Translation: from greek to english

from english to greek

the Spirit which God has caused to live in us

  • 1 κατοικίζω

    κατοικίζω (s. four prec. entries) fut. κατοικιῶ; 1 aor. κατῴκισα. Pass.: fut. κατοικισθήσομαι; aor. κατωκίσθην; pf. κατῴκισται (all LXX) cause to dwell, establish, settle (so Hdt. et al.; POxy 705, 24; LXX; EpArist; Jos., Ant. 1, 110 εἰς; 11, 19 ἐν) of the Spirit τὸ πνεῦμα ὸ̔ κατῴκισεν ἐν ἡμῖν the Spirit which (God) has caused to live in us Js 4:5. τὸ πνεῦμα ὸ̔ ὁ θεὸς κ. ἐν τῇ σαρκὶ ταύτῃ Hm 3:1. τὸ πνεῦμα κατῴκισεν ὁ θεὸς εἰς σάρκα God caused the Spirit to dwell in flesh Hs 5, 6, 5.—M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > κατοικίζω

  • 2 νοῦς

    νοῦς, νοός, νοί̈, νοῦν, ὁ (contracted fr. νόος.—Hom. et al.; pap, LXX, TestSol, Test12Patr; SibOr 3, 574; EpArist 276; Philo [oft.]; Jos., Ant. 3, 65, Vi. 122 al.; apolog. exc. Mel.—On its declension s. B-D-F §52; W-S. §8, 11; Mlt-H. 127; 142) in the NT only in Pauline lit. except for Lk 24:45; Rv 13:18; 17:9.
    mind, intellect as the side of life contrasted w. physical existence, the higher, mental part of a human being that initiates thoughts and plans (Apollonius of Tyana [I A.D.] in Eus., PE 4, 13; Orig., C. Cels. 8, 38, 21; 52, 24; Did., Gen. 57, 26): ὁ νόμος τοῦ νοός (μου) the law of (my) intellect Ro 7:22 v.l., 23. (Opp. σάρξ) τῷ ν. δουλεύειν νόμῳ θεοῦ serve the law of God w. one’s intellect vs. 25.
    understanding, mind as faculty of thinking (Hippol., Ref. 4, 43, 2; Did., Gen. 44, 11 [w. λογισμός]) διανοίγειν τὸν ν. τινος open someone’s mind Lk 24:45. ὁ ἔχων νοῦν whoever has understanding Rv 13:18 (ν. ἔχειν as Aristoph., Equ. 482; Hyperid. 3, 23; Dio Chrys. 17 [34], 39; 23 [40], 26; Ael. Aristid. 23, 12 K.=42 p. 771 D.; EpArist 276; Philo, Mos. 1, 141; TestReub 3:8; Ar. 9, 5; Just., D. 30, 1; 60, 2; Tat. 1, 2). ὧδε ὁ ν. ὁ ἔχων σοφίαν here is (i.e. this calls for) a mind with wisdom 17:9. νοῦν διδόναι grant understanding Dg 10:2. Also παρέχειν νοῦν 11:5. ὁ σοφίαν καὶ νοῦν θέμενος ἐν ἡμῖν τῶν κρυφίων αὐτοῦ who has placed in us wisdom and understanding of his secrets 6:10. ποικίλος τῇ φρονήσει καὶ τῷ ν. diverse in thought and understanding Hs 9, 17, 2a; cp. vs. 2b. Of the peace of God ἡ ὑπερέχουσα πάντα ν. which surpasses all power of thought Phil 4:7. In contrast to the divine Pneuma which inspires the ‘speaker in tongues’: ὁ ν. μου ἄκαρπός ἐστιν my mind is unfruitful, because it remains inactive during the glossolalia 1 Cor 14:14. προσεύχεσθαι τῷ ν. (opp. τῷ πνεύματι.—νόῳ as instrumental dat. as Pind., P. 1, 40) pray w. the understanding vs. 15a; ψάλλειν τῷ ν. vs. 15b. θέλω πέντε λόγους τῷ ν. μου λαλῆσαι I would rather speak five words w. my understanding vs. 19 (cp. 1QS 10:9).—As a designation of Christ (cp. SibOr 8, 284) in a long series of expressions (w. φῶς) Dg 9:6 (cp. Epict. 2, 8, 2 τίς οὖν οὐσία θεοῦ; νοῦς, ἐπιστήμη, λόγος ὀρθός. Theoph. Ant. 1, 3 [p. 62, 14] νοῦν ἐὰν εἴπω, φρόνησιν αὐτοῦ [sc. τοῦ θεοῦ] λέγω; Ath. 10, 2 νοῦς καὶ λόγος τοῦ πατρὸς ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ. The god Νοῦς in the Herm. Wr.: Rtzst., Mysterienrel3 47 al.; JKroll, D. Lehren des Hermes Trismegistos 1914, 10ff; 60ff al.; PGM 5, 465 ὁ μέγας Νοῦς; Iren. 1, 1, 1 [Harv. I 9, 7], 1, 2, 1 [Harv. I 13, 7]: names of Aeons in gnostic speculation).—Also the state of sensibleness, composure in contrast to the disturbances of soul brought about by the expectation of the Parousia, σαλευθῆναι ἀπὸ τοῦ νοός be shaken, and thereby lose your calmness of mind 2 Th 2:2.
    way of thinking, mind, attitude, as the sum total of the whole mental and moral state of being (Just., A I, 15, 16)
    as possessed by every person μεταμορφοῦσθαι τῇ ἀνακαινώσει τοῦ ν. be transformed by the renewing of the mind, which comes about when Christians have their natural νοῦς penetrated and transformed by the Spirit which they receive at baptism Ro 12:2 (s. Ltzm., Hdb. ad loc.). W. the same sense ἀνανεοῦσθαι τῷ πνεύματι τοῦ ν. ὑμῶν you must adopt a new attitude of mind Eph 4:23 (the piling up of synonyms is a distinctive feature of Eph; s. MDibelius, Hdb. exc. on Eph 1:14). Of polytheists παρέδωκεν αὐτοὺς ὁ θεὸς εἰς ἀδόκιμον ν. God abandoned them to depraved thoughts Ro 1:28. τὰ ἔθνη περιπατεῖ ἐν ματαιότητι τοῦ ν. αὐτῶν the nations/gentiles live w. their minds fixed on futile things Eph 4:17. Of one who is in error: εἰκῇ φυσιούμενος ὑπὸ τοῦ ν. τῆς σαρκὸς αὐτοῦ groundlessly conceited (lit. ‘puffed up’) by his mind, fixed on purely physical things Col 2:18. κατεφθαρμένος τὸν ν. with depraved mind 2 Ti 3:8; also διεφθαρμένος τὸν ν. 1 Ti 6:5 (B-D-F §159, 3; Rob. 486). μεμίανται αὐτῶν καὶ ὁ ν. καὶ ἡ συνείδησις their minds and consciences are unclean Tit 1:15. ὁ ν. αὐτῶν περὶ τὴν πρᾶξιν αὐτῶν καταγίνεται their mind is fixed on their own business Hm 10, 1, 5.
    specif. of the Christian attitude or way of thinking κατηρτισμένοι ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ νοί̈ 1 Cor 1:10. Through baptism believers receive μίαν φρόνησιν καὶ ἕνα νοῦν Hs 9, 17, 4; cp. 9, 18, 4. εἷς νοῦς, μία ἐλπίς is to rule in the church IMg 7:1.
    result of thinking, mind, thought, opinion, decree (Hom. et al. of gods and humans; cp. Hippol., Ref. 9, 10, 8) ἕκαστος ἐν τῷ ἰδίῳ ν. πληροφορείσθω each pers. is to be fully convinced in his own mind Ro 14:5. τίς γὰρ ἔγνω νοῦν κυρίου; who has known the Lord’s thoughts? (Is 40:13) 11:34; 1 Cor 2:16a. When Paul continues in the latter passage vs. 16b w. ἡμεῖς νοῦν Χριστοῦ ἔχομεν, he is using the scriptural word νοῦς to denote what he usu. calls πνεῦμα (vs. 14f). He can do this because his νοῦς (since he is a ‘pneumatic’ person) is filled w. the Spirit (s. 2a above), so that in his case the two are interchangeable. Such a νοῦς is impossible for a ‘psychic’ person.—OMoe, Vernunft u. Geist im NT: ZST 11, ’34, 351–91; RJewett, Paul’s Anthropological Terms, ’71, 358–90; TKrischer, Glotta 62, ’84, 141–49. S. καρδία end; νοέω end.—B. 1198. DELG s.v. νόος. Schmidt, Syn. III 621–55. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > νοῦς

