα 2c) Lk 11:3; 19:47; Ac 17:11 v.l. ἡ ἐπίστασις ἡ καθʼ ἡμέραν (s. ἐπίστασις) 2 Cor 11:28. κ. πᾶσαν ἡμέραν every day (Jos., Ant. 6, 49) Ac 17:7. Also καθʼ ἑκάστην ἡμέραν (s. ἡμέρα 2c) Hb 3:13. κ. μίαν σαββάτου on the first day of every week 1 Cor 16:2. κ. πᾶν σάββατον every Sabbath Ac 13:27; 15:21b; 18:4. κ. μῆνα ἕκαστον each month Rv 22:2 (κ. μῆνα as SIG 153, 65; POxy 275, 18; 2 Macc 6:7). κ. ἑορτήν at each festival Mt 27:15; Mk 15:6.
    marker of division of a greater whole into individual parts, at a time, in detail, distributive use apart from indications of place (s. above 1d) and time (s. 2c)
    w. numerals: κ. δύο ἢ τὸ πλεῖστον τρεῖς two or, at the most, three at a time (i.e. in any one meeting, cp. ἀνὰ μέρος) 1 Cor 14:27 (Dio Chrys. 80 [30], 42 κ. δύο καὶ τρεῖς; Jos., Ant. 3, 142 κ. ἕξ; 5, 172 κ. δύο καὶ τρεῖς). καθʼ ἕνα (on this and the foll. s. εἷς 5e) singly, one after the other vs. 31. κ. ἕνα λίθον each individual stone Hs 9, 3, 5; καθʼ ἕνα λίθον 9, 6, 3. κ. ἓν ἕκαστον one by one, in detail Ac 21:19; 1 Cl 32:1 (Ath. 28, 4 καθʼ ἕκαστον). εἷς καθʼ εἷς Mk 14:19; J 8:9; cp. Ro 12:5 (B-D-F §305; Rob. 460). κ. ἑκατὸν καὶ κ. πεντήκοντα in hundreds and in fifties Mk 6:40.
    περί τινος λέγειν κ. μέρος speak of someth. in detail Hb 9:5 (s. μέρος 1c). κατʼ ὄνομα (each one) by name (ἀσπάζομαι … τοὺς ἐνοίκους πάντες κα[τʼ] ὄνομα PTebt [III A.D.] 422, 11–16; Jos., Vi. 86) J 10:3; 3J 15 (cp. BGU 27, 18); ISm 13:2.
    marker of intention or goal, for the purpose of, for, to (Thu. 6, 31, 1 κ. θέαν ἥκειν=to look at something; cp. Sb 7263, 6 [254 B.C.]; X., An. 3, 5, 2 καθʼ ἁρπαγὴν ἐσκεδασμένοι; Arrian, Anab. 1, 17, 12; 4, 5, 1; 21, 9; 6, 17, 6; 26, 2; Lucian, Ver. Hist. 2, 29; Anton. Lib., Fab. 24, 1 Δημήτηρ ἐπῄει γῆν ἅπασαν κ. ζήτησιν τῆς θυγατρός; 38; Jdth 11:19) κ. τὸν καθαρισμὸν τῶν Ἰουδαίων for the Jewish ceremonial purification J 2:6. κατὰ ἀτιμίαν λέγω to my shame 2 Cor 11:21 (cp. Jos., Ant. 3, 268 κ. τιμὴν τ. θεοῦ τοῦτο ποιῶν). ἀπόστολος … κ. πίστιν … καὶ ἐπίγνωσιν an apostle … for the faith … and the knowledge Tit 1:1 (but the mng. ‘in accordance with’ is also prob.).
    marker of norm of similarity or homogeneity, according to, in accordance with, in conformity with, according to
    to introduce the norm which governs someth.
    α. the norm of the law, etc. (OGI 56, 33; Mitt-Wilck., I/2, 352, 11 κ. τὰ κελευσθέντα [as Just., D. 78, 7]; POxy 37 II, 8) κ. τὸν νόμον (Jos., Ant. 14, 173; 15, 51; Just., D. 10, 1 al.; Ath. 31, 1; κ. τοὺς νόμους Ἀρεοπαγείτης, letter of MAurelius: ZPE 8, ’71, 169, ln. 27) Lk 2:22; J 18:31; 19:7; Hb 7:5. τὰ κ. τ. νόμον what is to be done according to the law Lk 2:39 (cp. EpArist 32). κ. τὸ ὡρισμένον in accordance w. what has been determined 22:22. Cp. 1:9; 2:24, 27, 42; Ac 17:2; 22:3. κ. τὸ εὐαγγέλιόν μου Ro 2:16; 16:25a; 2 Ti 2:8. κ. τὸ εἰρημένον Ro 4:18 (cp. Ath. 28, 1 κ. τὰ προειρημένα). κ. τὰς γραφάς (Just., D. 82, 4; cp. Paus. 6, 21, 10 κ. τὰ ἔπη=according to the epic poems; Just., A I, 32, 14 κ. τὸ λόγιον, D. 67, 1 κ. τὴν προφητείαν ταύτην) 1 Cor 15:3; cp. Js 2:8. κ. τὴν παράδοσιν Mk 7:5 (Tat. 39, 1 κ. τὴν Ἑλλήνων παράδοσιν).—κ. λόγον as one wishes (exx. in Dssm., B 209 [not in BS]; also PEleph 13, 1; 3 Macc 3:14) Ac 18:14 (though 5bβ below is also prob.).—It can also stand simply w. the acc. of the pers. according to whose will, pleasure, or manner someth. occurs κ. θεόν (cp. Socrat., Ep. 14, 5 κ. θεόν; 26, 2; Nicol. Dam.: 90 Fgm. 4 p. 332, 1 Jac. and Appian, Bell. Civ. 2, 84 §352 κ. δαίμονα; Jos., Ant. 4, 143 ὁ κ. τοῦτον[=θεόν] βίος; Just., D. 5, 1 κ. τινας … Πλατωνικούς; Tat. 1, 3 κ. … τὸν κωμικόν) Ro 8:27; 2 Cor 7:9–11; κ. Χριστὸν Ἰ. Ro 15:5. κ. κύριον 2 Cor 11:17. Cp. 1 Pt 1:15. κ. τ. Ἕλληνας in the manner of the Greeks, i.e. polytheists PtK 2, p. 14, 1; 7. κ. Ἰουδαίους ln. 25.
    β. the norm according to which a judgment is rendered, or rewards or punishments are given ἀποδοῦναι τινι κ. τ. πρᾶξιν or ἔργα αὐτοῦ (Ps 61:13; Pr 24:12; Just., A I, 12, 1; 17, 4 al.; κατʼ ἀξίαν τῶν πράξεων) Mt 16:27; Ro 2:6; 2 Ti 4:14; Rv 2:23. μισθὸν λήμψεται κ. τ. ἴδιον κόπον 1 Cor 3:8. κρίνειν κ. τι J 7:24; 8:15; 1 Pt 1:17; cp. Ro 2:2.
    γ. of a standard of any other kind κ. τ. χρόνον ὸ̔ν ἠκρίβωσεν in accordance w. the time which he had ascertained Mt 2:16. κ. τ. πίστιν ὑμῶν acc. to your faith 9:29. κ. τ. δύναμιν acc. to his capability 25:15 (Just., D. 139, 4; Tat. 12, 3; cp. Just., A II, 13, 6 κ. δύναμιν). Cp. Lk 1:38; 2:29; Ro 8:4; 10:2; Eph 4:7. ἀνὴρ κ. τ. καρδίαν μου Ac 13:22 (καρδία 1bε).
    δ. Oft. the norm is at the same time the reason, so that in accordance with and because of are merged: οἱ κ. πρόθεσιν κλητοί Ro 8:28. κατʼ ἐπιταγὴν θεοῦ 16:26; 1 Ti 1:1; Tit 1:3. κ. ἀποκάλυψιν Eph 3:3 (Just., D. 78, 2). οἱ καθʼ ὑπομονὴν ἔργου ἀγαθοῦ Ro 2:7. κατʼ ἐκλογήν 11:5 (Just., D. 49, 1). Cp. κ. τὴν βουλήν Eph 1:11 (Just., A I, 63, 16 al.); 2 Th 2:9; Hb 7:16. κ. τί γνώσομαι τοῦτο; by what shall I know this? (cp. Gen 15:8) Lk 1:18.—Instead of ‘in accordance w.’ κ. can mean simply because of, as a result of, on the basis of (Ael. Aristid. 46 p. 219 D.: κ. τοὺς νόμους; Jos., Ant. 1, 259; 278; Just., A I, 54, 1 κατʼ ἐνέργειαν τῶν φαύλων δαιμόνων; Ath. 7, 1 κ. συμπάθειαν τῆς παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ πνοῆς; 32, 1 κ. χρησμόν). κ. πᾶσαν αἰτίαν for any and every reason (αἰτία 1) Mt 19:3. κ. ἀποκάλυψιν Gal 2:2. Cp. Ro 2:5; 1 Cor 12:8 (κ. τ. πνεῦμα = διὰ τοῦ πν.); Eph 1:5; 4:22b; Phil 4:11; 1 Ti 5:21; 2 Ti 1:9; Tit 3:5; κ. ἀνάγκην Phlm 14 (Ar. 1, 2; 4, 2 al.; Just., A I, 30, 1; 61, 10; Ath. 24, 2); IPol 1:3. ὁ κ. τὸ πολὺ αὐτοῦ ἔλεος ἀναγεννήσας ἡμᾶς 1 Pt 1:3.—καθʼ ὅσον (Thu. 4, 18, 4) in so far as, inasmuch as Hb 3:3. καθʼ ὅσον …, κ. τοσοῦτο in so far as …, just so far (Lysias 31, 8; Galen, De Dignosc. Puls. 3, 2, VIII 892 K.) 7:20, 22.
    as a periphrasis to express equality, similarity, or example in accordance with, just as, similar(ly) to (TestJob 32:6 τίς γὰρ κ. σε ἐν μέσῳ τῶν τέκνων σου; Tat. 25, 1 κ. … τὸν Πρωτέα like Proteus; schol. on Nicander, Ther. 50: sheep are not burden-bearers κ. τοὺς ὄνους=as donkeys are).
