Translation: from greek to english

from english to greek

the heat of the sun falls upon someone

  • 1 πίπτω

    πίπτω (Hom.+) impf. ἔπιπτον; fut. πεσοῦμαι (B-D-F §77; Rob. 356); 2 aor. ἔπεσον and ἔπεσα (B-D-F §81, 3; W-S. §13, 13; Mlt-H. 208; W-H., app. p. 164; Tdf., Prol. p. 123); pf. 2 sg. πέπτωκας Rv 2:5 (πέπτωκες v.l.; B-D-F §83, 2; W-S. §13, 16; Mlt-H 221), 3 pl. πέπτωκαν Rv 18:3 v.l. (W-S. §13, 15; Mlt-H. 221)
    to move w. relative rapidity in a downward direction, fall, the passive of the idea conveyed in βάλλω.
    fall (down) from a higher point, w. the ‘point from which’ designated by ἀπό (Hom. et al.) ἀπὸ τῆς τραπέζης from the table Mt 15:27; Lk 16:21. ἀπὸ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ Mt 24:29. ἀπὸ τῆς κεφαλῆς Ac 27:34 v.l. (of the falling out of hair, as Synes., Calvit. 1, p. 63b). The direction or destination of the fall is expressed by an adv. ἀπὸ τοῦ τριστέγου κάτω down from the third story Ac 20:9. ἀπὸ τοῦ κεράμου χαμαί from the roof to the ground Hm 11:20. ἔκ τινος from someth.: ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ (Sallust. 4 p. 8, 19; Job 1:16; 3 Km 18:38.—SibOr 5, 72 ἐξ ἄστρων) Mk 13:25; of lightning (Ps.-Plut., Vi. Hom. 111 εἰ ἐκπίπτοι ἡ ἀστράπη; Ps.-Clem., Hom. 9, 5; 6) Lk 10:18 (Lycophron, vs. 363 of the image of Athena ἐξ οὐρανοῦ πεσοῦσα. Cp. σατάν; be thrown is also possible here); Rv 8:10a; the destination is added ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ εἰς τὴν γῆν 9:1 (Ps.-Callisth. 2, 10, 10 ἐξ οὐρανοῦ εἰς τὸ ἔδαφος πεπτωκότες). W. only the destination given ἐν μέσῳ τῶν ἀκανθῶν among the thorns Lk 8:7. ἐπί τι on someth. Rv 8:10b. ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν (Aeschyl., Ag. 1019; Am 3:5; JosAs 16:16) Mt 10:29 (with the patristic v.l. εἰς παγίδα cp. Am 3:5 and Aesop, Fab. 193 P.=340 H./284 Ch./207 H-H. of a bird: ἐμπίπτειν εἰς τοὺς βρόχους); 13:8; Hm 11:21 (here the ‘place from which’ is designated by an adv.: ἄνωθεν).—ἐπὶ τὰ πετρώδη Mt 13:5; cp. Mk 4:5 (ἐπί 4bγ). ἐπὶ τὰς ἀκάνθας Mt 13:7 (ἐπί 4bδ). A pers. falls down ἐπὶ τὸν λίθον on the stone Mt 21:44a; Lk 20:18a. Conversely the stone falls on a pers. Mt 21:44b; Lk 20:18b. Likew. ἐπί τινα 23:30; Rv 6:16 (cp. on both Hos 10:8).—In imagery ὁ ἥλιος π. ἐπί τινα the (heat of the) sun falls upon someone Rv 7:16 (Maximus Tyr. 4, 1a ἡλίου φῶς πίπτον εἰς γῆν; Alex. Aphr., An. Mant. p. 146, 9 Br. τὸ φῶς ἐπὶ πάντα πίπτει). ὁ κλῆρος π. ἐπί τινα (κλῆρος 1) Ac 1:26. come (upon) ἐπί τινα someone ἀχλὺς καὶ σκότος Ac 13:11. Rv 11:11 v.l. (φόβος 2a).—εἴς τι (Hes., Op. 620) εἰς τὴν γῆν (Phlegon: 257 Fgm. 36, 1, 5 Jac. πίπτειν εἰς τὴν γῆν) Mk 4:8; Lk 8:8; J 12:24; Rv 6:13; 1 Cl 24:5. εἰς τὴν ὁδόν Hv 3, 7, 1. εἰς βόθυνον Mt 15:14; cp. Lk 14:5. εἰς τὰς ἀκάνθας Mk 4:7; Lk 8:14. εἰς τὸ πῦρ Hv 3, 7, 2. παρά τι on someth. παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν (Iambl. Erot. p. 222, 22) Mt 13:4; Mk 4:4; Lk 8:5. ἐγγύς τινος near someth. ἐγγὺς (τῶν) ὑδάτων Hv 3, 2, 9; 3, 7, 3.