  • 3 πνεῦμα

    πνεῦμα, ατος, τό (πνέω; Aeschyl., Pre-Socr., Hdt.+. On the history of the word s. Rtzst., Mysterienrel.3 308ff).
    air in movement, blowing, breathing (even the glowing exhalations of a volcanic crater: Diod S 5, 7, 3)
    wind (Aeschyl. et al.; LXX, EpArist, Philo; Jos., Ant. 2, 343; 349; SibOr 8, 297) in wordplay τὸ πνεῦμα πνεῖ the wind blows J 3:8a (EpJer 60 πνεῦμα ἐν πάσῃ χώρᾳ πνεῖ. But s. TDonn, ET 66, ’54f, 32; JThomas, Restoration Qtrly 24, ’81, 219–24). ὀθόνη πλοίου ὑπὸ πνεύματος πληρουμένη MPol 15:2. Of God ὁ ποιῶν τοὺς ἀγγέλους αὐτοῦ πνεύματα who makes his angels winds Hb 1:7; 1 Cl 36:3 (both Ps 103:4).
    the breathing out of air, blowing, breath (Aeschyl. et al.; Pla., Tim. 79b; LXX) ὁ ἄνομος, ὅν ὁ κύριος Ἰησοῦς ἀνελεῖ τῷ πνεύματι τοῦ στόματος αὐτοῦ 2 Th 2:8 (cp. Is 11:4; Ps 32:6).
    that which animates or gives life to the body, breath, (life-)spirit (Aeschyl. et al.; Phoenix of Colophon 1, 16 [Coll. Alex. p. 231] πν.=a breathing entity [in contrast to becoming earth in death]; Polyb. 31, 10, 4; Ps.-Aristot., De Mundo 4 p. 394b, 8ff; PHib 5, 54 [III B.C.]; PGM 4, 538; 658; 2499; LXX; TestAbr A 17 p. 98, 19 [Stone p. 44] al.; JosAs 19:3; SibOr 4, 46; Tat. 4:2) ἀφιέναι τὸ πνεῦμα give up one’s spirit, breathe one’s last (Eur., Hec. 571; Porphyr., Vi. Plotini 2) Mt 27:50. J says for this παραδιδόναι τὸ πν. 19:3 (cp. ApcMos 31 ἀποδῶ τὸ πν.; Just., D. 105, 5). Of the return of the (life-)spirit of a deceased person into her dead body ἐπέστρεψεν τὸ πν. αὐτῆς Lk 8:55 (cp. Jdg 15:19). εἰς χεῖράς σου παρατίθεμαι τὸ πν. μου into your hands I entrust my spirit 23:46 (Ps 30:6; for alleged focus on ἐλπίζειν s. EBons, BZ 38, ’94, 93–101). κύριε Ἰησοῦ, δέξαι τὸ πνεῦμά μου Ac 7:59; composite of both passages AcPl Ha 10, 23 (cp. ApcMos 42). τὸ πν. μου ὁ δεσπότης δέξεται GJs 23:3 (on the pneuma flying upward after death cp. Epicharm. in Vorsokrat. 23 [=13, 4th ed.], B 9 and 22; Eur., Suppl. 533 πνεῦμα μὲν πρὸς αἰθέρα, τὸ σῶμα δʼ ἐς γῆν; PGM 1, 177ff τελευτήσαντός σου τὸ σῶμα περιστελεῖ, σοῦ δὲ τὸ πνεῦμα … εἰς ἀέρα ἄξει σὺν αὑτῷ ‘when you are dead [the angel] will wrap your body … and take your spirit with him into the sky’). τὸ σῶμα χωρὶς πν. νεκρόν ἐστιν Js 2:26. πν. ζωῆς ἐκ τ. θεοῦ εἰσῆλθεν ἐν αὐτοῖς (i.e. the prophet-witnesses who have been martyred) Rv 11:11 (cp. Ezk 37:10 v.l. εἰσῆλθεν εἰς αὐτοὺς πνεῦμα ζωῆς; vs. 5). Of the spirit that animated the image of a beast, and enabled it to speak and to have Christians put to death 13:15.—After a person’s death, the πν. lives on as an independent being, in heaven πνεύματα δικαὶων τετελειωμένων Hb 12:23 (cp. Da 3:86 εὐλογεῖτε, πνεύματα καὶ ψυχαὶ δικαίων, τὸν κύριον). According to non-biblical sources, the πν. are in the netherworld (cp. En 22:3–13; Sib Or 7, 127) or in the air (PGM 1, 178), where evil spirits can prevent them from ascending higher (s. ἀήρ2b). τοῖς ἐν φυλακῇ πνεύμασιν πορευθεὶς ἐκήρυξεν 1 Pt 3:19 belongs here if it refers to Jesus’ preaching to the spirits of the dead confined in Hades (so Usteri et al.; s. also JMcCulloch, The Harrowing of Hell, 1930), whether it be when he descended into Hades, or when he returned to heaven (so RBultmann, Bekenntnis u. Liedfragmente im 1 Pt: ConNeot11, ’47, 1–14).—CClemen, Niedergefahren zu den Toten 1900; JTurmel, La Descente du Christ aux enfers 1905; JMonnier, La Descente aux enfers 1906; HHoltzmann, ARW 11, 1908, 285–97; KGschwind, Die Niederfahrt Christi in die Unterwelt 1911; DPlooij, De Descensus in 1 Pt 3:19 en 4:6: TT 47, 1913, 145–62; JBernard, The Descent into Hades a Christian Baptism (on 1 Pt 3:19ff): Exp. 8th ser., 11, 1916, 241–74; CSchmidt, Gespräche Jesu mit seinen Jüngern: TU 43, 1919, 452ff; JFrings, BZ 17, 1926, 75–88; JKroll, Gott u. Hölle ’32; RGanschinietz, Katabasis: Pauly-W. X/2, 1919, 2359–449; Clemen2 89–96; WBieder, Die Vorstellung v. d. Höllenfahrt Jesu Chr. ’49; SJohnson, JBL 79, ’60, 48–51; WDalton, Christ’s Proclamation to the Spirits ’65. S. also the lit. in Windisch, Hdb.2 1930, exc. on 1 Pt 3:20; ESelwyn, The First Ep. of St. Peter ’46 and 4c below.—This is prob. also the place for θανατωθεὶς μὲν σαρκὶ ζωοποιηθεὶς δὲ πνεύματι• ἐν ᾧ καὶ … 1 Pt 3:18f (some mss. read πνεύματι instead of πνεύμασιν in vs. 19, evidently in ref. to the manner of Jesus’ movement; πνεῦμα is that part of Christ which, in contrast to σάρξ, did not pass away in death, but survived as an individual entity after death; s. ἐν 7). Likew. the contrast κατὰ σάρκα … κατὰ πνεῦμα Ro 1:3f. Cp. 1 Ti 3:16.
    a part of human personality, spirit
    when used with σάρξ, the flesh, it denotes the immaterial part 2 Cor 7:1; Col 2:5. Flesh and spirit=the whole personality, in its outer and inner aspects, oft. in Ign.: IMg 1:2; 13:1a; ITr ins; 12:1; IRo ins; ISm 1:1; IPol 5:1; AcPl Ant 13, 18 (=Aa I 237, 3).—In the same sense beside σῶμα, the body (Simplicius, In Epict. p. 50, 1; Ps.-Phoc. 106f; PGM 1, 178) 1 Cor 5:3–5; 7:34.—The inner life of humans is divided into ψυχὴ καὶ πνεῦμα (cp. Ps.-Pla., Axioch. 10 p. 370c τὶ θεῖον ὄντως ἐνῆν πνεῦμα τῇ ψυχῇ=a divine spirit was actually in the soul; Wsd 15:11; Jos., Ant. 1, 34; Tat. 13, 2; 15, 1 et al.; Ath. 27, 1. S. also Herm. Wr. 10, 13; 16f; PGM 4, 627; 630. ἐκ τριῶν συνεστάναι λέγουσι τὸν ἄνθρωπον ἐκ ψυχῆς καὶ σώματος καὶ πνεύματος Did., Gen. 55, 14) Hb 4:12. Cp. Phil 1:27. τὸ πνεῦμα καὶ ἡ ψυχὴ καὶ τὸ σῶμα 1 Th 5:23 (s. GMilligan, Thess. 1908, 78f; EvDobschütz in Meyer X7 1909, 230ff; EBurton, Spirit, Soul, and Flesh 1918; AFestugière, La Trichotomie des 1 Th 5:23 et la Philos. gr.: RSR 20, 1930, 385–415; CMasson, RTP 33, ’45, 97–102; FGrant, An Introd. to NT Thought ’50, 161–66). σαρκί, ψυχῇ, πνεύματι IPhld 11:2.
    as the source and seat of insight, feeling, and will, gener. as the representative part of human inner life (cp. PGM 4, 627; 3 Km 20:5; Sir 9:9 al.; Just., D. 30, 1; Did., Gen. 232, 5) ἐπιγνοὺς ὁ Ἰησοῦς τῷ πν. αὐτοῦ Mk 2:8. ἀναστενάξας τῷ πν. αὐτοῦ λέγει 8:12 (s. ἀναστενάζω). ἠγαλλίασεν τὸ πν. μου Lk 1:47 (in parallelism w. ψυχή vs. 46, as Sir 9:9). ἠγαλλιάσατο τῷ πν. 10:21 v.l., Ἰησοῦς ἐνεβριμήσατο τῷ πν. J 11:33 (s. ἐμβριμάομαι 3); Ἰης. ἐταράχθη τῷ πν. 13:21. παρωξύνετο τὸ πν. αὐτοῦ ἐν αὐτῷ Ac 17:16; ζέων τῷ πν. with spirit-fervor 18:25 (s. ζέω). τὸ παιδίον ἐκραταιοῦτο πνεύματι Lk 1:80; 2:40 v.l.; ἔθετο ὁ Παῦλος ἐν τῷ πν. Paul made up his mind Ac 19:21 (some would put this pass. in 6c, but cp. Lk 1:66 and analogous formulations Hom. et al. in L-S-J-M s.v. τίθημι A6). προσκυνήσουσιν τῷ πατρὶ ἐν πνεύματι of the spiritual, i.e. the pure, inner worship of God, that has nothing to do w. holy times, places, appurtenances, or ceremonies J 4:23; cp. vs. 24b. πν. συντετριμμένον (Ps 50:19) 1 Cl 18:17; 52:4.—2 Cl 20:4; Hv 3, 12, 2; 3, 13, 2.—This usage is also found in Paul. His conviction (s. 5 below) that the Christian possesses the (divine) πνεῦμα and thus is different fr. all other people, leads him to choose this word in preference to others, in order to characterize a believer’s inner being gener. ᾧ λατρεύω ἐν τῷ πν. μου Ro 1:9. οὐκ ἔσχηκα ἄνεσιν τῷ πν. μου 2 Cor 2:13. Cp. 7:13. As a matter of fact, it can mean simply a person’s very self or ego: τὸ πνεῦμα συμμαρτυρεῖ τῷ πνεύματι ἡμῶν the Spirit (of God) bears witness to our very self Ro 8:16 (cp. PGM 12, 327 ἠκούσθη μου τὸ πνεῦμα ὑπὸ πνεύματος οὐρανοῦ). ἀνέπαυσαν τὸ ἐμὸν πν. καὶ τὸ ὑμῶν they have refreshed both me and you 1 Cor 16:18. ἡ χάρις τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰ. Χρ. μετά τοῦ πν. (ὑμῶν) Gal 6:18; Phil 4:23; Phlm 25. Cp. 2 Ti 4:22. Likew. in Ign. τὸ ἐμὸν πν. my (unworthy) self IEph 18:1; IRo 9:3; cp. 1 Cor 2:11a—On the relation of the divine Spirit to the believer’s spiritual self, s. SWollenweider, Der Geist Gottes als Selbst der Glaubenden: ZTK 93, ’96, 163–92.—Only a part of the inner life, i.e. that which concerns the will, is meant in τὸ μὲν πνεῦμα πρόθυμον, ἡ δὲ σὰρξ ἀσθενής Mt 26:41; Mk 14:38; Pol 7:2. That which is inferior, anxiety, fear of suffering, etc. is attributed to the σάρξ.—The mng. of the expr. οἱ πτωχοὶ τῷ πνεύματι Mt 5:3 is difficult to determine w. certainty (cp. Pla., Ep. 7, 335a πένης ἀνὴρ τὴν ψυχήν. The dat. as τῇ ψυχῇ M. Ant. 6, 52; 8, 51). The sense is prob. those who are poor in their inner life, because they do not have a misdirected pride in their own spiritual riches (s. AKlöpper, Über den Sinn u. die ursprgl. Form der ersten Seligpreisung der Bergpredigt bei Mt: ZWT 37, 1894, 175–91; RKabisch, Die erste Seligpreisung: StKr 69, 1896, 195–215; KKöhler, Die ursprgl. Form der Seligpreisungen: StKr 91, 1918, 157–92; JBoehmer, De Schatkamer 17, 1923, 11–16, TT [Copenhagen] 4, 1924, 195–207, JBL 45, 1926, 298–304; WMacgregor, ET 39, 1928, 293–97; VMacchioro, JR 12, ’32, 40–49; EEvans, Theology 47, ’44, 55–60; HLeisegang, Pneuma Hagion 1922, 134ff; Betz, SM 116 n. 178 for Qumran reff.).
    spiritual state, state of mind, disposition ἐν ἀγάπῃ πνεύματί τε πραΰτητος with love and a gentle spirit 1 Cor 4:21; cp. Gal 6:1. τὸ πν. τοῦ νοὸς ὑμῶν Eph 4:23 (s. νοῦς 2a). ἐν τῷ ἀφθάρτῳ τοῦ ἡσυχίου πνεύματος with the imperishable (gift) of a quiet disposition 1 Pt 3:4.
    an independent noncorporeal being, in contrast to a being that can be perceived by the physical senses, spirit (ELangton, Good and Evil Spirits ’42).
    God personally: πνεῦμα ὁ θεός J 4:24a (Ath. 16, 2; on God as a spirit, esp. in the Stoa, s. MPohlenz, D. Stoa ’48/49. Hdb. ad loc. Also Celsus 6, 71 [Stoic]; Herm. Wr. 18, 3 ἀκάματον μέν ἐστι πνεῦμα ὁ θεός).
    good, or at least not expressly evil spirits or spirit-beings (cp. CIG III, 5858b δαίμονες καὶ πνεύματα; Proclus on Pla., Cratyl. p. 69, 6; 12 Pasqu.; En 15:4; 6; 8; 10; TestAbr A 4 p. 81, 15f [Stone p. 10, 15f] πάντα τὰ ἐπουράνια πνεύματα; TestAbr B 13 p. 117, 26 [Stone p. 82] ὑψηλὸν πν.; PGM 3, 8 ἐπικαλοῦμαί σε, ἱερὸν πνεῦμα; 4, 1448; 3080; 12, 249) πνεῦμα w. ἄγγελος (cp. Jos., Ant. 4, 108; Ps.-Clem., Hom. 3, 33; 8, 12) Ac 23:8f. God is ὁ παντὸς πνεύματος κτίστης καὶ ἐπίσκοπος 1 Cl 59:3b.—Pl., God the μόνος εὐεργέτης πνεύματων 1 Cl 59:3a. Cp. 64 (s. on this Num 16:22; 27:16. Prayers for vengeance fr. Rheneia [Dssm., LO 351–55=LAE 423ff=SIG 1181, 2] τὸν θεὸν τὸν κύριον τῶν πνευμάτων; PGM 5, 467 θεὸς θεῶν, ὁ κύριος τῶν πν.; sim. the magic pap PWarr 21, 24; 26 [III A.D.]); the πατὴρ τῶν πνευμάτων Hb 12:9. Intermediary beings (in polytheistic terminology: δαίμονες) that serve God are called λειτουργικὰ πνεύματα Hb 1:14. In Rv we read of the ἑπτὰ πνεύματα (τοῦ θεοῦ) 1:4; 3:1; 4:5; 5:6; s. ASkrinjar, Biblica 16, ’35, 1–24; 113–40.— Ghost Lk 24:37, 39.
    evil spirits (PGM 13, 798; 36, 160; TestJob 27, 2; ApcSed [both Satan]; AscIs 3:28; Just., D. 39, 6 al.; Ath. 25, 3), esp. in accounts of healing in the Synoptics: (τὸ) πνεῦμα (τὸ) ἀκάθαρτον (Just., D. 82, 3) Mt 12:43; Mk 1:23, 26; 3:30; 5:2, 8; 7:25; 9:25a; Lk 8:29; 9:42; 11:24; Rv 18:2. Pl. (TestBenj 5:2) Mt 10:1; Mk 1:27; 3:11; 5:13; 6:7; Lk 4:36; 6:18; Ac 5:16; 8:7; Rv 16:13; ending of Mk in the Freer ms.—τὸ πν. τὸ πονηρόν Ac 19:15f. Pl. (En 99:7; TestSim 4:9; 6:6, TestJud 16:1; Just., D. 76, 6) Lk 7:21; 8:2; Ac 19:12f.—πν. ἄλαλον Mk 9:17; cp. vs. 25b (s. ἄλαλος). πν. πύθων Ac 16:16 (s. πύθων). πν. ἀσθενείας Lk 13:11. Cp. 1 Ti 4:1b. πνεῦμα δαιμονίου ἀκαθάρτου (s. δαιμόνιον 2) Lk 4:33. πνεύματα δαιμονίων Rv 16:14 (in effect = personified ‘exhalations’ of evil powers; for the combination of πν. and δαιμ. cp. the love spell Sb 4324, 16f τὰ πνεύματα τῶν δαιμόνων τούτων).—Abs. of a harmful spirit Mk 9:20; Lk 9:39; Ac 16:18. Pl. Mt 8:16; 12:45; Lk 10:20; 11:26.—1 Pt 3:19 (s. 2 above) belongs here if the πνεύματα refer to hostile spirit-powers, evil spirits, fallen angels (so FSpitta, Christi Predigt an die Geister 1890; HGunkel, Zum religionsgesch. Verständnis des NT 1903, 72f; WBousset, ZNW 19, 1920, 50–66; Rtzst., Herr der Grösse 1919, 25ff; Knopf, Windisch, FHauck ad loc.; BReicke, The Disobedient Spirits and Christian Baptism ’46, esp. 54–56, 69).—Hermas also has the concept of evil spirits that lead an independent existence, and live and reign within the inner life of a pers.; the Holy Spirit, who also lives or would like to live there, is forced out by them (cp. TestDan 4) Hm 5, 1, 2–4; 5, 2, 5–8; 10, 1, 2. τὸ πν. τὸ ἅγιον … ἕτερον πονηρὸν πν. 5, 1, 2. These πνεύματα are ὀξυχολία 5, 1, 3; 5, 2, 8 (τὸ πονηρότατον πν.); 10, 1, 2; διψυχία 9:11 (ἐπίγειον πν. ἐστι παρὰ τοῦ διαβόλου); 10, 1, 2; λύπη 10, 1, 2 (πάντων τῶν πνευμάτων πονηροτέρα) and other vices. On the complicated pneuma-concept of the Mandates of Hermas s. MDibelius, Hdb. exc. on Hm 5, 2, 7; cp. Leutzsch, Hermas 453f n. 133.
    God’s being as controlling influence, with focus on association with humans, Spirit, spirit as that which differentiates God fr. everything that is not God, as the divine power that produces all divine existence, as the divine element in which all divine life is carried on, as the bearer of every application of the divine will. All those who belong to God possess or receive this spirit and hence have a share in God’s life. This spirit also serves to distinguish Christians fr. all unbelievers (cp. PGM 4, 1121ff, where the spirit is greeted as one who enters devotees and, in accordance w. God’s will, separates them fr. themselves, i.e. fr. the purely human part of their nature); for this latter aspect s. esp. 6 below.
    the Spirit of God, of the Lord (=God) etc. (LXX; TestSim 4:4; JosAs 8:11; ApcSed 14:6; 15:6; ApcMos 43; SibOr 3, 701; Ps.-Phoc. 106; Philo; Joseph. [s. c below]; apolog. Cp. Plut., Numa 4, 6 πνεῦμα θεοῦ, capable of begetting children; s. παρθένος a) τὸ πν. τοῦ θεοῦ 1 Cor 2:11b, 14; 3:16; 6:11; 1J 4:2a (Just., D. 49, 3; Tat. 13, 3; Ath. 22, 3). τὸ τοῦ θεοῦ πν. 1 Pt 4:14 (Just., A I, 60, 6). τὸ πν. τὸ ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ 1 Cor 2:12b. τὸ πν. κυρίου Ac 5:9; B 6:14; B 9:2 (cp. Mel., P. 32, 222). τὸ πνεῦμά μου or αὐτοῦ: Mt 12:18 (Is 42:1); Ac 2:17f (Jo 3:1f.—Cp. 1QS 4:21); 1 Cor 2:10a v.l.; Eph 3:16; 1 Th 4:8 (where τὸ ἅγιον is added); 1J 4:13.—τὸ πν. τοῦ πατρὸς ὑμῶν Mt 10:20. τὸ πν. τοῦ ἐγείραντος τὸν Ἰησοῦν Ro 8:11a.—Without the art. πν. θεοῦ (JosAs 4:9; Tat. 15:3; Theoph. Ant. 1, 5 [p. 66, 18]) the Spirit of God Mt 3:16; 12:28; Ro 8:9b, 14, 19; 1 Cor 7:40; 12:3a; 2 Cor 3:3 (πν. θεοῦ ζῶντος); Phil 3:3. πν. κυρίου Lk 4:18 (Is 61:1); Ac 8:39 (like J 3:8; 20:22; Ac 2:4, this pass. belongs on the borderline betw. the mngs. ‘wind’ and ‘spirit’; cp. Diod S 3, 60, 3 Ἕσπερον ἐξαίφνης ὑπὸ πνευμάτων συναρπαγέντα μεγάλων ἄφαντον γενέσθαι ‘Hesperus [a son of Atlas] was suddenly snatched by strong winds and vanished fr. sight’. S. HLeisegang, Der Hl. Geist I 1, 1919, 19ff; OCullmann, TZ. 4, ’48, 364); 1 Cl 21:2.
    the Spirit of Christ, of the Lord (=Christ) etc. τὸ πν. Ἰησοῦ Ac 16:7. τὸ πν. Χριστοῦ AcPlCor 2:32. τὸ ἐν αὐτοῖς πν. Χριστοῦ 1 Pt 1:11. πν. Χριστοῦ Ro 8:9c. πν. τοῦ Χριστοῦ AcPl Ha 8, 18. ἀπὸ τοῦ πν. τοῦ χριστοῦ AcPlCor 2:10. τὸ πν. Ἰης. Χριστοῦ Phil 1:19. τὸ πν. κυρίου 2 Cor 3:17b (JHermann, Kyrios und Pneuma, ’61). τὸ πν. τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ (=θεοῦ) Gal 4:6. As possessor of the divine Spirit, and at the same time controlling its distribution among humans, Christ is called κύριος πνεύματος Lord of the Spirit 2 Cor 3:18 (s. Windisch ad loc.); but many prefer to transl. from the Lord who is the Spirit.—CMoule, OCullmann Festschr., ’72, 231–37.
    Because of its heavenly origin and nature this Spirit is called (the) Holy Spirit (cp. PGM 4, 510 ἵνα πνεύσῃ ἐν ἐμοὶ τὸ ἱερὸν πνεῦμα.—Neither Philo nor Josephus called the Spirit πν. ἅγιον; the former used θεῖον or θεοῦ πν., the latter πν. θεῖον: Ant. 4, 118; 8, 408; 10, 239; but ἅγιον πνεῦμα Orig. C. Cels 1, 40, 16).
    α. w. the art. τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον (Is 63:10f; Ps 50:13; 142:10 v.l.; cp. Sus 45 Theod.; TestAbr A 4 p. 81, 10 [Stone p. 10]; JosAs 8:11 [codd. ADE]; AscIs 3, 15, 26; Just., D. 36, 6 al.) Mt 12:32 = Mk 3:29 = Lk 12:10 (τὸ ἅγιον πνεῦμα; on the ‘sin against the Holy Spirit’ s. HLeisegang, Pneuma Hagion 1922, 96–112; AFridrichsen, Le péché contre le Saint-Esprit: RHPR 3, 1923, 367–72). Mk 12:36; 13:11; Lk 2:26; 3:22; 10:21; J 14:26; Ac 1:16; 2:33; 5:3, 32; 7:51; 8:18 v.l.; 10:44, 47; 11:15; 13:2; 15:8, 28; 19:6; 20:23, 28; 21:11; 28:25; Eph 1:13 (τὸ πν. τῆς ἐπαγγελίας τὸ ἅγιον); 4:30 (τὸ πν. τὸ ἅγιον τοῦ θεοῦ); Hb 3:7; 9:8; 10:15; 1 Cl 13:1; 16:2; 18:11 (Ps 50:13); 22:1; IEph 9:1; Hs 5, 5, 2; 5, 6, 5–7 (on the relationship of the Holy Spirit to the Son in Hermas s. ALink, Christi Person u. Werk im Hirten des Hermas 1886; JvWalter, ZNW 14, 1913, 133–44; MDibelius, Hdb. exc. following Hs 5, 6, 8 p. 572–76).—τὸ ἅγιον πνεῦμα (Wsd 9:17; OdeSol 11:2; TestJob 51:2; ApcEsdr 7:16; Just. D. 25, 1 al.) Mt 28:19; Lk 12:10 (s. above), 12; Ac 1:8; 2:38 (epexegetic gen.); 4:31; 9:31; 10:45; 13:4; 16:6; 1 Cor 6:19; 2 Cor 13:13; 1J 5:7 v.l. (on the Comma Johanneum s. λόγο 3); GJs 24:4 (s. χρηματίζω 1bα). As the mother of Jesus GHb 20, 61 (HLeisegang, Pneuma Hagion 1922, 64ff; SHirsch, D. Vorstellg. v. e. weibl. πνεῦμα ἅγ. im NT u. in d. ältesten christl. Lit. 1927. Also WBousset, Hauptprobleme der Gnosis 1907, 9ff).
    β. without the art. (s. B-D-F §257, 2; Rob. 761; 795) πνεῦμα ἅγιον (PGM 3, 289; Da 5:12 LXX; PsSol 17:37; AssMos Fgm. b; Just., D. 4, 1 al.; Ath. 24, 1. S. also Da Theod. 4:8, 9, 18 θεοῦ πνεῦμα ἅγιον or πνεῦμα θεοῦ ἅγιον) Mk 1:8; Lk 1:15, 35, 41, 67; 2:25; 4:1; 11:13; J 20:22 (Cassien, La pentecôte johannique [J 20:19–23] ’39.—See also 1QS 4:20f); Ac 2:4a; 4:8; 7:55; 8:15, 17, 19; 9:17; 10:38; 11:24; 13:9; 19:2ab; Hb 2:4; 6:4; 1 Pt 1:12 v.l.; 1 Cl 2:2; AcPl 6:18; 9:4 (restored after Aa I 110, 11); AcPlCor 2:5.—So oft. in combination w. a prep.: διὰ πνεύματος ἁγίου Ac 1:2; 4:25; Ro 5:5; 2 Ti 1:14; 1 Cl 8:1 (cp. διὰ πν. αἰωνίου Hb 9:14). διὰ φωνῆς πν. ἁγίου AcPl Ha 11, 6. ἐκ πνεύματος ἁγίου (Eus., PE 3, 12, 3 of the Egyptians: ἐκ τ. πνεύματος οἴονται συλλαμβάνειν τὸν γῦπα. Here πνεῦμα= ‘wind’; s. Horapollo 1, 11 p. 14f. The same of other birds since Aristot.—On the neut. πνεῦμα as a masc. principle cp. Aristoxenus, Fgm. 13 of the two original principles: πατέρα μὲν φῶς, μητέρα δὲ σκότος) Mt 1:18, 20; IEph 18:2; GJs 14:2; 19:1 (pap). ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ (PsSol 17:37; ApcZeph; Ar. 15, 1) Mt 3:11; Mk 1:8 v.l.; Lk 3:16; J 1:33b; Ac 1:5 (cp. 1QS 3:7f); 11:16; Ro 9:1; 14:17; 15:16; 1 Cor 12:3b; 2 Cor 6:6; 1 Th 1:5; 1 Pt 1:12 (without ἐν v.l.); Jd 20. ὑπὸ πνεύματος ἁγίου 2 Pt 1:21. Cp. ἐν δυνάμει πνεύματος ἁγίου Ro 15:13, 19 v.l. (for πνεύματος θεοῦ). μετὰ χαρᾶς πνεύματος ἁγίου 1 Th 1:6. διὰ ἀνακαινώσεως πνεύματος ἁγίου Tit 3:5.
    abs.
    α. w. the art. τὸ πνεῦμα. In this connection the art. is perh. used anaphorically at times, w. the second mention of a word (s. B-D-F §252; Rob. 762); perh. Mt 12:31 (looking back to vs. 28 πν. θεοῦ); Mk 1:10, 12 (cp. vs. 8 πν. ἅγιον); Lk 4:1b, 14 (cp. vs. 1a); Ac 2:4b (cp. vs. 4a).—As a rule it is not possible to assume that anaphora is present: Mt 4:1; J 1:32, 33a; 3:6a, 8b (in wordplay), 34; 7:39a; Ac 8:29; 10:19; 11:12, 28; 19:1 D; 20:3 D, 22; 21:4; Ro 8:23 (ἀπαρχή 1bβ; 2), 26a, 27; 12:11; 15:30; 2 Cor 1:22 and 5:5 (KErlemann, ZNW 83, ’92, 202–23, and s. ἀρραβών); 12:18 (τῷ αὐτῷ πν.); Gal 3:2, 5, 14 (ἐπαγγελία 1bβ); Eph 4:3 (gen. of the author); 6:17 (perh. epexegetic gen.); 1 Ti 4:1a; Js 4:5; 1J 3:24; 5:6ab (some mss. add καὶ πνεύματος to the words διʼ ὕδατος κ. αἵματος at the beg. of the verse; this is approved by HvSoden, Moffatt, Vogels, Merk, and w. reservations by CDodd, The Joh. Epistles ’46, TManson, JTS 48, ’47, 25–33), vs. 8; Rv 2:7, 11, 17, 29; 3:6, 13, 22; 14:13; 22:17; B 19:2, B 7= D 4:10 (s. ἐτοιμάζω b). ἐν τῷ πνεύματι (led) by the Spirit Lk 2:27.—Paul links this Spirit of God, known to every Christian, with Christ as liberating agent in contrast to legal constraint ὁ κύριος τὸ πνεῦμα ἐστιν the Lord means Spirit 2 Cor 3:17a (UHolzmeister, 2 Cor 3:17 Dominus autem Spiritus est 1908; JNisius, Zur Erklärung v. 2 Cor 3:16ff: ZKT 40, 1916, 617–75; JKögel, Ὁ κύριος τὸ πνεῦμά ἐστιν: ASchlatter Festschr. 1922, 35–46; C Guignebert, Congr. d’Hist. du Christ. II 1928, 7–22; EFuchs, Christus u. d. Geist b. Pls ’32; HHughes, ET 45, ’34, 235f; CLattey, Verb. Dom. 20, ’40, 187–89; DGriffiths ET 55, ’43, 81–83; HIngo, Kyrios und Pneuma, ’61 [Paul]; JDunn, JTS 21, ’70, 309–20).
    β. without the art. πνεῦμα B 1:3. κοινωνία πνεύματος Phil 2:1 (κοινωνία 1 and 2). πνεύματι in the Spirit or through the Spirit Gal 3:3; 5:5, 16, 18; 1 Pt 4:6. εἰ ζῶμεν πνεύματι, πνεύματι καὶ στοιχῶμεν if we live by the Spirit, let us also walk by the Spirit Gal 5:25. Freq. used w. a prep.: διὰ πνεύματος 1 Pt 1:22 v.l. ἐξ (ὕδατος καὶ) πνεύματος J 3:5. ἐν πνεύματι in, by, through the Spirit Mt 22:43; Eph 2:22; 3:5; 5:18; 6:18; Col 1:8 (ἀγάπη ἐν πνεύματι love called forth by the Spirit); B 9:7. κατὰ πνεῦμα Ro 8:4f; Gal 4:29. ἐν ἁγιασμῷ πνεύματος 2 Th 2:13; 1 Pt 1:2 (s. ἁγιασμός).—In neg. expressions: οὔπω ἧν πνεῦμα the Spirit had not yet come J 7:39b. ψυχικοὶ πνεῦμα μὴ ἔχοντες worldly people, who do not have the Spirit Jd 19.—ἓν πνεῦμα one and the same Spirit 1 Cor 12:13; Eph 2:18; 4:4; one (in) Spirit 1 Cor 6:17.
    The Spirit is more closely defined by a gen. of thing: τὸ πν. τῆς ἀληθείας (TestJud 20:5) J 14:17; 15:26; 16:13 (in these three places the Spirit of Truth is the Paraclete promised by Jesus upon his departure); 1J 4:6 (opp. τὸ πνεῦμα τῆς πλάνης, as TestJud 20:1; PsSol 8:14 πλ. πλανήσεως; Just., D. 7, 3 πλάνου καὶ ἀκαθάρτου πνεύματος; cp. 1QS 4:23); τὸ τῆς δόξης πν. 1 Pt 4:14. τὸ πν. τῆς ζωῆς the Spirit of life Ro 8:2. το πν. τῆς πίστεως 2 Cor 4:13. πν. σοφίας καὶ ἀποκαλύψεως Eph 1:17 (cp. Just., D. 87, 4). πν. υἱοθεσίας Ro 8:15b (opp. πν. δουλείας vs. 15a). πν. δυνάμεως AcPl Ha 8, 25. πν. δυνάμεως καὶ ἀγάπης καὶ σωφρονισμοῦ 2 Ti 1:7 (opp. πν. δειλίας). τὸ πν. τῆς χάριτος (s. TestJud 24:2) Hb 10:29 (Zech 12:10); cp. 1 Cl 46:6.
    Of Christ ‘it is written’ in Scripture: (ἐγένετο) ὁ ἔσχατος Ἀδὰμ εἰς πνεῦμα ζῳοποιοῦν 1 Cor 15:45. The scripture pass. upon which the first part of this verse is based is Gen 2:7, where Wsd 15:11 also substitutes the words πνεῦμα ζωτικόν for πνοὴν ζωῆς (cp. Just., D. 6, 2). On the other hand, s. Philo, Leg. All. 1, 42 and s. the lit. s.v. Ἀδάμ ad loc.
    The (divine) Pneuma stands in contrast to everything that characterizes this age or the finite world gener.: οὐ τὸ πν. τοῦ κόσμου ἀλλὰ τὸ πν. τὸ ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ 1 Cor 2:12; cp. Eph 2:2 and 1 Ti 4:1ab.
    α. in contrast to σάρξ, which is more closely connected w. sin than any other earthly material (Just., D. 135, 6): J 3:6; Ro 8:4–6, 9a, 13; Gal 3:3; 5:17ab; 6:8. Cp. B 10:9. πᾶσα ἐπιθυμία κατὰ τοῦ πνεύματος στρατεύεται Pol 5:3.
    β. in contrast to σῶμα (=σάρξ) Ro 8:10 and to σάρξ (=σῶμα, as many hold) J 6:63a (for τὸ πν. ἐστιν τὸ ζῳοποιοῦν cp. Philo, Op. Mund. 30; Herm. Wr. in Cyrill., C. Jul. I 556c=542, 24 Sc. the pneuma τὰ πάντα ζῳοποιεῖ καὶ τρέφει. S. also f above). Cp. Ro 8:11b.
    γ. in contrast to γράμμα, which is the characteristic quality of God’s older declaration of the divine will in the law: Ro 2:29; 7:6; 2 Cor 3:6ab, 8 (cp. vs. 7).
    δ. in contrast to the wisdom of humans 1 Cor 2:13.
    the Spirit of God as exhibited in the character or activity of God’s people or selected agents, Spirit, spirit (s. HPreisker, Geist u. Leben ’33).
    πνεῦμα is accompanied by another noun, which characterizes the working of the Spirit more definitely: πνεῦμα καὶ δύναμις spirit and power Lk 1:17; 1 Cor 2:4. Cp. Ac 10:38; 1 Th 1:5. πνεῦμα καὶ ζωή J 6:63b. πνεῦμα κ. σοφία Ac 6:3; cp. vs. 10 (cp. TestReub 2:6 πνεῦμα λαλίας). πίστις κ. πνεῦμα ἅγιον 6:5 (cp. Just., D. 135, 6). χαρὰ καὶ πνεῦμα ἅγ. 13:52.
    Unless frustrated by humans in their natural condition, the Spirit of God produces a spiritual type of conduct Gal 5:16, 25 and produces the καρπὸς τοῦ πνεύματος vs. 22 (s. Vögtle under πλεονεξία).
    The Spirit inspires certain people of God B 12:2; B 13:5, above all, in their capacity as proclaimers of a divine revelation (Strabo 9, 3, 5 the πνεῦμα ἐνθουσιαστικόν, that inspired the Pythia; Περὶ ὕψους 13, 2; 33, 5 of the divine πν. that impels prophets and poets to express themselves; schol. on Pla. 856e of a μάντις: ἄνωθεν λαμβάνειν τὸ πνεῦμα καὶ πληροῦσθαι τοῦ θεοῦ; Aristobulus in Eus., PE 8, 10, 4 [=Fgm. 2, 4 p. 136 Holladay] τὸ θεῖον πν., καθʼ ὸ̔ καὶ προφήτης ἀνακεκήρυκται ‘[Moses possessed] the Divine Spirit with the result that he was proclaimed a prophet’; AscIs 1:7 τὸ πν. τὸ λαλοῦν ἐν ἐμοί; AssMos Fgm. f εἶδεν πνεύματι ἐπαρθείς; Just., A I, 38, 1 al.; Ath. 10, 3 τὸ προφητικὸν πν. Cp. Marinus, Vi. Procli 23 of Proclus: οὐ γὰρ ἄνευ θείας ἐπινοίας … διαλέγεσθαι; Orig., C. Cels. 3, 28, 23). προφητεία came into being only as ὑπὸ πνεύματος ἁγίου φερόμενοι ἐλάλησαν ἀπὸ θεοῦ ἄνθρωποι 2 Pt 1:21; cp. Ac 15:29 v.l.; cp. 1 Cl 8:1. David Mt 22:43; Mk 12:36; cp. Ac 1:16; 4:25. Isaiah Ac 28:25. Moses B 10:2, B 9; the Spirit was also active in giving the tables of the law to Moses 14:2. Christ himself spoke in the OT διὰ τοῦ πνεύματος τοῦ ἁγίου 1 Cl 22:1. The ἱεραὶ γραφαί are called αἱ διὰ τοῦ πν. τοῦ ἁγίου 45:2.—The Christian prophet Agabus also ἐσήμαινεν διὰ τοῦ πν. Ac 11:28; cp. Ac 21:11. Likew. Ign. IPhld 7:2. In general the Spirit reveals the most profound secrets to those who believe 1 Cor 2:10ab.—1 Cl claims to be written διὰ τοῦ ἁγ. πν. 63:2. On Ac 19:21 s. 3b.
    The Spirit of God, being one, shows the variety and richness of its life in the different kinds of spiritual gifts which are granted to certain Christians 1 Cor 12:4, 7, 11; cp. vs. 13ab.—Vss. 8–10 enumerate the individual gifts of the Spirit, using various prepositions: διὰ τοὺ πν. vs. 8a; κατὰ τὸ πν. vs. 8b; ἐν τῷ πν. vs. 9ab. τὸ πν. μὴ σβέννυτε do not quench the Spirit 1 Th 5:19 refers to the gift of prophecy, acc. to vs. 20.—The use of the pl. πνεύματα is explained in 1 Cor 14:12 by the varied nature of the Spirit’s working; in vs. 32 by the number of persons who possess the prophetic spirit; on the latter s. Rv 22:6 and 19:10.
    One special type of spiritual gift is represented by ecstatic speaking. Of those who ‘speak in tongues’ that no earthly person can understand: πνεύματι λαλεῖ μυστήρια expresses secret things in a spiritual way 1 Cor 14:2. Cp. vss. 14–16 and s. νοῦς 1b. τὸ πνεῦμα ὑπερεντυγχάνει στεναγμοῖς ἀλαλήτοις the Spirit pleads in our behalf with groans beyond words Ro 8:26b. Of speech that is ecstatic, but expressed in words that can be understood λαλεῖν ἐν πνεύματι D 11:7, 8; cp. vs. 9 (on the subject-matter 1 Cor 12:3; Jos., Ant. 4, 118f; TestJob 43:2 ἀναλαβὼν Ἐλιφᾶς πν. εἶπεν ὕμνον). Of the state of mind of the seer of the Apocalypse: ἐν πνεύματι Rv 17:3; 21:10; γενέσθαι ἐν πν. 1:10; 4:2 (s. γίνομαι 5c, ἐν 4c and EMoering, StKr 92, 1920, 148–54; RJeske, NTS 31, ’85, 452–66); AcPl Ha 6, 27. On the Spirit at Pentecost Ac 2:4 s. KLake: Beginn. I 5, ’33, 111–21. κατασταλέντος τοῦ πν. τοῦ ἐν Μύρτῃ when the Spirit (of prophecy) that was in Myrta ceased speaking AcPl Ha 7, 9.
    The Spirit leads and directs Christian missionaries in their journeys (Aelian, NA 11, 16 the young women are led blindfolded to the cave of the holy serpent; they are guided by a πνεῦμα θεῖον) Ac 16:6, 7 (by dreams, among other methods; cp. vs. 9f and s. Marinus, Vi. Procli 27: Proclus ἔφασκεν προθυμηθῆναι μὲν πολλάκις γράψαι, κωλυθῆναι δὲ ἐναργῶς ἔκ τινων ἐνυπνίων). In Ac 16:6–7 τὸ ἅγιον πν. and τὸ πν. Ἰησοῦ are distinguished.
    an activating spirit that is not fr. God, spirit: πν. ἔτερον a different (kind of) spirit 2 Cor 11:4. Cp. 2 Th 2:2; 1J 4:1–3. Because there are persons activated by such spirits, it is necessary to test the var. kinds of spirits (the same problem Artem. 3, 20 περὶ διαφορᾶς μάντεων, οἷς δεῖ προσέχειν καὶ οἷς μή) 1 Cor 12:10; 1J 4:1b. ὁ διάβολος πληροῖ αὐτὸν αὐτοῦ πν. Hm 11:3. Also οὐκ οἴδατε ποίου πνεύματός ἐστε Lk 9:55 v.l. distinguishes betw. the spirit shown by Jesus’ disciples, and another kind of spirit.—Even more rarely a spirit divinely given that is not God’s own; so (in a quot. fr. Is 29:10) a πνεῦμα κατανύξεως Ro 11:8.
    an independent transcendent personality, the Spirit, which appears in formulas that became more and more fixed and distinct (cp. Ath. 12, 2; Hippol., Ref. 7, 26, 2.—Ps.-Lucian, Philopatr. 12 θεόν, υἱόν πατρός, πνεῦμα ἐκ πατρὸς ἐκπορευόμενον ἓν ἐκ τριῶν καὶ ἐξ ἑνὸς τρία, ταῦτα νόμιζε Ζῆνα, τόνδʼ ἡγοῦ θεόν=‘God, son of the father, spirit proceeding from the father, one from three and three from one, consider these as Zeus, think of this one as God’. The entire context bears a Christian impress.—As Aion in gnostic speculation Iren. 1, 2, 5 [Harv. I 21, 2]): βαπτίζοντες αὐτοὺς εἰς τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ πατρὸς καὶ τοῦ υἱοῦ καὶ τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος Mt 28:19 (on the text s. βαπτίζω 2c; on the subject-matter GWalther, Die Entstehung des Taufsymbols aus dem Taufritus: StKr 95, 1924, 256ff); D 7:1, 3. Cp. 2 Cor 13:13; 1 Cl 58:2; IEph 9:1; IMg 13:1b, 2; MPol 14:3; 22:1, 3; Epil Mosq 5. On this s. HUsener, Dreiheit: RhM 58, 1903, 1ff; 161ff; 321ff; esp. 36ff; EvDobschütz, Zwei-u. dreigliedrige Formeln: JBL 50, ’31, 116–47 (also Heinrici Festschr. 1914, 92–100); Norden, Agn. Th. 228ff; JMainz, Die Bed. der Dreizahl im Judentum 1922; Clemen2 125–28; NSöderblom, Vater, Sohn u. Geist 1909; DNielsen, Der dreieinige Gott I 1922; GKrüger, Das Dogma v. der Dreieinigkeit 1905, 46ff; AHarnack, Entstehung u. Entwicklung der Kirchenverfassung 1910, 187ff; JHaussleiter, Trinitarischer Glaube u. Christusbekenntnis in der alten Kirche: BFCT XXV 4, 1920; JLebreton, Histoire du dogme de la Trinité I: Les origines6 1927; RBlümel, Pls u. d. dreieinige Gott 1929.—On the whole word FRüsche, D. Seelenpneuma ’33; HLeisegang, Der Hl. Geist I 1, 1919; EBurton, ICC Gal 1921, 486–95; PVolz, Der Geist Gottes u. d. verwandten Erscheinungen im AT 1910; JHehn, Zum Problem des Geistes im alten Orient u. im AT: ZAW n.s. 2, 1925, 210–25; SLinder, Studier till Gamla Testamentets föreställningar om anden 1926; AMarmorstein, Der Hl. Geist in der rabb. Legende: ARW 28, 1930, 286–303; NSnaith, The Distinctive Ideas of the OT ’46, 229–37; FDillistone, Bibl. Doctrine of the Holy Spirit: Theology Today 3, ’46/47, 486–97; TNicklin, Gospel Gleanings ’50, 341–46; ESchweizer, CDodd Festschr., ’56, 482–508; DLys, Rûach, Le Souffle dans l’AT, ’62; DHill, Gk. Words and Hebr. Mngs. ’67, 202–93.—HGunkel, Die Wirkungen des Hl. Geistes2 1899; HWeinel, Die Wirkungen des Geistes u. der Geister im nachap. Zeitalter 1899; EWinstanley, The Spirit in the NT 1908; HSwete, The Holy Spirit in the NT 1909, The Holy Spirit in the Ancient Church 1912; EScott, The Spirit in the NT 1923; FBüchsel, Der Geist Gottes im NT 1926; EvDobschütz, Der Geistbesitz des Christen im Urchristentum: Monatsschr. für Pastoral-theol. 20, 1924, 228ff; FBadcock, ‘The Spirit’ and Spirit in the NT: ET 45, ’34, 218–21; RBultmann, Theologie des NT ’48, 151–62 (Eng. tr. KGrobel, ’51, I 153–64); ESchweizer, Geist u. Gemeinde im NT ’52, Int 6, ’52, 259–78.—WTosetti, Der Hl. Geist als göttliche Pers. in den Evangelien 1918; HLeisegang, Pneuma Hagion. Der Ursprung des Geistbegriffs der Syn. Ev. aus der griech. Mystik 1922; AFrövig, Das Sendungsbewusstsein Jesu u. der Geist 1924; HWindisch, Jes. u. d. Geist nach Syn. Überl.: Studies in Early Christianity, presented to FCPorter and BWBacon 1928, 209–36; FSynge, The Holy Spirit in the Gospels and Acts: CQR 120, ’35, 205–17; CBarrett, The Holy Spirit and the Gospel Trad. ’47.—ESokolowski, Die Begriffe Geist u. Leben bei Pls 1903; KDeissner, Auferstehungshoffnung u. Pneumagedanke bei Pls 1912; GVos, The Eschatological Aspect of the Pauline Conception of the Spirit: Bibl. and Theol. Studies by the Faculty of Princeton Theol. Sem. 1912, 209–59; HBertrams, Das Wesen des Geistes nach d. Anschauung des Ap. Pls 1913; WReinhard, Das Wirken des Hl. Geistes im Menschen nach den Briefen des Ap. Pls 1918; HHoyle, The Holy Spirit in St. Paul 1928; PGächter, Z. Pneumabegriff des hl. Pls: ZKT 53, 1929, 345–408; ASchweitzer, D. Mystik des Ap. Pls 1930, 159–74 al. [Mysticism of Paul the Apostle, tr. WMontgomery ’31, 160–76 al.]; E-BAllo, RB 43, ’34, 321–46 [1 Cor]; Ltzm., Hdb. exc. after Ro 8:11; Synge [s. above], CQR 119, ’35, 79–93 [Pauline epp.]; NWaaning, Onderzoek naar het gebruik van πνεῦμα bij Pls, diss. Amsterd. ’39; RJewett, Paul’s Anthropological Terms, ’71, 167–200.—HvBaer, Der Hl. Geist in den Lukasschriften 1926; MGoguel, La Notion joh. de l’Esprit 1902; JSimpson, The Holy Spirit in the Fourth Gospel: Exp., 9th ser., 4, 1925, 292–99; HWindisch, Jes. u. d. Geist im J.: Amicitiae Corolla (RHarris Festschr.) ’33, 303–18; WLofthouse, The Holy Spirit in Ac and J: ET 52, ’40/41, 334–36; CBarrett, The Holy Spirit in the Fourth Gospel: JTS 1 n.s., ’50, 1–15; FCrump, Pneuma in the Gospels, diss. Catholic Univ. of America, ’54; GLampe, Studies in the Gospels (RHLightfoot memorial vol.) ’55, 159–200; NHamilton, The Holy Spirit and Eschatology in Paul, ’57; WDavies, Paul and the Dead Sea Scrolls, Flesh and Spirit: The Scrolls and the NT, ed. KStendahl, ’57, 157–82.—GJohnston, ‘Spirit’ and ‘Holy Spirit’ in the Qumran Lit.: NT Sidelights (ACPurdy Festschr.) ’60, 27–42; JPryke, ‘Spirit’ and ‘Flesh’ in Qumran and NT, RevQ 5, ’65, 346–60; HBraun, Qumran und d. NT II, ’66, 150–64; DHill, Greek Words and Hebrew Meanings, ’67, 202–93; WBieder, Pneumatolog. Aspekte im Hb, OCullmann Festschr. ’72, 251–59; KEasley, The Pauline Usage of πνεύματι as a Reference to the Spirit of God: JETS 27, ’84, 299–313 (statistics).—B. 260; 1087. Pauly-W. XIV 387–412. BHHW I 534–37. Schmidt, Syn. II 218–50. New Docs 4, 38f. DELG s.v. πνέω. M-M. Dict. de la Bible XI 126–398. EDNT. TW. Sv.

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  • 4 ἐνοικέω

    ἐνοικέω fut. ἐνοικήσω; 1 aor. ἐνῴκησα (3 sg. ἐνοίκησεν TestSim 5:1) (Eur., Hdt.+) live, dwell (in) in our lit.—except for Lk 13:4 v.l.—always w. ἔν τινι (PEnteux 14, 4f [III B.C.]; UPZ 162 II, 18f [II B.C.] and s. pap [e.g. BASP XXXII p. 124 ln. 7]) and of God or of nonphysical entities that ‘make their home’ in or among people: ἐνοικήσω ἐν αὐτοῖς I will live among them 2 Cor 6:16. Of the Holy Spirit, which makes its home in people Ro 8:11; 2 Ti 1:14. Of the word of Christ Col 3:16. Of faith 2 Ti 1:5. Of sin Ro 7:17 v.l. (cp. TestSim 5:1). V.l. for κατοικέω B 16, 10.—DELG s.v. οἶκος IIc. M-M.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἐνοικέω

  • 5 κολλάω

    κολλάω aor. ἐκόλλησα LXX; pf. κεκόλληκα Job 38:38. Pass.: 1 fut. κολληθήσομαι Mt 19:5; 1 aor. ἐκολλήθην; pf. pass. κεκόλλημαι LXX (κόλλα ‘glue’; Aeschyl. et al.; Pla., Diod S, Plut., ins, pap, LXX; TestAbr A 20 p. 103, 18 [Stone p. 54]; Test12Patr; AscIs 97; EpArist 97; Philo) gener. ‘join together.’
    to join closely together, bind closely, unite τινά τινι someone with or to someone; fig. extension of the lit. mng. ‘to glue’ or ‘join’ substances, act. ἡ ἀγάπη κολλᾷ ἡμᾶς τῷ θεῷ love unites us w. God 1 Cl 49:5. ἡ νουθέτησις … κολλᾷ ἡμᾶς τῷ θελήματι τοῦ θεοῦ admonition unites us w. God’s will 56:2.
    to be closely associated, cling to, attach to, pass. most freq. in act. sense
    cling (closely) to someth.
    α. lit. τινί (Job 29:10) of stones ἐκολλῶντο ἀλλήλοις they were joined Hv 3, 2, 6. Of dust: τὸν κονιορτὸν τὸν κολληθέντα ἡμῖν ἐκ τῆς πόλεως ὑμῶν the dust of your city that clings to us Lk 10:11.
    β. fig. cling to = come in close contact with (cp. Ps 21:16; 43:26 ἐκολλήθη εἰς γῆν ἡ γαστὴρ ἡμῶν. The act.=‘bring into contact’ PGM 5, 457 κολλήσας τ. λίθον τῷ ὠτίῳ) ἐκολλήθησαν αἱ ἁμαρτίαι ἄχρι τ. οὐρανοῦ the sins have touched the heaven = reached the sky (two exprs. are telescoped) Rv 18:5.
    γ. fig. of the Spirit, which is (closely) joined to the flesh 2 Cl 14:5.
    join oneself to, join, cling to, associate with
    α. of a pers., w. dat. of thing κολλήθητι τῷ ἅρματι τούτῳ Ac 8:29 (a rendering like stick to this chariot suggests the imagery).—W. dat. of pers. (which may very rarely be replaced w. a prepositional constr. [AscIs 3:1 πρὸς αὐτόν but τῷ Μανασσῇ, cp. Tob 6:19 εἰ αὐτήν S, αὐτῇ BA]) 1 Cl 30:3; cp. 46:1. τοῖς εἰρηνεύουσι 15:1. τοῖς ἁγίοις 46:2 (quot. of unknown orig.); Hv 3, 6, 2; Hs 8, 8, 1. τοῖς δούλοις τοῦ θεοῦ 9, 20, 2; 9, 26, 3. τοῖς δικαίοις 8, 9, 1. τοῖς ἀθῴοις κ. δικαίοις 1 Cl 46:4. τοῖς διψύχοις καὶ κενοῖς the doubters and the senseless Hm 11:13. τοῖς ἀκαθάρτοις B 10:8; cp. 10:3ff. Also μετά τινος (cp. Ruth 2:8) 10:11; 19:2, 6; D 3:9. τῷ κυρίῳ join oneself to the Lord (cp. 4 Km 18:6; Sir 2:3; on this vs. and 6:16 below s. SPorter, ETL 67, ’91, 104f: economic connotation; cp. Lk 15:15 below) 1 Cor 6:17; Hm 10, 1, 6. τῇ γυναικὶ αὐτοῦ be joined to his wife Mt 19:5 (cp. Vi. Aesopi G 30 P. p. 46, 14, where a woman says to Aesop: μή μοι κολλῶ=don’t come too near me; 1 Esdr 4:20; Philo, Leg. All. 2, 50). τῇ πόρνῃ join oneself to a prostitute 1 Cor 6:16 (cp. Sir 19:2). Associate with on intimate terms, join Ac 5:13; 9:26; 10:28 (CBurchard, ZNW 61, ’70, 159f). Become a follower or disciple of someone (cp. 2 Km 20:2; 1 Macc 3:2; 6:21) 17:34. Hire oneself out to someone Lk 15:15 (JHarrill, JBL 115, ’96, 714–17, “he was indentured”). Have someth. to do with: lying spirits Hm 11:4.
    β. of impers. things: of anger ὅταν κολληθῇ τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ when it attaches itself to a pers. Hm 10, 2, 3. Also of punishment Hs 6, 5, 3.
    w. dat. of thing cling to, enter into a close relation w. (Ps 118:31; TestIss 6:1, Dan 6:10 τ. δικαιοσύνῃ, Gad 5:2) ταῖς δωρεαῖς cling to the gifts 1 Cl 19:2. τῷ ἀγαθῷ be attached or devoted to what is good Ro 12:9; B 20:2; D 5:2 (cp. TestAsh 3:1 τῇ ἀγαθότητι). τῇ εὐλογίᾳ cling to the blessing 1 Cl 31:1. κρίσει δικαίᾳ B 20:2.—DELG s.v. κόλλα. M-M. TW.