    α. κ. τὰ ἔργα αὐτῶν μὴ ποιεῖτε do not do as they do Mt 23:3. κ. Ἰσαάκ just as Isaac Gal 4:28. κ. θεὸν κτισθείς Eph 4:24 (Synes., Prov. 2, 2 p. 118c κ. θεόν=just as a god). Cp. Col 3:10. κ. τὸν τύπον Hb 8:5 (Ex 25:40; Mel., P. 58, 424 [νόμον v.l.]). Cp. 5:6 (Ps 109:4); 8:9 (Jer 38: 32); Js 3:9.—κ. τὰ αὐτά in (just) the same way (OGI 56, 66; PEleph 2, 6; 1 Macc 8:27; 12:2; Just., D. 1, 2; 3, 5; 113, 3) Lk 6:23, 26; 17:30; Dg 3:1. On the other hand, the sing. κ. τὸ αὐτό Ac 14:1 means together (marriage contract PEleph 1, 5 [IV B.C.] εἶναι ἡμᾶς κ. ταὐτό; 1 Km 11:11). καθʼ ὸ̔ν τρόπον just as (2 Macc 6:20; 4 Macc 14:17) Ac 15:11; 27:25. καθʼ ὅσον …, οὕτως (just) as …, so Hb 9:27. κ. πάντα τρόπον in every way (PSI 520, 16 [250 B.C.]; PCairZen 631, 2; 3 Macc 3:24) Ro 3:2. κ. μηδένα τρόπον (PMagd 14, 9 [221 B.C.]; PRein 7, 31; 3 Macc 4:13; 4 Macc 4:24; Just., D. 35, 7; s. Reader, Polemo 262) 2 Th 2:3. Cp. Johannessohn, Kasus, 1910, 82. κατά w. acc. serves in general
    β. to indicate the nature, kind, peculiarity or characteristics of a thing (freq. as a periphrasis for the adv.; e.g. Antiochus of Syracuse [V B.C.]: 555 Fgm. 12 Jac. κ. μῖσος=out of hate, filled with hate) κατʼ ἐξουσίαν with authority or power Mk 1:27. κ. συγκυρίαν by chance Lk 10:31. κ. ἄγνοιαν without knowing Ac 3:17 (s. ἄγνοια 2a). κ. ἄνθρωπον 1 Cor 3:3 al. (s. Straub 15; Aeschyl., Th. 425; ἄνθρωπος 2b). κ. κράτος powerfully, Ac 19:20 (κράτος 1a). κ. λόγον reasonably, rightly (Pla.; Polyb. 1, 62, 4; 5; 5, 110, 10; Jos., Ant. 13, 195; PYale 42, 24 [12 Jan., 229 B.C.]) 18:14 (but s. above 5aα). λέγειν τι κ. συγγνώμην οὐ κατʼ ἐπιταγήν say someth. as a concession, not as a command 1 Cor 7:6; cp. 2 Cor 8:8. κ. τάξιν in (an) order(ly manner) 1 Cor 14:40 (τάξις 2). κατʼ ὀφθαλμοδουλίαν with eye-service Eph 6:6. μηδὲν κατʼ ἐριθείαν μηδὲ κ. κενοδοξίαν Phil 2:3. κ. ζῆλος zealously 3:6a, unless this pass. belongs under 6 below, in its entirety. κ. σάρκα on the physical plane Ro 8:12f; 2 Cor 1:17; also 5:16ab, if here κ. ς. belongs w. οἴδαμεν or ἐγνώκαμεν (as Bachmann, JWeiss, H-D Wendland, Sickenberger take it; s. 7a below). καθʼ ὑπερβολήν (PTebt 42, 5f [c. 114 B.C.] ἠδικημένος καθʼ ὑπερβολὴν ὑπὸ, Ἁρμιύσιος; 4 Macc 3:18) beyond measure, beyond comparison Ro 7:13; 1 Cor 12:31; 2 Cor 4:17. καθʼ ὁμοιότητα (Aristot.; Gen 1:12; Philo, Fug. 51; Tat. 12, 4 κ. τὸ ὅμοιον αὐτῇ) in a similar manner Hb 4:15b. κ. μικρόν in brief B 1:5 (μικρός 1eγ).
    denoting relationship to someth., with respect to, in relation to κ. σάρκα w. respect to the flesh, physically of human descent Ro 1:3; 4:1; 9:3, 5 (Ar. 15, 7 κ. σάρκα … κ. ψυχήν; Just., D. 43, 7 ἐν τῷ γένει τῷ κ. σάρκα τοῦ Ἀβραάμ al.). κ. τὸν ἔσω ἄνθρωπον 7:22 (cp. POxy 904, 6 πληγαῖς κατακοπτόμενον κ. τὸ σῶμα). Cp. Ro 1:4; 11:28; Phil 3:5, 6b (for vs. 6a s. 5bβ above); Hb 9:9b. τὰ κ. τινα (Hdt. 7, 148; Diod S 1, 10, 73; Aelian, VH 2, 20; PEleph 13, 3; POxy 120, 14; Tob 10:9; 1 Esdr 9:17; 2 Macc 3:40; 9:3 al.) someone’s case, circumstances Ac 24:22 (cp. PEleph 13, 3 τὰ κ. σε; Just., A I, 61, 13 τὰ κ. τὸν Ἰησοῦν πάντα, D. 102, 2 τὰ κ. αὐτόν; Ath. 24, 4 τὸ κ. τοὺς ἀγγέλους); 25:14; Eph 6:21; Phil 1:12; Col 4:7. κ. πάντα in all respects (since Thu. 4, 81, 3; Sb 4324, 3; 5761, 22; SIG 834, 7; Gen 24:1; Wsd 19:22; 2 Macc 1:17; 3 Macc 5:42; JosAs 1:7; Just., A II, 4, 4, D. 35, 8 al.); Ac 17:22; Col 3:20, 22a; Hb 2:17 (Artem. 1, 13 αὐτῷ ὅμοιον κ. π.); 4:15a.
    Somet. the κατά phrase, which would sound cumbersome in the rendering ‘such-and-such’, ‘in line with’, or ‘in accordance with’, is best rendered as an adj., a possessive pron., or with a genitival construction to express the perspective from which something is perceived or to be understood. In translation it thus functions as
    an adj. (Synes., Kingdom 4 p. 4d τὰ κατʼ ἀρετὴν ἔργα i.e. the deeds that are commensurate with that which is exceptional = virtuous deeds; PHib 27, 42 ταῖς κ. σελήνην ἡμέραις; 4 Macc 5:18 κ. ἀλήθειαν=ἀληθής; Just., A I, 2, 1 τοὺς κ. ἀλήθειαν εὐσεβεῖς; Tat. 26, 2 τῆς κ. ἀλήθειαν σοφίας) οἱ κ. φύσιν κλάδοι the natural branches Ro 11:21. ἡ κατʼ εὐσέβειαν διδασκαλία 1 Ti 6:3; cp. Tit 1:1b. οἱ κ. σάρκα κύριοι the earthly masters (in wordplay, anticipating the κύριος who is in the heavens, vs. 9) Eph 6:5. Cp. 2 Cor 5:16b, in case (s. 5bβ above) κ. ς. belongs w. Χριστόν (as the majority, incl. Ltzm., take it): a physical Christ, a Christ in the flesh, in his earthly relationships (σάρξ 5). Correspondingly in vs. 16a κ. ς. would be taken w. οὐδένα: no one simply as a physical being.—JMartyn, JKnox Festschr., ’67, 269–87.
    a possessive pron., but with limiting force (Demosth. 2, 27 τὰ καθʼ ὑμᾶς ἐλλείμματα [i.e. in contrast to the activities of others: ‘your own’]; Aelian, VH 2, 42 ἡ κατʼ αὐτὸν ἀρετή; 3, 36; OGI 168, 17 παραγεγονότες εἰς τοὺς καθʼ ὑμᾶς τόπους; SIG 646, 6; 807, 15 al.; UPZ 20, 9 [II B.C.] ἐπὶ τῆς καθʼ ἡμᾶς λειτουργίας; PTebt 24, 64; 2 Macc 4:21; Tat. 42, 1 τίς ὁ θεὸς καὶ τίς ἡ κατʼ αὐτὸν ποίησις; Mel., HE 4, 26, 7 ἡ καθʼ ἡμᾶς φιλοσοφία) τῶν καθʼ ὑμᾶς ποιητῶν τινες some of your (own) poets Ac 17:28. ἡ καθʼ ὑμᾶς πίστις Eph 1:15. ὁ καθʼ ὑμᾶς νόμος Ac 18:15. τὸ κατʼ ἐμὲ πρόθυμον my eagerness Ro 1:15.
    a gen. w. a noun (Polyb. 3, 113, 1 ἡ κ. τὸν ἥλιον ἀνατολή; 2, 48, 2; 3, 8, 1 al.; Diod S 14, 12 ἡ κ. τὸν τύραννον ὠμότης; Dionys. Hal. 2, 1; SIG 873, 5 τῆς κ. τ. μυστήρια τελετῆς; 569, 22; 783, 20; PTebt 5, 25; PLond III, 1164k, 20 p. 167 [212 A.D.] ὑπὸ τοῦ κ. πατέρα μου ἀνεψιοῦ) τὰ κ. Ἰουδαίους ἔθη the customs of the Judeans Ac 26:3 (Tat. 12, 5 τῇ κ. Βαβυλωνίους προγνωστικῇ; 34, 2 ἡ κ. τὸν Ἀριστόδημον πλαστική). Cp. 27:2. ἡ κ. πίστιν δικαιοσύνη the righteousness of faith Hb 11:7. ἡ κατʼ ἐκλογὴν πρόθεσις purpose of election Ro 9:11.—Here also belong the titles of the gospels εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Ματθαῖον etc., where κατά is likew. periphrasis for a gen. (cp. JLydus, De Mag. 3, 46 p. 136, 10 Wünsch τῆς κ. Λουκανὸν συγγραφῆς; Herodian 2, 9, 4 of an autobiography ἐν τῷ καθʼ αὑτὸν βίῳ; Jos., C. Ap. 1, 18 τ. καθʼ αὐτὸν ἱστορίαν; 2 Macc 2:13. Cp. B-D-F §163; 224, 2; Zahn, Einleitung §49; BBacon, Why ‘According to Mt’? Exp., 8th ser., 16, 1920, 289–310).—On the periphrasis of the gen. by κατά s. Rudberg (ἀνά beg.) w. many exx. fr. Pla. on. But it occurs as early as Thu. 6, 16, 5 ἐν τῷ κατʼ αὐτοὺς βίῳ.—M-M. DELG. EDNT. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > κατά