    of someth. that, until recently, has been standing (upright) fall (down), fall to pieces
    α. of persons
    א. fall to the ground, fall down (violently) εἰς τὸ πῦρ καὶ εἰς τὸ ὕδωρ Mt 17:15 (but HZimmern, Die Keilinschriften u. d. AT3 1903, 366; 363f, and JWeiss ad loc. take the falling into fire and water to mean fever and chills). ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς (SibOr 4, 110; 5, 100) Mk 9:20 (π. under the infl. of a hostile spirit; sim. Jos., Ant. 8, 47). ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν (SibOr 4, 110 v.l.) Ac 9:4; cp. 22:7 (s. ἔδαφος). χαμαί (Job 1:20; Philo, Agr. 74) J 18:6. ἔπεσα πρὸς τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ ὡς νεκρός Rv 1:17.—Abs. fall down GPt 5:18 v.l. Fall dead (Paradox. Vat. 37 Keller πίπτει; Mel., P. 26, 184 πρηνὴς δὲ ἔπιπτε σιγῶν) Ac 5:5, 10; 1 Cor 10:8 (cp. Ex 32:28); Hb 3:17 (Num 14:29). Specifically fall in battle (Ael. Aristid. 46 p. 233 D.; Appian, Hann. 56 §236; Jos., Vi. 341; 354) Lk 21:24 (cp. στόμα 4 and Sir 28:18; 4 [6] Esdr [POxy 1010, 3–11 σὺ ἐν ῥομφαίᾳ πεσῇ … πεσοῦνται ἐν μαχαίρῃ]).
    ב. fall down, throw oneself to the ground as a sign of devotion or humility, before high-ranking persons or divine beings, esp. when one approaches w. a petition (LXX; TestAbr A 18 p. 100, 29 [Stone p. 48]; JosAs 14:4; ApcSed 14:2), abs. Mt 2:11; 4:9; 18:26, 29; Rv 5:14; 19:4; 22:8 (in all these places [except Mt 18:29] π. is closely connected w. προσκυνεῖν [as Jos., Ant. 10, 213 after Da 3:5 and ApcMos 27]. Sim. in many of the places already mentioned). W. var. words added (Jos., Ant. 10, 11 πεσὼν ἐπὶ πρόσωπον τ. θεὸν ἱκέτευε; Gen 17:3, 17; Num 14:5) ἐπὶ πρόσωπον (αὐτοῦ, αὐτῶν) Mt 17:6; 26:39; Lk 5:12; 17:16 (ἐπὶ πρόσωπον παρὰ τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ); 1 Cor 14:25; ἐπὶ τὰ πρόσωπα αὐτῶν Rv 7:11; 11:16; ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς Mk 14:35. Further, the one to whom devotion is given can be added in var. ways: ἐνώπιόν τινος (cp. 2 Km 3:34) Rv 4:10; 5:8; 7:11. ἔμπροσθεν τῶν ποδῶν τινος 19:10. εἰς τοὺς πόδας τινός (Diog. L. 2, 79) Mt 18:29 v.l.; J 11:32 v.l. ἐπὶ τοὺς πόδας Ac 10:25 (v.l. adds αὐτοῦ). παρὰ τοὺς πόδας τινός Lk 8:41; 17:16 (s. above). πρὸς τοὺς πόδας τινός Mk 5:22; J 11:32; Ac 10:25 D; Hv 3, 2, 3.
    β. of things, esp. structures fall, fall to pieces, collapse, go down (Appian, Iber. 54 §228; Jos., C. Ap. 1, 192, Ant. 16, 18) of the σκηνὴ Δαυίδ (σκηνή end) Ac 15:16 (Am 9:11). Of a house fall (in) (Diod S 11, 63, 2 τῶν οἰκιῶν πιπτουσῶν; Dio Chrys. 6, 61; 30 [47], 25; Aristeas Hist.: 725 Fgm. 1, 3 Jac. [in Eus., PE 9, 25, 3]; Job 1:19) Mt 7:25, 27; Lk 6:49 v.l. (Diod S 15, 12, 2 τῶν οἰκιῶν πιπτουσῶν because of the influx of the ποταμός). τὰ τείχη Ἰεριχὼ ἔπεσαν Hb 11:30 (cp. Josh 6:5, 20.