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  • 6 μυστήριον

    μυστήριον, ου, τό ‘secret, secret rite, secret teaching, mystery’ a relig. t.t. (predom. pl.) applied in the Gr-Rom. world mostly to the mysteries w. their secret teachings, relig. and political in nature, concealed within many strange customs and ceremonies. The principal rites remain unknown because of a reluctance in antiquity to divulge them (Trag.+; Hdt. 2, 51, 2; Diod S 1, 29, 3; 3, 63, 2; Socrat., Ep. 27, 3; Cornutus 28 p. 56, 22; 57, 4; Alciphron 3, 26, 1; OGI 331, 54; 528, 13; 721, 2, SIG s. index; Sb 7567, 9 [III A.D.]; PGM 1, 131; 4, 719ff; 2477 τὰ ἱερὰ μ. ἀνθρώποις εἰς γνῶσιν; 5, 110; 12, 331; 13, 128 τὸ μυστήριον τοῦ θεοῦ. Only the perfected gnostic is τῶν μυστηρίων ἀκροατής Hippol., Ref. 5, 8, 29.—OKern, D. griech. Mysterien d. klass. Zeit 1927; WOtto, D. Sinn der eleusin. Myst. ’40; MNilsson, The Dionysiac Mysteries of the Hell. and Rom. Age, ’57; Kl. Pauly III 1533–42; WBurkert, Antike Mysterien ’90). Also LXX and other versions of the OT use the word, as well as En (of the heavenly secret) and numerous pseudepigr., Philo, Joseph. (C. Ap. 2, 189, 266), apolog. (exc. Ar.); it is a loanw. in rabb. Our lit. uses μ. in ref. to the transcendent activity of God and its impact on God’s people.
    the unmanifested or private counsel of God, (God’s) secret, the secret thoughts, plans, and dispensations of God (SJCh 78, 9; τὸ μ. τῆς μοναρχίας τῆς κατὰ τὸν θεόν Theoph. Ant. 2, 28 [p. 166, 17]) which are hidden fr. human reason, as well as fr. all other comprehension below the divine level, and await either fulfillment or revelation to those for whom they are intended (the divine Logos as διδάσκαλος θείων μυστηρίων Orig., C. Cels. 3, 62, 9: the constellations as δεῖγμα καὶ τύπον … μεγάλου μυστηρίου Hippol. Ant. 2, 15 [p. 138, 7]; Abraham is τῶν θείων … μέτοχος μυστηρίων Did., Gen. 213, 20).
    In the gospels μ. is found only in one context, where Jesus says to the disciples who have asked for an explanation of the parable(s) ὑμῖν τὸ μυστήριον δέδοται τῆς βασιλείας τ. θεοῦ Mk 4:11; the synopt. parallels have the pl. Mt 13:11 (LCerfaux, NTS 2, ’55/56, 238–49); Lk 8:10.—WWrede, D. Messiasgeh. in den Evv. 1901; HEbeling, D. Messiasgeh. u. d. Botschaft des Mc-Evangelisten ’39; NJohansson, SvTK 16, ’40, 3–38; OPiper, Interpretation 1, ’47, 183–200; RArida, St Vladimar Theol. Qtly 38, ’94, 211–34 (patristic exegesis Mk 4:10–12 par.).
    The Pauline lit. has μ. in 21 places. A secret or mystery, too profound for human ingenuity, is God’s reason for the partial hardening of Israel’s heart Ro 11:25 or the transformation of the surviving Christians at the Parousia 1 Cor 15:51. Even Christ, who was understood by so few, is God’s secret or mystery Col 2:2, hidden ages ago 1:26 (cp. Herm. Wr. 1, 16 τοῦτό ἐστι τὸ κεκρυμμένον μυστήριον μέχρι τῆσδε τῆς ἡμέρας), but now gloriously revealed among the gentiles vs. 27, to whom the secret of Christ, i.e. his relevance for them, is proclaimed, 4:3 (CMitton, ET 60, ’48/49, 320f). Cp. Ro 16:25; 1 Cor 2:1 (cp. Just., D. 91, 1; 131, 2 al. μ. τοῦ σταυροῦ; 74, 3 τὸ σωτήριον τοῦτο μ., τοῦτʼ ἔστι τὸ πάθος τοῦ χριστοῦ). The pl. is used to denote Christian preaching by the apostles and teachers in the expr. οἰκονόμοι μυστηρίων θεοῦ 1 Cor 4:1 (Iambl., Vi. Pyth. 23, 104 calls the teachings of Pyth. θεῖα μυστήρια). Not all Christians are capable of understanding all the mysteries. The one who speaks in tongues πνεύματι λαλεῖ μυστήρια utters secret truths in the Spirit which the person alone shares w. God, and which others, even Christians, do not understand 1 Cor 14:2. Therefore the possession of all mysteries is a great joy 13:2 (Just., D. 44, 2). And the spirit-filled apostle can say of the highest stage of Christian knowledge, revealed only to the τέλειοι: λαλοῦμεν θεοῦ σοφίαν ἐν μυστηρίῳ we impart the wisdom of God in the form of a mystery (ἐν μυστηρίῳ=in a mysterious manner [Laud. Therap. 11] or =secretly, so that no unauthorized person would learn of it [cp. Cyr. of Scyth. p. 90, 14 ἐν μυστηρίῳ λέγει]) 2:7 (AKlöpper, ZWT 47, 1905, 525–45).—Eph, for which (as well as for Col) μ. is a predominant concept, sees the μ. τοῦ θελήματος αὐτοῦ (sc. θεοῦ) 1:9 or μ. τ. Χριστοῦ 3:4 or μ. τ. εὐαγγελίου 6:19 in acceptance of the gentiles as Christians 3:3ff, 9ff. A unique great mystery is revealed 5:32, where the relation betw. Christ and the Christian community or church is spoken of on the basis of Gen 2:24 (cp. the interpretation of the sun as symbol of God, Theoph. Ant. 2, 15 [p. 138, 8], and s. WKnox, St. Paul and the Church of the Gentiles, ’39, 183f; 227f; WBieder, TZ 11, ’55, 329–43).
    In Rv μ. is used in ref. to the mysterious things portrayed there. The whole content of the book appears as τὸ μ. τοῦ θεοῦ 10:7. Also τὸ μ. τῶν ἑπτὰ ἀστέρων 1:20; τὸ μ. τῆς γυναικός 17:7, cp. vs. 5, where in each case μ. may mean allegorical significance (so BEaston, Pastoral Epistles ’47, 215).
    that which transcends normal understanding, transcendent/ultimate reality, secret, with focus on Israelite/Christian experience.
    1 Ti uses μ. as a formula: τὸ μ. τῆς πίστεως is simply faith 3:9. τὸ τ. εὐσεβείας μ. the secret of (our) piety vs. 16.—τὸ μ. τῆς ἀνομίας 2 Th 2:7 s. ἀνομία 1 (Jos., Bell. 1, 470 calls the life of Antipater κακίας μυστήριον because of his baseness practiced in secret. Cp. also SibOr 8, 58 τὰ πλάνης μυστήρια; 56).—PFurfey, CBQ 8, ’46, 179–91.
    in Ign.: the death and resurrection of Jesus as μ. IMg 9:1 (τὸ περὶ τῆς ἀναστάσεως μ. Orig., C. Cels. 1, 7, 9). The virginity of Mary, her childbearing, and the Lord’s death are called τρία μ. κραυγῆς three mysteries (to be) loudly proclaimed IEph 19:1 (they are mysteries because they go so contrary to human expectation). So also of the annunciation to Mary and her conception GJs 12:2f. The deacons are οἱ διάκονοι μυστηρίων Ἰ. Χρ. ITr 2:3.
    Quite difficult is the saying about the tried and true prophet ποιῶν εἰς μυστήριον κοσμικὸν ἐκκλησίας who acts in accord with the earthly mystery of (God’s) assembly D 11:11. This may refer to celibacy; the prophet lives in such a way as to correspond to the relation betw. Christ and the people of God; cp. Eph 5:32 (so Harnack, TU II 1; 2, 1884, 44ff; HWeinel, Die Wirkungen d. Geistes u. der Geister 1899, 131–38; PDrews, Hdb. z. d. ntl. Apokryphen 1904, 274ff; RKnopf, Hdb. ad loc.—Differently CTaylor, The Teaching of the Twelve Apost. 1886, 82–92; RHarris, The Teaching of the Ap. 1887; FFunk, Patr. Apostol.2 1901 ad loc.; Zahn, Forschungen III 1884, 301).
    μ. occurs oft. in Dg: τὸ τῆς θεοσεβείας μ. the secret of (our) piety 4:6 (what Dg means by μ. is detailed in ch. 5). Likew. of Christian teaching (cp. Ps.-Phocyl. 229 and comments by Horst 260–61) πατρὸς μυστήρια 11:2; cp. vs. 5. Hence the Christian can μυστήρια θεοῦ λαλεῖν 10:7. In contrast to ἀνθρώπινα μ. 7:1. οὗ (sc. τ. θεοῦ) τὰ μυστήρια whose secret counsels 7:2 (the divine will for orderly management of the universe). Of God keeping personal counsel κατεῖχεν ἐν μυστηρίῳ … τὴν σοφὴν αὐτοῦ βουλήν 8:10.—Lghtf., St. Paul’s Ep. to the Col. and Phlm. p. 167ff; JRobinson, St. Paul’s Ep. to the Eph. 1904, 234ff; GWobbermin, Religionsgesch. Studien 1896, 144ff; EHatch, Essays on Bibl. Gk. 1889, 57ff; HvSoden, ZNW 12, 1911, 188ff; TFoster, AJT 19, 1915, 402–15; OCasel, D. Liturgie als Mysterienfeier5 1923; JSchneider, ‘Mysterion’ im NT: StKr 104, ’32, 255–78; TArvedson, D. Mysterium Christi ’37; KPrümm, ‘Mysterion’ v. Pls bis Orig.: ZKT 61, ’37, 391–425, Biblica 37, ’56, 135–61; RBrown, The Semitic Background of ‘Mystery’ in the NT, ’68; cp. KKuhn, NTS 7, 61, 366 for Qumran parallels to various passages in Eph and Ro; ABöhlig, Mysterion u. Wahrheit, ’68, 3–40; JFruytier, Het woord M. in de catechesen van Cyrillus van Jerusalem, ’50; ANock, Hellenistic Mysteries and Christian Sacraments, Essays on Religion and the Ancient World II, ’72, 790–820; AHarvey, The Use of Mystery Language in the Bible: JTS 31, ’80, 320–36.—DELG s.v. μύω. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

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  • 7 φθείρω

    φθείρω fut. φθερῶ; 1 aor. ἔφθειρα. Pass.: 2 fut. φθαρήσομαι; 2 aor. ἐφθάρην; pf. ἔφθαρμαι, ptc. ἐφθαρμένος (Hom.+; ins, pap, LXX, TestJob 33:4; Test12Patr; ParJer 7:26; Philo, Ar., Just., Tat.) gener. ‘destroy, ruin’
    to cause harm to in a physical manner or in outward circumstances, destroy, ruin, corrupt, spoil
    ruin financially τινά someone, so perh. 2 Cor 7:2 (s. 2a below).
    The expr. εἴ τις τὸν ναὸν τοῦ θεοῦ φθείρει 1 Cor 3:17 seems to be derived fr. the idea of the destruction of a house (X., Mem. 1, 5, 3 τὸν οἶκον τὸν ἐαυτοῦ φθείρειν. Oft in marriage contracts: Mitt-Wilck. I/2, 284, 11 [II B.C.]; PTebt 104, 29 [92 B.C.] et al.).
    seduce a virgin (Eur. et al.; Demetr.: 722 Fgm. 1, 9 Jac.; Diod S 1, 23, 4; Jos., Ant. 4, 252; Just., A I, 9, 4) οὐθὲ Εὔα φθείρεται, ἀλλὰ παρθένος πιστεύεται nor is Eve corrupted; instead, a virgin is trusted Dg 12:8 (πιστεύω 1f).
    pass. be ruined, be doomed to destruction by earthly transitoriness or otherw. (Epict. 2, 5, 12 τὸ γενόμενον καὶ φθαρῆναι δεῖ; TestJob 33:4 ἡ δόξα αὐτοῦ [τοῦ κόσμου] φθαρήσεται; Just., A II, 11, 5 κάλλει τῷ ῥέοντι καὶ φθειρομένῳ) of cultic images Dg 2:4. Of a man bowed down by old age αὐτοῦ τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἤδη ἐφθαρμένον ἀπὸ τῶν προτέρων αὐτοῦ πράξεων his spirit, which had already degenerated from its former condition (s. πρᾶξις 6) Hv 3, 12, 2 (cp. Ocellus [II B.C.] c. 23 Harder [1926] φθείρονται ἐξ ἀλλήλων).
    to cause deterioration of the inner life, ruin, corrupt
    ruin or corrupt τινά someone, by erroneous teaching or immorality, so perh. 2 Cor 7:2 (s. 1a above). ἥτις ἔφθειρεν τὴν γῆν (=τοὺς ἀνθρώπους; see γῆ 2) ἐν τῇ πορνείᾳ αὐτῆς Rv 19:2. Pass. (UPZ 20, 17 [163 B.C.]; TestJud 19:4 ἐν ἁμαρτίαις φθαρείς) τὸν παλαιὸν ἄνθρωπον τὸν φθειρόμενον κατὰ τὰς ἐπιθυμίας Eph 4:22. Cp. Hs 8, 9, 3 v.l.
    ruin or corrupt τὶ someth. by misleading tactics πίστιν θεοῦ ἐν κακῇ διδασκαλίᾳ IEph 16:2. The ἐκκλησία (opp. τηρεῖν) 2 Cl 14:3ab. On φθείρουσιν ἤθη χρηστὰ ὁμιλίαι κακαί 1 Cor 15:33 cp. ἦθος. Pass. be led astray (Jos., Bell. 4, 510) μήπως φθαρῇ τὰ νοήματα ὑμῶν ἀπὸ τῆς ἀπλότητος (νόημα 2) 2 Cor 11:3 (φθ. of the seduction of a virgin, s. 1c above).
    to inflict punishment, destroy in the sense ‘punish w. eternal destruction’ 1 Cor 3:17b (=‘punish by destroying’ as Jer 13:9). Pass. 2 Pt 2:12; Jd 10. ἔφθαρται (w. ἀπώλετο) IPol 5:2.
    break rules of a contest, violate rules, ἀγῶνα φθείρειν t.t. (SIG 1076, 3) 2 Cl 7:4; cp. vs. 5 (here in imagery).—B. 758. DELG. M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > φθείρω

  • 8 ἄλαλος

    ἄλαλος, ον (s. λαλέω; Aeschyl. et al., also IG XIV, 1627, 9; LXX; SibOr 4, 7), mute, unable to speak, ἄ. γίνεσθαι be struck mute of deceitful lips 1 Cl 15:5 (Ps 30:19); πνεῦμα ἄ. (Plut., Mor. 438b of the Pythia: ἀλάλου καὶ κακοῦ πνεύματος πλήρης. Paris ms. 2316 leaf 318 in Rtzst., Poim. 293, 1 πνεῦμα … ἄλαλον) a mute spirit, which robs pers. of their speech Mk 9:17; acc. to vs. 25 the πν. ἄ. is also deaf (ἄ. w. κωφός Alex. Aphr., Probl. 1, 138; Artem. 1, 76; Ps 37:14).—ὁ ἄ. a mute person (Ps 37:14): ποιεῖ ἀ. λαλεῖν 7:37.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἄλαλος

  • 9 ἐκχέω

    ἐκχέω (Hom.+; also Mel., P. 74, 542 [Jer 7:6]) fut. ἐκχεῶ; 1 aor. ἐξέχεα; pf. ἐκκέχυκα Ezk 24:7. Beside it the H. Gk. form ἐκχύν(ν)ω (W-S. §15; B-D-F §73; 74, 2; 101; Mlt-H. 195; 215; 265) 1 fut. ἐκχυθήσομαι; 1 aor. ἐξεχύθην; pf. pass. ἐκκέχυμαι.
    cause to be emitted in quantity, pour out
    of liquids: water D 7:3. αἷμα ἐ. shed blood = commit a murder (αἷμα 2a) Ac 22:20; Ro 3:15 (Is 59:7; Ps 13:3); Rv 16:6; GJs 23:3 (1 Km 25:31); cp. AcPl Ha 11, 8. αἷμα ἐκχυννόμενον (Jos., Ant. 19, 94 αἷμα πολὺ ἐκκεχυμένον) Mt 23:35; cp. Lk 11:50; in the cultic sense pour out (cp. Lev 4:7), esp. of Jesus’ death (Orig., C. Cels. 8, 42, 33) 1 Cl 7:4. αἷμα ἐ. περὶ πολλῶν εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν blood shed for (the benefit of) many, for the forgiveness of sins Mt 26:28 (w. purpose indicated by εἰς as Lucian, Tim. 5 εἰς εὐεργεσίαν); αἷ. ἐ. ὑπὲρ πολλῶν Mk 14:24; cp. Lk 22:20. Wine ἐκχεῖται is spilled (out) (cp. Gen 38:9) Mt 9:17; cp. Mk 2:22 v.l.; cp. Lk 5:37; ἐ. φιάλην, as we say, pour out a bowl (i.e. its contents) Rv 16:1ff, 8, 10, 12, 17.
    of solid objects (Lev 4:12) ἐξεχύθη πάντα τὰ σπλάγχνα all his bowels gushed out Ac 1:18 (cp. Quint. Smyrn. 8, 302 ἔγκατα πάντʼ ἐχύθησαν; 9, 190; 2 Km 20:10; Jos., Bell. 7, 453; AcThom 33 [Aa II/2, 150, 19]). Of coins scatter on the ground J 2:15.
    cause to fully experience, pour out fig. ext. of 1 (cp. Lycophron 110 πόθον; Ps.-Demetr., Eloc. 134 τοῦ λόγου τὴν χάριν; Aelian, NA 7, 23 θυμόν; τὴν ὀργήν PsSol 2:24; ψυχὴν εἰς θάνατον 16:2; Philo, Spec. Leg. 1, 37 of light; Jos., Ant. 6, 271 φόνον) of the Holy Spirit which, acc. to Joel’s prophecy, is to pour down on people like rain (Jo 2:23; cp. 1QS 4:21): pour out (Iren. 5, 12, 2 [Harv II 351, 2]) Ac 2:33. ἐπί τινα (after Jo 3:1) 2:17f; 10:45; Tit 3:6; B 1:3; 1 Cl 46:6. The ref. to the Holy Spirit has perh. brought the idea of outpouring into Ro 5:5 ἡ ἀγάπη τ. θεοῦ ἐκκέχυται ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ἡμῶν διὰ πνεύματος ἁγίου τοῦ δοθέντος ἡμῖν. But gener., whatever comes from above is connected w. this verb (Ps 44:3 χάρις; Sir 18:11 ἔλεος; Hos 5:10 ἐπʼ αὐτοὺς ἐκχεῶ ὡς ὕδωρ τὸ ὅρμημά μου; Philo, Aet. M. 147 ἄνωθεν ἐ.; TestLevi 18:5; ἐκχεῖσθαι … ὁ λόγος ἐπὶ πᾶσαν τὴν οἰκουμένην Orig., C. Cels. 6, 78, 26).
    to give oneself totally in commitment, give oneself up to, dedicate oneself, pass. (Polyb. 31, 25, 4 εἰς ἑταίρας; Plut., Anton. 21, 1; Philo, Op. M. 80; TestReub 1:6; εἰς πράγματα ἀφροδισίακα Hippol., Ref. 4, 19, 2) w. dat. (Alciphron 3, 34, 1 τῷ γέλωτι) τῇ πλάνῃ τ. Βαλαάμ Jd 11. λίαν ἐ. ἀγαπῶν ὑμᾶς I am totally consumed w. affection for you = my affection for you streams out of me. IPhld 5:1.—M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἐκχέω

  • 10 πνέω

    πνέω, poet. πνείω as always in Hom. exc. Od.5.469: [tense] fut. πνεύσομαι ([etym.] ἐκ-) E.HF 886 (lyr.), ([etym.] ἐμ-) Id.Andr. 555, ([etym.] παρα-) Hp.Mul.2.133; also
    A

    πνευσοῦμαι Ar.Ra. 1221

    , Arist.Mete. 367a13, Thphr.Sign.34, Palaeph.17;

    πνεύσω Thphr.Sign.32

    , LXXPs.147.7(18), Si.43.20, Gp. 1.12.34, AP9.112 (Antip.Thess.), ([etym.] ἀνα-) Q.S.13.516 ( συμ-πνευσόντων is f.l. in D.18.169): [tense] aor. 1

    ἔπνευσα Hes.Op. 506

    , Hdt.2.20, etc., ([etym.] ἐν-) Il.17.456, ([etym.] ἀν-) S.Aj. 274: [tense] pf. πέπνευκα ([etym.] ἐπι-) Pl.Phdr. 262d, ([etym.] ἐκ-) Arist.Pr. 904a1:—[voice] Pass., [tense] fut. πνευσθήσομαι ([etym.] δια-) Aret.CA1.1: [tense] aor. ἐπνεύσθην ([etym.] δι-) Thphr.HP5.5.6, etc.—Hom. and early Prose writers use the simple Verb only in [tense] pres. and [tense] impf., to which Trag. add [tense] fut. and [tense] aor. 1 [voice] Act.—For the form ἄμπνυε, v. ἀναπνέω; for ἀμπνύνθη, -πνυτο, v. ἄμπνυτο; and for [tense] pf. [voice] Pass. πέπνῡμαι, part. πεπνῡμένος, v. πέπνυμαι.—Like other disyll. Verbs in -έω, this Verb contracts only εε, εει; but ἐκπνέων is disyll. in A.Ag. 1493, 1517 (both lyr.):—blow, of wind and air,

    οὐδέ ποτ' οὖροι πνείοντες φαίνονθ' Od.4.361

    ;

    αὔρη δ' ἐκ ποταμοῦ ψυχρὴ πνέει 5.469

    ;

    ἐτησίαι.. οὐκ ἔπνευσαν Hdt.2.20

    , etc.; τῷ πνέοντι (sc. ἀνέμῳ or πνεύματι) Luc. Cont.3; ἡ πνέουσα (sc. αὔρα) Act.Ap.27.40; also of a flute-player,

    μέγα πνέων Poll.4.72

    ; and of the flutes themselves,

    αὐλοὺς ἡδὺ πνέοντας AP6.254

    (Myrin.); πνεῖται flutes are sounding, Mnesim.4.57 (anap.).
    II breathe, send forth an odour,

    ἀμβροσίη.. ἡδὺ πνείουσα Od.4.446

    ; π. εὐῶδες, δυσῶδες, Poll.2.75, etc.: abs., Dsc.3.80.
    2 c. acc., breathe out, send forth,

    Ζεφύρου πνείοντος ἐέρσην Call.Ap. 82

    .
    3 c. gen., breathe or smell of a thing,

    οὐ μύρου πνέον S.Fr. 565

    ;

    τράγου π. AP11.240

    (Lucill.);

    μόγοιο Q.S.6.164

    ;

    λύθρου καὶ αἵματος Id.5.120

    ( ἐπιπν- codd.): rarely c. dat.,

    μύροισι π.

    smell with..,

    AP5.199

    : freq. metaph., breathe, be redolent of,

    Χαρίτων πνείοντα μέλη Simon.184.3

    ;

    ὄμματα.. πόθου πνείοντα AP5.258

    (Paul. Sil.); φόνου π. cj. in Tryph.505;

    αὐθαδείας πολὺς ἔπνει D.H.7.51

    .
    III of perceptible breathing, [

    ἵππω] πνείοντε κατ' ὤμων Il.13.385

    ;

    π. ὕπνῳ A.Ch. 621

    (lyr.).
    IV generally, draw breath, breathe: hence, live, Il.17.447; οἱ πνέοντες, = οἱ ζῶντες, S.Tr. 1160;

    ὄλβος ἀεὶ πνεῖ Simm.25.12

    ;

    ἥμισύ μευ ψυχῆς ἔτι τὸ πνέον Call.Epigr.42

    .
    V metaph., c. acc. cogn., breathe forth, μένεα πνείοντες breathing spirit, epith. of warriors, Il.2.536,3.8, 11.508, etc.; so

    πῦρ π. Hes.Th. 319

    , Pi. Fr. 146;

    φόνον δόμοι πνέουσιν A.Ag. 1309

    ;

    κότον πνέων Id.Ch.34

    (lyr.), cf. 951 (lyr.);

    φρενὸς πνέων τροπαίαν Id.Ag. 219

    (lyr.); Ἄρη πνεόντων ib. 376 (lyr.); πνέων χάριν τινί ib. 1206;

    πῦρ πνειόντων.. ἄστρων S.Ant. 1146

    (lyr.);

    πῦρ π. καὶ φόνον E.IT 288

    ;

    ὠδῖνας Id.HF 862

    : paratrag. in Com.,

    πνέοντας δόρυ καὶ λόγχας Ar.Ra. 1016

    ; τρέχει τις Ἀλφειὸν πνέων, of a swift runner, Id.Av. 1121, etc.; and in a rhetorical passage,

    οἱ πῦρ πνέοντες, οἱ νενικηκότες Λακεδαιμονίους X.HG7.5.12

    .
    2 with neut. Adjs. or Prons., πνέοντες μεγάλα giving themselves airs, E.Andr. 189; τόσονδ' ἔπνευσας ib. 327;

    κενεὰ πνεύσαις Pi.O.10(11).93

    ;

    χαμηλὰ πνέων Id.P.11.30

    : abs., ὑπὲρ σακέων πνείοντες breathing over their shields, i. e. unable to repress their rage for war, Hes.Sc. 24;

    θρασείᾳ πνέων καρδίᾳ Pi.P.10.44

    : with nom.,

    Ἄρης.. μέγας πνέων E.Rh. 323

    ;

    πολὺς ἔπνει καὶ λαμπρός D.25.57

    ;

    οὗτος.. καικίας ἢ συκοφαντίας πνεῖ Ar.Eq. 437

    ; ᾧ σὺ μὴ πνεύσῃς ἐνδέξιος on whom thou breathest not favourably, Call.Epigr.10.3.

    Greek-English dictionary (Αγγλικά Ελληνικά-λεξικό) > πνέω

  • 11 δαιμόνιον

    δαιμόνιον, ου, τό (substant. neut. of the adj. δαιμόνιος [s. 2 below δαιμόνιον πνεῦμα], quotable since Homer; OGI 383, 175; Herm. Wr. 10, 19; Ps.-Phoc. 101; En 19:1; TestSol; GrBar 16:3; Philo; Jos., Bell. 1, 373; 6, 429) in Gk. lit. the δαιμον-family refers in general to powerful entities that transcend ordinary experience. After Homer’s time, the adj. δαιμόνιος means anything ‘sent from heaven’ or ‘that which is divine’ and the subst. τὸ δ. comes to mean ‘divine manifestation’ or ‘heaven’, as in our expression ‘what heaven decrees’ (Hdt. 5, 87, 2; cp. SIG 601, 15; Jos., Bell. 1, 69); or simply ‘the divine’ (Eur., Bacch. 894); cp. SIG 545, 14 (of religious piety). In our lit. the subst. gener. denotes a malevolent force.
    transcendent incorporeal being w. status between humans and deities, daemon (as distinguished from demon, which in Eng. gener. connotes inimical aspect), semi-divine being, a divinity, spirit, (higher) power, without neg. connotation. The subst. was freq. used by Hellenes in a gener. sense esp. of independent numinous beings or divinities, as distinguished from a more personalized θεός, e.g. nymphs, Panes, and Sileni (Pla., Symp. 23 p. 202e πᾶν τὸ δαιμόνιον μεταξύ ἐστι θεοῦ τε καὶ θνητοῦ=‘every δ. is between a god and a mortal’; cp. Philo, Mos. 1, 276; UPZ 144, 43; 50 [164 B.C.]; Vett. Val. 355, 15; Ps.-Lucian, Asinus 24 p. 592 οὐδὲ τὰ δ. δέδοικας; ‘aren’t you afraid of the spirits [powers]?’ The term is common in adjurations, e.g., δαιμόνιον πνεῦμα, w. ref. to the spirit of the departed as possessing extraordinary powers: lead tablet fr. Hadrumetum [Dssm., B 26, 35 (BS 271ff)]; PGM 4, 3038; 3065; 3075). ξένων δ. καταγγελεύς a preacher of strange divinities Ac 17:18 (cp. Pla., Apol. 26b; X., Mem. 1, 1, 1 καινὰ δαιμόνια εἰσφέρειν).
    a hostile transcendent being w. status between humans and deities, spirit, power, hostile divinity, evil spirit, the neg. component may be either specific or contextual, and w. the sense commonly associated w. the loanword ‘demon’ (δ. φαῦλα: Chrysipp. [Stoic. II 338, 32, no. 1178]; Plut., Mor. 1051c. φαῦλ. δ.: Plut., Mor. 277a, Dio 2, 5. Vett. Val. 67, 5; 99, 7. Herm. Wr. 9, 3; PGM 4, 3081; 5, 120; 165; 170; LXX; En 19:1). Beings of this type are said to enter into persons and cause illness, esp. of the mental variety (GrBar 16:3 ἐν μαχαίρᾳ … ἐν δαιμονίοις as punishment; Jos., Bell. 7, 185 [of the spirits of deceased wicked people], Ant. 6, 166ff; 211; 214; 8, 45ff): δ. εἰσέρχεται εἴς τινα Lk 8:30; δ. ἔχειν Mt 11:18; Lk 7:33; 8:27; J 7:20; 8:48f, 52; 10:20. ἔχων πνεῦμα δαιμονίου ἀκαθάρτου who was under the control of an unclean power Lk 4:33. ῥῖψαν αὐτὸν τὸ δ. vs. 35; cp. ἔρρηξεν 9:42. Hence the healing of a sick person is described as the driving out of malignant forces ἐκβάλλειν (τ.) δ. (Jos., Ant. 6, 211) Mt 7:22; 9:34; 10:8; 12:24, 27f; Mk 1:34, 39; 3:15, 22; 6:13; 7:26; 9:38; 16:9, 17; Lk 9:49; 11:14f, 18ff; 13:32. Pass. Mt 9:33. ἐξουσίαν ἐπὶ πάντα τὰ δ. Lk 9:1. τὰ δʼ ὑποτάσσεται ἡμῖν 10:17. ἐξέρχεται τὸ δ. (s. ἐξέρχομαι 1aβב.—Thrasyllus [I A.D.] in Ps.-Plut., Fluv. 16, 2 ἀπέρχεται τὸ δαιμόνιον) Mt 17:18; Mk 7:29f; Lk 4:41; 8:2, 33, 35, 38. Some live in deserted places 8:29, hence a ruined city is a habitation of (malevolent) powers Rv 18:2 (cp. Is 13:21; 34:11, 14; Bar 4:35). Their ruler is βεελζεβούλ (q.v.) Mt 12:24, 27; Lk 11:15, 18f. Erroneous instruction is διδασκαλίαι δαιμονίων (subj. gen.) 1 Ti 4:1. The ability of such beings to work miracles is variously described J 10:21 and Rv 16:14. They are objects of polytheistic worship 9:20 (Dt 32:17; Bar 4:7; cp. Ps 95:5; 105:37; En 19:1; 99:7; Just., Tat.; SibOr Fgm. 1, 22. Likew. among Persians and Babylonians: Cumont3 305, 97) 1 Cor 10:20f (w. satirical reference to the secondary status of these members of the spirit-world relative to deity); B 16:7. On Js 2:19 s. φρίσσω.—Of the evil spirit of slander Hm 2:3; of vengeance Hs 9, 23, 5; of arrogance Hs 9, 22, 3.—The δ. can appear without a tangible body, and then acts as a phantom or ghost ISm 3:2.—JGeffcken, Zwei griech. Apologeten 1907, 216ff; JTambornino, De Antiquorum Daemonismo 1909; RWünsch, D. Geisterbannung im Altertum: Festschr. Univ. Breslau 1911, 9–32; WBousset, Z. Dämonologie d. späteren Antike: ARW 18, 1915, 134–72; FAndres, Daimon: Pauly-W. Suppl. III 1918, 267–322; MPohlenz, Stoa ’49 (index).—HDuhm, D. bösen Geister im AT 1904; GBarton, EncRelEth IV 1911, 594–601; AJirku, Die Dämonen u. ihre Abwehr im AT 1912; ALods, Marti Festschr. 1925, 181–93; HKaupel, D. Dämonen im AT 1930; Bousset, Rel.3 1926, 331ff; Billerb. IV 1928, 501–35; TCanaan, M.D., Dämonenglaube im Lande der Bibel 1929 1–20.—WAlexander, Demonic Possession in the NT 1902; JSmit, De Daemonicis in Hist. Evang. 1913; RBultmann, Gesch. d. Syn. Tradition2 ’31, 223ff; HEberlein, NKZ 42, ’31, 499–509; 562–72; FFenner, D. Krankheit im NT 1930; ATitius, NBonwetsch Festschr. 1918, 25–47; GSulzer, D. Besessenheitsheilungen Jesu 1921; HSeng, D. Heilungen Jesu in med. Beleuchtung2 1926; WWrede, Z. Messiaserkenntnis d. Dämonen bei Mk: ZNW 5, 1904, 169–77; OBauernfeind, D. Worte d. Dämonen im Mk-Ev. 1928; AFridrichsen, Theology 21, ’31, 122–35; SMcCasland, By the Finger of God ’51; SEitrem, Some Notes on the Demonology in the NT: SymbOsl, Suppl. 12, ’50, 1–60; JKallas, The Satanward View (Paul), ’66; GTillesse, Le Secret Messianique dans Mk, ’68, 75–111; RAC IX 546–797; RMacMullen, VigChr 37, ’83, 174–92; G. Francois, Le polythéisme et l’emploi au singulier des mots ΘΕΟΣ ΔΑΙΜΩΝ ’57 (lit.); GRiley, Demon: DDD 445–55. S. also the lit. s.v. ἄγγελος.—B. 1488. DELG s.v. δαίμων. M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > δαιμόνιον