  • 670 κατάγνωσις

    κατάγνωσις, εως, ἡ (s. καταγινώσκω; Thu. et al.; PStras 40, 29; Sb 4670, 5; 4681, 5; 4835, 5; Sir 5:14; Philo, Ebr. 205; Jos., Bell. 6, 34, Vi. 93) condemnation μᾶλλον ἑαυτῶν κ. φέρουσιν ἢ τῆς ὁμοφωνίας they would rather bear condemnation of themselves than of the harmony 1 Cl 51:2.—DELG s.v. γιγνώσκω.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > κατάγνωσις

  • 671 κατασφάζω

    κατασφάζω (s. σφάζω; Jos., Ant. 6, 120) or - σφάττω (s. B-D-F §71) fut. 3 pl. κατασφάξουσιν Ezk 16:40; aor. κατέσφαξα LXX, pass. 3 pl. κατεσφάγησαν 2 Macc 10:31, subj. κατασφαγῶσιν (En 10:19) slaughter, strike down (Trag., Hdt. et al.; Aelian, VH 13, 2; Herodian 5, 5, 8; PGiss 82, 11; LXX; En 10:12; Jos., Bell. 7, 362 al.) τινά someone ἔμπροσθέν τινος before someone’s eyes Lk 19:27.—M-M.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > κατασφάζω

  • 672 κοπή

    κοπή, ῆς, ἡ (s. κόπτω; Strabo et al.; pap; JosAs 23:7 cod A [κ. τῆς ῥομφαίας ‘hilt’]) cutting down, slaughter (Josh 10:20; Jdth 15:7) ὑποστρέφειν ἀπὸ τῆς κ. τῶν βασιλέων return fr. the defeat of (i.e., fr. defeating) the kings Hb 7:1 (Gen 14:17).—DELG s.v. κόπτω A2. M-M.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > κοπή

  • 673 κοσμίως

    κοσμίως adv. of κόσμιος (Aristoph., Pla.+; ins e.g. IGR IV, 255, 9; Philo, Spec. Leg. 1, 153) pert. to being in accord with accepted standards of propriety, modestly, decorously, observing decorum, of self-adornment 1 Ti 2:9 v.l. (in wordplay: κοσμίως-κοσμεῖν ‘to decorate’ themselves ‘decorously’, oppos. of conspicuous consumption).—DELG s.v. κόσμος. M-M.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > κοσμίως

  • 674 κοσμοκράτωρ

    κοσμοκράτωρ, ορος, ὁ (s. κόσμος, κρατέω) world-ruler (used of world-ruling gods [Orphica: Hymns 8, 11 Helios; 11, 11 Pan; Vett. Val. 170, 36 κ. Ζεύς; 171, 6; 314, 16 κ. Ἥλιος; PGM 4, 1599; 2198; 5, 400 and 17b, 1 Ἑρμῆς; 13, 619 Σάραπις] and of the emperor Caracalla [Egypt. ins APF 2, 1903, 449 no. 83]. Then gener. of spirit beings, who have parts of the cosmos under their control: Vett. Val. 278, 2; 360, 7; Iambl., Myst. 2, 9; 3, 10; TestSol; Iren. 1, 5, 4 [Harv. I 48, 2]; τὸν διάβολον …, ὸ̔ν καὶ κοσμοκράτωρα καλοῦσι 1, 5, 4 [Harv. I 47, 4].—FCumont, Compt. rend. Acad. des ins 1919, 313f; EPeterson, Εἷς θεός 1926, 238, 3. Also loanw. in rabb., e.g. of the angel of death) of evil spirits (w. ἀρχαί and ἐξουσίαι) οἱ κ. τοῦ σκότους τούτου the world-rulers of this darkness i.e. the rulers of this sinful world Eph 6:12 (s. TestSol [18, 2] in Dibelius, Geisterwelt 230: spirits come to Sol. and call themselves οἱ κοσμοκράτορες τ. σκότους τούτου. On the subject s. Hdb. on J 12:31 and FDölger, D. Sonne d. Gerechtigkeit 1918, 49ff; GMacgregor, Principalities and Powers: ACPurdy Festschr. ’60, 88–104).—DELG s.v. κόσμος. M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > κοσμοκράτωρ

  • 675 κρίσις

    κρίσις, εως, ἡ (s. κρίνω; Aeschyl., Hdt.+).
    legal process of judgment, judging, judgment
    of the activity of God or the Messiah as judge, esp. on the Last Day (Bacchylides 3, 26 of judgment by Zeus).
    α. ἡ δικαία κ. τοῦ θεοῦ God’s righteous judgment 2 Th 1:5. ἡ κρίσις ἡ ἐμὴ δικαία ἐστίν J 5:30 (cp. δικαία περὶ πάντων κ. Orig., C. Cels. 4, 9, 10). θεία κ. 2 Cl 20:4. κρίσιν ποιεῖν execute judgment, act as judge (Aristoph., Ran. 778; 785; X., Hell. 4, 2, 6; 8; Dt 10:18.—Likew. κ. ποιεῖσθαι: 1 Macc 6:22; Jos., Ant. 6, 34; Just., A I, 2, 3; D. 124, 1; Iren. 1, 10, 1 [Harv. I 91, 10]) J 5:27. τ. κρίσιν διδόναι τινί commit judgment or judging to someone vs. 22 (TestAbr A 13 p. 92, 10 [Stone p. 32]). ἡ ἡμέρα (τῆς) κρίσεως the Day of Judgment (Jdth 16:17; Is 34:8; Pr 6:34; PsSol 15:12; GrBar 1:7; ApcEsdr 2:27 p. 26, 21 Tdf. al.; ApcMos 12:26; Just.) Mt 10:15; 11:22, 24; 12:36; Mk 6:11 v.l.; 2 Pt 2:9; 3:7; 1J 4:17; 2 Cl 16:3; 17:6; B 19:10; 21:6.—ἡ κ. ἡ μέλλουσα the judgment to come 2 Cl 18:2; MPol 11:2. ἡ κ. ἡ ἐπερχομένη the approaching judgment Hv 3, 9, 5 (περὶ τῆς ἐσομένης κ. Orig., C. Cels. 1, 56, 7; cp. μετὰ τὴν ἀνάστασιν καὶ κ. Theoph. Ant. 2, 26 [p. 164, 1]). Denial of the Last Judgment Pol 7:1. κ. μεγάλης ἡμέρας the judgment of the Great Day Jd 6. ἡ ὥρα τῆς κ. αὐτοῦ the hour when (God) is to judge Rv 14:7. οὐκ ἀναστήσονται οἱ ἀσεβεῖς ἐν κ. the wicked will not rise in the judgment (or on the J. Day) B 11:7 (Ps 1:5); cp. Mt 12:41f; Lk 10:14; 11:31f. δικαιοσύνη κρίσεως ἀρχὴ καὶ τέλος righteousness (on the part of the judge) is the beginning and end of judging B 1:6. Divine judgment (cp. Iambl., Vi. Pyth. 8, 40 τῶν ἀθανάτων κ.; Hierocles 11, 441 and 442 al. θεία κρίσις) is also mentioned 1 Ti 5:24; Hb 9:27 (cp. Diog. L. 3, 79 after Plato: one must fulfill the δικαιοσύνη θεοῦ, ἵνα μὴ καὶ μετὰ τὸν θάνατον δίκας ὑπόσχοιεν οἱ κακοῦργοι=so that after death they might not as evil-doers be subject to penalties); 2 Pt 2:4, 9; 2 Cl 20:4; D 11:11.
    β. The word oft. means judgment that goes against a person, condemnation, and the sentence that follows (TestAbr A 14 p. 93, 24 [Stone p. 34]; ApcEsdr 1:24 p. 25, 19 Tdf.; SibOr 3, 670; Just., D. 56, 1; 60, 2 κ. τῶν Σοδόμων) GPt 7:25. δισσὴν ἕξουσιν τὴν κ. they will receive double punishment 2 Cl 10:5. ἡ κ. σου your judgment Rv 18:10. κἀκείνοις κ. ἐστίν judgment comes upon them, too ISm 6:1. φοβερά τις ἐκδοχὴ κρίσεως a fearful prospect of judgment Hb 10:27 (Iambl., Vi. Pyth. 30, 179 a reference to the κ. τῶν ψυχῶν serves to arouse φόβος τ. ἀδικίας). ἡ κ. αὐτοῦ ἤρθη his punishment was taken away Ac 8:33; 1 Cl 16:7 (both Is 53:8). ὑπὸ κρίσιν πίπτειν come under judgment Js 5:12; cp. 2:13ab. ἡ κ. τῆς γεέννης being punished in hell Mt 23:33 (gen. as Diod S 1, 82, 3 θανάτου κ.=punishment by death; πυρὸς κ. Hippol. Ref. 10, 34, 2; cp. 9, 10, 7). ἔνοχός ἐστιν αἰωνίου κ. liable for eternal punishment Mk 3:29 v.l. κ. κατά τινος upon, against someone (Aelian, VH 2, 6) ποιῆσαι κρίσιν κατὰ πάντων execute judgment upon all Jd 15 (En 1:9).—(Opp. ζωή) ἔχει ζωὴν αἰώνιον καὶ εἰς κ. οὐκ ἔρχεται J 5:24 (cp. Philip [=Demosth. 12, 16] εἰς κ. ἐλθεῖν; ApcSed 11:16 [134, 36 Ja.] τὸ σῶμα … ἀπέρχεται εἰς κρίσιν). ἀνάστασις ζωῆς … ἀνάστασις κρίσεως vs. 29. κρίσις τοῦ κόσμου τούτου judgment of (or upon) this world 12:31; cp. 16:8, interpreted as a judgment on the prince of this world 16:11 (cp. 12:31b; 1QM 1, 5; but s. also LLutkemeyer, CBQ 8, ’46, 225f ‘good judgment’, and BNoack, Satanas u. Soteria ’48, 79; also s. δικαιοσύνη 3a end).—Some interpreters see in 3:19 a double sense for κ., containing in addition to the senses ‘judgment’ and ‘condemnation’ the clear connotation of ‘separation, division’ (Hecataeus [320 B.C.]: 264 Fgm. 6, 1 Jac. [in Diod S 40, 3, 2 Dind. w. the ms. trad.] κρίσις τῶν κακῶν=‘separation fr. the evils’. A double sense as in J is found in Artem. 5, 5 κριτής=‘judge’ and ‘divider’). The ‘judgment’, which is operative here and now, is said to consist in the fact that people divide themselves into two groups, those who accept Christ and those who reject him (Hdb.; Bultmann). But it is also prob. that κ. in this vs. simply refers to the judicial process, which includes a statement of rationale or basis for the adverse verdict, here expressed in the clause ὅτι … τὰ ἔργα.—Pl. judgments, punishments (Diod S 1, 75, 2; Appian, Bell. Civ. 1, 96 §446 κρίσεις πικραί=severe punishments) ἀληθιναὶ καὶ δίκαιαι αἱ κρίσεις σου Rv 16:7; 19:2.—Bousset, Rel.3 257ff; LRuhl, De Mortuorum Judicio 1903; JBlank, Krisis (J), diss. Freiburg, ’64.
    of the judgment of one person upon or against another, in the nature of an evaluation
    α. of one human being toward another κ. δικαία B 20:2; D 5:2. κ. ἄδικος unjust judgment Pol 6:1; ἀπότομος ἐν κ. relentless in judgment ibid. τὴν δικαίαν κρίσιν κρίνετε J 7:24 (κρίνω 2a). Cp. ἡ κ. ἡ ἐμὴ ἀληθινή ἐστιν 8:16.
    β. of archangel against the devil οὐκ ἐτόλμησεν κρίσιν ἐπενεγκεῖν βλασφημίας he did not presume to pronounce a reviling judgment Jd 9. Cp. the corresp. pass. in 2 Pt 2:11 ἄγγελοι οὐ φέρουσιν κατʼ αὐτῶν παρὰ κυρίου βλάσφημον κρίσιν angels do not pronounce a reviling judgment against them from the Lord.
    a board of judges, court, specif. a local court (s. Schürer II 187f; Diod S 17, 80, 2; Aesop, Fab. 190 H.=459 P.; Theod. Prodr. 1, 402 H.) ἔνοχος ἔσται τῇ κ. he will have to answer to a (local) court Mt 5:21f.—RGuelich, ZNW 64, ’73, 44ff.
    administration of what is right and fair, right in the sense of justice/ righteousness (Michel 542, 6 [II B.C.] πίστιν ἔχοντα καὶ κρίσιν ὑγιῆ; OGI 383, 207 [I B.C.]; LXX; cp. מִשְׁפָּט) ἀφήκατε τὴν κρίσιν καὶ τὸ ἔλεος καὶ τὴν πίστιν Mt 23:23; cp. Lk 11:42. ἐκζητεῖν κ. seek out justice 1 Cl 8:4 (Is 1:17). κρίσιν τ. ἔθνεσιν ἀπαγγελεῖ he will proclaim justice for the gentiles Mt 12:18 (Is 42:1). ἕως ἃν ἐκβάλῃ εἰς νῖκος τ. κρίσιν until he leads justice to victory vs. 20 (cp. Is 42:3.—Other prob. renderings are legal action, trial, case [X., An. 1, 6, 5; Diod S 2, 42, 4 αἱ κρίσεις=legal suits, transactions; En 9:3 εἰσαγάγετε τὴν κρίσιν ἡμῶν πρὸς τὸν ὕψιστον], and, influenced by νῖκος, a [military] decision [Dionys. Hal. 9, 35; 2 Macc 14:18]). The rendering right, justice may also be valid for such passages as J 7:24; 12:31; 16:8, 11; Ac 8:33 [so NRSV] and perh. others.—GWetter, s.v. κρίμα 4b near end; HBraun, Gerichtsgedanke u. Rechtfertigungslehre b. Pls 1930; FFilson, St. Paul’s Conception of Recompense ’31.—For add. reff. to the theme of justice in antiquity s. PvanderHorst, The Sentences of Pseudo-Phocylides 78, 117–28.—DELG s.v. κρίνω. M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > κρίσις