  • 12 δικαιοσύνη

    δικαιοσύνη, ης, ἡ (s. δίκαιος; Theognis, Hdt.+) gener. the quality of being upright. Theognis 1, 147 defines δ. as the sum of all ἀρετή; acc. to Demosth. (20, 165) it is the opp. of κακία. A strict classification of δ. in the NT is complicated by freq. interplay of abstract and concrete aspects drawn from OT and Gr-Rom. cultures, in which a sense of equitableness combines with awareness of responsibility within a social context.
    the quality, state, or practice of judicial responsibility w. focus on fairness, justice, equitableness, fairness
    of human beings (a common theme in honorary ins, e.g. IPriene 71, 14f; 22f of a judge named Alexis; Danker, Benefactor 346–48; cp. Aristot., EN 5, 1, 8, 1129a τὸ μὲν δίκαιον ἄρα τὸ νόμιμον καὶ τὸ ἴσον ‘uprightness consists of that which is lawful and fair’; Ath. 34:2 ἔστι δὲ δ. ἴσα ἴσοις ἀμείβειν ‘uprightness means to answer like with like’; for association of δ. with judgment s. also Diog. L. 3, 79; in contexts of praise δ. suggests authority involving juridical responsibility FX 7, ’81, 255 n. 229) δ. κρίσεως ἀρχὴ καὶ τέλος uprightness is the beginning and end of judgment B 1:6. Melchizedek as βασιλεὺς δικαιοσύνης Hb 7:2. ἐργάζεσθαι δικαιοσύνην administer justice Hb 11:33; κρίνειν ἐν δ. (Ps 71:2f; 95:13; Sir 45:26; PsSol 8:24) judge justly Ac 17:31, cp. Mk 16:14 v.l. (Freer ms. line 5 in N. app.); Ro 9:28 v.l. (Is 10:22). ποιεῖν κρίμα καὶ δ. practice justice and uprightness 1 Cl 13:1 (Jer 9:23). καθιστάναι τοὺς ἐπισκοπούς ἐν δ. appoint overseers in uprightness= who will serve justly 1 Cl 42:5 (Is 60:17). David rejoices in God’s δ. 1 Cl 18:15 (Ps 50:16; s. ἀγαλλιάω, end).
    of transcendent figures (Pla. τὴν δ. θεοῦ νόμον ὑπελάμβανεν ‘considered divine justice [i.e. apportionment of reward or retribution in accordance with behavior] a principle’ or ‘system’ that served as a deterrent of crime Diog. L. 3, 79). Of an apocalyptic horseman ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ κρινεῖ Rv 19:11.
    quality or state of juridical correctness with focus on redemptive action, righteousness. Equitableness is esp. associated w. God (cp. Paradoxogr. Vat. 43 Keller αἰτεῖται παρὰ τ. θεῶν οὐδὲν ἄλλο πλὴν δικαιοσύνης), and in our lit. freq. in connection w. exercise of executive privilege in conferring a benefit. Hence God’s δ. can be the opposite of condemnation 2 Cor 3:9 (s. below); in it God is revealed as judge Rom 3:5—in contrast to human wrath, which beclouds judgment—displaying judicial integrity 3:25 (on this pass. s. also below). Cp. ἐκάλεσά σε ἐν δ. B 14:7 (Is 42:6). Also of equitable privilege allotted by God 2 Pt 1:1.—In Pauline thought the intimate association of God’s interest in retaining a reputation for justice that rewards goodness and requites evil, while at the same time working out a plan of salvation for all humanity, complicates classification of his use of δικαιοσύνη. On the one hand, God’s δ. is pardoning action, and on the other a way of sharing God’s character with believers, who then exhibit righteousness in the moral sense. God achieves this objective through exercise of executive privilege in dispensing justice equitably without reference to νόμος by making salvation available to all humanity (which shares a common problem of liability to wrath by being unanimously in revolt against God Ro 3:9–18, 23) through faith in God’s action in Jesus Christ. The genitival constr. δ. θεοῦ accents the uniqueness of this δ.: Ro 1:17; 3:21f, 25, 26 (s. these pass. also below; Reumann, 3c end); 10:3, and δ. alone 5:21; 9:30 (3 times); 2 Cor 3:9 (opp. κατάκρισις; cp. Dg 9:3; 5). 2 Cor 5:21 may belong here if δ. is viewed as abstract for concrete=δικαιωθέντες (but s. below). All these refer to righteousness bestowed by God cp. ἡ δωρεὰ τῆς δ. Ro 5:17, also 1 Cor 1:30 (sim. 1QS 11, 9–15; 1QH 4, 30–37). In this area it closely approximates salvation (cp. Is 46:13; 51:5 and s. NSnaith, Distinctive Ideas of the OT ’46, 207–22, esp. 218–22; EKäsemann, ZTK 58, ’61, 367–78 [against him RBultmann, JBL 83, ’64, 12–16]). According to some interpreters hunger and thirst for uprightness Mt 5:6 perh. offers (but s. 3a below) a related eschatological sense (‘Kingdom of God’, FNötscher, Biblica 31, ’50, 237–41=Vom A zum NT, ’62, 226–30).—Keeping the law cannot bring about uprightness Ro 3:21; Gal 2:21; 3:21, because δ. ἐκ τοῦ νόμου uprightness based on the law Ro 10:5 (cp. 9:30f), as ἰδία δ. one’s own (self-made) upr. 10:3, is impossible. God’s δ. without ref. to νόμος is to be apprehended by faith Ro 1:17; 3:22, 26; 4:3ff, 13; 9:30; 10:4, 6, 10 (cp. Hb 11:7 ἡ κατὰ πίστιν δ. righteousness based on faith; s. B-D-F §224, 1), for which reason faith is ‘calculated as righteousness’ (Gen 15:6; Ps 105:31; 1 Macc 2:52) Ro 4:3, 5f, 9, 11, 13, 22; Gal 3:6 (cp. Hb 11:7; Js 2:23; AMeyer, D. Rätsel des Jk 1930, 86ff; 1 Cl 10:6; B 13:7). Of Jesus as our righteousness 1 Cor 1:30.—As gift and power Ro 5:17, 21, and because it is intimately associated with the δύναμις of Christ’s resurrection Phil 3:9f (s. below), this righteousness enables the redeemed to respond and serve God faithfully Ro 6:13 (in wordplay opp. of ἀδικία), 16, 18ff; cp. 1 Cor 1:30 of Christ as instrument of God’s gift of δ.; 2 Cor 3:9. Thus God’s δ. functions as δύναμις 6:7 within Christians 5:21 (i.e. the way God acts in justifying or restoring people to a relationship with God’s self serves as a model for Christian interaction; for a difft. view, s. above) through the Spirit (Ro 8:9) and assures them they will have life that will be fully realized at the end of the age Ro 8:10f; for the time being it is a matter of hope ἐλπὶς δικαιοσύνης Gal 5:5 (cp. Is 51:5); cp. ἡ ἐκ θεοῦ δ. Phil 3:9. Pol 8:1 shares Paul’s view: Christ as ἀρραβὼν τῆς δ.—God’s uprightness as gift τοῦ κυρίου τοῦ ἐφʼ ὑμᾶς στάξαντος τὴν δ. who distills uprightness on you Hv 3, 9, 1.—Such perspectives offer a transition to specific ways in which the redeemed express uprightness.
    the quality or characteristic of upright behavior, uprightness, righteousness
    of uprightness in general: Mt 5:6 (cp. 6:33; some interpret 5:6 in an eschatological sense, s. 2 above; on desire for δ. cp. ἐπιθυμία τῆς δ. Hm 12, 2, 4); Mt 5:10, 20 (s. b, below); Hm 10, 1, 5; Dg 10:8; λόγος δικαιοσύνης Hb 5:13; Pol 9:1 (s. also Epict., Fgm. Stob. 26; when a man is excited by the λόγος in meetings, he should give expression to τὰ τῆς δικαιοσύνης λόγια). πάσχειν διὰ δ. 1 Pt 3:14. ἄγγελος τῆς δ. Hm 6, 2, 1; 3; 8; 10. ῥήματα δ. 8:9. 10, 1, 5; Dg 10:8; Pol 2:3; 3:1; ἐντολὴ δ. commandment of upr. Pol 3:3; 9:1.—Mt 6:33 of the kind of δ. God expects (on δ. as characteristic required by God acc. to Jewish perspective s. Bousset, Rel.3 387ff; 379ff; 423; cp. KFahlgren, Sẹdāḳā, nahestehende u. entgegengesetzte Begriffe im Alten Testament, diss. Uppsala ’32.—S. Diog. L. 3, 83 on Plato’s view of δικαιοσύνη περὶ θεούς or δ. πρὸς τοὺς θεούς=performance of prescribed duties toward gods; s. also ref. to 3, 79 at 1b above). Christ’s δ. Dg 9:3, 5. διαλέγεσθαι περὶ δ. Ac 24:25. Opp. ἀδικία (Hippol., Ref. 4, 43, 12; Did., Gen. 20, 27) 2 Cl 19:2; Dg 9:1. As ἀρετή Hm 1:2; Hs 6, 1, 4; 8, 10, 3. Opp. ἀνομία 2 Cor 6:14; cp. 2 Cor. 11:15 (ironical); Hb 1:9 (Ps 44:8); ἁμαρτία, which is the dominating power before δ. θεοῦ comes into play Ro 6:16, 18–20; cp. 1 Pt 2:24. ἐργάζεσθαι δ. (Ps 14:2) do what is right Ac 10:35; accomplish righteousness Js 1:20 (W-S. §30, 7g); Hv 2, 2, 7; 2, 3, 3; m 5, 1, 1; 12, 3, 1; 12, 6, 2; Hs 9, 13, 7. Also ἔργον δικαιοσύνης ἐργάζεσθαι 1 Cl 33:8. Opp. οὐδὲν ἐργάζεσθαι τῇ δ. Hs 5, 1, 4; ποιεῖν (τὴν) δ. (2 Km 8:15; Ps 105:3; Is 56:1; 58:2; 1 Macc 14:35 al.) do what is right 1J 2:29; 3:7, 10; Rv 22:11; 2 Cl 4:2; 11:7. Also πράσσειν τὴν δ. 2 Cl 19:3; διώκειν τὴν δ. (cp. Sir 27:8 διώκ. τὸ δίκαιον) seek to attain/achieve upr. Ro 9:30; 1 Ti 6:11; 2 Ti 2:22; 2 Cl 18:2; δ. ἀσκεῖν Hm 8:10. ὁδὸς (τῆς) δ. (ὁδός 3ab) Mt 21:32; 2 Pt 2:21; B 1:4; 5:4. προπορεύσεται ἔμπροσθεν σου ἡ δ. 3:4 (Is 58:8); cp. 4:12. κατορθοῦσθαι τὰς ὁδοὺς ἐν δ. walk uprightly Hv 2, 2, 6; τῇ δ. ζήσωμεν live uprightly 1 Pt 2:24. πύλη δ. gate of upr. 1 Cl 48:2 (Ps 117:19), cp. vs. 4. ἐν οἷς δ. κατοικεῖ (cp. Is 32:16) in which righteousness dwells 2 Pt 3:13. Of Christ’s body δικαιοσύνης ναο͂ς AcPlCor 2:17. παιδεία ἡ ἐν δ. training in uprightness 2 Ti 3:16. ἔργα τὰ ἐν δ. righteous deeds Tit 3:5. λαμπρότης ἐν δ. rejoicing in uprightness 1 Cl 35:2; ἐχθρὸς πάσης δ. enemy of every kind of upr. Ac 13:10. W. ὁσιότης (Wsd 9:3): holiness and upr. (as the relig. and moral side of conduct; cp. 1QS 1:5; 8:2; 11:9–15; 1QH 4:30f) Lk 1:75 (λατρεύειν ἐν δ. as Josh 24:14); Eph 4:24; 1 Cl 48:4. W. πίστις (OGI 438, 8; 1 Macc 14:35; Just., D. 110, 3) Pol 9:2; cp. 2 Pt 1:1. With εἰρήνη (Is 39:8; 48:18) and χαρά Ro 14:17; cp. 1 Cl 3:4; Hb 7:2 (but s. 1a, above). W. ἀλήθεια (Is 45:19; 48:1) Eph 5:9; 1 Cl 31:2; 62:2; Hs 9, 25, 2. W. ἀγάπη 2 Cl 12:1. W. ἀγαθωσύνη Eph 5:9. W. ἁγνεία Hs 9, 16, 7. W. γνῶσις κυρίου (cp. Pr 16:8) D 11:2. ὅπλα (τῆς) δ. tools or weapons of uprightness Ro 6:13; 2 Cor 6:7; Pol 4:1; θῶραξ τῆς δ. (Is 59:17; Wsd 5:18) breastplate of upr. Eph 6:14. τέκνα δικαιοσύνης (opp. ὀργῆς) AcPlCor 2:19. διάκονοι δικαιοσύνης servants of upr. 2 Cor 11:15; Pol 5:2; μισθός δ. D 5:2; B 20:2; μέρος δ. portion in (eternal salvation) which is meant for righteousness ApPt Rainer 6; καρπὸς δικαιοσύνης (Pr 3:9; 11:30; 13:2) produce of uprightness (ApcSed 12:5) Phil 1:11; Hb 12:11; Js 3:18; Hs 9, 19, 2; GJs 6:3. ὁ τῆς δ. στέφανος the crown of upr. (w. which the upright are adorned; cp. TestLevi 8:2; Rtzst., Mysterienrel.3 258; a common theme in honorary ins recognizing distinguished public service, s. indexes SIG, OGI and other ins corpora; Danker, Benefactor 345–47; s. also the boast of Augustus, s.v. δίκαιος 1aα) 2 Ti 4:8; cp. ἡ τ. δικαιοσύνης δόξα the glory of upr. ending of Mk in the Freer ms. ln. 11f. Described as a characteristic to be taught and learned, because it depends on a knowledge of God’s will: κῆρυξ δ. preacher of upr. 2 Pt 2:5 (cp. Ar. 15:2 τῇ δ. τοῦ κηρύγματος). διδάσκειν δ. teach upr. (of Paul) 1 Cl 5:7. μέρος τι ἐκ τῆς δ. a portion of uprightness Hv 3, 1, 6; cp. 3, 6, 4; δ. μεγάλην ἐργάζεσθαι m 8:2.—ἐλέγχειν περὶ δικαιοσύνης convict w. regard to uprightness (of Jesus) J 16:8, 10 (s. WHatch, HTR 14, 1921, 103–5; HWindisch: Jülicher Festschr. 1927, 119f; HTribble, Rev. and Expos. 32, ’37, 269–80; BLindars, BRigaux Festschr., ’70, 275–85).
    of specific action righteousness in the sense of fulfilling divine expectation not specifically expressed in ordinances (Orig., C. Cels. 7, 18, 39; Did., Gen. 188, 27: οἱ κατὰ δ. ζῶντες) Mt 3:15=ISm 1:1; of a superior type Mt 5:20 (s. JMoffatt, ET 13, 1902, 201–6, OOlevieri, Biblica 5, 1924, 201ff; Betz, SM 190f); not to win plaudits 6:1. To please outsiders as well as oneself 2 Cl 13:1. W. characteristic restriction of mng. mercy, charitableness (cp. Tob 12:9) of God, whose concern for the poor 2 Cor 9:9 (Ps 111:9) is exemplary for the recipients of the letter vs. 10; participation in such activity belongs, according to Mt 6:1f (cp. δίκαιος 1:19: Joseph combines justice and mercy), to the practice of piety (on the development of the word’s mng. in this direction s. Bousset, Rel.3 380). Pl. (B-D-F §142; W-S. §27, 4d; Rob. 408 δικαιοσύναι righteous deeds (Ezk 3:20; 33:13; Da 9:18) 2 Cl 6:9. δικαιοσύναι righteous deeds (Ezk 3:20; 33:13; Da 9:18; TestAbr A 12 p. 91, 12 [Stone p. 30]) 2 Cl 6:9. ἀρετὴ δικαιοσύνης Hm 1:2; Hs 6, 1, 4; cp. 8, 10, 3.
    uprightness as determined by divine/legal standards δ. θεοῦ upr. that meets God’s standard Js 1:20 (W-S. 30, §7g).—Ro 10:5; Gal 2:21; 3:21; Phil 3:6; 3:9.—ASchmitt, Δικαιοσύνη θεοῦ: JGeffcken Festschr. ’31, 111–31; FHellegers, D. Gerechtigkeit Gottes im Rö., diss. Tüb. ’39; AOepke, TLZ 78, ’53, 257–64.—Dodd 42–59; ADescamps, Studia Hellenistica, ’48, 69–92.—S. also JRopes, Righteousness in the OT and in St. Paul: JBL 22, 1903, 211ff; JGerretsen, Rechtvaardigmaking bij Pls 1905; GottfrKittel, StKr 80, 1907, 217–33; ETobac, Le problème de la Justification dans S. Paul 1908; EDobschütz, Über d. paul. Rechtfertigungslehre: StKr 85, 1912, 38–87; GWetter, D. Vergeltungsged. b. Pls 1912, 161ff; BWestcott, St. Paul and Justification 1913; WMacholz, StKr 88, 1915, 29ff; EBurton ICC, Gal. 1921, 460–74; WMichaelis, Rechtf. aus Glauben b. Pls: Deissmann Festschr. 1927, 116–38; ELohmeyer, Grundlagen d. paul. Theologie 1929, 52ff; HBraun, Gerichtsged. u. Rechtfertigungslehre b. Pls. 1930; OZänker, Δικαιοσύνη θεοῦ b. Pls: ZST 9, ’32, 398–420; FFilson, St. P.’s Conception of Recompense ’31; WGrundmann, ZNW 32, ’33, 52–65; H-DWendland, D. Mitte der paul. Botschaft ’35; RGyllenberg, D. paul. Rechtfertigungslehre u. das AT: Studia Theologica (Riga) I ’35, 35–52; HJager, Rechtvaardiging en zekerheid des geloofs (Ro 1:16f; 3:21–5:11) ’39; HHofer, D. Rechtfertigungsverk. des Pls nach neuerer Forschg. ’40; VTaylor, Forgiveness and Reconciliation ’41; RBultmann, Theologie des NT ’48, 266–80, Eng. tr. KGrobel ’51, I 270–85; SSchulz, ZTK 56, ’59, 155–85 (Qumran and Paul); CMüller, FRL 86, ’64 (Ro 9–11); JBecker, Das Heil Gottes, ’64; PStuhlmacher, Gerechtigkeit Gottes b. Paulus, ’65; JReumann, Int 20, ’66, 432–52 (Ro 3:21–31); HBraun, Qumran II, ’66, 165–80; JZiesler, The Mng. of Righteousness in Paul, ’72; ESanders, Paul and Palestinian Judaism, ’77 (s. index 625; appendix by MBrauch 523–42 rev. of discussions in Germany); SWilliams, JBL 99, ’80, 241–90.—CPerella, De justificatione sec. Hb: Biblica 14, ’33, 1–21; 150–69. S. also the lit. on πίστις and ἁμαρτία.—On the whole word s. RAC X 233–360; AKöberle, Rechtfertigung u. Heiligung 1930; EDNT I 325–30.—DELG s.v. δίκη. M-M. EDNT.TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > δικαιοσύνη

  • 13 εἰμί

    εἰμί (Hom.+) impv. ἴσθι, ἔσο IPol 4:1, ἔστω—also colloq. ἤτω (BGU 276, 24; 419, 13; POxy 533, 9; Ps 103:31; 1 Macc 10:31) 1 Cor 16:22; Js 5:12; 1 Cl 48:5; Hv 3, 3, 4;—3 pers. pl. ἔστωσαν (ins since 200 B.C. Meisterhans3-Schw. 191; PPetr III, 2, 22 [237 B.C.]) Lk 12:35; 1 Ti 3:12; GJs 7:2. Inf. εἶναι. Impf. 1 pers. only mid. ἤμην (Jos., Bell. 1, 389; 631; s. further below); ἦν only Ac 20:18 D, 2 pers. ἦσθα (Jos., Ant. 6, 104) Mt 26:69; Mk 14:67 and ἦς (Lobeck, Phryn. 149 ‘say ἦσθα’; Jos., Ant. 17, 110 al.; Sb 6262, 16 [III A.D.]) Mt 25:21, 23 al., 3 sg. ἦν, 1 pl. ἦμεν. Beside this the mid. form ἤμην (pap since III B.C.; Job 29:16; Tob 12:13 BA), s. above, gives the pl. ἤμεθα (pap since III B.C.; Bar 1:19) Mt 23:30; Ac 27:37; Eph 2:3. Both forms in succession Gal. 4:3. Fut. ἔσομαι, ptc. ἐσόμενος. The mss. vary in choice of act. or mid., but like the edd. lean toward the mid. (W-S. §14, 1; Mlt-H. 201–3; Rob. index; B-D-F §98; Rdm.2 99; 101f; Helbing 108f; Reinhold 86f). Also s. ἔνι.
    be, exist, be on hand a pred. use (for other pred. use s. 3a, 4, 5, 6, 7): of God (Epicurus in Diog. L. 10, 123 θεοί εἰσιν; Zaleucus in Diod S 12, 20, 2 θεοὺς εἶναι; Wsd 12:13; Just., D. 128, 4 angels) ἔστιν ὁ θεός God exists Hb 11:6; cp. 1 Cor 8:5. ὁ ὢν καὶ ὁ ἦν the one who is and who was (cp. SibOr 3, 16; as amulet PMich 155, 3 [II A.D.] ὁ ὢν θεὸς ὁ Ἰάω κύριος παντοκράτωρ=the god … who exists.) Rv 11:17; 16:5. ὁ ὢν καὶ ὁ ἦν καὶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος, in this and the two preceding passages ἦν is treated as a ptc. (for the unusual use of ἦν cp. Simonides 74 D.: ἦν ἑκατὸν φιάλαι) 1:4; 4:8 (cp. Ex 3:14; Wsd 13:1; Paus. 10, 12, 10 Ζεὺς ἦν, Ζ. ἔστι, Ζ. ἔσσεται; cp. Theosophien 18. S. OWeinreich, ARW 19, 1919, 178f). οὐδʼ εἶναι θεὸν παντοκράτορα AcPlCor 1:11. ἐγώ εἰμι (ins in the Athena-Isis temple of Saïs in Plut., Is. et Os. 9, 354c: ἐγώ εἰμι πᾶν τὸ γεγονὸς κ. ὸ̓ν κ. ἐσόμενον. On the role of Isis in Gk. rel. s. IBergman, Ich bin Isis ’68; RMerkelbach, Isis Regina—Zeus Sarapis ’95; for further lit. s. MGustafson in: Prayer fr. Alexander to Constantine, ed. MKiley et al. ’97, 158.) Rv 1:8 (s. ἐγώ beg.). ὁ ὤν, … θεός Ro 9:5 is classed here and taken to mean Christ by JWordsworth ad loc. and HWarner, JTS 48, ’47, 203f. Of the λόγος: ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν ὁ λ. J 1:1 (for ἦν cp. Herm. Wr. 1, 4; 3, 1b ἦν σκότος, Fgm. IX 1 p. 422, 23 Sc. γέγονεν ἡ ὕλη καὶ ἦν).—Of Christ πρὶν Ἀβραὰμ γενέσθαι, ἐγὼ εἰμί before Abraham was born, I am 8:58 (on the pres. εἰμί cp. Parmenides 8, 5: of the Eternal we cannot say ἦν οὐδʼ ἔσται, only ἔστιν; Ammonius Hermiae [Comm. in Aristotl. IV 5 ed. ABusse 1897] 6 p. 172: in Timaeus we read that we must not say of the gods τὸ ἦν ἢ τὸ ἔσται μεταβολῆς τινος ὄντα σημαντικά, μόνον δὲ τὸ ἔστι=‘was’ or ‘will be’, suggesting change, but only ‘is’; Ps 89:2; DBall, ‘I Am’ in John’s Gospel [JSNT Suppl. 124] ’96).—Of the world πρὸ τοῦ τὸν κόσμον εἶναι before the world existed 17:5. Satirically, of the beast, who parodies the Lamb, ἦν καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν Rv 17:8. Of God’s temple: ἔστιν B 16:6f it exists. τὸ μὴ ὄν that which does not exist, the unreal (Sallust. 17 p. 32, 7 and 9; Philo, Aet. M. 5; 82) Hm 1:1. τὰ ὄντα that which exists contrasted w. τὰ μὴ ὄντα Ro 4:17; cp. 1 Cor 1:28; 2 Cl 1:8. Of God κτίσας ἐκ τοῦ μὴ ὄντος τὰ ὄντα what is out of what is not Hv 1, 1, 6 (on the contrast τὰ ὄντα and τὰ μὴ ὄντα cp. Ps.-Arist. on Xenophanes: Fgm. 21, 28; Artem. 1, 51 p. 49, 19 τὰ μὴ ὄντα ὡς ὄντα; Ocellus Luc. 12; Sallust. 17, 5 p. 30, 28–32, 12; Philo, Op. M. 81; PGM 4, 3077f ποιήσαντα τὰ πάντα ἐξ ὧν οὐκ ὄντων εἰς τὸ εἶναι; 13, 272f τὸν ἐκ μὴ ὄντων εἶναι ποιήσαντα καὶ ἐξ ὄντων μὴ εἶναι; Theoph. Ant. 1, 4 [p. 64, 21] τὰ πάντα ὁ θεὸς ἐποίησεν ἐξ οὐκ ὄντων εἰς τὸ εἶναι).—Of existing in the sense be present, available, provided πολλοῦ ὄχλου ὄντος since a large crowd was present Mk 8:1. ὄντων τῶν προσφερόντων those are provided who offer Hb 8:4. οὔπω ἦν πνεῦμα the Spirit had not yet come J 7:39. ἀκούσας ὄντα σιτία when he heard that grain was available Ac 7:12.—Freq. used to introduce parables and stories (once) there was: ἄνθρωπός τις ἦν πλούσιος there was (once) a rich man Lk 16:1, 19. ἦν ἄνθρωπος ἐκ τ. Φαρισαίων there was a man among the Pharisees J 3:1.There is, there are ὥσπερ εἰσὶν θεοὶ πολλοί as there are many gods 1 Cor 8:5. διαιρέσεις χαρισμάτων εἰσίν there are various kinds of spiritual gifts 12:4ff; 1J 5:16 al. Neg. οὐκ ἔστι there is (are) not, no (Ps 52:2; Simplicius in Epict. p. 95, 42 as a quot. from ‘tragedy’ οὐκ εἰσὶν θεοί) δίκαιος there is no righteous man Ro 3:10 (Eccl 7:20). ἀνάστασις νεκρῶν οὐκ ἔστιν there is no resurr. of the dead 1 Cor 15:12; οὐδʼ εἶναι ἀνάστασιν AcPlCor 1:12; 2:24; cp. Mt 22:23; Ac 23:8 (cp. 2 Macc 7:14). εἰσὶν οἵ, or οἵτινες there are people who (Hom. et al.; LXX; Just., D. 47, 2 εἰ μήτι εἰσὶν οἱ λέγοντες ὅτι etc.—W. sing. and pl. combined: Arrian, Ind. 24, 9 ἔστι δὲ οἳ διέφυγον=but there are some who escaped) Mt 16:28; 19:12; Mk 9:1; Lk 9:27; J 6:64; Ac 11:20. Neg. οὐδείς ἐστιν ὅς there is no one who Mk 9:39; 10:29; Lk 1:61; 18:29. As a question τίς ἐστιν ὅς; who is there that? Mt 12:11—In an unusual (perh. bureaucratic terminology) participial construction Ac 13:1 ἡ οὖσα ἐκκλησία the congregation there (cp. Ps.-Pla., Eryx. 6, 394c οἱ ὄντες ἄνθρωποι=the people with whom he has to deal; PLond III 1168, 5 p. 136 [18 A.D.] ἐπὶ ταῖς οὔσαις γειτνίαις=on the adjoining areas there; PGen 49; PSI 229, 11 τοῦ ὄντος μηνός of the current month); cp. 14:13.—αἱ οὖσαι (sc. ἐξουσίαι) those that exist Ro 13:1 (cp. UPZ 180a I, 4 [113 B.C.] ἐφʼ ἱερέων καὶ ἱερειῶν τῶν ὄντων καὶ οὐσῶν).
    to be in close connection (with), is, freq. in statements of identity or equation, as a copula, the equative function, uniting subject and predicate. On absence of the copula, Mlt-Turner 294–310.
    gener. πραΰς εἰμι I am gentle Mt 11:29. ἐγώ εἰμι Γαβριήλ Lk 1:19. σὺ εἶ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ Mk 3:11; J 1:49 and very oft. ἵνα … ὁ πονηρὸς … ἐλεγχθῇ [το? s. app. in Bodm.] μὴ ὢν θεός AcPlCor 2:15 (Just., D. 3, 3 φιλολόγος οὖν τις εἶ σύ).—The pred. can be supplied fr. the context: καὶ ἐσμέν and we are (really God’s children) 1J 3:1 (Eur., Ion 309 τ. θεοῦ καλοῦμαι δοῦλος εἰμί τε. Dio Chrys. 14 [31], 58 θεοφιλεῖς οἱ χρηστοὶ λέγονται καὶ εἰσίν; Epict. 2, 16, 44 Ἡρακλῆς ἐπιστεύθη Διὸς υἱὸς εἶναι καὶ ἦν.—The ptc. ὤν, οὖσα, ὄν used w. a noun or adj.and serving as an if-, since-, or although-clause sim. functions as a copula πονηροὶ ὄντες Mt 7:11; 12:34.—Lk 20:36; J 3:4; 4:9; Ac 16:21; Ro 5:10; 1 Cor 8:7; Gal 2:3 al.).—W. adv. of quality: οὕτως εἶναι be so preceded by ὥσπερ, καθώς or followed by ὡς, ὥσπερ Mt 13:40; 24:27, 37, 39; Mk 4:26; Lk 17:26. W. dat. of pers. οὕτως ἔσται ὁ υἱὸς τ. ἀ. τῇ γενεᾷ ταύτῃ so the Human One (Son of Man) will be for this generation 11:30. εἰμὶ ὡσ/ὥσπερ I am like Mt 6:5; Lk 18:11. W. dat. ἔστω σοι ὥσπερ τελώνης he shall be to you as a tax-collector Mt 18:17. εἰμὶ ὥς τις I am like someone of outward and inward similarity 28:3; Lk 6:40; 11:44; 22:27 al. καθώς εἰμι as I am Ac 22:3; 1J 3:2, 7; 4:17.—W. demonstr. pron. (Just., A I, 16, 1 ἃ ἔφη, ταῦτά ἐστι: foll. by a quotation; sim. 48, 5 ἔστι δὲ ταῦτα; and oft.) τὰ ὀνόματά ἐστιν ταῦτα Mt 10:2. αὕτη ἐστὶν ἡ μαρτυρία J 1:19. W. inf. foll. θρησκεία αὕτη ἐστίν, ἐπισκέπτεσθαι Js 1:27. W. ὅτι foll. αὕτη ἐστὶν ἡ κρίσις, ὅτι τὸ φῶς ἐλήλυθεν J 3:19; cp. 21:24; 1J 1:5; 3:11; 5:11. W. ἵνα foll. τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ ἔργον, ἵνα πιστεύητε J 6:29; cp. vs. 39f; 15:12; 17:3; 1J 3:11, 23; 5:3. W. τηλικοῦτος: τὰ πλοῖα, τηλικαῦτα ὄντα though they are so large Js 3:4. W. τοσοῦτος: τοσοῦτων ὄντων although there were so many J 21:11. W. τοιοῦτος: τοιοῦτος ὤν Phlm 9 (cp. Just., A I, 18, 4 ὅσα ἄλλα τοιαῦτά ἐστι).—W. interrog. pron. ὑμεῖς τίνα με λέγετε εἶναι; who do you say I am? Mt 16:15; cp. 21:10; Mk 1:24; 4:41; 8:27, 29; Lk 4:34 al.; σὺ τίς εἶ; J 1:19; 8:25; 21:12 al. (cp. JosAs 14:6 τίς εἶ συ tell me ‘who you are’). σὺ τίς εἶ ὁ κρίνων; (Pla., Gorg. 452b; Strabo 6, 2, 4 σὺ τίς εἶ ὁ τὸν Ὅμηρον ψέγων ὡς μυθογράφον;) Ro 14:4; ἐγὼ τίς ἤμην; (cp. Ex 3:11) Ac 11:17; τίς εἰμι ἐγὼ ὅτι who am I, that GJs 12:2 (Ex 3:11). W. πόσος: πόσος χρόνος ἐστίν; how long a time? Mk 9:21. W. ποταπός of what sort Lk 1:29.—W. relative pron. οἷος 2 Cor 10:11; ὁποῖος Ac 26:29; 1 Cor 3:13; Gal 2:6; ὅς Rv 1:19; ὅστις Gal 5:10, 19.—W. numerals ἦσαν οἱ φαγόντες πεντακισχίλιοι ἄνδρες 6:44 (cp. Polyaenus 7, 25 ἦσαν οἱ πεσόντες ἀνδρῶν μυριάδες δέκα); cp. Ac 19:7; 23:13. Λάζαρος εἷς ἦν ἐκ τῶν ἀνακειμένων L. was one of those at the table J 12:2; cp. Gal 3:20; Js 2:19. τῶν πιστευσάντων ἦν καρδία καὶ ψυχὴ μία Ac 4:32. εἷς εἶναι be one and the same Gal 3:28. ἓν εἶναι be one J 10:30; 17:11, 21ff; 1 Cor 3:8.—οὐδʼ εἶναι τὴν πλάσιν τὴν τῶν ἀνθρώπων τοῦ θεοῦ (that) the creation of humankind is not God’s doing AcPlCor 1:13.—To establish identity the formula ἐγώ εἰμι is oft. used in the gospels (corresp. to Hebr. אֲנִי הוּא Dt 32:39; Is 43:10), in such a way that the predicate must be understood fr. the context: Mt 14:27; Mk 6:50; 13:6; 14:62; Lk 22:70; J 4:26; 6:20; 8:24, 28; 13:19; 18:5f and oft.; s. on ἐγώ.—In a question μήτι ἐγώ εἰμι; surely it is not I? Mt 26:22, 25.
    to describe a special connection betw. the subject and a predicate noun ἡμεῖς ναὸς θεοῦ ἐσμεν ζῶντος we are a temple of the living God 2 Cor 6:16. ἡ ἐπιστολὴ ὑμεῖς ἐστε you are our letter (of recommendation) 3:2. σφραγίς μου τῆς ἀποστολῆς ὑμεῖς ἐστε you are the seal of my apostleship 1 Cor 9:2 and oft.
    in explanations:
    α. to show how someth. is to be understood is a representation of, is the equivalent of; εἰμί here, too, serves as copula; we usually translate mean, so in the formula τοῦτʼ ἔστιν this or that means, that is to say (Epict., Ench. 33, 10; Arrian, Tact. 29, 3; SIG 880, 50; PFlor 157, 4; PSI 298, 9; PMert 91, 9; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 16; ApcMos 19; Just., D. 56, 23; 78, 3 al.) Mk 7:2; Ac 19:4; Ro 7:18; 9:8; 10:6, 8; Phlm 12; Hb 7:5 al.; in the sense that is (when translated) (Polyaenus 8, 14, 1 Μάξιμος ἀνηγορεύθη• τοῦτο δʼ ἄν εἴη Μέγιστον) Mt 27:46; Ac 1:19. So also w. relative pron.: ὅ ἐστιν Mk 3:17; 7:11, 34; Hb 7:2. After verbs of asking, recognizing, knowing and not knowing (Antiphanes Com. 231, 1f τὸ ζῆν τί ἐστι;) μάθετε τί ἐστιν learn what (this) means Mt 9:13. εἰ ἐγνώκειτε τί ἐστιν 12:7; cp. Mk 1:27; 9:10; Lk 20:17; J 16:17f; Eph 4:9. W. an indir. question (Stephan. Byz. s.v. Ἀγύλλα: τὶς ἠρώτα τί ἂν εἴη τὸ ὄνομα) τί ἂν εἴη ταῦτα Lk 15:26; τί εἴη τοῦτο 18:36. τίνα θέλει ταῦτα εἶναι what this means Ac 17:20; cp. 2:12, where the question is not about the mng. of terms but the significance of what is happening.—Esp. in interpr. of the parables (Artem. 1, 51 p. 48, 26 ἄρουρα οὐδὲν ἄλλο ἐστὶν ἢ γυνή=field means nothing else than woman) ὁ ἀγρός ἐστιν ὁ κόσμος the field means the world Mt 13:38; cp. vss. 19f, 22f; Mk 4:15f, 18, 20; Lk 8:11ff (cp. Gen 41:26f; Ezk 37:11; Ath. 22, 4 [Stoic interpr. of myths]). On τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ σῶμά μου Mt 26:26; Mk 14:22; Lk 22:19 and its various interpretations, see lit. s.v. εὐχαριστία. Cp. Hipponax (VI B.C.) 45 Diehl αὕτη γάρ ἐστι συμφορή=this means misfortune.
    β. to be of relative significance, be of moment or importance, amount to someth. w. indef. pron. εἰδωλόθυτόν τί ἐστιν meat offered to idols means anything 1 Cor 10:19. Esp. εἰμί τι I mean someth. of pers. 1 Cor 3:7; Gal 2:6; 6:3; and of things vs. 15. εἰμί τις Ac 5:36.—Of no account ἐμοὶ εἰς ἐλάχιστόν ἐστιν (telescoped fr. ἐλάχ. ἐστιν and εἰς ἐλάχ. γίνεται, of which there are many exx. in Schmid, I 398; II 161, 237; III 281; IV 455) it is of little or no importance to me 1 Cor 4:3.
    be in reference to location, persons, condition, or time, be
    of various relations or positions involving a place or thing: w. ἀπό: εἶναι ἀπό τινος be or come from a certain place (X., An. 2, 4, 13) J 1:44.—W. ἐν: ἐν τοῖς τ. πατρός μου in my father’s house Lk 2:49 (cp. Jos., Ant. 16, 302 καταγωγὴ ἐν τοῖς Ἀντιπάτρου). ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ on the way Mk 10:32. ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ Mt 24:26. ἐν ἀγρῷ Lk 15:25. ἐν δεξιᾷ τ. θεοῦ at God’s right hand Ro 8:34; in heaven Eph 6:9.—W. εἰς: τὴν κοίτην Lk 11:7; τὸν κόλπον J1:18.—W. ἐπὶ w. gen. be on someth. of place, roof Lk 17:31; head J 20:7 (cp. 1 Macc 1:59); also fig., of one who is over someone (1 Macc 10:69; Jdth 14:13 ὁ ὢν ἐπὶ πάντων τῶν αὐτοῦ) Ro 9:5 (of the angel of death Mel., P. 20, 142 ἐπὶ τῶν πρωτοτόκων); also ἐπάνω τινός J 3:31.—W. dat. be at someth. the door Mt 24:33; Mk 13:29.—W. acc. be on someone: grace Lk 2:40; Ac 4:33; spirit (Is 61:1) Lk 2:25; εἶναι ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό be in the same place, together (Gen 29:2 v.l.) Ac 1:15; 2:1, 44; 1 Cor 7:5.—W. κατά w. acc. εἶναι κατὰ τὴν Ἰουδαίαν be in Judea Ac 11:1; εἶναι ἐν Ἀντιοχείᾳ κατὰ τὴν οὖσαν ἐκκλησίαν were at Antioch in the congregation there 13:1.—W. ὑπό w. acc. τι or τινα of place be under someth. J 1:48; 1 Cor 10:1.—W. παρά w. acc. παρὰ τὴν θάλασσαν by the sea- (i.e. lake-) shore Mk 5:21; Ac 10:6.—W. πρός τι be close to, facing someth. Mk 4:1.—W. adv. of place ἐγγύς τινι near someth. Ac 9:38; 27:8. μακρὰν (ἀπό) Mk 12:34; J 21:8; Eph 2:13; also πόρρω Lk 14:32. χωρίς τινος without someth. Hb 12:8. ἐνθάδε Ac 16:28. ἔσω J 20:26. ἀπέναντί τινος Ro 3:18 (Ps 35:2). ἐκτός τινος 1 Cor 6:18; ἀντίπερά τινος Lk 8:26; ὁμοῦ J 21:2; οὗ Mt 2:9; ὅπου Mk 2:4; 5:40. ὧδε Mt 17:4; Mk 9:5; Lk 9:33. Also w. fut. mng. (ESchwartz, GGN 1908, 161 n.; on the fut. use of the pres. cp. POxy 531, 22 [II A.D.] ἔστι δὲ τοῦ Τῦβι μηνὸς σοὶ ὸ̔ θέλεις) ὅπου εἰμί J 7:34, 36; 12:26; 14:3; 17:24. As pred., to denote a relatively long stay at a place, stay, reside ἴσθι ἐκεῖ stay there Mt 2:13, cp. vs. 15; ἐπʼ ἐρήμοις τόποις in lonely places Mk 1:45; ἦν παρὰ τὴν θάλασσαν he stayed by the lakeside 5:21.
    involving humans or transcendent beings: w. adv. ἔμπροσθέν τινος Lk 14:2. ἔναντί τινος Ac 8:21; ἐνώπιόν τινος Lk 14:10; Ac 4:19; 1 Pt 3:4; Rv 7:15; ἐντός τινος Lk 17:21; ἐγγύς τινος J 11:18; 19:20; Ro 10:8 (Dt 30:14).—W. prep. ἐν τινί equiv. to ἔκ τινος εἶναι be among Mt 27:56; cp. Mk 15:40; Ro 1:6. Of God, who is among his people 1 Cor 14:25 (Is 45:14; Jer 14:9); of the Spirit J 14:17. Of persons under Christ’s direction: ἐν θεῷ 1J 2:5; 5:20 (s. Norden, Agn. Th. 23, 1). ἔν τινι rest upon, arise from someth. (Aristot., Pol. 7, 1, 3 [1323b, 1] ἐν ἀρετῇ; Sir 9:16) Ac 4:12; 1 Cor 2:5; Eph 5:18.—εἴς τινα be directed, inclined toward Ac 23:30; 2 Cor 7:15; 1 Pt 1:21.—κατά w. gen. be against someone (Sir 6:12) Mt 12:30; Mk 9:40 and Lk 9:50 (both opp. ὑπέρ); Gal 5:23.—σύν τινι be with someone (Jos., Ant. 7, 181) Lk 22:56; 24:44; Ac 13:7; accompany, associate w. someone Lk 8:38; Ac 4:13; 22:9; take sides with someone (X., Cyr. 5, 4, 37; 7, 5, 77; Jos., Ant. 11, 259 [of God]) Ac 14:4.—πρός τινα be with someone Mt 13:56; Mk 6:3; J 1:1f. I am to be compared w. IMg 12.—μετά and gen. be with someone (Judg 14:11) Mt 17:17; Mk 3:14; 5:18; J 3:26; 12:17; ἔστω μεθʼ ὑμῶν εἰρήνη AcPlCor 2:40; of God, who is with someone (Gen 21:20; Judg 6:13 al.; Philo, Det. Pot. Ins. 4; Jos., Ant. 6, 181; 15, 138) Lk 1:66; J 3:2; 8:29; Ac 10:38 al.; also be with in the sense be favorable to, in league with (Ex 23:2) Mt 12:30; Lk 11:23; of punishment attending a pers. τὸ πῦρ ἐστι μετʼ αὐτοῦ AcPlCor 2:37.—παρά and gen. come from someone (X., An. 2, 4, 15; Just., D. 8, 4 ἔλεος παρὰ θεοῦ) fr. God J 6:46; 7:29; w. dat. be with, among persons Mt 22:25; Ac 10:6. W. neg. be strange to someone, there is no … in someone Ro 2:11; 9:14; Eph 6:9.—ὑπέρ w. gen. be on one’s side Mk 9:4 and Lk 9:50 (both opp. κατά); w. acc. be superior to (Sir 25:10; 30:16) Lk 6:40.
    of condition or circumstance: κατά w. acc. live in accordance with (Sir 28:10; 43:8; 2 Macc 9:20) κατὰ σάκρα, πνεῦμα Ro 8:5. οὐκ ἔστιν κατὰ ἄνθρωπον not human (in origin) Gal 1:11.—Fig. ὑπό w. acc. be under (the power of) someth. Ro 3:9; 6:14f; Gal 3:10, 25.—W. ἐν of existing ἐν τῷ θεῷ εἶναι of humankind: have its basis of existence in God Ac 17:28. Of states of being: ἐν δόξῃ 2 Cor 3:8; ἐν εἰρήνῃ Lk 11:21; ἐν ἔχθρᾳ at enmity 23:12; ἐν κρίματι under condemnation vs. 40. ἐν ῥύσει αἵματος suffer from hemorrhages Mk 5:25; Lk 8:43 (cp. Soph., Aj. 271 ἦν ἐν τῇ νόσῳ; cp. TestJob 35:1 ἐν πληγαῖς πολλαῖς). Periphrastically for an adj. ἐν ἐξουσίᾳ authoritative Lk 4:32. ἐν βάρει important 1 Th 2:7. ἐν τῇ πίστει true believers, believing 2 Cor 13:5. Be involved in someth. ἐν ἑορτῇ be at the festival=take part in it J 2:23. ἐν τούτοις ἴσθι devote yourself to these things 1 Ti 4:15 (cp. X., Hell. 4, 8, 7 ἐν τοιούτοις ὄντες=occupied w. such things; Jos., Ant. 2, 346 ἐν ὕμνοις ἦσαν=they occupied themselves w. the singing of hymns).—Fig., live in the light 1J 2:9; cp. vs. 11; 1 Th 5:4; in the flesh Ro 7:5; 8:8; AcPlCor 1:6. ἐν οἷς εἰμι in the situation in which I find myself Phil 4:11 (X., Hell. 4, 2, 1; Diod S 12, 63, 5; 12, 66, 4; Appian, Hann. 55 §228 ἐν τούτοις ἦν=he was in this situation; Jos., Ant. 7, 232 ἐν τούτοις ἦσαν=found themselves in this sit.; TestJob 35:6 ἐν τίνι ἐστίν; s. ZPE VIII 170). ἐν πολλοῖς ὢν ἀστοχήμασι AcPlCor 2:1. Of characteristics, emotions, etc. ἔν τινί ἐστιν, e.g. ἀδικία J 7:18; ἄγνοια Eph 4:18; ἀλήθεια J 8:44; 2 Cor 11:10 (cp. 1 Macc 7:18); ἁμαρτία 1J 3:5.
    of time ἐγγύς of καιρός be near Mt 26:18; Mk 13:28. πρὸς ἑσπέραν ἐστίν it is toward evening Lk 24:29 (Just., D. 137, 4 πρὸς δυσμὰς … ὁ ἥλιός ἐστι).
    to be alive in a period of time, live, denoting temporal existence (Hom., Trag., Thu. et al.; Sir 42:21; En 102:5 Philo, De Jos. 17; Jos., Ant. 7, 254) εἰ ἤμεθα ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις τῶν πατέρων ἡμῶν if we had lived in the days of our fathers Mt 23:30. ὅτι οὐκ εἰσὶν because they were no more 2:18 (Jer 38:15). ἦσαν ἐπὶ χρόνον ἱκανόν (those who were healed and raised by Christ) remained alive for quite some time Qua.
    to be the time at which someth. takes place w. indications of specific moments or occasions, be (X., Hell. 4, 5, 1, An. 4, 3, 8; Sus 13 Theod.; 1 Macc 6:49; 2 Macc 8:26; Jos., Ant. 6, 235 νουμηνία δʼ ἦν; 11, 251): ἦν ὥρα ἕκτη it was the sixth hour (=noon acc. to Jewish reckoning) Lk 23:44; J 4:6; 19:14.—Mk 15:25; J 1:39. ἦν ἑσπέρα ἤδη it was already evening Ac 4:3. πρωί̈ J 18:28. ἦν παρασκευή Mk 15:42. ἦν ἑορτὴ τῶν Ἰουδαίων J 5:1. σάββατόν ἐστιν vs. 10 et al. Short clauses (as Polyaenus 4, 9, 2 νὺξ ἦν; 7, 44, 2 πόλεμος ἦν; exc. 36, 8 ἦν ἀρίστου ὥρα; Jos., Ant. 19, 248 ἔτι δὲ νὺξ ἦν) χειμὼν ἦν J 10:22; ἦν δὲ νύξ (sim. Jos., Bell. 4, 64) 13:30; ψύχος it was cold 18:18; καύσων ἔσται it will be hot Lk 12:55.
    to take place as a phenomenon or event, take place, occur, become, be, be in (Hom., Thu. et al.; LXX; En 104:5; 106:6.—Cp. Just., D. 82, 2 of Christ’s predictions ὅπερ καὶ ἔστι ‘which is in fact the case’.) ἔσται θόρυβος τοῦ λαοῦ a popular uprising Mk 14:2. γογγυσμὸς ἦν there was (much) muttering J 7:12. σχίσμα there was a division 9:16; 1 Cor 1:10; 12:25. ἔριδες … εἰσίν quarrels are going on 1:11. δεῖ αἱρέσεις εἶναι 11:19. θάνατος, πένθος, κραυγή, πόνος ἔσται Rv 21:4. ἔσονται λιμοὶ κ. σεισμοί Mt 24:7. Hence τὸ ἐσόμενον what was going to happen (Sir 48:25) Lk 22:49. πότε ταῦτα ἔσται; when will this happen? Mt 24:3. πῶς ἔσται τοῦτο; how can this be? Lk 1:34. Hebraistically (הָיָה; s. KBeyer, Semitische Syntax im NT, ’62, 63–65) καὶ ἔσται w. fut. of another verb foll. and it will come about that Ac 2:17 (Jo 3:1); 3:23 (w. δέ); Ro 9:26 (Hos 2:1).—W. dat. ἐστί τινι happen, be granted, come, to someone (X., An. 2, 1, 10; Jos., Ant. 11, 255; Just., D. 8, 4 σοὶ … ἔλεος ἔσται παρὰ θεοῦ) Mt 16:22; Mk 11:24; Lk 2:10; GJs 1:1; 4:3; 8:3; τί ἐστίν σοι τοῦτο, ὅτι what is the matter with you, that GJs 17:2.—Of becoming or turning into someth. become someth. εἰς χολὴν πικρίας εἶναι become bitter gall Ac 8:23. εἰς σάρκα μίαν Mt 19:5; Mk 10:8; 1 Cor 6:16; Eph 5:31 (all Gen 2:24. Cp. Syntipas p. 42, 24 οὐκ ἔτι ἔσομαι μετὰ σοῦ εἰς γυναῖκα); τὰ σκολιὰ εἰς εὐθείας Lk 3:5 (Is 40:4); εἰς πατέρα 2 Cor 6:18; Hb 1:5 (2 Km 7:14; 1 Ch 22:10; 28:6); εἰς τὸ ἕν 1J 5:8. Serve as someth. (IPriene 50, 39 [c. II B.C.] εἶναι εἰς φυλακὴν τ. πόλεως; Aesop., Fab. 28 H.=18 P.; 26 Ch.; 18 H-H. εἰς ὠφέλειαν; Gen 9:13; s. also εἰς 4d) 1 Cor 14:22; Col 2:22; Js 5:3.—Of something being ἀνεκτότερον ἔσται it will be more tolerable τινί for someone Lk 10:12, 14.
    to exist as possibility ἔστιν w. inf. foll. it is possible, one can (Περὶ ὕψους 6; Diog. L. 1, 110 ἔστιν εὑρεῖν=one can find; Just., A I, 59, 10 ἔστι ταῦτα ἀκοῦσαι καὶ μαθεῖν; D. 42, 3 ἰδεῖν al.; Mel., P. 19, 127); neg. οὐκ ἔστιν νῦν λέγειν it is not possible to speak at this time Hb 9:5. οὐκ ἔστιν φαγεῖν it is impossible to eat 1 Cor 11:20 (so Hom. et al.; UPZ 70, 23 [152/151 B.C.] οὐκ ἔστι ἀνακύψαι με πώποτε … ὑπὸ τῆς αἰσχύνης; 4 Macc 13:5; Wsd 5:10; Sir 14:16; 18:6; EpJer 49 al.; EpArist 163; Jos., Ant. 2, 335; Ath. 22, 3 ἔστιν εἰπεῖν).
    to have a point of derivation or origin, be,/come from somewhere ἐκ τῆς ἐξουσίας Ἡρῴδου from Herod’s jurisdiction Lk 23:7; ἐκ Ναζαρέτ (as an insignificant place) J 1:46; ἐκ τῆς γῆς 3:31; ἐκ γυναικός 1 Cor 11:8 al. ἐξ οὐρανοῦ, ἐξ ἀνθρώπων be of heavenly (divine), human descent Mt 21:25; Mk 11:30; Lk 20:4. Be generated by (cp. Sb 8141, 21f [ins I B.C.] οὐδʼ ἐκ βροτοῦ ἤεν ἄνακτος, ἀλλὰ θεοῦ μεγάλου ἔκγονος; En 106:6) Mt 1:20. Esp. in Johannine usage ἐκ τοῦ διαβόλου εἶναι originate from the devil J 8:44; 1J 3:8. ἐκ τοῦ πονηροῦ 3:12; ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου J 15:19; 17:14, 16; 1J 4:5. ἐκ τῆς ἀληθείας εἶναι 2:21; J 18:37 etc. Cp. 9 end.
    to belong to someone or someth. through association or genetic affiliation, be, belong w. simple gen. (X., Hell. 2, 4, 36; Iambl., Vi. Pyth. 33, 230 τῶν Πυθαγορείων) οἱ τῆς ὁδοῦ ὄντες those who belong to the Way Ac 9:2. εἰμὶ Παύλου I belong to Paul 1 Cor 1:12; 3:4; cp. Ro 8:9; 2 Cor 10:7; 1 Ti 1:20; Ac 23:6. ἡμέρας εἶναι belong to the day 1 Th 5:8, cp. vs. 5. W. ἔκ τινος 1 Cor 12:15f; Mt 26:73; Mk 14:69f; Lk 22:58 al. (cp. X., Mem. 3, 6, 17; oft LXX). ἐκ τοῦ ἀριθμοῦ τῶν δώδεκα belong to the twelve 22:3. ὅς ἐστιν ἐξ ὑμῶν who is a fellow-countryman of yours Col 4:9.—To belong through origin 2 Cor 4:7. Of Mary: ἦν τῆς φυλῆς τοῦ Δαυίδ was of David’s line GJs 10:1. Cp. 8 above.
    to have someth. to do with someth. or someone, be. To denote a close relationship ἐξ ἔργων νόμου εἶναι rely on legal performance Gal 3:10. ὁ νόμος οὐκ ἔστιν ἐκ πίστεως the law has nothing to do with faith vs. 12.—To denote a possessor Mt 5:3, 10; l9:14; Mk 12:7; Lk 18:16; 1 Cor 6:19. Esp. of God who owns the Christian Ac 27:23; 1 Cor 3:23; 2 Ti 2:19 (Num 16:5). οὐδʼ εἶναι τὸν κόσμον θεοῦ, ἀλλὰ ἀγγέλων AcPlCor 1:15 (cp. Just., A II, 13, 4 ὅσα … καλῶς εἴρηται, ἡμῶν τῶν χριστιανῶν ἐστι).—W. possess. pron. ὑμετέρα ἐστὶν ἡ βασιλεία Lk 6:20. οὐκ ἔστιν ἐμὸν δοῦναι Mk 10:40 (cp. Just., A I, 4, 2 ὑμέτερον ἀγωνιᾶσαί ἐστι ‘it is a matter for your concern’).—To denote function (X., An. 2, 1, 4) οὐχ ὑμῶν ἐστιν it is no concern of yours Ac 1:7—Of quality παιδεία οὐ δοκεῖ χαρᾶς εἶναι discipline does not seem to be (partake of) joy Hb 12:11.—10:39.
    as an auxiliary: very commonly the simple tense forms are replaced by the periphrasis εἶναι and the ptc. (B-D-F §352–55; Mlt. 225–27, 249; Mlt-H. 451f; Rdm.2 102, 105, 205; Kühner-G. I 38ff; Rob. 374–76, 1119f; CTurner, Marcan Usage: JTS 28, 1927 349–51; GKilpatrick, BT 7, ’56, 7f; very oft. LXX).
    (as in Hom et al.) w. the pf. ptc. to express the pf., plpf. and fut. pf. act. and pass. (s. Mayser 329; 377) ἦσαν ἐληλυθότες they had come Lk 5:17. ἦν αὐτῶν ἡ καρδία πεπωρωμένη their hearts were hardened Mk 6:52. ἠλπικότες ἐσμέν we have set our hope 1 Cor 15:19. ὁ καιρὸς συνεσταλμένος ἐστίν the time has become short 7:29. ἦν ἑστώς (En 12:3) he was standing (more exactly he took his stand) Lk 5:1.
    w. pres. ptc. (B-D-F §353).
    α. to express the pres. ἐστὶν προσαναπληροῦσα τὰ ὑστερήματα supplies the wants 2 Cor 9:12 (Just., A I, 26, 5 Μαρκίων … καὶ νῦν ἔτι ἐστὶ διδάσκων; Mel., P. 61, 441 ἐστὶν … κηρυσσόμενον).
    β. impf. or aor. ἦν καθεύδων he was sleeping Mk 4:38. ἦσαν ἀναβαίνοντες … ἦν προάγων 10:32; cp. Lk 1:22; 5:17; 11:14 al. (JosAs 1:3 ἦν συνάγων τὸν σίτον; Mel., P. 80, 580 ἦσθα εὐφραινόμενος). ἦν τὸ φῶς τὸ ἀλήθινόν … ἐρχόμενον εἰς τὸν κόσμον the true light entered the world J 1:9, w. ἦν introducing a statement in dramatic contrast to the initial phrase of vs. 8.—To denote age (Demetr.: 722 Fgm. 1, 2 al. Jac.; POxy 275, 9 [66 A.D.] οὐδέπω ὄντα τῶν ἐτῶν; Tob 14:11) Mk 5:42; Lk 3:23; Ac 4:22; GJs 12:3.—Mussies 304–6.
    γ. fut. ἔσῃ σιωπῶν you will be silent Lk 1:20; cp. 5:10; Mt 24:9; Mk 13:13; Lk 21:17, 24 al.; 2 Cl 17:7 Bihlm. (the child) shall serve him (God).
    w. aor. ptc. as plpf. (Aelian, NA 7, 11; Hippiatr. 34, 14, vol. I p. 185, 3 ἦν σκευάσας; ISyriaW 2070b ἦν κτίσας; AcThom 16; 27 [Aa II/2 p. 123, 2f; p. 142, 10]; B-D-F §355 m.—JVogeser, Z. Sprache d. griech. Heiligenlegenden, diss. Munich 1907, 14; JWittmann, Sprachl. Untersuchungen zu Cosmas Indicopleustes, diss. Munich 1913, 20; SPsaltes, Gramm. d. byzant. Chroniken 1913, 230; Björck [διδάσκω end] 75; B-D-F §355). ἦν βληθείς had been thrown Lk 23:19; J 18:30 v.l.—GPt 6:23; 12:51. (Cp. Just., A II, 10, 2 διʼ εὑρέσεως … ἐστὶ πονηθέντα αὐτοῖς ‘they achieved through investigation’).
    Notice esp. the impersonals δέον ἐστίν it is necessary (Pla. et al.; POxy 727, 19; Sir praef. ln. 3; 1 Macc 12:11 δέον ἐστὶν καὶ πρέπον) Ac 19:36; εἰ δέον ἐστίν if it must be 1 Pt 1:6 (s. δεῖ 2a); 1 Cl 34:2; πρέπον ἐστίν it is appropriate (Pla. et al.; POxy 120, 24; 3 Macc 7:13) Mt 3:15; 1 Cor 11:13.
    In many cases the usage w. the ptc. serves to emphasize the duration of an action or condition (BGU 183, 25 ἐφʼ ὸ̔ν χρόνον ζῶσα ᾖ Σαταβούς); JosAs 2:1 ἦν … ἐξουθενοῦσα καὶ καταπτύουσα πάντα ἄνδρα). ἦν διδάσκων he customarily taught Mk 1:22; Lk 4:31; 19:47. ἦν θέλων he cherished the wish 23:8. ἦσαν νηστεύοντες they were keeping the fast Mk 2:18. ἦσαν συλλαλοῦντες they were conversing for a while 9:4. ἦν προσδεχόμενος he was waiting for (the kgdm.) 15:43. ἦν συγκύπτουσα she was bent over Lk 13:11.
    to emphasize the adjectival idea inherent in the ptc. rather than the concept of action expressed by the finite verb ζῶν εἰμι I am alive Rv 1:18. ἦν ὑποτασσόμενος he was obedient Lk 2:51. ἦν ἔχων κτήματα πολλά he was very rich Mt 19:22; Mk 10:22. ἴσθι ἐξουσίαν ἔχων you shall have authority Lk 19:17 (Lucian, Tim. 35 ἴσθι εὐδαιμονῶν). ἦν καταλλάσσων (God) was reconciling 2 Cor 5:19 (cp. Mel., P. 83, 622 οὗτος ἦν ὁ ἐκλεξάμενός σε; Ath. 15, 2 οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ … καρπούμενος).—LMcGaughy, Toward a Descriptive Analysis of ΕΙΝΑΙ as a Linking Verb in the Gk. NT, diss. Vanderbilt, ’70 (s. esp. critique of treatment of εἰμί in previous edd. of this lexicon pp. 12–15).—Mlt. 228. B. 635. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > εἰμί