  • 676 κρύπτω

    κρύπτω (s. κρυπτός; Hom.+, w. broad range of mng. ‘hide, conceal, cover’; also κρύβω [PGM 12, 322; ApcMos; Mel., P. 23, 155; Jos., Ant. 8, 410, C. Ap. 1, 292], whence the impf. act. ἔκρυβεν GJs 12:3 and the mid. ἐκρυβόμην GPt 7:26, is a new formation in H. Gk. fr. the aor. ἐκρύβην [B-D-F §73; Mlt-H. 214; 245; Reinhold 72. On the LXX s. Helbing 83f]) fut. κρύψω (LXX; GJs 14:1); 1 aor. ἔκρυψα. Pass.: 2 fut. κρυβήσομαι (PsSol 9:3; JosAs 6:3; ApcEsdr; Plut., Mor. 576d); 2 aor. ἐκρύβην (Hellenistic: Lob., Phryn. p. 317; LXX; JosAs 24:21; ApcMos 22 al.; Jos., Ant. 8, 384); pf. 3 sg. κέκρυπται, ptc. κεκρυμμένος.
    to keep from being seen, hide
    of things and persons, money Mt 25:18 (cp. vs. 25 in 2 below); a treasure that has been found 13:44b (cp. vs. 44a in 2 below). κ. τινὰ ἀπὸ προσώπου τινός Rv 6:16. Fig. of the key of knowledge Lk 11:52 v.l. Pass. (Philo, Det. Pot. Ins. 128 τὰ ἀποκείμενα ἐν σκότῳ κέκρυπται; Iren. 1, 18, 1 [Harv. I 171, 12]) of a city on an eminence οὐ δύναται κρυβῆναι Mt 5:14; Ox 1 recto, 19f ([Logion 7]=ASyn. 53, ln. 22; s. GTh 32). Of Moses, who escaped detection Hb 11:23. τὸ μάννα τὸ κεκρυμμένον the hidden manna, kept fr. human eyes because it is laid up in heaven Rv 2:17. This is also the place for the pass. κρυβῆναι used in an act. sense hide (Gen 3:8, 10; Judg 9:5; 1 Km 13:6; 14:11; Job 24:4; 29:8; JosAs 6:3 al.; ApcEsdr; ApcMos) Ἰησοῦς ἐκρύβη J 8:59. ἐκρύβη ἀπʼ αὐτῶν 12:36.—ποῦ κρυβήσομαι ἀπὸ τοῦ προσώπου σου; 1 Cl 28:3.
    of states or conditions withdraw from sight or knowledge, hide, keep secret (Delphic commandments: SIG 1268 II, 16 [III B.C.] ἀπόρρητα κρύπτε; Just., D. 90, 2 τύποις τὴν … ἀλήθειαν; Orig., C. Cels. 4, 39, 49) ἐὰν αὐτῆς κρύψω τὸ ἁμάρτημα if I were to conceal (Mary’s) sin GJs 14:1. τὶ ἀπό τινος someth. fr. someone (Synes., Ep. 57 p. 195d; Gen 18:17; TestSol 5:10; TestBenj 2:6) Mt 11:25. Pass. Lk 18:34. Fig. ἐκρύβη ἀπὸ ὀφθαλμῶν σου it is hidden from your eyes = from you 19:42 (cp. [τὰ] βαθύτερα τῶν κεκρυμμένων νοημάτων ἐν ταῖς γραφαῖς Orig., C. Cels. 7, 60, 34). Of the moral conduct of a person κρυβῆναι οὐ δύνανται 1 Ti 5:25 (Diod S 14, 1, 3 ἀδυνατεῖ κρύπτειν τὴν ἄγνοιαν; cp. Ath., R. 19 p. 71, 30).—κεκρυμμένα hidden, unknown things (Philo, Spec. Leg. 3, 61; Tat. 13, 3 τὸ κεκρυμμένον) Mt 13:35. μαθητὴς κεκρυμμένος a secret disciple J 19:38 (τὸ κεκρυμμένον μυστήριον Hippol., Ref. 5, 8, 7).—W. the result of hiding someth. fr. view (Hipponax [VI B.C.] 25 D. ἀσκέρηισι τοὺς πόδας δασείηισιν ἔκρυψας=you have put my feet in furlined shoes) put (in), mix (in) τὶ εἴς τι someth. in someth. (ζύμην) γυνὴ ἔκρυψεν εἰς ἀλεύρου σάτα τρία Lk 13:21 v.l. (s. ἐγκρύπτω).
    cause to disappear, pass. ἵνα ἀνομία πολλῶν ἐν δικαίῳ ἑνὶ κρυβῇ that the lawlessness of so many should be made to disappear in one who is righteous Dg 9:5.
    hide in a safe place ἀπὸ μάστιγος γλώσσης σε κρύψει he will hide you from the scourge of a tongue 1 Cl 56:10 (Job 5:21). Pass. (ParJer 9:6 ᾧ πᾶσα κτίσις κέκρυπται ἐν αὐτῷ) ἡ ζωὴ ὑμῶν κέκρυπται σὺν τῷ Χριστῷ ἐν τῷ θεῷ Col 3:3.—If mention is made of the place to which persons or things are brought to hide them fr. view, the word usually means
    to keep something from being divulged or discovered, conceal, hide of someth. put in a specific place κ. τι ἐν τῇ γῇ hide someth. in the earth (Apollon. Rhod. 4, 480 κρ. τι ἐν γαίῃ) Mt 25:25 (cp. vs. 18 in 1a above); likew. in pass. θησαυρὸς κεκρυμμένος ἐν τῷ ἀγρῷ a treasure hidden in a field 13:44a (cp. vs. 44b in 1a above). Cp. Ac 7:24 D (cp. ἡ γῆ οὖν κεκρυμμένη ὑπὸ τῶν ὑδάτων=‘totally inundated’ Did., Gen. 31, 2). Of living persons (Paus. 9, 19, 1) Ῥαὰβ αὐτοὺς ἔκρυψεν εἰς τὸ ὑπερῷον ὑπὸ τὴν λινοκαλάμην Rahab concealed them in the upper room under the flax 1 Cl 12:3 (Diod S 4, 33, 9 κ. εἰς; Ps.-Apollod. 1, 4, 1, 4 [=p. 12 ln. 1] and schol. on Apollon. Rhod. 4, 532, 33 ὑπὸ γῆν ἔκρυψε).—κρύπτειν ἑαυτόν hide oneself (En 10:2 κρύψον σεαυτόν; Nicander in Anton. Lib. 28, 3) ἀπό τινος fr. someone (Mary) ἔκρυβεν αὑτὴν ἀπὸ τῶν υἱῶν Ἰσραήλ (M.) went into hinding from the people of Israel i.e. she did not go out in public GJs 12:3 (cp. Lk 1:24). εἴς τι in someth. ἔκρυψαν ἑαυτοὺς εἰς τὰ σπήλαια they hid themselves in the caves (Diod, S. 4, 12, 2 ἔκρυψεν ἑαυτὸν εἰς πίθον) Rv 6:15.—ἐκρυβόμεθα we remained in hiding GPt 7:26 (Δαυίδ … ἐκρύβετο ἐν τῷ ἀγρῷ Iren. 1, 18, 4 [Harv. I 175, 1]; Did., Gen. 92, 20).—B. 850. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > κρύπτω