  • 14 ζάω

    ζάω contr. ζῶ (Hom.+) impf. ἔζων (Ro 7:9 B ἔζην; on this form s. Schwyzer I 675; B-D-F §88; Mlt-H. 194, both w. ref.); fut. ζήσω (uniformly attested Ro 6:2; Hb 12:9); the later (since Hippocr. VII p. 536 L.; LXX; AscIs 3:9; Jos., Ant. 1, 193 al.) form ζήσομαι (B-D-F §77; Rob. 356) is more common (on the fut. forms s. JLee, NovT 22, ’80, 289–98; GKilpatrick, ibid. 25, ’83, 146–51); 1 aor. ἔζησα. On the LXX usage s. Thackeray 269; for forms in pap, Gignac II 370.
    to be alive physically, live
    of physical life in contrast to death
    α. gener. Ac 22:22; Ro 7:1, 2, 3; 14:8ac; 1 Cor 7:39; 2 Cor 5:15a; 6:9; Hb 9:17. ψυχὴ ζῶσα a living soul (Gen 1:20 al.; Just., D. 6, 1 ζῇ ψυχῇ) 1 Cor 15:45 (Gen 2:7); Rv 16:3 v.l. ὅσα ἔτη ζῇ as many years as he lives B 10:6 (cp. SIG 663, 6; Sb 173, 6 Αὐρήλιος ζήσας ἔτη νε´; En 10:10). τὸ ζῆν life (Attic wr., ins, pap, LXX) ὥστε ἐξαπορηθῆναι ἡμᾶς καὶ τοῦ ζῆν so that we even despaired of life 2 Cor 1:8. διὰ παντὸς τοῦ ζῆν during the whole lifetime Hb 2:15 (cp. Diod S 1, 74, 3 διατελεῖν πάντα τὸν τοῦ ζῆν χρόνον; 4, 46, 4). ἔτι ζῶν while he was still living= before his death Mt 27:63 (CB I/2 660 no. 618 Ζώσιμος ἔτι ζῶν κατεσκεύασεν; 3 Km 12:6). ζῶντες ἐβλήθησαν … εἰς τὴν λίμνην τοῦ πυρός they were thrown alive into the lake of fire Rv 19:20. ζῶσα τέθνηκεν though alive she is dead 1 Ti 5:6 (cp. Sextus 7). ἡμεῖς οἱ ζῶντες we during our (earthly) life 2 Cor 4:11; the same phrase= we who are still living 1 Th 4:15, 17. Here the opp. is νεκροί, as in Mt 22:32; Mk 12:27; Lk 20:38a. ζῶντες καὶ νεκροί the living and the dead Ac 10:42; Ro 14:9b; 2 Ti 4:1; 1 Pt 4:5; 2 Cl 1:1; B 7:2.—Occasionally the contrast betw. νεκρός and ζῆν is used fig. with ref. to the realm of religion and ethics Lk 15:24 v.l., 32.
    β. of dead persons who return to life become alive again: of humans in general (3 Km 17:23) Mt 9:18; Ac 9:41; 20:12; Rv 20:4, 5; AcPl Ha 11, 7. Of Jesus Mk 16:11; Lk 24:5, 23; Ac 1:3; 25:19; Ro 14:9a; 2 Cor 13:4a; Rv 1:18b; 2:8 (Just., D. 69, 6 νεκροὺς … ζῆν ποιήσας).
    γ. of sick persons, if their illness terminates not in death but in recovery be well, recover (Artem. 4, 4 ἔζησεν ὁ παῖς=became well; 5, 71; 72; PGM 1, 188; 4 Km 1:2; 8:8 εἰ ζήσομαι ἐκ τῆς ἀρρωστίας μου ταύτης; Jos., Vi. 421) Mk 5:23; J 4:50, 51, 53.—Of removal of anxiety 1 Th 3:8.
    δ. also of healthy persons live on, remain alive (X., An. 3, 2, 39 ὅστις δὲ ζῆν ἐπιθυμεῖ πειράσθω νικᾶν; Ep. 56 of Apollonius of Tyana [Philostrat. I 359, 14]; ApcMos 31 διὰ τί σὺ ἀποθνῄσκεις καγὼ ζῶ;) Ac 25:24; 28:4. ἐὰν ὁ κύριος θελήσῃ ζήσομεν Js 4:15. ὸ̓ς ἔχει τὴν πληγὴν τῆς μαχαίρης καὶ ἔζησεν Rv 13:14.
    ε. of beings that in reality, or as they are portrayed, are not subject to death: of Melchizedek Hb 7:8 (opp. ἀποθνῄσκοντες ἄνθρωποι). Jesus as everlasting high priest πάντοτε ζῶν 7:25.—In this sense it is most comprehensively applied to God (s. CBurchard, Untersuch. zu JosAs p. 103) (ὁ) θεὸς (ὁ) ζῶν (cp. 4 Km 19:4, 16; Is 37:4, 17; Hos 2:1; Da 6:21 Theod.; 3 Macc 6:28; TestAbr A 17 p. 99, 10 [Stone p. 46]; TestJob 37:2; JosAs 49:3 al.; SibOr 3, 763; POxy 924, 11 [IV A.D., Gnostic]; PGM 4, 1038 ὁ μέγας ζῶν θεός; 7, 823; 12, 79; Philo, Decal. 67 ὁ ζῶν ἀεὶ θεός; Orig., C. Cels. 8, 59, 18.—The phrase ‘the living God’ is not found in Joseph.) Mt 16:16; 26:63; J 6:69 v.l.; Ac 14:15; Ro 9:26 (Hos 2:1); 2 Cor 3:3; 6:16; 1 Th 1:9; 1 Ti 3:15; 4:10; 6:17 v.l.; Hb 3:12; 9:14; 10:31; 12:22; Rv 1:18a; 4:10; 7:2; 10:6; 2 Cl 20:2; GJs 20:1; AcPl Ha 2, 32; also ὁ ζῶν πατήρ J 6:57. W. the addition εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων Rv 15:7; cp. 4:9 (cp. Tob 13:2; Sir 18:1). God takes a sovereign oath in the words ζῶ ἐγώ as surely as I live (Num 14:28 al.) Ro 14:11 (Is 49:18; classical parallels GStählin, NovT 5, ’62, 142 n. 2). ζῇ κύριος ὁ θεός [μου] as surely as the Lord my God lives GJs 4:1; 6:1; 13:3; 15:3; 19:3 (Judg 8:19; 1 Km 25:34 al; GrBar 1:7; cp. ApcEsdr 2:7); in expanded form καὶ ζῇ ὁ Χριστὸς αὐτοῦ 15:4 (s. deStrycker ad loc.).—Christ lives διὰ τὸν πατέρα because of the Father J 6:57b (s. Bultmann, comm. ad loc.).
    w. mention of that upon which life depends ἐπί τινι on the basis of someth. (Andoc. 1, 100; Isocr. 10, 18; Ael. Aristid. 28, 103 K.=49 p. 525 D.) ζ. ἐπʼ ἄρτῳ live on bread Mt 4:4; Lk 4:4 (both Dt 8:3). ζ. ἔκ τινος obtain one’s living fr. someth. (Aristoph., Eccl. 591; Demosth. 57, 36; POxy 1117, 19; 1557, 12; TestJob 47:1f) 1 Cor 9:14.
    w. more precise mention of the sphere (Artem. 3, 62 ἐν ἀγορᾷ ζ.=spend his life in the marketplace) ζ. ἐν σαρκί live in the flesh in contrast to the heavenly life Phil 1:22; Gal 2:20c; ζ. ἐν κόσμῳ live in the world Col 2:20. ζ. ἐν θεῷ, live in God (as the Being who penetrates and embraces everything) Ac 17:28 (s. κινέω 3). For AcPl Ha 1, 15 s. 2a end.
    to live in a transcendent sense, live, of the sanctified life of a child of God (ζῆν in the sense of a higher type of life than the animal: X., Mem. 3, 3, 11; Cass. Dio 69, 19: after years of public service, Similis retires and prepares this epitaph: Σίμιλις ἐνταύθα κεῖται βιοὺς μὲν ἔτη τόσα, ζήσας δὲ ἔτη ἑπτά=Here lies Similis, existing for so many years, but alive for only seven.).
    in the world ἐγὼ ἔζων χωρὶς νόμου ποτέ I was once (truly) alive without law (this has been interpr. to mean when no law existed; Paul is then regarded as speaking fr. the viewpoint of humanity in paradise before the command Gen 2:16 f; 3:3. Another interpr. thinks of Paul as referring to the period in his life when he was not conscious of the existence and significance of the law. In view of Paul’s climactic affirmation in Ro 7:25, Paul probably illustrates in the first person the perils of a Christian who succumbs to the illusion that moral action is connected with law rather than with the ‘spirit of life in Christ’ Ro 8:2) Ro 7:9. Even now those who listen to the voice of the Son of God enjoy this life J 5:25; cp. 11:26; likew. those who receive him into their being ὁ τρώγων τὸν ἄρτον 6:57c; cp. Ro 6:11, 13 (ἐκ νεκρῶν ζῶντας); Gal 2:19; Rv 3:1. This heavenly life on earth is a ζ. πνεύματι Gal 5:25 or a life not of mere human achievement, but of Christ who lives in Christians 2:20ab. Also of the superhuman power of the apostle ζήσομεν σὺν αὐτῷ ἐκ δυνάμεως θεοῦ εἰς ὑμᾶς we shall live with him (Christ) through God’s power in our dealings with you 2 Cor 13:4. ὁ κύριος βούλεται ζῆν ἡμᾶς ἐν θεῷ=the Lord wills that we live under God’s direction AcPl Ha 1, 15 (opp. ἀποθανεῖν ἐν ἁμαρτίαις; s. 1c end)
    in the glory of the life to come (Sir 48:11; cp. Dt 4:1; 8:1; 30:16).
    α. abs. Lk 10:28; J 11:25; 14:19; Ro 8:13b; Hb 12:9. ἐμοὶ τ. ζῆν Χριστός= life is possible for me only where Christ is (hence death is gain) Phil 1:21 (s. OSchmitz, GHeinrici Festschr. 1914, 155–69). Another common interpr. is for me to live is Christ, i.e. while I am alive I experience real life in connection with Christ; w. death comes life in all fullness in the presence of Jesus.
    β. More specifically εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα have eternal life (Ps.-Lucian, Philopatr. 17 ζῆν εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα; PsSol 14:2) J 6:51, 58 (in J the blessed life which the follower of Jesus enjoys here and now in the body is simply continued in the heavenly life of the future. In other respects also the dividing line betw. the present and the future life is somet. nonexistent or at least not discernible); B 6:3; 8:5; 9:2; 11:10f; ἅμα σὺν αὐτῷ (i.e. Χριστῷ) ζ. live together with Christ 1 Th 5:10; ζ. διʼ αὐτοῦ (i.e. Chr.) 1J 4:9; ζ. κατὰ θεὸν πνεύματι live, as God (lives), in the Spirit 1 Pt 4:6. ὁ δίκαιος ἐκ πίστεως ζήσεται (cp. Hab 2:4) he that is just through faith will have life Ro 1:17 (AFeuillet, NTS 6, ’59, 52–80; but s. Fitzmyer, Ro [AB] ad loc.); Gal 3:11; Hb 10:38. This life is τὸ ἀληθινὸν ζῆν ITr 9:2; IEph 11:1. Christ is called τὸ ἀδιάκριτον ἡμῶν ζῆν our unshakable or inseparable life 3:2. τὸ διὰ παντὸς ἡμῶν ζῆν our total life 1 Mg 1:2—The law-directed pers. believes concerning legal performance: ὁ ποιήσας αὐτὰ ζήσεται ἐν αὐτοῖς (Lev 18:5) Gal 3:12; cp. Ro 10:5 (cp. Dio Chrys. 58 [75], 1 οἱ τοῦτον [= τ. νόμον] φυλάττοντες ἔχονται τῆς σωτηρίας=those who observe law have a firm grip on security).
    to conduct oneself in a pattern of behavior, live (Hom. et al.)
    used w. adverbs or other modifiers: adv. (Sallust. 19 p. 34, 25 κακῶς ζῆν [Just., A I, 4, 7]; SIG 889, 13ff; Wsd 14:28; Philo; Jos., Ant. 12, 198; Ath. 3, 1 δίκην θηρίων) ἀσώτως Lk 15:13. ἐθνικῶς and ἰουδαϊκῶς Gal 2:14. εὐσεβῶς 2 Ti 3:12. πανούργως Hm 3, 3. σωφρόνως κ. δικαίως κ. εὐσεβῶς Tit 2:12 (Plut., Mor. 1108c ζῆν σωφρόνως κ. δικαίως; cp. Diog. L. 10, 132; 140; Ar. 15, 10).—Φαρισαῖος live as a Pharisee Ac 26:5. ἐν πίστει Gal 2:20d. ἐν ἁμαρτίᾳ Ro 6:2; ζ. ἐν τούτοις live in these (sins) Col 3:7. κατὰ ἀλήθειαν in keeping w. the truth IEph 6:2 (cp. Philo, Post. Cai. 73 κατὰ βούλημα τὸ τοῦ θεοῦ ζ.; Jos., Ant. 4, 302 κατὰ τ. νόμους ζ.; Just., D. 47, 4 κατὰ τὸν νόμον; Orig., C. Cels. 7, 12, 7 κατὰ τὰς θείας γραφάς). κατὰ θεόν 8:1 (cp. SIG 910 A and B). κατὰ Ἰησοῦν Χριστόν IPhld 3:2. κατὰ Χριστιανισμόν live in accordance w. (our) commitment to Christ IMg 10:1. κατὰ σάρκα Ro 8:12f; Dg 5:8; κατὰ κυριακὴν ζ. (opp. σαββατίζειν) include the observance of the Lord’s day in one’s life IMg 9:1. Of a married woman ζ. μετὰ ἀνδρός live w. her husband Lk 2:36 (for the added acc. of extent of time cp. Ael. Aristid. 46 p. 332 D.; Pr 28:16; ἥτις ἔζησεν καλῶς μετʼ ἐμοῦ ἔτη 28, μῆνας 4, ἡμέρας 5: SEG II, 384, 6–8 [restored]; s. also FDanker, Jesus and the New Age ’88, 71).
    τινί live for someone or someth., for the other’s benefit (Hom. et al.; Demosth. 7, 17 οἳ οὐκ αἰσχύνονται Φιλίππῳ ζῶντες καὶ οὐ τῇ ἑαυτῶν πατρίδι; Dionys. Hal. 3, 17 … παῖδες, τῷ πατρὶ ζῶντες) ζ. τῷ θεῷ (4 Macc 7:19; 16:25; Philo, Mut. Nom. 13, Rer. Div. Her. 111; s. SAalen, NTS 13, ’67, 10) Lk 20:38b (cp. Soph., Ajax 970); Ro 6:10, 11; Gal 2:19; Hm 3:5; AcPl Ha 10, 7; τῷ κυρίῳ Ro 14:8b (cp. Plut., Cleom. 819 [31, 5]). For Christ 2 Cor 5:15; τῷ ἐμῷ βασιλεῖ AcPl Ha 9, 26 (restored after Aa I 112, 14) τῇ δικαιοσύνῃ ζ. 1 Pt 2:24; ἑαυτῷ ζ. live for oneself (Menand., Fgm. 646 Kö. οὐχ ἑαυτῷ ζῆν μόνον; Diod S 10, 33, 2 ζ. ἑαυτοῖς=live for themselves) Ro 14:7.
    to be full of vitality, be lively the ptc. is used fig. w. respect to things (cp. τῶν δένδρων τῶν ζῶντων ParJer 9:3), of spring water in contrast w. cistern water ὕδωρ ζῶν (Gen 26:19; Lev 14:5; Jer 2:13 v.l.; Zech 14:8.—Stagnant water is called ὕ. νεκρόν: Synes., Ep. 114, 254d) J 4:10f (Hdb. exc. on J 4:14); 7:38; D 7:1f (Wengst p. 77 n. 57). ζώσας πηγάς Rv 7:17 v.l.
    to be life-productive, offer life ptc. used w. respect to things (SIG 1173 [138 A.D.], 5 ζῶσαι ἀρεταὶ ἐγένοντο=miracles full of divine life occurred) λόγια ζῶντα words that meant life Ac 7:38. λόγος ζῶν θεοῦ 1 Pt 1:23; cp. Hb 4:12. ὁδὸς ζῶσα a living way 10:20. ἐλπὶς ζῶσα a living hope 1 Pt 1:3.—ζ. is also used of things which serve as descriptions of pers. who communicate divine life: of Christ ὁ ἄρτος ὁ ζῶν J 6:51a. λίθος ζῶν 1 Pt 2:4. Of Christians: θυσία ζῶσα a living sacrifice Ro 12:1. λίθοι ζῶντες 1 Pt 2:5.—τὰ παρὰ ζώσης φωνῆς καὶ μενούσης the (words) of a living and abiding voice Papias (2:4) (opp. ἐκ τῶν βιβλίων).—Lit. s. ζωή end. DELG s.v. ζώω.M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ζάω

  • 15 ζωή

    ζωή, ῆς, ἡ (Hom.+; in Hom. ‘living’=‘substance, property’, without which there would not be life; after Hom. ‘life, existence’ opp. death, then ‘way of life’ Hdt. 4, 112)
    life in the physical sense, life ἐν σαρκὶ ζ. Orig., C. Cels. 6, 59, 8)
    opp. θάνατος (Pind. et al.; Lucian, Tox. 38; Sir 37:18; Pr 18:21; Philo; Just., A I, 57, 3; Mel., P. 49, 355) Ro 8:38; 1 Cor 3:22; Phil 1:20. ἐν τῇ ζωῇ σου during your life Lk 16:25 (s. Sir 30:5); cp. 12:15; Ac 8:33 (Is 53:8); Js 4:14; 1 Cl 16:8 (Is 53:8); 17:4 (cp. Job 14:5); 20:10; Hm 3:3. πᾶς χρόνος τῆς ζωῆς ἡμῶν B 4:9 (cp. PsSol 17:2; JosAs 13:12). πάσας τὰς ἡμέρας τῆς ζωῆς αὐτῶν Hs 9, 29, 2; cp. GJs 4:1; τὰς λοιπὰς τῆς ζωῆς ἡμέρας Hv 4, 2, 5; cp. v 5, 2; m 12, 2; Hs 6, 3, 6. τὴν ἐσχάτην ἡμέραν τῆς ζωῆς αὐτοῦ Hv 3, 12, 2. ἐν τῇ ζ. ταύτῃ in this life 1 Cor 15:19; also ζ. ἡ νῦν (opp. ἡ μέλλουσα) 1 Ti 4:8 (Tat. 14, 2). τέλος ζωῆς end of life Hb 7:3 (TestAbr A 1 p. 78, 5 [Stone p. 4]). ζωὴ κ. πνοή life and breath Ac 17:25 (cp. Gen 2:7; 7:22). πνεῦμα ζωῆς breath of life Rv 11:11 (cp. Gen 6:17; 7:15; TestAbr A 18 p. 100, 31 [Stone p. 48]). ψυχὴ ζωῆς living thing 16:3 (cp. Gen 1:30; Just., D. 6, 1 ἡ ψυχὴ ἤτοι ζωή ἐστιν ἢ ζωὴν ἔχει). πρὸς ζωῆς necessary for life 1 Cl 20:10. Of the indestructible life of those clothed in the heavenly body 2 Cor 5:4. The life of the risen Christ also has this character Ro 5:10; 2 Cor 4:10f; ζ. ἀκατάλυτος Hb 7:16. ὁδοὶ ζωῆς Ac 2:28 (Ps 15:11). Christ is ἐν θανάτῳ ζ. ἀληθινή IEph 7:2.
    means of sustenance, livelihood (Hdt. et al.; Sir 4:1; 29:21) Hs 9, 26, 2.
    the course or mode of one’s life (cp. βίος 1) Hm 8, 4 and 9; 11, 7 and 16; Hs 9, 16, 2 al. In some of these pass. a transition to the moral aspect is apparent.
    transcendent life, life
    God and Christ
    α. God as ζωή Dg 9:6b; as ζωὴ αἰώνιος 1J 5:20. Of the cross IEph 18:1. It is true of God that ἔχει ζωὴν ἐν ἑαυτῷ J 5:26a. God’s commandment is eternal life 12:50 (cp. Philo, Fug. 198 God is the πρεσβυτάτη πηγὴ ζωῆς; Herm. Wr. 11, 13; 14; 12, 15 God the πλήρωμα τ. ζωῆς; PGM 3, 602 [s. Rtzst., Mysterienrel.3 286, ln. 11]; the deity called Νοῦς as ζωή and φῶς Herm. Wr. 1:9, 12, 17, 21, 32; 13:9, 18, 19. Cp. also Ps 35:10; 55:14; SibOr Fgm. 3, 34; JosAs 8:10f al.).
    β. of Christ, who received life fr. God J 5:26b (ἡ ζωὴ τῆς πίστεως ParJer 9:14). ἐν αὐτῷ ζ. ἦν 1:4a; cp. 1J 5:11b. He is the ἀρχηγὸς τ. ζωῆς Ac 3:15, the λόγος τ. ζωῆς 1J 1:1; cp. vs. 2, the ἄρτος τ. ζωῆς J 6:35, 48; cp. vs. 33 (EJanot, Le pain de vie: Gregorianum 11, 1930, 161–70), also simply ζωή 11:25; 14:6 or ἡ ζ. ὑμῶν Col 3:4; cp. B 2, 10; IMg 9:1. Since the life in him was τὸ φῶς τ. ἀνθρώπων J 1:4b, people through following him obtain τὸ φῶς τ. ζωῆς 8:12 (on the combination of light and life cp. 1QS 3, 7 and the Orph. Hymns to Helios no. 8, 18 Qu. ζωῆς φῶς, as well as Christian ins of Rome [Ramsay, Luke the Physician 1908 p. 375, 238 A.D.], where a father calls his dead son γλυκύτερον φωτὸς καὶ ζοῆς; s. also α above).—SBartina, La vida como historia en J 1:1–18, Biblica 49, ’68, 91–96.
    The discussion now turns naturally to the life of the believers, which proceeds fr. God and Christ.
    α. without (clear) eschatol. implications, of the life of grace and holiness ἐν καινότητι ζωῆς περιπατεῖν walk in (i.e. live) a new life Ro 6:4; cp. IEph 19:3. ἀπηλλοτριωμένοι τ. ζωῆς τ. θεοῦ estranged fr. the life of God Eph 4:18 (cp. Philo, Post. Cai. 69 τῆς θεοῦ ζωῆς ἀπεσχοινίσθαι). ἡ ζωὴ τ. ἀνθρώπων the (true) life of persons (in God) Hm 2:1.—Of the life of salvation and of glory. It is ζ. κυρίου B 1:4 (cp. PGM 12, 255 κύριε τ. ζωῆς; 13, 783) or ζ. ἐν Χρ. Ἰησοῦ 2 Ti 1:1; cp. ζωὴν ὑμῖν ὁ κύριος χαρίζεται Hs 9, 28, 6; effected by his words or by the proclamation of the gospel: ῥήματα ζ. αἰωνίου J 6:68; cp. vs. 63. τὰ ῥήματα τῆς ζ. ταύτης Ac 5:20. λόγος ζωῆς word of life Phil 2:16; cp. 2 Ti 1:10; 2 Cor 4:12. Hence the apostle, proclaiming the gospel, can term himself the bearer of the ‘fragrance of Christ’, leading those appointed to this bliss, the rescued ἐκ ζωῆς εἰς ζωήν from life to life (i.e., as it seems, ever more deeply into the divine life) 2 Cor 2:16.—The Spirit stands w. Christ as the power of life πνεῦμα τῆς ζωῆς ἐν Χρ. Ἰησοῦ the spirit of life in Chr. J. Ro 8:2; cp. vss. 6, 10 and J 6:63.—Like the words of Christ, the divine ἐντολή is also to bring life Ro 7:10; Hm 7:5; Hs 8, 7, 6. This ζ. is regarded as God’s gift ζ. ἐν ἀθανασίᾳ 1 Cl 35:2. W. ἀφθαρσία 2 Ti 1:10; 2 Cl 14:5; IPol 2:3. W. γνῶσις D 9:3; Dg 12:3–7. W. εὐσέβεια 2 Pt 1:3. W. εἰρήνη Ro 8:6. W. σωτηρία 2 Cl 19:1. ἀγάπην ἥτις ἐστὶν ἀρχὴ ζωὴς καὶ τέλος IEph 14:1. Christians, who truly belong to the ἐκκλησία τῆς ζωῆς 2 Cl 14:1, are heirs of life, the gift of grace 1 Pt 3:7. This life, as long as they are in the body, κέκρυπται σὺν τ. Χριστῷ ἐν τῷ θεῷ is hidden with Christ in God Col 3:3. Those who forfeit their ζ. (=their real life in contrast to their physical existence as ψυχή) are excluded fr. the life of glory Hv 1, 1, 9; Hs 6, 2, 3; 8, 6, 4; 6; 8, 8, 2f; 5; 9, 21, 4.—Cp. also Ac 11:18 (s. 1QS 3, 1); 13:46, 48. ἡ ὁδὸς τῆς ζ. D 1:2; 4:14. τὰς τρίβους τῆς ζ. Hs 5, 6, 3. Esp. in Johannine usage the term ζ. is copiously employed, as a rule to designate the result of faith in Christ; in most cases it is stated expressly that the follower of Jesus possesses life even in this world: ἔχειν ζωήν (Theophr. in a scholion on Pla. 631c εἰ ζωὴν εἶχεν ὁ πλοῦτος=‘had life, were alive’) J 3:15f, 36a; 5:24a, 40; 6:40, 47, 51, 53f; 10:10; 20:31; 1J 3:15; 5:12ab, 13. διδόναι ζωήν (cp. Sb 8202, 3 [105 B.C.]) J 10:28; 17:2; 1J 5:11.—Cp. 5:16. ὁρᾶν ζωήν J 3:36b. μεταβεβηκέναι ἐκ τ. θανάτου εἰς τ. ζωήν to have passed fr. death into life J 5:24; 1J 3:14. Hence in the eschatol. pass. J 5:29 ἀνάστασις ζωῆς means not a resurrection to enter life (cp. 2 Macc 7:14 and MPol 14:2, where ἀνάστασις ζωῆς αἰ., it seems, is res. to everlasting life), but a resurrection which corresponds to the Christian’s possession of life here and now, a resurrection proceeding from life. J is fond of calling this Life ζ. αἰώνιος, as in many pass. just cited (s. αἰώνιος 3) J 3:15f, 36; 4:14, 36; 5:24, 39; 6:27, 40, 47, 54, 68; 10:28; 12:25, 50; 17:2f; 1J 1:2; 2:25; 3:15; 5:11, 13, 20. But the use of this expr. in our lit. is by no means limited to J and 1J; it is also found in Mt, Mk, Lk, Ac, Ro, Gal, 1 Ti, Tit, Jd, 2 Cl, Ign, MPol, Hermas, Didache (Just., Mel., Ath.; Orig., C. Cels. 2, 77, 31 [w. ἀνάστασις]; cp. αἴδιος ζ. Tat. 14, 2) w. unmistakable eschatol. connotation.
    β. ζ. (and ζ. αἰώνιος; cp. 1QS 4:7 and s. J 3:15 al.; opp. ἀπώλεια TestAbr B 8 p. 113, 2 [Stone p. 74]) is used of life in the blessed period of final consummation, in the foll. pass.: ἐν τῷ αἰῶνι τῷ ἐρχομένῳ ζ. αἰ. in the coming age eternal life Mk 10:30; Lk 18:30; cp. Mt 19:29 (Ar. 15, 3 ζ. τοῦ μέλλοντος αἰώνος). τί ποιήσω ἵνα ζ. αἰ. κληρονομήσω; Mk 10:17; cp. Lk 18:18; 10:25; Mt 19:16f (PsSol 14:10). As a result of the Last Judgment ἀπελεύσονται οἱ δίκαιοι εἰς ζ. αἰ. Mt 25:46 (cp. PsSol 13:11); s. also Ro 2:7 (cp. 1QS 4:6–8).—Cp. also Mt 7:14; 18:8f; Mk 9:43, 45; Ro 5:17f, 21; 6:22f; ζ. ἐκ νεκρῶν life for those who have come out of the state of death 11:15.—Gal 6:8; 1 Ti 1:16; 6:12, 19; 1 Pt 3:10 (Ps 33:13); Jd 21; 2 Cl 8:4, 6; Dg 9:1, 6a. For 2 Cor 5:4 s. 1a. Of martyrs τὴν αἰώνιον ζ. ἐξαγοραζόμενοι purchasing eternal life for themselves MPol 2:3 (Mosquensis, other Gk. codd. κόλασιν). W. ἀνάπαυσις τ. μελλούσης βασιλείας 2 Cl 5:5. This life is called ἡ ὄντως ζ. the real, true life (the redundancy may derive from awareness of a distinction sometimes made in the Gr-Rom. world between real living ζωή and biological existence βίος; s., e.g., IPriene 105, 10=OGI 458, 10; cp. Cass. Dio 69, 19) 1 Ti 6:19; ζωῆς ἀληθοῦς Dg 12:4; ἡ ἐπουράνιος ζ. 2 Cl 20:5; ἀί̈διος ζ. IEph 19:3 (s. ἀί̈διος). Hope is directed toward it, ζωῆς ἐλπίς B 1:6; cp. Tit 1:2; 3:7; Hs 9, 26, 2.—The references to future glory include the foll. expressions: βίβλος or βιβλίον (τῆς) ζωῆς (s. βίβλος 2) Phil 4:3; Rv 3:5; 13:8; 17:8; 20:12, 15; 21:27; Hv 1, 3, 2. τὸ ξύλον (τῆς) ζωῆς the tree of life (4 Macc 18:16; cp. Pr 3:18; Gen 2:9; PsSol 14:3; ParJer 9:16 [δένδρον]; ApcEsdr 2:11; ApcMos 19 al.; Philo.—ξύλον 3) Rv 2:7; 22:2, 14, 19; Dg 12:3f. στέφανος τ. ζωῆς (s. Bousset, Rel.3 277f; MDibelius on Js 1:12; FCumont, Études syriennes 1917, 63–69; s. στέφανος) Js 1:12; Rv 2:10. ὕδωρ (τῆς) ζωῆς (Just., D. 19, 2 βάπτισμα; cp. ὕδωρ 2) 21:6; 22:1, 17. πηγὴ ζωῆς B 11:2 (cp. Jer 2:13; Ps 35:10; OdeSol 11:6). ζωῆς πηγαὶ ὑδάτων springs of living water Rv 7:17. For ἄρτος τῆς ζωῆς s. ἄρτος 2 end.—FBurkitt, ZNW 12, 1911, 228–30; RCharles, A Critical Hist. of the Doctrine of a Fut. Life in Israel, in Judaism and in Christianity2 1913; FLindblom, D. ewige Leben 1914; Bousset, Rel.3 269–95; JFrey, Biblica 13, ’32, 129–68.—EvDobschütz, D. Gewissheit des ew. Leb. nach d. NT: ‘Dienet einander’ 29, 1920/21, 1–8; 43–52; 65–71; 97–101; JUbbink, Het eeuwige leven bij Pls 1917; ESommerlath, D. Ursprung d. neuen Lebens nach Pls2 1926; JMüller, D. Lebensbegr. d. Hl. Pls ’40; NvArseniew, D. neue Leben nach dem Eph: Internat. Kirchl. Ztschr. 20, 1930, 230–36; EvSchrenk, D. joh. Anschauung vom ‘Leben’ 1898; JFrey, ‘Vie’ dans l’Év. de St. Jean: Biblica 1, 1920, 37–58; 211–39; RBultmann, D. Eschatol. d. Joh Ev.: Zwischen d. Zeiten 6, 1928, 1ff; HPribnow, D. joh. Anschauung v. ‘Leben’ ’34; DLyons, The Concept of Eternal Life in J ’38; JKoole, Diorama Johanneum. Ζωή: GereformTT 43, ’42, 276–84; FMussner, ΖΩΗ (Joh. lit.), diss. Munich ’52; DHill, Gk. Words and Hebrew Mngs. ’67, 163–201.—B. 285. S. βίος and Schmidt, Syn. IV 40–53. DELG s.v. ζώω 1. EDNT. M-M. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ζωή

  • 16 κόσμος

    κόσμος, ου, ὁ (Hom.+)
    that which serves to beautify through decoration, adornment, adorning (Hom.+; Diod S 20, 4, 5 τῶν γυναικῶν τὸν κόσμον; OGI 531, 13; SIG 850, 10; IMaronIsis 41; PEleph 1, 4; PSI 240, 12 γυναικεῖον κόσμον; LXX; TestJud 12:1; JosAs 2:6 al.; Philo, Migr. Abr. 97 γυναικῶν κ.; Jos., Ant. 1, 250; 15, 5; Just., A II, 11, 4f) of women’s attire, etc. ὁ ἔξωθεν … κόσμος external adorning 1 Pt 3:3 (Vi. Hom. 4 of the inward adornment of a woman, beside σωφροσύνη; Crates, Ep. 9; Pythag., Ep. 11, 1; Plut., Mor. 141e; on the topic of external adornment cp. SIG 736, 15–26).
    condition of orderliness, orderly arrangement, order (Hom. et al.; s. HDiller, Die vorphilosophische Gebrauch von κ. und κοσμεῖν: BSnell Festschr., ’56, 47–60) μετὰ κόσμου in order Dg 12:9 (text uncertain; s. μετακόσμιος).
    the sum total of everything here and now, the world, the (orderly) universe, in philosophical usage (so, acc. to Plut., Mor. 886b, as early as Pythagoras; certainly Heraclitus, Fgm. 66; Pla., Gorg. 508a, Phdr. 246c; Chrysipp., Fgm. 527 v. Arnim κόσμος σύστημα ἐξ οὐρανοῦ καὶ γῆς καὶ τῶν ἐν τούτοις περιεχομένων φύσεων. Likew. Posidonius in Diog. L. 7, 138; Ps.-Aristot., De Mundo 2 p. 391b, 9ff; 2 and 4 Macc; Wsd; EpArist 254; Philo, Aet. M. 4; Jos., Ant. 1, 21; Test12Patr; SibOr 7, 123; AssMos Fgm. b Denis [=Tromp p. 272]; Just., A I, 20, 2 al.; Ath. 19, 2 al.; Orig., C. Cels. 4, 68, 14; Did., Gen. 36, 7; 137, 13.—The other philosoph. usage, in which κ. denotes the heaven in contrast to the earth, is prob. without mng. for our lit. [unless perh. Phil 2:15 κ.=‘sky’?]). ἡ ἀέναος τοῦ κ. σύστασις the everlasting constitution of the universe 1 Cl 60:1 (cp. OGI 56, 48 εἰς τὸν ἀέναον κ.). Sustained by four elements Hv 3, 13, 3. πρὸ τοῦ τὸν κ. εἶναι before the world existed J 17:5. ἀπὸ καταβολῆς [κόσμου] from the beginning of the world Mt 13:35; 25:34; Lk 11:50; Hb 4:3; 9:26; Rv 13:8; 17:8. Also ἀπʼ ἀρχῆς κ. Mt 24:21 or ἀπὸ κτίσεως κ. Ro 1:20.—B 5:5 ἀπὸ καταβ. κ. evidently means at the foundation of the world (s. Windisch, Hdb. ad loc.). πρὸ καταβολῆς κ. before the foundation of the world J 17:24; Eph 1:4; 1 Pt 1:20 (on the uses w. καταβολή s. that word, 1). οὐδὲν εἴδωλον ἐν κ. no idol has any real existence in the universe (Twentieth Century NT) 1 Cor 8:4. Of the creation in its entirety 3:22. ὁ κόσμος ὅλος = πᾶσα ἡ κτίσις (Sallust. 21 p. 36, 13; TestSol 5:7; TestJob 33:4) Hs 9, 2, 1; 9, 14, 5. φωστῆρες ἐν κόσμῳ stars in the universe Phil 2:15 (s. above). Esp. of the universe as created by God (Epict 4, 7, 6 ὁ θεὸς πάντα πεποίηκεν, τὰ ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ καὶ αὐτὸν τὸν κόσμον ὅλον; Wsd 9:9; 2 Macc 7:23 ὁ τοῦ κ. κτίστης; 4 Macc 5:25; Just., A I, 59, 1 al.; Ath. 8, 2 al.) ὁ ποιήσας τὸν κ. who has made the world Ac 17:24. ὁ κτίστης τοῦ σύμπαντος κ. 1 Cl 19:2; ὁ κτίσας τὸν κ. Hv 1, 3, 4; cp. m 12, 4, 2. ὁ τοῦ παντὸς κ. κυριεύων B 21:5. οὐδʼ εἶναι τὸν κόσμον θεοῦ ἀλλὰ ἀγγέλων AcPlCor 1:15. Christ is called παντὸς τοῦ κ. κύριος 5:5; and the κ. owes its origin to his agency J 1:10b. The world was created for the sake of the church Hv 2, 4, 1.—The universe, as the greatest space conceivable, is not able to contain someth. (Philo, Ebr. 32) J 21:25.
    the sum total of all beings above the level of the animals, the world, as θέατρον ἐγενήθημεν (i.e. οἱ ἀπόστολοι) τῷ κόσμῳ καὶ ἀγγέλοις καὶ ἀνθρώποις 1 Cor 4:9. Here the world is divided into angels and humans (cp. the Stoic definition of the κόσμος in Stob., Ecl. I p. 184, 8 τὸ ἐκ θεῶν καὶ ἀνθρώπων σύστημα; likew. Epict 1, 9, 4.—Acc. to Ocellus Luc. 37, end, the κ. consists of the sphere of the divine beyond the moon and the sphere of the earthly on this side of the moon).
    planet earth as a place of inhabitation, the world (SIG 814, 31 [67 A.D.] Nero, ὁ τοῦ παντὸς κόσμου κύριος; the meaning of the birthday of Augustus for the world OGI 458, 40 [=IPriene 105]; 2 Macc 3:12; Jos., Ant. 9, 241; 10, 205; Orig., C. Cels. 4, 68)
    gener. Mk 16:15. τὰς βασιλείας τοῦ κ. Mt 4:8; ἐν ὅλῳ τῷ κ. 26:13. Cp. 13:38 (cp. Hs 5, 5, 2); Mk 14:9; Hs 9, 25, 2. τὸ φῶς τοῦ κ. τούτου the light of this world (the sun) J 11:9. In rhetorical exaggeration ἡ πίστις ὑμῶν καταγγέλλεται ἐν ὅλῳ τ. κόσμῳ Ro 1:8 (cp. the Egypt. grave ins APF 5, 1913, 169 no. 24, 8 ὧν ἡ σωφροσύνη κατὰ τὸν κ. λελάληται). Abraham as κληρονόμος κόσμου heir of the world 4:13.—Cp. 1 Cor 14:10; Col 1:6. ἡ ἐν τῷ κ. ἀδελφότης the brotherhood in the (whole) world 1 Pt 5:9. ἐγένετο ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ κ. τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν our Lord has assumed the sovereignty of the world Rv 11:15. τὰ ἔθνη τοῦ κ. (not LXX, but prob. rabbinic אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם=humankind apart fr. Israel; Billerb. II 191; Dalman, Worte 144f) the unconverted in the world Lk 12:30. In this line of development, κόσμος alone serves to designate the polytheistic unconverted world Ro 11:12, 15.—Other worlds (lands) beyond the ocean 1 Cl 20:8.—Many of these pass. bear the connotation of
    the world as the habitation of humanity (as SibOr 1, 160). So also Hs 9, 17, 1f. εἰσέρχεσθαι εἰς τὸν κ. of entrance into the world by being born 1 Cl 38:3. ἐκ τοῦ κ. ἐξελθεῖν leave this present world (Philo, Leg. All. 3, 5 ἔξω τ. κόσμου φεύγειν; s. ἐξέρχομαι 5; cp. Hippol., Ref. 5, 16, 7) 1 Cor 5:10b; 2 Cl 8:3. γεννηθῆναι εἰς τὸν κ. be born into the world J 16:21. ἕως ἐσμὲν ἐν τούτῳ τῷ κ. 2 Cl 8:2. οὐδὲν εἰσφέρειν εἰς τὸν κ. (Philo, Spec. Leg. 1, 294 τὸν μηδὲν εἰς τὸν κόσμον εἰσενηνοχότα) 1 Ti 6:7 (Pol 4:1). πολλοὶ πλάνοι ἐξῆλθον εἰς τὸν κ. 2J 7.—ἐν τῷ κόσμω τούτῳ J 12:25 (κ. need not here be understood as an entity hostile to God, but the transition to the nuance in 7b, below, is signalled by the term that follows: ζωὴν αἰώνιον). ἵνα εἰς κόσμον προέλθῃ AcPlCor 2:6.
    earth, world in contrast to heaven (Dio Chrys. 19 [36], 59; Iren., 1, 4, 2 [Harv. I 35, 5]; Orig., C. Cels. 8, 15, 24) ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ τούτῳ 2 Cl 19:3.—Esp. when mention is made of the preexistent Christ, who came fr. another world into the κόσμος. So, above all, in John (Bultmann, index I κόσμος) ἔρχεσθαι εἰς τὸν κ. (τοῦτον) J 6:14; 9:39; 11:27; 16:28a; 18:37; specif. also come into the world as light 12:46; cp. 1:9; 3:19. Sending of Jesus into the world 3:17a; 10:36; 17:18; 1J 4:9. His εἶναι ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ J 1:10a; 9:5a; 17:12 v.l. Leaving the world and returning to the Father 13:1a; 16:28b. Cp. 14:19; 17:11a. His kingship is not ἐκ τοῦ κ. τούτου of this world i.e. not derived from the world or conditioned by its terms and evaluations 18:36ab.—Also Χρ. Ἰησοῦς ἦλθεν εἰς τ. κόσμον 1 Ti 1:15; cp. ἐπιστεύθη ἐν κόσμῳ (opp. ἀνελήμφθη ἐν δόξῃ) 3:16.—εἰσερχόμενος εἰς τὸν κ. Hb 10:5.
    the world outside in contrast to one’s home PtK 3 p. 15, 13; 19.
    humanity in general, the world (TestAbr B 8 p. 113, 11 [Stone p. 74]; ApcEsdr 3:6 p. 27, 14; SibOr 1, 189; Just., A I, 39, 3 al.)
    gener. οὐαὶ τῷ κ. ἀπὸ τῶν σκανδάλων woe to humankind because of the things that cause people to sin Mt 18:7; τὸ φῶς τοῦ κ. the light for humanity 5:14; cp. J 8:12; 9:5. ὁ σωτὴρ τοῦ κ. 4:42; 1J 4:14 (this designation is found in inscriptions, esp. oft. of Hadrian [WWeber, Untersuchungen z. Geschichte des Kaisers Hadrianus 1907, 225; 226; 229]).—J 1:29; 3:17b; 17:6.—κρίνειν τὸν κ. (SibOr 4, 184; TestAbr A 13 p. 92, 11 [Stone p. 32]; ApcMos 37) of God, Christ J 12:47a; Ro 3:6; B 4:12; cp. Ro 3:19. Of believers 1 Cor 6:2ab (cp. Sallust. 21 p. 36, 13 the souls of the virtuous, together w. the gods, will rule the whole κόσμος). Of Noah διʼ ἧς (sc. πίστεως) κατέκρινεν τὸν κ. Hb 11:7. ἡ ἁμαρτία εἰς τὸν κ. εἰσῆλθεν Ro 5:12; likew. θάνατος εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸν κ. 1 Cl 3:4 (Wsd 2:24; 14:14). Cp. Ro 5:13; 1 Cor 1:27f. περικαθάρματα τοῦ κ. the refuse of humanity 4:13. Of persons before conversion ἄθεοι ἐν τῷ κ. Eph 2:12.—2 Cor 1:12; 5:19; Js 2:5; 1J 2:2; 4:1, 3. ἀρχαῖος κόσμος the people of the ancient world 2 Pt 2:5a; cp. vs. 5b; 3:6. Of pers. of exceptional merit: ὧν οὐκ ἦν ἄξιος ὁ κ. of whom the world was not worthy Hb 11:38.—ὅλος ὁ κ. all the world, everybody Ac 2:47 D; 1 Cl 5:7; cp. ἐν ὅλῳ τῷ κ. 59:2; εἰς ὅλον τὸν κ. Hs 8, 3, 2. Likew. ὁ κόσμος (cp. Philo, De Prov. in Eus., PE 8, 14, 58) ὁ κ. ὀπίσω αὐτοῦ ἀπῆλθεν J 12:19. ταῦτα λαλῶ εἰς τὸν κ. 8:26; ἐν τῷ κ. 17:13; ἐγὼ παρρησίᾳ λελάληκα τῷ κ. 18:20; cp. 7:4; 14:22. ἵνα γνῷ ὁ κ. 14:31; cp. 17:23; ἵνα ὁ κ. πιστεύῃ 17:21.
    of all humanity, but especially of believers, as the object of God’s love J 3:16, 17c; 6:33, 51; 12:47b.
    the system of human existence in its many aspects, the world
    as scene of earthly joys, possessions, cares, sufferings (cp. 4 Macc 8:23) τὸν κ. ὅλον κερδῆσαι gain the whole world Mt 16:26; Mk 8:36; Lk 9:25; 2 Cl 6:2 (cp. Procop. Soph., Ep. 137 the whole οἰκουμένη is an unimportant possession compared to ἀρετή). τὰ τερπνὰ τοῦ κ. the delightful things in the world IRo 6:1. οἱ χρώμενοι τὸν κ. ὡς μὴ καταχρώμενοι those who use the world as though they had no use of it or those who deal with the world as having made no deals with it 1 Cor 7:31a. ἔχειν τὸν βίον τοῦ κ. possess worldly goods 1J 3:17. τὰ τοῦ κόσμου the affairs of the world 1 Cor 7:33f; cp. 1J 2:15f. The latter pass. forms an easy transition to the large number of exprs. (esp. in Paul and John) in which
    the world, and everything that belongs to it, appears as that which is hostile to God, i.e. lost in sin, wholly at odds w. anything divine, ruined and depraved (Herm. Wr. 6, 4 [the κόσμος is τὸ πλήρωμα τῆς κακίας]; 13, 1 [ἡ τοῦ κ. ἀπάτη], in Stob. p. 428, 24 Sc.; En 48:7; TestIss 4:6; AscIs 3:25; Hdb., exc. on J 1:10; Bultmann ad loc.—cp. Sotades Maronita [III B.C.] 11 Diehl: the κόσμος is unjust and hostile to great men) IMg 5:2; IRo 2:2. ὁ κόσμος οὗτος this world (in contrast to the heavenly realm) J 8:23; 12:25, 31a; 13:1; 16:11; 18:36; 1J 4:17; 1 Cor 3:19; 5:10a; 7:31b; Hv 4, 3, 2ff; D 10:6; 2 Cl 5:1, 5; (opp. ὁ ἅγιος αἰών) B 10:11. ‘This world’ is ruled by the ἄρχων τοῦ κ. τούτου the prince of this world, the devil J 12:31b; 16:11; without τούτου 14:30. Cp. ὁ κ. ὅλος ἐν τῷ πονηρῷ κεῖται the whole world lies in the power of the evil one 1J 5:19; cp. 4:4; also ὁ αἰὼν τοῦ κ. τούτου Eph 2:2 (s. αἰών 4).—Christians must have nothing to do with this world of sin and separation fr. God: instead of desiring it IRo 7:1, one is to ἄσπιλον ἑαυτὸν τηρεῖν ἀπὸ τοῦ κ. keep oneself untainted by the world Js 1:27. ἀποφεύγειν τὰ μιάσματα τοῦ κ. 2 Pt 2:20; cp. 1:4 (s. ἀποφεύγω 1).—Pol 5:3. ἡ φιλία τοῦ κ. ἔχθρα τ. θεοῦ ἐστιν Js 4:4a; cp. vs. 4b. When such an attitude is taken Christians are naturally hated by the world IRo 3:3; J 15:18, 19ad; 17:14a; 1J 3:13, as their Lord was hated J 7:7; 15:18; cp. 1:10c; 14:17; 16:20.—Also in Paul: God and world in opposition τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ κ. and τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἐκ θεοῦ the spirit of the world and the spirit that comes fr. God 1 Cor 2:12; σοφία τοῦ κ. and σοφία τοῦ θεοῦ 1:20f. ἡ κατὰ θεὸν λύπη and ἡ τοῦ κ. λύπη godly grief and worldly grief 2 Cor 7:10. The world is condemned by God 1 Cor 11:32; yet also the object of the divine plan of salvation 2 Cor 5:19; cp. 1 Cl 7:4; 9:4. A Christian is dead as far as this world is concerned: διʼ οὗ (i.e. Ἰ. Χρ.) ἐμοὶ κ. ἐσταύρωται κἀγὼ κόσμῳ through Christ the world has been crucified for me, and I have been (crucified) to the world Gal 6:14; cp. the question τί ὡς ζῶντες ἐν κ. δογματίζεσθε; Col 2:20b. For στοιχεῖα τοῦ κ. Gal 4:3; Col 2:8, 20a s. στοιχεῖον.—The use of κ. in this sense is even further developed in John. The κ. stands in opposition to God 1J 2:15f and hence is incapable of knowing God J 17:25; cp. 1J 4:5, and excluded fr. Christ’s intercession J 17:9; its views refuted by the Paraclete 16:8. Neither Christ himself 17:14c, 16b; 14:27, nor his own 15:19b; 17:14b, 16a; 1J 3:1 belong in any way to the ‘world’. Rather Christ has chosen them ‘out of the world’ J 15:19c, even though for the present they must still live ‘in the world’ 17:11b; cp. 13:1b; 17:15, 18b. All the trouble that they must undergo because of this, 16:33a, means nothing compared w. the victorious conviction that Christ (and the believers w. him) has overcome ‘the world’ vs. 33b; 1J 5:4f, and that it is doomed to pass away 2:17 (TestJob 33:4; Kephal. I 154, 21: the κόσμος τῆς σαρκός will pass away).
    collective aspect of an entity, totality, sum total (SIG 850, 10 τὸν κόσμον τῶν ἔργων (but s. 1 above); Pr 17:6a) ὁ κ. τῆς ἀδικίας ἡ γλῶσσα καθίσταται the tongue becomes (or proves to be) the sum total of iniquity Js 3:6 (so, approx., Meinertz; FHauck.—MDibelius, Windisch and ASchlatter find mng. 7b here, whereas ACarr, Exp. 7th ser., 8, 1909, 318ff thinks of mng. 1). Χρ. τὸν ὑπὲρ τῆς τοῦ παντὸς κόσμου τῶν σῳζομένων σωτηρίας παθόντα Christ, who suffered or died (s. πάσχω 3aα) for the salvation of the sum total of those who are saved MPol 17:2.—FBytomski, D. genet. Entwicklung des Begriffes κόσμος in d. Hl. Schrift: Jahrb. für Philos. und spekul. Theol. 25, 1911, 180–201; 389–413 (only the OT); CSchneider, Pls u. d. Welt: Αγγελος IV ’32, 11–47; EvSchrenck, Der Kosmos-Begriff bei Joh.: Mitteilungen u. Nachrichten f. d. evang. Kirche in Russland 51, 1895, 1–29; RLöwe, Kosmos u. Aion ’35; RBultmann, D. Verständnis v. Welt u. Mensch im NT u. im Griechentum: ThBl 19, ’40, 1–14; GBornkamm, Christus u. die Welt in der urchr. Botschaft: ZTK 47, ’50, 212–26; ALesky, Kosmos ’63; RVölkl, Christ u. Welt nach dem NT ’61; GJohnston, οἰκουμένη and κ. in the NT: NTS 10, ’64, 352–60; NCassem, ibid. 19, ’72/73, 81–91; RBratcher, BT 31, ’80, 430–34.—B. 13; 440. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > κόσμος

  • 17 μένω

    μένω (Hom.+) impf. ἔμενον; fut. μενῶ; 1 aor. ἔμεινα, impv. μεῖνον (Hv 3, 1, 9); pf. ptc. pl. μεμενηκότας 2 Macc 8:1; plpf. μεμενήκειν 1J 2:19 (on the lack of augment s. B-D-F §66, 1; W-S. §12, 4; Mlt-H. 190).
    remain, stay, intr.
    a pers. or thing remains where he, she, or it is.
    α. of a location stay, oft. in the special sense live, dwell, lodge (Horapollo 2, 49 μ. alternating w. οἰκέω) w. ἐν and the dat. (Ps.-Demosth. 43, 75 μ. ἐν τοῖς οἴκοις; Vi. Aesopi G 12 p. 259, 6 P.) ἐν οἰκίᾳ Lk 8:27; ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ οἰκίᾳ Lk 10:7; J 8:35a; ἐν τ. οἴκῳ σου Lk 19:5. ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ remain in the ship Ac 27:31. μ. ἐν τῇ Γαλιλαίᾳ J 7:9.—Ac 9:43; 20:15 v.l.; 2 Ti 4:20. κατὰ πόλιν remain in the city MPol 5:1 (Just., A I, 67, 3). W. an adv. of place ἐκεῖ Mt 10:11; Mk 6:10; Lk 9:4; J 2:12; 10:40; 11:54 (s. διατρίβω); Hs 9, 11, 7. ὧδε Mt 26:38; Mk 14:34; Hs 9, 11, 1. ποῦ μένεις; where do you live? J 1:38; cp. vs. 39 (Sb 2639 ποῦ μένι Θερμοῦθις; Pel.-Leg. 7, 27; Nicetas Eugen. 1, 230 H. ποῦ μένεις;). W. acc. of time (Demetr.: 722 Fgm. 1, 11 Jac.; JosAs 20:8; Jos., Ant. 1, 299) J 1:39b; 4:40b; 11:6; Ac 21:7; D 11:5; 12:2. W. time-indications of a different kind ἕως ἂν ἐξέλθητε Mt 10:11. ὡς μῆνας τρεῖς Lk 1:56. εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα J 8:35b. ἐπὶ πλείονα χρόνον Ac 18:20. W. prep. παρά τινι μ. stay with someone (Cebes 9, 2; Jos., Ant. 20, 54) J 1:39b; 4:40a; Ac 18:3 ( live with is also prob.: Lucian, Timon 10); 21:7, 8. παρʼ ὑμῖν μένων when I was (staying) with you J 14:25. πρός τινα with someone Ac 18:3 D; D 12:2. ἐπί τινα remain on someone J 1:32f. σύν τινι with someone (4 Macc 18:9) Lk 1:56; 24:29b. Also μ. μετά τινος (Gen 24:55) Lk 24:29a; Hs 9, 11, 1; 3; 6; 7. καθʼ ἑαυτόν live by oneself, in one’s own quarters Ac 28:16 (of what is called in Lat. custodia libera; s. BAFCS III 276, 364f; 384f). Of a corpse μ. ἐπὶ τοῦ σταυροῦ stay (hanging) on the cross J 19:31. Of a branch: ἐν τῇ ἀμπέλῳ remain on the vine, i.e. not be cut off 15:4b. Of stones μ. ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ stay on the road Hv 3, 2, 9. Of stones that remain in the divine structure, and are not removed Hs 9, 13, 4; 9. Also in imagery τὸ κάλυμμα ἐπὶ τῇ ἀναγνώσει τῆς παλαιᾶς διαθήκης μένει the veil remains unlifted at the reading of the OT (and hinders the right understanding of it) 2 Cor 3:14. Abs. Ac 16:15.
    β. in transf. sense, of someone who does not leave a certain realm or sphere: remain, continue, abide (Pla., Ep. 10, 358c μένε ἐν τοῖς ἤθεσιν, οἷσπερ καὶ νῦν μένεις; Alex. Aphr., An. II 1 p. 2, 15 μ. ἐν ταῖς ἀπορίαις=remain overcome by doubts; Jos., Ant. 4, 185; TestJos. 1:3 ἐν τ. ἀληθείᾳ; Just., D. 8, 3 ἐν … τῷ τῆς φιλοσωφίας τρόπῳ) ἐν ἁγνείᾳ IPol 5:2; cp. IEph 10:3. ἐν τῇ διδαχῇ τοῦ Χριστοῦ remain in the teaching of Christ 2J 9a; cp. vs. 9b (2 Macc 8:1 μ. ἐν τῷ Ἰουδαϊσμῷ). ἐν πίστει καὶ ἀγάπῃ 1 Ti 2:15. μένε ἐν οἷς ἔμαθες continue in what you have learned 2 Ti 3:14. ἐν τῷ λόγῳ τῷ ἐμῷ J 8:31. μείνατε ἐν τῇ ἀγάπῃ τῇ ἐμῇ continue in my love 15:9f; cp. 1J 4:16. ἐν τῷ φωτί 2:10. ἐν τῷ θανάτῳ 3:14. ἐν τῇ σκοτίᾳ J 12:46. Without ἐν AcPlCor 2:36. The phrase μ. ἔν τινι is a favorite of J to denote an inward, enduring personal communion. So of God in his relation to Christ ὁ πατὴρ ἐν ἐμοὶ μένων the Father, who abides in me J 14:10. Of Christians in their relation to Christ J 6:56; 15:4ac, 5–7; 1J 2:6, 24c. Of Christ relating to Christians J 15:4a, 5 (Goodsp., Probs. 112–15). Of Christians relating to God 1J 2:24c, 27f; 3:6, 24a; 4:13. Of God relating to Christians 1J 3:24; 4:12f, 15.—Vice versa, of someth. that remains in someone; likew. in Johannine usage: of the word of God 1J 2:14. Of the words of Christ J 15:7b; cp. 1J 2:24ab. Of the anointing fr. heaven vs. 27. Of the love of God 1J 3:17. Of the seed of God 3:9. Of truth 2J 2. The possession is shown to be permanent by the expr. ἔχειν τι μένον ἐν ἑαυτῷ have someth. continually, permanently 1J 3:15; the word of God J 5:38. Instead of μ. ἔν τινι also μ. παρά τινι remain with someone: of the Spirit of truth J 14:17. Also of the wrath of God, μένει ἐπʼ αὐτόν it remains upon him 3:36.—GPercorara, De verbo ‘manere’ ap. Jo.: Div. Thomas Piac. 40, ’37, 159–71.
    a pers. or thing continues in the same state (ParJer 7:37 ἔμεινε διδάσκων; ApcSed 11:13 ἀκίνητοι μένετε; Just., D. 90, and Lucian, Laps. 16 ἐν τῇ τάξει μ.) 1 Cor 7:20, 24. μένει ἱερεὺς εἰς τὸ διηνεκές he remains a priest forever Hb 7:3. αὐτὸς μόνος μένει it remains alone J 12:24. μενέτω ἄγαμος 1 Cor 7:11. ἀσάλευτος Ac 27:41. πιστός 2 Ti 2:13. ἀόρατος Dg 6:4. (μ̣ε̣ί̣νατε νικηταί• μεί̣ν̣[α]τ̣ε Ox 1602, 30f is a misreading; difft. AcPl Ha 8, 22/BMM recto 28=HTR 31, 79 n. 2, ln. 10; s. CSchmidt mg. on AcPl Ha 8, 22 [μ]ε̣γ̣α̣ς ἐπ̣ίκειται πιρασμός; Borger GGA 137). ἀσκανδάλιστος μείνῃ ἡ … ἐκκλησία AcPlCor 1:16. μ. μετά τινος remain in fellowship w. someone 1J 2:19. Of one who has divorced his wife remain by himself, remain unmarried Hm 4, 1, 6; 10; 4, 4, 2. οὐχὶ μένον σοὶ ἔμενεν; was it (the piece of ground) not yours, as long as it remained (unsold)? Ac 5:4 (cp. 1 Macc 15:7 and s. OHoltzmann, ZKG 14, 1893, 327–36).—W. adv. (Just., A I, 29, 3, D. 58, 3 βεβαίως) οὕτως μ. remain as one is (i.e., unmarried) 1 Cor 7:40. ἁγνῶς 2:3. μ. ὡς ἐγώ remain as I am 1 Cor 7:8.
    to continue to exist, remain, last, persist, continue to live, intr.
    of pers. (Ps 9:8 ὁ κύριος εἰς τ. αἰῶνα μ.; 101:13; Da 6:27; Just., D. 128, 4 ἄγγελοι … ἀεὶ μένοντες) ὁ Χριστὸς μ. εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα Christ remains (here) forever J 12:34; cp. Hb 7:24; 1J 2:17. Of God AcPl Ha 2, 28; 9, 11. Pregnant remain (alive), be alive (Epict. 3, 24, 97; Diog. L. 7, 174; Achilles Tat. 8, 10. μένειν ἐν τῷ ζῆν Plut., Mor. 1042d; Eccl 7:15; Just., A I, 63, 17) J 21:22f; 1 Cor 15:6; Phil 1:25; Rv 17:10.
    of things (Maximus Tyr. 4, 8b and Polyaenus 7, 34: γῆ μένει; Socrat., Ep. 31 [=33]; Hierocles 15, 454 ὁ πόνος παρῆλθεν, τὸ καλὸν μένει; Just., A I, 18, 2 αἴσθησις … μένει; Ath. 19, 2 μένει σύστασις) of a city ἔμεινεν ἂν μέχρι τῆς σήμερον it would have lasted until today Mt 11:23. μένουσα πόλις a permanent city Hb 13:14.—ἡ φιλαδελφία μενέτω continue 13:1 (JCambier, Salesianum 11, ’49, 62–96).—J 9:41; 15:16. εἰ τὸ ἔργον μενεῖ if the work survives 1 Cor 3:14. ὕπαρξις Hb 10:34. δικαιοσύνη 2 Cor 9:9 (Ps 111:9). ἡ κατʼ ἐκλογὴν πρόθεσις τοῦ θεοῦ Ro 9:11 (of God’s counsel Ps 32:11). λόγος θεοῦ endure 1 Pt 1:23 (Just., D. 61, 2; cp. 1 Esdr 4:38 ἡ ἀλήθεια μένει). τ. ῥῆμα κυρίου μένει εἰς τ. αἰῶνα vs. 25 (Is 40:8). ἡ βρῶσις ἡ μένουσα εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον J 6:27. τὴν δύναμιν σου τὴν μένουσαν Rv 11:7 v.l. ζώσης φωνῆς καὶ μενούσης Papias (2:4). τὸ μένον what is permanent (Philo, Leg. All. 3, 100.—Opp. τὸ καταργούμενον) 2 Cor 3:11. μένει πίστις, ἐλπὶς, ἀγάπη 1 Cor 13:13 (WMarxsen, D. ‘Bleiben’ im 1 Cor 13:13, OCullmann Festschr., ’72, 223–29; on the eschatology cp. En 97:6–10 and s. the lit. on ἀγάπη 1a.—For the contrast πίπτει [vs. 8]—μένει cp. Pla., Crat. 44, 440a εἰ μεταπίπτει πάντα χρήματα καὶ μηδὲν μένει). Opp. σαλευόμενα Hb 12:27.
    wait for, await, trans.
    of pers.: wait for someone who is arriving (Hom.; Thu. 4, 124, 4; X., An. 4, 4, 20; Pla., Leg. 8, 833c; Polyb. 4, 8, 4; Tob 2:2 BA; 2 Macc 7:30; TestJob 11:1; Jos., Ant. 13, 19) τινά w. the place indicated ἔμενον ἡμᾶς ἐν Τρῳάδι they were waiting for us in Troas Ac 20:5.
    of things, such as dangers or misfortunes that await or threaten someone (Trag.; Kaibel 654, 9 κἀμὲ μένει τὸ θανεῖν; SibOr 4, 114 v.l. σὲ) θλίψεις με μένουσιν Ac 20:23.—Of the 118 passages in which μένω occurs in the NT, 67 are found in the Johannine writings (40 in the gosp.; 24 in 1J; 3 in 2J).—JHeise, Bleiben: Menein in d. Johan. Schr., ’67; FHauck, TW IV 578–93: μένω and related words.—B. 836. DELG. M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > μένω