  • 677 κτάομαι

    κτάομαι fut. κτήσομαι; 1 aor. ἐκτησάμην; pf. κέκτημαι; fut. pf. 3 sg. κεκτήσεται (Tat. 20, 3 as Aeschyl., Th. 1022 et al.). Pass.: fut. 3 pl. κτηθήσοναι Jer 39:45 (s. next entry; Hom.+)
    to gain possession of, procure for oneself, acquire, get τὶ someth. 2 Cl 5:7. πάντα ὅσα κτῶμαι my whole income Lk 18:12. W. acc. and εἴς τι foll.: χρυσὸν … εἰς τὰς ζώνας acquire gold (in order to put it) into your (money-) belts Mt 10:9. Procure τὶ someth. (Plut., Mor. 189d βιβλία κτᾶσθαι) τὴν δωρεὰν τ. θεοῦ διὰ χρημάτων κτᾶσθαι secure the gift of God with money Ac 8:20 (Herodian 2, 6, 5 χρήμασι κ. τι). Also ἐκ: χωρίον ἐκ μισθοῦ τ. ἀδικίας acquire a field w. the reward of his wickedness 1:18 (JSickenberger, BZ 18, ’29, 69–71). Also w. gen. of price πολλοῦ κεφαλαίου for a large sum Ac 22:28. τὸ ἑαυτοῦ σκεῦος κτᾶσθαι ἐν ἁγιασμῷ καὶ τιμῇ take a wife for himself (or: gain control over his own body; s. σκεῦος 3) in consecration and honor 1 Th 4:4 (cp. κτᾶσθαι γυναῖκα X., Symp. 2, 10; Sir 36:24). ἐν τῇ ὑπομονῇ ὑμῶν κτήσεσθε τὰς ψυχὰς ὑμῶν you will win your lives by your endurance Lk 21:19.
    bring upon oneself, of misfortunes, etc. (Soph.; Eur.; Thu. 1, 42, 2 ἔχθραν; Pr 3:31; ApcEsdr 2:12 p. 26, 5 Tdf. παρακοήν) εὔχομαι, ἵνα μὴ εἰς μαρτύριον αὐτὸ κτήσωνται I pray that they may not bring it (my message) upon themselves as a witness (against them) IPhld 6:3.
    possess, the pf. (only in Ign. in our lit.) has this present mng. (Appian, Bell. Civ. 5, 67 §282 οἱ κεκτημένοι=those who possessed [slaves]; En 97:10; TestSol 1:10 D; TestJob 11:2; JosAs 2:10 cod. A; EpArist 229; Philo, Cher. 119, Mos. 1, 157 al.; Jos., C. Ap. 1, 66; Just., D. 29, 2; Tat. 1:2 al.) τινά someone ἐπίσκοπον IEph 1:3. τὶ someth. ὄνομα 1:1. ἀγάπην 14:2. λόγον Ἰησοῦ 15:2. πνεῦμα IMg 15; IPol 1:3. διακονίαν IPhld 1:1. γνώμην IPol 8:1.—M-M. DELG. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > κτάομαι

  • 678 Κυρηναῖος

    Κυρηναῖος, ου, ὁ (s. next entry; Hdt. et al.; OGI 767, 31; Michel 897, 26; PPetr I, 16 [1], 3; 22 [1], 3; 2 Macc 2:23; Joseph.) a Cyrenian (s. Κυρήνη) with the article Ac 13:1 (Socrates, Ep. 28, 1 Θεόδωρος ὁ Κ.; Athen. 7, 14 p. 281c). Without the article Mk 15:21; Lk 23:26 (Diod S 11, 84, 1 Πολύμναστος Κυρηναῖος).—Adj. ἄνθρωπος Κ. Mt 27:32. ἄνδρες Κ. Ac 11:20. In Jerusalem the Cyrenian Jews had a synagogue, either for themselves alone, or together w. other Jews of the Diaspora 6:9 (Schürer II 428; III 60f).—BZimolong, BZ 21, ’33, 184–88; EBishop, ET 51, ’39/40, 148–53; WBarclay, ET 72, ’60, 28–31.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > Κυρηναῖος

  • 679 λαλέω

    λαλέω impf. ἐλάλουν; fut. λαλήσω; 1 aor. ἐλάλησα; pf. λελάληκα. Pass.: 1 fut. λαληθήσομαι; 1 aor. ἐλαλήθην; pf. λελάλημαι (Soph.+). In older Gk. usu. of informal communication ranging from engagement in small talk to chattering and babbling, hence opp. of λέγω; in later Gk the trend, expressed esp. in the pseudepigr. and our lit., is toward equation with λέγω and broadening of the earlier usage.
    to make a sound, sound, give forth sounds/tones (Aesop fab. 248b H./146 H-H./202 Ch./v.l. 141 P.) that form a kind of speech, esp. of inanimate things (e.g. of the echo, Cass. Dio 74, 21, 14; of streams of water Achilles Tat. 2, 14, 8; OdeSol 11:6 τὸ ὕδωρ τὸ λαλοῦν), of thunder ἐλάλησαν αἱ βρονταί Rv 10:4ab. ἐλάλησαν αἱ βρονταὶ τὰς ἑαυτῶν φωνάς vs. 3. Of a trumpet 4:1 (cp. Aristot., De Aud. p. 801a, 29 διὰ τούτων=flutes, etc.; Achilles Tat. 2, 14, 8 of the κιθάρα). Of the blood of Christ, that speaks more effectively than that of Abel (Gen 4:10) Hb 12:24; s. 11:4 (Goodsp., Probs. 188). Cp. J 12:29.
    to utter words, talk, speak, of pers.
    of the act of speaking, intr.
    α. (be able to) speak; to have and use the faculty of speech, in contrast to one who is incapable of speaking (cp. Ps 113:13; 134:16; 3 Macc 4:16; TestSol 10:3 C λ. ἀνθρωπίνως) Mt 9:33; 12:22; 15:31; Mk 7:37; Lk 1:20, 64; 11:14. ἐλάλει ὀρθῶς he could speak plainly (in contrast to the unintelligible utterances of a deaf-mute) Mk 7:35.
    β. speak, express oneself (Aesop, Fab. 146 H-H. et al.) οὐ γὰρ ὑμεῖς ἐστε οἱ λαλοῦντες it is not you who (will) speak Mt 10:20 (cp. TestAbr A 6 p. 83, 5 [Stone p. 14] ἄγγελος κυρίου ἐστὶν ὁ λαλῶν; AscIs 1, 7, τὸ πνεῦμα … τὸ λαλοῦν ἐν ἐμοί). προφῆται δύο ἢ τρεῖς λαλείτωσαν two or three prophets are to express themselves 1 Cor 14:29. ἔτι αὐτοῦ λαλοῦντος while he was still speaking Mt 17:5; 26:47; Mk 5:35; 14:43; Lk 8:49; 22:47, 60. μηκέτι αὐτοῦ λαλοῦντος AcPl Ha 5, 14 of a lion (?); μηκέτι λαλήσας 10, 25=MartPl Aa I 115, 16.—Lk 5:4; 1 Cor 14:11ab, al.—In contrast to listening (Plut., Mor. 502c λαλοῦντι μὲν πρὸς τ. ἀκούοντας μὴ ἀκούοντι δὲ τ. λαλούντων) Js 1:19; cp. 1 Cor 14:35.—In contrast to keeping silent (Lucian, Vit. Auct. 3) οὐκ ἤφιεν λαλεῖν τ. δαιμόνια Mk 1:34; Lk 4:41 (λέγειν v.l.). λάλει καὶ μὴ σιωπήσῃς Ac 18:9. οὐ γὰρ ἐπιτρέπεται λαλείν (women) are not permitted to express themselves 1 Cor 14:34f (cp. Plut., Mor. 142d: a woman ought to take care of her home and be quiet; for she should either converse with her husband or through him). This pass. refers to expression in a congregational assembly, which would engage not only in worship but in discussion of congregational affairs; the latter appears to be implied here, for it was contrary to custom for Hellenic women, in contrast to their privileges in certain cultic rites (cp. 1 Cor 11:5), to participate in public deliberations (s. Danker, Benefactor 164, w. ref. to IG II, 1369, 107–9; for other views s. comm.).—In contrast to acting Js 2:12.
    γ. The pers. to whom or with whom one is speaking is mentioned in various ways: in the dat. λ. τινί speak to or with someone (Aristoph., Equ. 348; Philemon Com. 11 Kock; Menander, Periciromene 220 σοί; Aelian, Ep. 14 p. 181, 1; Diog. L. 9, 64; pseudepigr.; Just., A I, 63, 14. λ. ἑαυτῷ=with oneself; Lev 1:1f; Ezk 33:30b) Mt 12:46ab, 47; 13:10; Mk 16:19; Lk 1:22; 24:6, 32; J 4:26 (cp. CB I/2, 566f no. 467–69 Ἀθάνατος Ἐπιτύνχανος says of himself: ἐγὼ εἶμαι ὁ λαλῶν πάντα); 9:29; 12:29; 15:22; Ac 9:27; Ro 7:1; 1 Cor 3:1; 1 Th 2:16; Hb 1:1f; by πρός and the acc. (Plut. Mor. 502c [s. β above]; Ps.-Lucian, Asin. 44; Gen 27:6; Ex 30:11, 17, 22; JosAs 14:7 al.; ParJer 3:5; ApcMos 28; SibOr 3, 669; Just., D. 27, 3) Lk 1:19, 55; Ac 4:1; 8:26; 11:20; 26:31 (cp. Lat. ire in consilium; Taubenschlag, OpMin. II 725 [the pap ref. is unsatisfactory]); by μετά and the gen. (Gen 35:13) Mk 6:50; J 4:27; 9:37; 14:30; Rv 1:12; 10:8; 17:1; 21:9, 15. μὴ διαλίπῃς λαλῶν εἰς τὰ ὦτα τῶν ἁγίων Hv 4, 3, 6.—The pers. or thing spoken about is expressed by περί w. the gen. (PSI 361, 5 [251 B.C.] λαλήσας περί μου; PFay 126, 4 [c. 200 A.D.]; Gen 19:21; Ezk 33:30a; TestAbr B 8 p. 112 14 [Stone p. 72]; TestJob 46:7; JosAs 6:2 al.; Philo, Fuga 33, 30a) J 8:26; 12:41; Ac 2:31; Hb 2:5; 4:8.—τινὶ περί τινος (PPetr II, 13 (6), 9 [III B.C.]) Lk 2:38; 9:11; pass. Ac 22:10.
    δ. The speaking or uttering can be more closely defined: κακῶς, καλῶς J 18:23. ὡς νήπιος 1 Cor 13:11. ὡς δράκων (hissed?) Rv 13:11. στόμα πρὸς στόμα face to face (cp. Num 12:8; ApcEsdr 6:6 p. 31, 10 Tdf.) 2J 12; 3J 14. εἰς ἀέρα 1 Cor 14:9. κατὰ κύριον 2 Cor 11:17. ἐκ τοῦ περισσεύματος τ. καρδίας τὸ στόμα λαλεῖ Mt 12:34; Lk 6:45. ἐκ τῆς γῆς J 3:31 (cp. Lev 1:1 λ. ἐκ τῆς σκηνῆς). ἐκ τῶν ἰδίων J 8:44. παρρησίᾳ 7:13, 26. ἐν παρρησίᾳ 16:29. ἐν παραβολαῖς Mt 13:10, 13. χωρὶς παραβολῆς Mk 4:34. λ. (ἐν) ψαλμοῖς speak in psalms Eph 5:19. Of prophets λ. ἐν πνεύματι D 11:7 (Just., D. 7, 1). Of God λ. διὰ στόματος τ. προφητῶν Lk 1:70; cp. Ac 28:25.
    ε. as subst. ptc. τὰ λαλούμενα (Paradox. Vat. 2 Keller; Jos., Ant. 16, 321; Just., D. 7, 2) ὑπό τινος Ac 13:45; 16:14. τὰ λελαλημένα (EpArist 299; cp. TestSol 20:21 τὰ … λαληθέντα μοι) αὐτῇ παρὰ κυρίου Lk 1:45.—For λαλεῖν γλώσσῃ and λ. γλώσσαις s. γλῶσσα 3.
    of speech with ref. to what is expressed (the ability to λ. can generate λόγοι Aesop, Vi. G 7f P.), trans. speak and thereby assert, proclaim, say τὶ someth. (X., Cyr. 1, 4, 1 πολλά; Demosth. 45, 77 μέγα; Paradox. Vat. 2 τὰ ὀνόματα) τὰ ῥήματα τ. θεοῦ J 3:34. ῥῆμα Mt 12:36; cp. J 8:20 (JosAs 14:14 al.; ParJer 3:4.). τὸν λόγον Mk 8:32; J 12:48; Ac 4:29, 31 (λαλ. τι μετὰ παρρησίας as Jos., Ant. 16, 113); 8:25; 14:25; 16:6, 32. τὰ μεγαλεῖα τ. θεοῦ Ac 2:11 (TestJob 38:1). βλασφημίας Lk 5:21; cp. Ac 6:11 (JosAs 13:9; Just., D. 32, 3). σοφίαν 1 Cor 2:6f. μυστήρια 14:2; cp. Col 4:3. τὰ μὴ δέοντα 1 Ti 5:13. τὸ στόμα λαλεῖ ὑπέρογκα Jd 16; μεγάλα Rv 13:5. τί Mt 10:19; Mk 13:11; J 12:49. ὸ̔ λαλεῖ Mk 11:23; cp. J 10:6; 12:50. ταῦτα Lk 24:36; J 8:28, 30; 12:36; 17:1; AcPl Ha 10, 11. ἐλάλησέν τι περὶ σοῦ πονηρόν Ac 28:21 (cp. 3 Km 22:8, 13b; JosAs 12:5). ἐσύρετο μηδὲν λαλῶν (Paul) let himself be dragged in without saying a word AcPl Ha 4, 11.—Pass. λαλεῖταί τι someth. is said, proclaimed, reported (cp. the ins for mother and brother [APF 5, 1913, 169 no. 24, 8] ὧν καὶ ἡ σωφροσύνη κατὰ τ. κόσμον λελάληται, also Ps 86:3) Mt 26:13; Mk 14:9; cp. Hb 2:3; 9:19 ἡ λαλουμένη διδαχή Ac 17:19. ὁ λαληθεὶς λόγος Hb 2:2. ἐλαλήθη ὅτι 11:18 (B-D-F §397, 3).—Oft., in addition, the pers. spoken to is mentioned, in the dat. ἄλλην παραβολὴν ἐλάλησεν αὐτοῖς Mt 13:33. ἐλάλει αὐτοῖς τὸν λόγον he proclaimed the word to them Mk 2:2; 4:33; J 15:3; Ac 11:19. ἐλάλησεν αὐτοῖς πολλὰ ἐν παραβολαῖς Mt 13:3; cp. vs. 34. τὸ ῥῆμα … αὐτοῖς Lk 2:50; cp. J 6:63.—8:40 (ἀλήθειαν λ. as Eph 4:25 below); 14:25; 15:11; 16:1, 4, 6. ἀνθρώποις λαλεῖ οἰκοδομήν 1 Cor 14:3; w. πρός and acc. (Gen 18:19; Zech 8:16) λόγους … ἐλάλησα πρὸς ὑμᾶς Lk 24:44 (cp. Dt 10:4).—Ac 3:22; 11:14; 1 Th 2:2; w. ἐν and the dat. σοφίαν λαλοῦμεν ἐν τ. τελείοις we discourse of wisdom among those who are mature 1 Cor 2:6; w. μετά and the gen. λαλεῖτε ἀλήθειαν ἕκαστος μετὰ τοῦ πλησίον αὐτοῦ Eph 4:25 (cp. Zech 8:16). ὅσα ἂν λαλήσω μετὰ σοῦ Hs 5, 3, 2; cp. Hs ins.—W. the speaking definitely characterized ταῦτα ἐν παροιμίαις λελάληκα ὑμῖν J 16:25a. κατὰ ἄνθρωπον ταῦτα λαλῶ 1 Cor 9:8. ἐν ἐκκλησίᾳ θέλω πέντε λόγους τῷ νοί̈ μου λαλῆσαι 14:19. πάντα ἐν ἀληθείᾳ ἐλαλήσαμεν ὑμῖν 2 Cor 7:14. ἀφόβως τὸν λόγον τ. θεοῦ λαλεῖν Phil 1:14. λ. τι εἰς τὰ ὦτά τινος communicate someth. to someone personally (cp. Dt 5:1) Hv 3, 8, 11 (for 4, 3, 6 s. 2aγ above). λ. τι πρὸς τὸ οὖς whisper someth. in someone’s ear (so that no one else hears it; cp. Jos., Ant. 6, 165) Lk 12:3.
    In a number of passages the content of the speaking is introduced by λέγων (s. λέγω 1bθא), just as in the OT (Gen 34:8; 41:9; 42:22; Ex 31:12; Lev 20:1; TestAbr B 12 p. 116, 28 [Stone p. 80]; TestJob 7:1 al.; ParJer 1:1; 1:6 al.; ApcMos 16) Mt 13:3; 14:27; 23:1; 28:18; J 8:12; Ac 8:26; Rv 4:1; 17:1 al. Optional: εἶπον, q.v., end.—B. 1254. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > λαλέω