  • 18 οἰκέω

    οἰκέω (οἶκος) fut. οἰκήσω; aor. ᾤκησα LXX
    to reside in a place, live, dwell, intr. (Hom.+; ins, pap, LXX; pseudepigr.; Philo, Aet. M. 148 [ἐν]; Just., D. 78, 9 [ἐν]; PJena col. 4, 20; Did.) οἰκ. μετά τινος live with someone (M. Ant. 1, 17, 15; Gen 24:3; 27:44) Hv 5:2; in marriage (Soph., Oed. R. 990) 1 Cor 7:12f. ἔν τινι in someone or someth. (PPetr II, 17 [3], 4 [III B.C.] οἴκημα ἐν ᾧ οἰκοῦμεν; Sb 6762, 1; PRev 29, 6) of the Christians ἐν κόσμῳ οἰκ. Dg 6:3b. Also of the soul ἐν τῷ σώματι ibid. a. Of the Spirit of God, which dwells in a pers. (cp. TestGad 5:4 ὁ φόβος τ. θεοῦ οἰκεῖ ἐν αὐτῷ; Just., A I, 32, 8) Ro 8:9, 11; 1 Cor 3:16. Of the good Ro 7:18. Of sin vss. 17 and 20.
    to inhabit a place, inhabit, dwell in trans. τὶ someth. lit. (Mitt-Wilck II/2, 284, 5 οἰκίαν [TestJob 44:1]; PGiss 2, 23; PTebt 104, 21; Gen 24:13; Philo, Conf. Lingu. 106 κόσμον ὡς πατρίδα οἰκ.; Jos., Ant. 14, 88, C. Ap. 1, 9; Orig., C. Cels. τὴν Ἀσίαν … οἰκ.; Iren. 1, 10, 2 [Harv. I 92, 3]) πατρίδας ἰδίας Dg 5:5. In a transcendent sense, of God φῶς οἰκῶν ἀπρόσιτον who dwells in unapproachable light 1 Ti 6:16.—On οἰκουμένη see it as a separate entry.—DELG s.v. οἶκο C. M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > οἰκέω

  • 19 οὐρανός

    οὐρανός, οῦ, ὁ 24:31 (Hom.+; ‘heaven’ in various senses)
    the portion or portions of the universe gener. distinguished from planet earth, heaven (so mostly in the sing.; s. B-D-F §141, 1)
    mentioned w. the earth
    α. forming a unity w. it as the totality of creation (Pla., Euthyd. 296d οὐρανὸς καὶ γῆ; Gen 1:1; 14:19, 22; Tob 7:17 BA; Jdth 9:12; Bel 5; 1 Macc 2:37 al.; PsSol 8:7; ParJer 5:32; Just., D. 74, 1; PGM 13, 784 ὁ βασιλεύων τῶν οὐρανῶν κ. τῆς γῆς κ. πάντων τῶν ἐν αὐτοῖς ἐνδιατριβόντων; Orig., C. Cels. 6, 59, 6; Theoph. Ant. 1, 4 [p. 64, 13]) ὁ οὐρανὸς καὶ ἡ γῆ Mt 5:18; 11:25; 24:35; Mk 13:31; Lk 10:21; 16:17; 21:33; Ac 4:24; 14:15; 17:24 (on the absence of the art. s. B-D-F §253, 3); Rv 14:7; 20:11; Dg 3:4; AcPlCor 2:9; 19.
    β. standing independently beside the earth or contrasted w. it: Mt 5:34f; Ac 7:49 (cp. on both Is 66:1). ἐν (τῷ) οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ (τῆς) γῆς Mt 6:10; 28:18; Lk 11:2 v.l.; Rv 5:13.—1 Cor 8:5; Rv 5:3; ISm 11:2. τὸ πρόσωπον τ. γῆς καὶ τ. οὐρανοῦ Lk 12:56. Cp. Hb 12:26 (Hg 2:6); Js 5:12.—τὰ ἔσχατα τ. γῆς as extreme contrast to heaven 1 Cl 28:3. By God’s creative word the heaven was fixed and the earth founded on the waters Hv 1, 3, 4. Neither heaven nor earth can be comprehended by human measure 16:2 (Is 40:12). On ἀπʼ ἄκρου γῆς ἕως ἄκρου οὐρανοῦ Mk 13:27 s. under ἄκρον. ὁ πρῶτος οὐρ. καὶ ἡ πρώτη γῆ will give way in the last times to the οὐρ. καινός and the γῆ καινή Rv 21:1 (cp. Is 65:17; 66:22).
    as firmament or sky over the earth; out of reach for humans Hm 11:18. Hence ἕως οὐρανοῦ (ApcEsdr 4:32) Mt 11:23; Lk 10:15 or εἰς τὸν οὐρ. Hv 4, 1, 5 as an expr. denoting a great height. Likew. ἀπὸ τ. γῆς ἕως τ. οὐρανοῦ 1 Cl 8:3 (scripture quot. of unknown origin); GPt 10:40 (for a transcendent being who walks on the earth and whose head touches the sky, s. Il. 4, 443). Since the heaven extends over the whole earth, ὑπὸ τὸν οὐρ. under (the) heaven = on earth, throughout the earth (Pla., Tim. 23c, Ep. 7, 326c; UPZ 106, 14 [99 B.C.]; Eccl 1:13; 3:1; Just., A II, 5, 2) Ac 2:5; 4:12; Col 1:23; Hs 9, 17, 4; m 12, 4, 2. ὑποκάτωθεν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ throughout the earth 1 Cl 53:3 (Dt 9:14). ἐκ τῆς (i.e. χώρας) ὑπὸ τὸν οὐρ. εἰς τὴν ὑπʼ οὐρανόν from one place on earth to another Lk 17:24 (cp. Dt 29:19; Bar 5:3; 2 Macc 2:18 ἐκ τῆς ὑπὸ τὸν οὐρ. εἰς τὸν ἅγιον τόπον).—In the last days there will appear τέρατα ἐν τ. οὐρανῷ ἄνω wonders in the heaven above Ac 2:19 (Jo 3:3 v.l.). σημεῖον ἐν τῷ οὐρ. Rv 12:1, 3 (cp. Diod S 2, 30, 1 τὰ ἐν οὐρανῷ γινόμενα=what takes place in the heavens; Ael. Aristid. 50, 56 K.=26 p. 519 D., where the statue of Asclepius from Pergamum appears ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ). The sky can even be rolled up; s. ἑλίσσω.—Rain falls fr. heaven (X., An. 4, 2, 2) and heaven is closed to bring about a drought Lk 4:25.—Rv 11:6; Js 5:18 (cp. 2 Ch 6:26; 7:13; Sir 48:3). Lightning also comes fr. heaven (Bacchylides 17, 55f ἀπʼ οὐρανοῦ … ἀστραπάν [=Attic-ήν]) Lk 10:18. Likew. of other things that come down like rain to punish sinners: fire Lk 9:54 (cp. 4 Km 1:10; TestAbr A 10 p. 88, 14 [Stone p. 24]); Rv 20:9; fire and brimstone Lk 17:29 (cp. Gen 19:24); apocalyptic hail Rv 16:21; AcPl Ha 5, 7.
    as starry heaven IEph 19:2. τὰ ἄστρα τοῦ οὐρ. (cp. ἄστρον and s. Eur., Phoen. 1; Diod S 6, 2, 2 ἥλιον κ. σελήνην κ. τὰ ἄλλα ἄστρα τὰ κατʼ οὐρανόν; Ael. Aristid. 43, 13 K.=1 p. 5 D.; TestAbr A 1 p. 78, 1 [Stone p. 4]; JosAs 2:11) Hb 11:12. οἱ ἀστέρες τοῦ οὐρ. 1 Cl 32:2 (Gen 22:17); cp. 10:6 (Gen 15:5). In the time of tribulation at the end of the world the stars will fall fr. heaven Mt 24:29a; Mk 13:25a; Rv 6:13; 12:4. Cp. 8:10; 9:1. ἡ στρατιὰ τοῦ οὐρ. (s. οὐράνιος) the host of heaven, of the stars, which some Israelites illicitly worshipped Ac 7:42 (worship of the στρατιὰ τοῦ οὐρ. in enmity to Yahweh also Jer 7:18; 19:13; Zeph 1:5; 2 Ch 33:3, 5). These are also meant by the δυνάμεις τῶν οὐρανῶν Mt 24:29b; Lk 21:26; cp. Mk 13:25b (cp. δύναμις 4).
    as place of atmosphere (cp. TestAbr A 9 p. 87, 15 [Stone p. 22] εἰς τὴν αἰθέρα τοῦ οὐρανοῦ); clouds hover in it, the νεφέλαι τοῦ οὐρ. (s. νεφέλη) Mt 24:30b; 26:64; Mk 14:62; D 16:8. Likew. the birds, τὰ πετεινὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ (Gen 1:26; Ps 8:9; Jdth 11:7; ParJer 7:3; cp. Bar 3:17) Mt 6:26; 8:20; 13:32; Mk 4:32; Lk 8:5; 9:58; Ac 10:12; 11:6; 6:12 (Gen 1:26), 18; Hs 9, 24, 1; GJs 3:2 codd.; 18:2 codd.—πυρράζει ὁ οὐρανός Mt 16:2, 3.—In connection w. τὸν σατανᾶν ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ πεσόντα Lk 10:18 the atmosphere may well be thought of as an abode of evil spirits. On Satan as the ἄρχων τῆς ἐξουσίας τοῦ ἀέρος, s. ἀήρ. Cp. also the λεγόμενοι θεοὶ εἴτε ἐν οὐρ. εἴτε ἐπὶ γῆς 1 Cor 8:5. In any case Rv 12:7f speaks of the dragon and his angels as being in heaven.
    The concept of more than one heaven (the idea is Semitic; but s. FTorm, ZNW 33, ’34, 48–50, who refers to Anaximander and Aristot. Also Ps.-Apollod. 1, 6, 1, 2 ms. and Achilles Tat. 2, 36, 4 and 37, 2 ms. have οὐρανοί; Himerius, Or. 66 [=Or. 20], 4 οὐρανοί as the abode of the gods; also Hesychius Miles. [VI A.D.] c. 66 JFlach of the ‘godless heathen’ Tribonian.—Schlatter, Mt2 p. 58 on 3:2: ‘The pl. οὐρανοί is found neither in Philo nor Joseph.’ Cp. PKatz, Philo’s Bible ’50, 141–46; Mussies 84) is also found in our lit. (s. 1aα; Theoph. Ant. 1, 4 [p. 64, 15]), but it is not always possible to decide with certainty just where the idea is really alive and where it simply survives in a formula (in J’s Gospel the pl. is entirely absent; Rv has it only 12:12 [fr. LXX]. Eph always has the pl. In others the sing. and pl. are interchanged for no apparent reason [cp. Hb 9:23 w. 24 or Hv 1, 1, 4 w. 1, 2, 1; also GPt 10:40f; Ps. 113:11 lines 1 and 2; TestAbr, TestJob, Just., Tat.]): the third heaven (cp. Ps.-Lucian, Philopatris 12 ἐς τρίτον οὐρανὸν ἀεροβατήσας [s. on ἀνακαινίζω and πνεῦμα 8]; PSI 29, 2ff [IV A.D.?] ἐπικαλοῦμαί σε τὸν καθήμενον ἐν τῷ πρώτῳ οὐρανῷ … ἐν τῷ β´ οὐρ. … ἐν τῷ γ´ οὐρ.; Simplicius, In Epict. p. 100, 13 Düb. ὀκτὼ οὐρανοί; TestLevi 3:3; GrBar 11:1 εἰς πέμπτον οὐ. Combination of the third heaven and paradise, GrBar 10:1ff; ApcMos 37. S. τρίτος 1a) 2 Cor 12:2 (s. JohJeremias, Der Gottesberg 1919, 41ff; Ltzm., Hdb.4 ’49, exc. on 2 Cor 12:3f [lit.]). ὑπεράνω πάντων τῶν οὐρανῶν Eph 4:10. τ. πάντα ἐν τ. οὐρανοῖς κ. ἐπὶ τ. γῆς Col 1:16; cp. vs. 20. ἔργα τ. χειρῶν σού εἰσιν οἱ οὐρ. Hb 1:10 (Ps 101:26).—4:14; 7:26; 2 Pt 3:5, 7, 10, 12f (of the heavens, their destruction in the final conflagration, and their replacement by the καινοὶ οὐρ.); 1 Cl 20:1; 33:3. τακήσονταί τινες τῶν οὐρανῶν 2 Cl 16:3.—S. also Lampe s.v. 2.—From the concept of various celestial levels a transition is readily made to
    transcendent abode, heaven (the pl. is preferred for this mng.: B-D-F §141, 1; Rob. 408)
    as the dwelling-place (or throne) of God (Sappho, Fgm. 56 D.2 [=Campbell 54] of Eros; Solon 1, 22 D.3 of Zeus; Hom. Hymn to Aphrodite 291 [all three οὐρ. in the sing. as the seat of the gods]; Pla., Phdr. 246e ὁ μέγας ἐν οὐρανῷ Ζεύς; Ps.-Aristot., De Mundo 2, 2; 3, 4 ὁ οὐρ. as οἰκητήριον θεοῦ or θεῶν; Dio Chrys. 19[36], 22 θεῶν μακάρων κατʼ οὐρανόν; Artem. 2, 68 p. 159, 13 ὁ οὐρανὸς θεῶν ἐστὶν οἶκος; Ael. Aristid. 43, 14 K.=1 p. 5 D.; Maximus Tyr. 11, 11b; ins from Saïtaï in Lydia [δύναμις 5]; IAndrosIsis, Cyrene 8 p. 129.—On the OT: GWestphal, Jahwes Wohnstätten 1908, 214–73) Mt 23:22; Ac 7:55f; Hb 8:1; 16:2b (Is 66:1); Dg 10:7. ὁ θεὸς ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρ. Hv 1, 1, 6 (cp. Tob 5:17 S). ὁ θεὸς τοῦ οὐρ. (Gen 24:3) Rv 11:13; 16:11. ὁ κύριος ἐν οὐρανοῖς Eph 6:9; cp. Col 4:1. ὁ πατὴρ ὑμῶν (μου, ἡμῶν) ὁ ἐν (τοῖς) οὐρ. (silver tablet fr. Amisos: ARW 12, 1909, 25 ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ μέγας ὁ ἐν οὐρανῷ καθήμενος) Mt 5:16, 45; 6:1, 9; 7:11, 21b; 10:33; 12:50; 16:17; 18:10b, 14, 19; Mk 11:25f; Lk 11:2 v.l.; D 8:2 (here the sing. ὁ ἐν τῷ οὐρ. Cp. PGM 12, 261 τῷ ἐν οὐρανῷ θεῷ). ὁ πατὴρ ὁ ἐξ οὐρανοῦ the Father who (gives) from heaven Lk 11:13 (Jos., Ant. 9, 73 ἐκχέαι τὸν θεὸν ἐξ οὐρανοῦ). God dwells in τὰ ὕψη τῶν οὐρ. 1 Cl 36:2. Therefore the one who prays looks up toward heaven: ἀναβλέπειν εἰς τὸν οὐρ. (s. ἀναβλέπω 1) Mt 14:19; Mk 6:41; 7:34; Lk 9:16; MPol 9:2; 14:1. ἀτενίσας εἰς τὸν οὐρ. εἶδεν δόξαν θεοῦ Ac 7:55; ἐπάρας τ. ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτοῦ εἰς τὸν οὐρ. J 17:1.—The Spirit of God comes fr. (the open) heaven Mt 3:16; Mk 1:10; Lk 3:21; J 1:32; Ac 2:2(–4); 1 Pt 1:12; AcPlCor 2:5. The voice of God resounds fr. it (Maximus Tyr. 35, 7b Διὸς ἐξ οὐρανοῦ μέγα βοῶντος, the words follow) Mt 3:17; Mk 1:11; Lk 3:22; J 12:28; Ac 11:9; MPol 9:1 (cp. Just., D. 88, 8), and it is gener. the place where divine pronouncements originate Ac 11:5 and their end vs. 10. The ὀργὴ θεοῦ reveals itself fr. heaven Ro 1:18 (s. Jos., Bell. 1, 630 τὸν ἀπʼ οὐρανοῦ δικαστήν). Also, a σημεῖον ἐκ (ἀπὸ) τοῦ οὐρ. is a sign given by God Mt 16:1; Mk 8:11; Lk 11:16; cp. 21:11.—Lampe s.v. 4.
    Christ is ἐξ οὐρανοῦ from heaven, of a heavenly nature 1 Cor 15:47 (s. ἄνθρωπος 1d. On this HKennedy, St. Paul and the Conception of the ‘Heavenly Man’: Exp. 8th ser., 7, 1913, 97–110; EGraham, CQR 113, ’32, 226) and has come down from heaven J 3:13b, 31; 6:38, 42, 50 (Ar. 15, 1 ἀπʼ οὐρανοῦ καταβάς; Mel., P. 66, 467 ἀφικόμενος ἐξ οὐρανῶν), as ὁ ἄρτος ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ (s. ἄρτος 2). Cp. Ro 10:6. He returned to heaven (τὴν ἔνσαρκον εἰς τοὺς οὐρανοὺ ἀνάληψιν Iren. 1, 10, 1 [Harv. I 91, 2]; on the ascension s. CHönn, Studien zur Geschichte der Hf. im klass. Altertum: Progr. Mannheim 1910; EPfister, Der Reliquienkult im Altertum II 1912, 480ff; HDiels, Himmels u. Höllenfahrten v. Homer bis Dante: NJklA 49, 1922, 239–53; RHolland, Zur Typik der Himmelfahrt: ARW 23, 1925, 207–20; JKroll, Gott u. Hölle ’32, 533 [ind.: Ascensus]; WMichaelis, Zur Überl. der Hf.s-geschichte: ThBl 4, 1925, 101–9; AFridrichsen, D. Hf. bei Lk: ibid. 6, 1927, 337–41; GBertram, Die Hf. Jesu vom Kreuz: Deissmann Festschr. 1927, 187–217 [UHolzmeister, ZKT 55, ’31, 44–82]; HSchlier, Christus u. d. Kirche im Eph 1930, 1ff; VLarrañaga, L’Ascension de Notre-Seigneur dans le NT ’38 [fr. Spanish]. S. also at ἀνάστασις 2 end, and διά A 2a) to live there in glory: Mk 16:19; Lk 24:51; Ac 1:10f (AZwiep, The Ascension of the Messiah in Lukan Christology ’97); 2:34; 7:55f; 9:3; 22:6; 1 Pt 3:22; 15:9. Christians await his return fr. heaven: Ac 1:11; Phil 3:20; 1 Th 1:10; 4:16; 2 Th 1:7 (Just., A I, 51, 8 al.).—When Messianic woes have come to an end, τότε φανήσεται τὸ σημεῖον τοῦ υἱοῦ τ. ἀνθρώπου ἐν οὐρανῷ then the sign of the Human One (who is) in heaven will appear; acc. to the context, the sign consists in this, that he appears visibly in heavenly glory Mt 24:30.—Lampe s.v. 10b.
    as the abode of angels (Gen 21:17; 22:11; Ps.-Clem., Hom. 8, 12; TestAbr A 4 p. 80, 34 [Stone p. 8]; ParJer 3:2; ApcMos 38; Just., D. 57, 2) Mt 18:10a; 22:30; 24:36; 28:2; Mk 12:25; 13:32; Lk 2:15; 22:43; J 1:51; Gal 1:8; Rv 10:1; 18:1; 19:14; 20:1. Cp. Eph 3:15.—Lampe s.v. 7.
    Christians who have died also dwell in heaven (cp. Dio Chrys. 23 [40], 35 οὐρανοῦ καὶ τῶν ἐν αὐτῷ θείων κ. μακαρίων αἰώνιον τάξιν; Libanius, Or. 21 p. 459, 9 F. πόρρω τοῦ τὸν οὐρανὸν οἰκοῦντος χοροῦ; Oenomaus in Eus., PE 5, 33, 5; 12; Artem. 2, 68 p. 160, 25 τὰς ψυχὰς ἀπαλλαγείσας τῶν σωμάτων εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν ἀνιέναι τάχει χρωμένας ὑπερβάλλοντι; Himerius, Or. 8 [=23], 23: the daemon of the dead holds the σῶμα of the dead person, τὴν ψυχὴν ὁ οὐρανός; Quintus Smyrn. 7, 88; TestAbr A 20 p. 103, 26 [Stone p. 54]; TestJob 39:13; ApcEsdr 7:3). Their life, τὸ ἀληθῶς ἐν οὐρανῷ ζῆν, stands in strong contrast to the ὄντως θάνατος, that leads to the everlasting fire Dg 10:7b. Rhoda, who greets Hermas from heaven Hv 1, 1, 4, need not have died (s. MDibelius, Hdb. ad loc.), and still she shows us that heaven is open to the devout. Furthermore, the true citizenship of Christians is in heaven (Tat. 16, 1 τὴν ἐν οὐρανοῖς πορείαν; s. πολίτευμα) Phil 3:20; cp. Dg 5:9. Their names are enrolled in heaven (s. βίβλος 2) Lk 10:20; Hb 12:23. In heaven there await them their glorified body 2 Cor 5:1f, their reward Mt 5:12; Lk 6:23, their treasure Mt 6:20; Lk 12:33, the things they hoped for Col 1:5, their inheritance 1 Pt 1:4. It is a place of peace Lk 19:38.—ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ the New Jerusalem (s. Ἱεροσόλυμα 2) will come down to earth Rv 3:12; 21:2, 10.
    The concept of a heaven in which God, attendant spirits of God, and the righteous dead abide, makes it easy to understand the taking over of certain OT expressions in which heaven is personified εὐφραίνεσθε οἱ οὐρανοί (cp. Is 44:23; 49:13; Mel., P. 98, 747) Rv 12:12; cp. 18:20; 9:3 (Is 1:2); 11:2 (Jer 2:12); 1 Cl 27:7 (Ps 18:2).
    an indirect reference to God, God fig. ext. of 2 (s. βασιλεία 1b.—A common Hebrew practice, but not unknown among polytheists: Philippides Com. [IV/III B.C.] 27 νὴ τὸν οὐρανόν. Acc. to Clem. Al., Protr. 5, 66, 4 Θεόφραστος πῇ μὲν οὐρανὸν, πῇ δὲ πνεῦμα τὸν θεὸν ὑπονοεῖ=Theophrastus at one time thinks of God as heaven and at another time as spirit; Appian, Hann. 56 §233 σημεῖα ἐκ Διός [ln. 14 Viereck-R.]=ἐξ οὐρανοῦ [ln. 16]; JosAs 19:2; SEG XXVIII, 1251, 3 [III/IV A.D.; s. New Docs 3, 49f]). ἁμαρτάνειν εἰς τὸν οὐρ. sin against God Lk 15:18, 21. ἐξ οὐρανοῦ ἢ ἐξ ἀνθρώπων Mt 21:25; Mk 11:30f; Lk 20:4f. βασιλεία τῶν οὐρ. (GrBar 11:2) in Mt=βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ 3:2; 4:17; 5:3, 10, 19f; 7:21; 8:11; 10:7; 11:11f; 13:11, 24, 31, 33, 44f, 47, 52; 16:19; 18:1, 3f, 23; 19:12, 14, 23; 20:1; 22:2; 23:13; 25:1: J 3:5 v.l.; AcPl Ha 8, 31 (restored)=BMM verso 3.—B. 53; 1484. DELG. M-M. DLNT 439–43. EDNT. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > οὐρανός

  • 20 περιπατέω

    περιπατέω impf. περιεπάτουν; fut. περιπατήσω; 1 aor. περιεπάτησα and ἐπεριπάτησα ApcEsdr s. 1a; plpf. 3 sg. περι(ε)πεπατήκει Ac 14:8 v.l. (on augm. in the plpf. s. B-D-F §66, 1; Mlt.-H. 190f) (Aristoph., X., Pla.+)
    to go here and there in walking, go about, walk around
    w. an indication of the place where one walks about (Demosth. 54, 7 ἐν ἀγορᾷ; ApcEsdr 6:12 p. 31, 17 Tdf. ἐν τῷ ὄρει; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 117 ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς; Just.. D. 1, 1 ἐν τοῖς τοῦ ξυστοῦ περιπάτοις ‘on the walkways of the Xystos’) ἐν τριβόλοις γυμνοῖς ποσὶ περιπατεῖν walk among thistles barefoot Hs 9, 20, 3. ἐν τῇ γῇ ταύτῃ GJs 6:1. In several places one might translate stay, spend some time, be, though without the idea of remaining on the same spot (Chion, Ep. 13, 1 ἐν τῷ Ὠιδείῳ; 2 Km 11:2; Da 3:92 of the men in the fiery furnace; 4:29; En 17:6; Jos., Ant. 7, 130): ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ (Cebes 1, 1.—Diog. L. 4, 24 refers to Crantor walking about in the temple of Asclepius) Mk 11:27; J 10:23; Ox 840, 9. ἐν τῇ Γαλιλαίᾳ J 7:1a; cp. vs. 1b. ὁ περιπατῶν ἐν μέσῳ τῶν ἑπτὰ λυχνιῶν Rv 2:1. π. ἐν τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις appear among the Judeans J 11:54.
    go about w. indication of the way one is clothed ἐν στολαῖς Mk 12:38; Lk 20:46. ἐν λευκοῖς clothed in white Rv 3:4 (Epict. 3, 22, 10 ἐν κοκκίνοις περιπ.; Tat. 2:1 ἐν πορφυρίδι περιπατῶν). ἐν δέρμασιν αἰγείοις 1 Cl 17:1.
    gener. walk, go π. διὰ τοῦ φωτός walk in the light Rv 21:24. π. εἰς τὸν ἀγρόν (go for a) walk in the country Hs 2:1. ἐπὶ τῆς θαλάσσης (ἐπί 1a and cp. Job 9:8.—GBertram, Le chemin sur les eaux: Congr. d’Hist. du Christ. I 1928, 137–66) Mt 14:26; Mk 6:48f; J 6:19. AcPl Ha 7, 27 and 34. ἐπὶ τὴν θάλασσαν Mt 14:25; J 6:19 P75. ἐπὶ τὰ ὕδατα Mt 14:29 (ἐπί 4bβ). παρὰ τὴν θάλασσαν 4:18 (παρά C1a). π. μετά τινος go about w. someone J 6:66; walk with someone Hs 9, 6, 2a; 9, 10, 1. π. περί τι walk around someth. Hs 9, 12, 7; also κύκλῳ τινός Hs 9, 6, 2b. μετά τινος κύκλῳ τινὸς π. walk with someone around someth. Hs 9, 11, 5. π. ἐπάνω walk over Lk 11:44 (ἐπάνω 1a). More closely defined ὁμαλῶς π. καὶ ἀπροσκόπως Hm 6, 1, 4. γυμνὸν π. go naked Rv 16:15. μόνον π. walk alone Hv 4, 1, 3 (cp. Jos., C. Ap. 1, 281). περιεπάτεις ὅπου ἤθελες you used to go where you pleased J 21:18 (En 17:6 ὅπου πᾶσα σὰρξ οὐ περιπατεῖ).—Abs. walk (about) (Diocles 141 p. 180, 19f; Diod S 1, 70, 10; EpArist 175; Just., D. 127, 2) Mt 9:5; 11:5; 15:31; Mk 2:9; 5:42; 8:24; Lk 5:23; 7:22; J 5:8f, 11f; 11:9f; Ac 3:6, 8ab, 9, 12; 14:8, 10; 1 Pt 5:8; Rv 9:20 (cp. Ps 113:15); Hv 2, 1, 3; (go for a) walk, be out walking Mk 16:12; Lk 24:17; walk by J 1:36. περιπατῶν ἀφύπνωσα as I walked along I fell asleep Hv 1, 1, 3. περιπατῶν ἀνεμνήσθην as I was walking along I remembered 2, 1, 1.
    in imagery, and far on the way toward the nonliteral use of the word: doubters are περιπατοῦντες ἐν ταῖς ἀνοδίαις Hv 3, 7, 1. Esp. in John: περιπατεῖν ἐν τῇ σκοτίᾳ J 8:12; 12:35b; 1J 2:11; cp. 1:6. Corresp. ἐν τῷ φωτί vs. 7; ἐν αὐτῇ (=ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ τοῦ φωτός) B 19:1 (but it may also refer to ἡ γνῶσις; then the pass. would belong under 2aδ below). μέγα δὲ ἀσεβείας ὑπόδειγμα ἐν τούτῳ τῷ κόσμῳ περιεπάτησεν ὁ Ἰούδας Judas went about in this world as a notable example of impiety Papias (3:2). Abs. περιπατεῖτε ὡς τὸ φῶς ἔχετε walk while you have the light J 12:35a.
    to conduct one’s life, comport oneself, behave, live as habit of conduct; fig. ext. of 1:
    of ‘walk of life’, go about (Philod., Περὶ παρρησίας p. 12 Ol.; Epict. 1, 18, 20; s. Simplicius in Epict. p. 125, 52 Düb. Esp. acc. to OT models: 4 Km 20:3 ἐν ἀληθείᾳ; Pr 8:20 ἐν ὁδοῖς δικαιοσύνης.—Eccl 11:9). In the NT this use of the word is decidedly Pauline (the pastoral epp. do not have the word at all); elsewh. it is reasonably common only in 2J and 3J, live, conduct oneself, walk, always more exactly defined
    α. by an adv. ἀξίως τινός Eph 4:1; Col 1:10; 1 Th 2:12; Pol 5:1. ἀτάκτως 2 Th 3:6, 11. εὐσχημόνως Ro 13:13; 1 Th 4:12.
    β. by the dat. to denote attendant circumstance, kind, or manner (TestIss 5:8 ἁπλότητι.—B-D-F §198, 5; s. Rob. 528–32) κώμοις καὶ μέθαις Ro 13:13. τοῖς ἔθεσιν Ac 21:21; cp. 15:1 D; πνεύματι π. Gal 5:16. τῷ αὐτῷ πνεύματι 2 Cor 12:18.
    γ. by a comparison ἕκαστον ὡς κέκληκεν ὁ θεός, οὕτως περιπατείτω 1 Cor 7:17. περιπατεῖν καθὼς τὰ ἔθνη περιπατεῖ Eph 4:17; ὡς τέκνα φωτός 5:8.—Phil 3:17; 1J 2:6. The comparison is implied fr. the context (ὡς ἐχθροὶ τοῦ σταυροῦ τοῦ Χριστοῦ) Phil 3:18.—πῶς (καθὼς) περιπατεῖτε Eph 5:15; 1 Th 4:1ab.
    δ. by a prepositional expr. The sphere in which one lives or ought to live, so as to be characterized by that sphere, is designated by ἐν: pl. in sins Eph 2:2; Col 3:7; in good deeds Eph 2:10; in the Lord’s ordinances B 21:1 (Philo, Congr. Erud. Gr. 87 π. ἐν ταῖς τοῦ θεοῦ κρίσεσι κ. προστάξεσιν). Cp. Hb 13:9. Sing. ἐν καινότητι ζωῆς Ro 6:4. ἐν πανουργίᾳ 2 Cor 4:2. ἐν ἀγάπῃ Eph 5:2. ἐν σοφίᾳ Col 4:5. ἐν (τῇ) ἀληθείᾳ 2J 4; 3J 3f; ἐν ἀκεραιοσύνῃ B 10:4; cp. B 19:1 (s. 1d above). ἐν ἀλλοτρίᾳ γνώμῃ IPhld 3:3. ἐν ἀμώμῳ … συνειδήσει Pol 5:3. ἐν αὐτῇ (=ἐν τῇ ἐντολῇ) 2J 6b. ἐν αὐτῷ (=ἐν τῷ κυρίῳ) Col 2:6.—The norm of conduct is designated by κατὰ w. acc. (s. κατά B5bγ) κατὰ ἄνθρωπον like ordinary (unregenerate) persons 1 Cor 3:3. κατὰ σάρκα according to the old self viz. the ‘flesh’ as opposed to the new self under the ‘spirit’ Ro 8:4; 2 Cor 10:2. κατὰ ἀγάπην Ro 14:15. κατὰ τὴν παράδοσιν τῶν πρεσβυτέρων Mk 7:5. κατὰ τὰς ἐντολὰς αὐτοῦ 2J 6a.—BEaston, NT Ethical Lists: JBL 51, ’32, 1–12; SWibbing, D. Tugend-u. Lasterkataloge im NT, ’59; EKamlach, Die Form der katalogischen Paränese im NT, ’64; HBraun, Qumran u. das NT II, ’66, 286–301; JHolloway III, ΠΕΡΙΠΑΤΕΩ as a Thematic Marker for Pauline Ethics ’92.
    rarely of physical life gener.: ἐν τούτῳ τῶ κόσμῳ περιπατεῖν (formulation as in Papias [3:2]) B 10:11. ἐν σαρκί 2 Cor 10:3. διὰ πίστεως περιπατοῦμεν, οὐ διὰ εἴδους 5:7.—B. 690. M-M. EDNT. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > περιπατέω

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