  • 680 λαμβάνω

    λαμβάνω (Hom.+) impf. ἐλάμβανον; fut. λήμψομαι (PTurin II, 3, 48; POxy 1664, 12; on the μ s. Mayser 194f; Thackeray 108ff; B-D-F §101; W-S. §5, 30; Mlt-H. 106; 246f; Reinhold 46f; WSchulze, Orthographica 1894.—On the middle s. B-D-F §77); 2 aor. ἔλαβον, impv. λάβε (B-D-F §101 p. 53 s.v. λαμβάνειν; W-S. §6, 7d; Mlt-H. 209 n. 1), impv. 3 pl. λαβέτωσαν (LXX; GJs 4:2); pf. εἴληφα (DRinge, Glotta 62, ’84, 125–28), 2 sing. εἴληφας and εἴληφες Rv 11:17 v.l. (W-S. §13, 16 note; Mlt-H. 221), ptc. εἰληφώς. Pass.: fut. 3 pl. ληφθήσονται Jdth 6:9; aor. εἰλήφθην LXX; pf. 3 sing. εἴληπται; plpf. 3 sg. εἴληπτο (Just., D. 132, 3). For Attic inscriptional forms s. Threatte II 645. In the following divisions, nos. 1–9 focus on an active role, whereas 10 suggests passivity.
    to get hold of someth. by laying hands on or grasping someth., directly or indirectly, take, take hold of, grasp, take in hand ἄρτον (Diod S 14, 105, 3 ῥάβδον; TestSol 2:8 D τὴν σφραγῖδα; TestJob 23:10 ψαλίδα) Mt 26:26a; Mk 14:22a; Ac 27:35. τ. βιβλίον (Tob 7:14) Rv 5:8f. τ. κάλαμον Mt 27:30. λαμπάδας take (in hand) (Strattis Com. [V B.C.], Fgm. 37 K. λαβόντες λαμπάδας) 25:1, 3. λαβέτωσαν ἀνὰ λαμπάδα GJs 7:2. μάχαιραν draw the sword (Gen 34:25; Jos., Vi. 173 [cp. JosAs 23:2 τὴν ῥομφαίαν]) Mt 26:52. Abs. λάβετε take (this) Mt 26:26b; Mk 14:22b. Take hold of (me) GHb 356, 39=ISm 3:2.—ἔλαβέ με ἡ μήτηρ μου τὸ ἅγιον πνεῦμα ἐν μιᾷ τῶν τριχῶν μου my mother, the Holy Spirit, took me by one of my hairs GHb 20, 63. Ἐλισάβεδ … λαβουμένη (λαβοῦσα codd.) αὐτὸν ἀνέβη ἐν τῇ ὀρεινῇ E. took (John) and went up into the hill-country GJs 22:3. λαβών is somet. used somewhat pleonastically to enliven the narrative, as in Hom. (Od. 24, 398) and dramatists (Soph., Oed. R. 1391 et al.), but also in accord w. Hebr. usage (JViteau, Étude sur le Grec du NT 1893, 191; Dalman, Worte 16ff; Wlh., Einleitung2 1911, 14; B-D-F §419, 1 and 2; s. Rob. 1127; s., e.g., ApcBar 2:1 λαβών με ἤγαγε; Josh 2:4; Horapollo 2, 88 τούτους λαβὼν κατορύττει) Mt 13:31, 33; Mk 9:36; Lk 13:19, 21; J 12:3; Ac 9:25; 16:3; Hs 5, 2, 4. The ptc. can here be rendered by the prep. with (B-D-F §418, 5; Rob. 1127) λαβὼν τὴν σπεῖραν ἔρχεται he came with a detachment J 18:3 (cp. Soph., Trach. 259 στρατὸν λαβὼν ἔρχεται; ApcrEsd 6, 17 p. 31, 24 Tdf. λαβὼν … στρατιὰν ἀγγέλων). λαβὼν τὸ αἷμα … τὸν λαὸν ἐρράντισε with the blood he sprinkled the people Hb 9:19 (cp. ParJer 9:32 λαβόντες τὸν λίθον ἔθηκαν ἐπὶ τὸ μνῆμα αὐτοῦ ‘they crowned his tomb with a stone’; Mel., P. 14, 88 λαβόντες δὲ τὸ … αἶμα). Different is the periphrastic aor. ptc. use of λ. w. ἔχει: Dg 10:6 ἃ παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ λαβὼν ἔχει what the pers. has received fr. God (cp. Eur., Bacchae 302 μεταλαβὼν ἔχει; Goodwin §47; Gildersleeve, Syntax §295; Schwyzer I, 812). Freq. parataxis takes the place of the ptc. constr. (B-D-F §419, 5) ἔλαβε τὸν Ἰησοῦν καὶ ἐμαστίγωσεν (instead of λαβὼν τ. Ἰ. ἐ.) he had Jesus scourged J 19:1. λαβεῖν τὸν ἄρτον … καὶ βαλεῖν throw the bread Mt 15:26; Mk 7:27. ἔλαβον τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐποίησαν τέσσερα μέρη they divided his garments into four parts J 19:23.—In transf. sense ἀφορμὴν λ. find opportunity Ro 7:8, 11 (s. ἀφορμή); ὑπόδειγμα λ. take as an example Js 5:10; so also λ. alone, λάβωμεν Ἐνώχ 1 Cl 9:3.—Of the cross as a symbol of the martyr’s death take upon oneself Mt 10:38 (cp. Pind., P. 2, 93 [171] λ. ζυγόν). We may class here ἔλαβεν τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτοῦ he put his clothes on J 13:12 (cp. Hdt. 2, 37; 4, 78; GrBar 9:7 τὸν ὄφιν ἔλαβεν ἔνδυμα). Prob. sim. μορφὴν δούλου λ. put on the form of a slave Phil 2:7.—Of food and drink take (cp. Bel 37 Theod.) Mk 15:23. ὅτε ἔλαβεν τὸ ὄξος J 19:30; λαβὼν τροφὴν ἐνίσχυσεν Ac 9:19; τροφὴν … λα[βεῖν] AcPl Ha 1, 19. (βρέφος) ἔλαβε μασθὸν ἐκ τῆς μητρὸς αὐτοῦ Μαρίας (the infant) took the breast of his mother Mary GJs 19:2.—1 Ti 4:4 (s. 10b below) could also belong here.
    to take away, remove (τὴν ψυχήν ApcEsdr 6:16 p. 31, 23 Tdf.) with or without the use of force τὰ ἀργύρια take away the silver coins (fr. the temple) Mt 27:6. τὰς ἀσθενείας diseases 8:17. τὸν στέφανον Rv 3:11. τὴν εἰρήνην ἐκ τῆς γῆς remove peace from the earth 6:4 (λ. τι ἐκ as UPZ 125, 13 ὸ̔ εἴληφεν ἐξ οἴκου; 2 Ch 16:2; TestSol 4:15 D; TestAbr B 7 p. 111, 12 [Stone p. 70]; Mel., P. 55, 403).
    to take into one’s possession, take, acquire τὶ someth. τὸν χιτῶνα Mt 5:40. οὐδὲ ἕν J 3:27. ἑαυτῷ βασιλείαν obtain kingly power for himself Lk 19:12 (cp. Jos., Ant. 13, 220). λ. γυναῖκα take a wife (Eur., Alc. 324; X., Cyr. 8, 4, 16; Gen 4:19; 6:2; Tob 1:9; TestSol 26:1; TestJob 45:3; ParJer 8:3; Jos., Ant. 1, 253; Just., D. 116, 3; 141, 4) Mk 12:19–21; 22 v.l.; Lk 20:28–31 (s. also the vv.ll. in 14:20 and 1 Cor 7:28). Of his life, that Jesus voluntarily gives up, in order to take possession of it again on his own authority J 10:18a. [ἀπολείπ]ετε τὸ σκότος, λάβεται τὸ φῶς [abandon] the darkness, seize the light AcPl Ha 8, 32. ἑαυτῷ τ. τιμὴν λ. take the honor upon oneself Hb 5:4.Lay hands on, seize w. acc. of the pers. who is seized by force (Hom. et al.; LXX; mid. w. gen. Just., A II, 2, 10, D. 105, 3) Mt 21:35, 39; Mk 12:3, 8. Of an evil spirit that seizes the sick man Lk 9:39 (cp. PGM 7, 613 εἴλημπται ὑπὸ τοῦ δαίμονος; TestSol 17:2 εἰ λήμψομαί τινα, εὐθέως ἀναιρῶ αὐτὸν τῷ ξίφει; Jos., Ant. 4, 119 ὅταν ἡμᾶς τὸ τοῦ θεοῦ λάβῃ πνεῦμα; Just., A I, 18, 4 ψυχαῖς ἀποθανόντων λαμβανόμενοι).—Esp. of feelings, emotions seize, come upon τινά someone (Hom. et al.; Ex 15:15; Wsd 11:12; Jos., Ant. 2, 139; 14, 57) ἔκστασις ἔλαβεν ἅπαντας amazement seized (them) all Lk 5:26. φόβος 7:16. Sim. πειρασμὸς ὑμᾶς οὐκ εἴληφεν εἰ μὴ ἀνθρώπινος 1 Cor 10:13.—Of hunting and fishing: catch (X., Cyr. 1, 4, 9; Aelian, VH 4, 14) οὐδέν Lk 5:5=J 21:6 v.l. Fig. εἴ τις λαμβάνει (ὑμᾶς) if someone puts something over on you, takes advantage of you 2 Cor 11:20 (the exx. cited in Field, Notes, 184f refer to material plunder, whereas Paul appears to point to efforts of his opposition to control the Corinthians’ thinking for their own political purposes; also s. CLattey, JTS 44, ’43, 148); in related vein δόλῳ τινὰ λ. catch someone by a trick 12:16.
    to take payment, receive, accept, of taxes, etc. collect the two-drachma tax Mt 17:24; tithes Hb 7:8f; portion of the fruit as rent Mt 21:34. τὶ ἀπό τινος someth. fr. someone (Plut., Mor. 209d, Aem. Paul. 5, 9) 17:25. παρὰ τῶν γεωργῶν λ. ἀπὸ τῶν καρπῶν collect a share of the fruit fr. the vinedressers Mk 12:2.—τὶ παρά τινος someth. fr. someone (Aristarch. Sam. p. 352, 4; Jos., Ant. 5, 275; Just., D. 22, 11; Tat. 19, 1) οὐ παρὰ ἀνθρώπου τὴν μαρτυρίαν λ. the testimony which I receive is not from a human being or I will not accept mere human testimony (PSI 395, 6 [241 B.C.] σύμβολον λαβὲ παρʼ αὐτῶν=have them give you a receipt) J 5:34; cp. vs. 44; 3:11, 32f.
    to include in an experience, take up, receive τινὰ someone εἰς into (Wsd 8:18) lit. εἰς τὸ πλοῖον take someone (up) into the boat J 6:21. εἰς οἰκίαν receive someone into one’s house 2J 10. εἰς τὰ ἴδια into his own home J 19:27. Receive someone in the sense of recognizing the other’s authority J 1:12; 5:43ab; 13:20abcd.—οἱ ὑπηρέται ῥαπίσμασιν αὐτὸν ἔλαβον Mk 14:65 does not mean ‘the servants took him into custody with blows’ (BWeiss, al.), but is a colloquialism (s. B-D-F §198, 3, w. citation of AcJo 90 [Aa II 196, 1] τί εἰ ῥαπίσμασίν μοι ἔλαβες; ‘what if you had laid blows on me?’) the servants treated him to blows (Moffatt: ‘treated him to cuffs and slaps’), or even ‘got’ him w. blows, ‘worked him over’ (perh. a Latinism; Cicero, Tusc. 2, 14, 34 verberibus accipere. B-D-F §5, 3b; s. Rob. 530f); the v.l. ἔβαλον is the result of failure to recognize this rare usage. καλῶς ἔλαβόν σε; have (the young women) treated you well? Hs 9, 11, 8.
    to make a choice, choose, select πᾶς ἀρχιερεὺς ἐξ ἀνθρώπων λαμβανόμενος who is chosen fr. among human beings Hb 5:1 (cp. Num 8:6; Am 2:11; Just., D. 130, 3). The emphasis is not on gender but the human status of the chief priest in contrast to that of the unique Messiah vs. 5.
    to accept as true, receive τὶ someth. fig. τὰ ῥήματά τινος receive someone’s words (and use them as a guide) J 12:48; 17:8; AcPl Ha 1, 6 (s. καρδία 1bβ). τὸν λόγον receive the teaching Mt 13:20; Mk 4:16 (for μετὰ χαρᾶς λ. cp. PIand 13, 18 ἵνα μετὰ χαρᾶς σε ἀπολάβωμεν).
    to enter into a close relationship, receive, make one’s own, apprehend/comprehend mentally or spiritually (Soph., Pla. et al.) of the mystical apprehension of Christ (opp. κατελήμφθην ὑπὸ Χριστοῦ) ἔλαβον (i.e. Χριστόν) I have made (him) my own Phil 3:12.
    Special uses: the OT is the source of λαμβάνειν πρόσωπον show partiality/favoritism (s. πρόσωπον 1bα end) Lk 20:21; Gal 2:6; B 19:4; D 4:3.—θάρσος λ. take courage s. θάρσος; πεῖράν τινος λ. try someth. (Pla., Prot. 342a; 348a, Gorg. 448a; X., Cyr. 6, 1, 28; Polyb. 1, 75, 7; 2, 32, 5; 5, 100, 10; Aelian, VH 12, 22; Dt 28:56; Jos., Ant. 8, 166; diff. Dio Chrys. 50, 6) Hb 11:29 (this expr. has a different mng. in vs. 36; s. 10b below).—συμβούλιον λαμβάνειν consult (with someone), lit. ‘take counsel’, is a Latinism (consilium capere; s. B-D-F §5, 3b; Rob. 109) Mt 27:7; 28:12; w. ὅπως foll. 22:15; foll. by κατά τινος against someone and ὅπως 12:14; foll. by κατά τινος and ὥστε 27:1. οὐ λήψῃ βουλὴν πονηρὰν κατὰ τοῦ πλησίον σου D 2:6.
    to be a receiver, receive, get, obtain
    abs. λαβών (of a hungry hog) when it has received someth. B 10:3. (Opp. αἰτεῖν, as Appian, Fgm. [I p. 532–36 Viereck-R.] 23 αἰτεῖτε καὶ λαμβάνετε; PGM 4, 2172) Mt 7:8; Lk 11:10; J 16:24. (Opp. διδόναι as Thu. 2, 97, 4 λαμβάνειν μᾶλλον ἢ διδόναι; Ael. Aristid. 34 p. 645 D.; Herm. Wr. 5, 10b; Philo, Deus Imm. 57; SibOr 3, 511) Mt 10:8; Ac 20:35; B 14:1; but in D 1:5 λ. rather has the ‘active’ sense accept a donation (as ἵνα λάβῃ ἐξουσίαν TestJob 8:2).
    w. acc. of thing τὶ someth. (Da 2:6; OdeSol 11:4 σύνεσιν; TestJob 24:9 τρεῖς ἄρτους al.; ApcEsdr 5:13 p. 30, 11 Tdf. τὴν ψυχήν) τὸ ψωμίον receive the piece of bread J 13:30. ὕδωρ ζωῆς δωρεάν water of life without cost Rv 22:17. μισθόν (q.v. 1 and 2a) Mt 10:41ab; J 4:36; 1 Cor 3:8, 14; AcPlCor 2:36 (TestSol 1:2, 10). Money: ἀργύρια Mt 28:15; ἀνὰ δηνάριον a denarius each Mt 20:9f. ἐλεημοσύνην Ac 3:3. βραχύ τι a little or a bite J 6:7; eternal life Mk 10:30 (Jos., C. Ap. 2, 218 βίον ἀμείνω λαβεῖν); the Spirit (schol. on Plato 856e ἄνωθεν λαμβάνειν τὸ πνεῦμα) J 7:39; Ac 2:38; cp. Gal 3:14; 1 Cor 2:12; 2 Cor 11:4; forgiveness of sin Ac 10:43 (Just., D. 54, 1); grace Ro 1:5; cp. 5:17; the victor’s prize 1 Cor 9:24f; the crown of life Js 1:12 (cp. Wsd 5:16 λ. τὸ διάδημα). συμφύγιον/σύμφυτον καὶ ὅπλον εὐδοκίας λάβωμεν Ἰησοῦν χριστόν the sense of this clause, restored from AcPl Ha 8, 23–24 and AcPl Ox 1602, 33–35 (=BMM recto 29–31) emerges as follows: and let us take Jesus Christ as our refuge/ally and shield, the assurance of God’s goodwill toward us. The early and late rain Js 5:7. ἔλεος receive mercy Hb 4:16 (Just., D. 133, 1). λ. τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ υἱοῦ (θεοῦ) receive the name of the Son of God (in baptism) Hs 9, 12, 4. διάδοχον receive a successor Ac 24:27 (cp. Pliny the Younger, Ep. 9, 13 successorem accipio). τὴν ἐπισκοπὴν αὐτοῦ λαβέτω ἕτερος let another man receive his position 1:20 (Ps 108:8). τόπον ἀπολογίας λ. (τόπος 4) 25:16. λ. τι μετὰ εὐχαριστίας receive someth. w. thankfulness 1 Ti 4:4 (but s. 1 above, end.—On the construction with μετά cp. Libanius, Or. 63 p. 392, 3 F. μετὰ ψόγου λ.). τί ἔχεις ὅ οὐκ ἔλαβες; what have you that you did not receive? 1 Cor 4:7 (Alciphron 2, 6, 1 τί οὐ τῶν ἐμῶν λαβοῦσα ἔχεις;). Of punishments (cp. δίκην λ. Hdt. 1, 115; Eur., Bacch. 1312. ποινάς Eur., Tro. 360. πληγάς Philyllius Com. [V B.C.] 11 K.; GrBar 4:15 καταδίκην; Jos., Ant. 14, 336 τιμωρίαν) λ. περισσότερον κρίμα receive a punishment that is just so much more severe Mt 23:13 [14] v.l. (cp. κρίμα 4b); Mk 12:40; Lk 20:47; cp. Js 3:1. οἱ ἀνθεστηκότες ἑαυτοῖς κρίμα λήμψονται those who oppose will bring punishment upon themselves Ro 13:2. πεῖράν τινος λ. become acquainted with, experience, suffer someth. (X., An. 5, 8, 15; Polyb. 6, 3, 1; 28, 9, 7; 29, 3, 10; Diod S 12, 24, 4 τὴν θυγατέρα ἀπέκτεινεν, ἵνα μὴ τῆς ὕβρεως λάβῃ πεῖραν; 15, 88, 4; Jos., Ant. 2, 60; Preisigke, Griech. Urkunden des ägypt. Museums zu Kairo [1911] 2, 11; 3, 11 πεῖραν λ. δαίμονος) μαστίγων πεῖραν λ. Hb 11:36 (the phrase in a diff. mng. vs. 29; s. 9b above).
    Also used as a periphrasis for the passive: οἰκοδομὴν λ. be edified 1 Cor 14:5. περιτομήν be circumcised J 7:23 (Just., D. 23, 5 al.). τὸ χάραγμα receive a mark = be marked Rv 14:9, 11; 19:20; 20:4. καταλλαγήν be reconciled Ro 5:11. ὑπόμνησίν τινος be reminded of = remember someth. 2 Ti 1:5 (Just., D 19, 6 μνήμην λαμβάνητε); λήθην τινὸς λ. forget someth. (Timocles Com. [IV B.C.], Fgm. 6, 5 K.; Aelian, VH 3, 18 end, HA 4, 35; Jos., Ant. 2, 163; 202; 4, 304; Just., D. 46, 5 ἵνα μὴ λήθη ὑμᾶς λαμβάνῃ τοῦ θεοῦ) 2 Pt 1:9; χαρὰν λ. experience joy, rejoice Hv 3, 13, 2 ; GJs 12:2; ἀρχὴν λ. be begun, have its beginning (Pla et al.; Polyb. 1, 12, 9; Sext. Emp., Phys. 1, 366; Aelian, VH 2, 28; 12, 53; Dio Chrys. 40, 7; Philo, Mos. 1, 81 τρίτον [σημεῖον] … τὴν ἀρχὴν τοῦ γίνεσθαι λαβὸν ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ; Just., D. 46, 4 τὴν ἀρχὴν λαβούσης ἀπὸ Ἀβραὰμ τῆς περιτομῆς; Ath. 19, 2 ἑτέραν ἀρχὴν τοῦ κόσμου λαβόντος) Hb 2:3; ApcPt Rainer ln. 19.—λ. τι ἀπό τινος receive someth. from someone (Epict. 4, 11, 3 λ. τι ἀπὸ τῶν θεῶν; Herm. Wr. 1, 30; ApcMos 19 ὅτε δὲ ἔλαβεν ἀπʼ ἐμοῦ τὸν ὄρκον; Just., D. 78, 10 τῶν λαβόντων χάριν ἀπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ) 1J 2:27; 3:22. Also τὶ παρά τινος (Pisander Epicus [VI B.C.] Fgm. 5 [in Athen. 11, 469d]; Diod S 5, 3, 4 λαβεῖν τι παρὰ τῶν θεῶν; TestAbr A 5 p. 82, 8 [Stone p. 12] λαβὼν τὴν εὐχὴν παρʼ αὐτῶν; Just., A I, 60, 3 ἐνέργειαν τὴν παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ λεγομένην λαβεῖν τὸν Μωυσέα.—παρά A3aβ) J 10:18b; Ac 2:33; 3:5; 20:24; Js 1:7; 2J 4; Rv 2:28. λ. τὸ ἱκανὸν παρὰ τοῦ Ἰάσονος receive bail from Jason Ac 17:9 (s. ἱκανός 1). λ. τι ὑπό τινος be given someth. by someone 2 Cor 11:24. κλῆρον καὶ μερισμὸν λαμβάνοντες AcPl Ha 8, 18/Ox 1602, 22f [λαβόντες]=BMM recto 23f (s. κλῆρος 2). λ. τι ἔκ τινος receive someth. fr. a quantity of someth.: ἐκ τοῦ πληρώματος αὐτοῦ ἐλάβομεν χάριν from his fullness we have received favor J 1:16. ἐκ τοῦ πνεύματος αὐτοῦ ἐλάβετε Hs 9, 24, 4.—λ. ἐξ ἀναστάσεως τοὺς νεκροὺς αὐτῶν (s. ἀνάστασις 2a) Hb 11:35. On ἐν γαστρὶ εἴληφα (LXX) GJs 4:2 and 4 s. γαστήρ 2 and συλλαμβάνω 3.—B. 743. Schmidt, Syn. III 203–33. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > λαμβάνω

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