—Appian, Bell. Civ. 1, 112 §524; Ael. Aristid. 25, 42 K.=43 p. 813 D.: τὰ τείχη π.). ἐφʼ οὓς ἔπεσεν ὁ πύργος upon whom the tower fell Lk 13:4 (of a πύργος X., Hell. 5, 2, 5; Arrian, Anab. 6, 7, 5; Polyaenus 6, 50; Jos., Bell. 5, 292; SibOr 11, 12.—π. ἐπί τινα Job 1:19). οἶκος ἐπὶ οἶκον πίπτει house falls upon house 11:17 (Jülicher, Gleichn. 221f). Of a city (Oenomaus in Eus., PE 5, 25, 6) Ox 1, 18f (=GTh 32); cp. Rv 11:13; 16:19.—Fig. become invalid, come to an end, fail (Pla., Euthyphr. 14d; Philostrat., Ep. 9) Lk 16:17 (cp. Josh 23:14 v.l.; Ruth 3:18); 1 Cor 13:8.
    to experience loss of status or condition, fall, be destroyed, in ext. sense of 1.
    fall, be destroyed ἔπεσεν, ἔπεσεν Βαβυλών (Β. as symbol of humans in opposition to God and God’s people; cp. Is 21:9; Jer 28:8.; Just., D. 49, 8.—Repetition of the verb for emphasis as Sappho, Fgm. 131 D.2 οὔκετι ἴξω … οὔκετι ἴξω [Campbell 114 p. 138: οὐκέτι ἤξω … οὐκέτι ἤξω]; Aristoph., Equ. 247; M. Ant. 5, 7; Ps.-Libanius, Char. Ep. p. 33, 5 ἐρῶ, ἐρῶ. This is to remove all possibility of doubt, as Theod. Prodr. 5, 66 εἶδον, εἶδον=‘I have really seen’; Theocr. 14, 24 ἔστι Λύκος, Λύκος ἐστί=it really is a wolf; in Rv w. focus on lamentation, s. reff. Schwyzer II 60) Rv 14:8; 18:2.
    fall in a transcendent or moral sense, be completely ruined (Polyb. 1, 35, 5; Diod S 13, 37, 5; Pr 11:28; Sir 1:30; 2:7; TestGad 4:3)=fall from a state of grace Ro 11:11 (fig. w. πταίω [q.v. 1]), 22; Hb 4:11 (perh. w. ref. to the final judgment). Also in a less severe sense= go astray morally τοὺς πεπτωκότας ἔγειρον 1 Cl 59:4.—In wordplay ‘stand and fall’ (cp. Pr 24:16) Ro 14:4; 1 Cor 10:12; 2 Cl 2:6. μνημόνευε πόθεν πέπτωκες remember (the heights) from which you have fallen Rv 2:5.
    ὑπὸ κρίσιν π. fall under condemnation Js 5:12 (on π. ὑπό τι cp. Diod S 4, 17, 5 π. ὑπʼ ἐξουσίαν [Just., D. 105, 4]; Herodian 1, 4, 2; 2 Km 22:39; Tat. 8, 2 ὑπὸ τὴν εἱμαρμένην; Hippol., Ref. 4, 3, 5 ὑπὸ τὴν ἐπίσκεψιν fall under scrutiny; Did., Gen. 211, 5 ὑπὸ κατάραν; Theoph. Ant. 2, 25 [p. 162, 12] ὑπὸ θάνατον).
    π. … εἰς νόσον καὶ ἔσχατον κίνδυνον in sickness and extreme peril AcPl Ha 4, 15.
    fall, perish (Philo, Aet. M. 128) πίπτοντος τοῦ Ἰσραήλ B 12:5. οἱ πέντε ἔπεσαν five have perished, disappeared, passed from the scene Rv 17:10 (cp. also π.=‘die’ Job 14:10).—B. 671. DELG. M-M. TW. Spicq.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > πίπτω

  • 2 ἐπιβάλλω

    ἐπιβάλλω (s. βάλλω) fut. ἐπιβαλῶ LXX; 2 aor. ἐπέβαλον, 3 pl. ἐπέβαλαν Mk 14:46 v.l.; Ac 21:27 v.l. (W-S. §13, 13; Mlt-H. 208); pf. 2 sg. ἐπιβέβληκας Ex 20:25. Pass.: fut. 3 sg. ἐπιβληθήσεται LXX; aor. 3 sg. ἐπεβλήθη LXX (Hom.+).
    to put on, trans., act.
    throw over τί τινι someth. on someone: βρόχον a noose 1 Cor 7:35 (perh. w. ref. to a halter that would help keep the wearers in check: ‘keep you on a tight rein’ REB). τί ἐπί τι Rv 18:19 v.l.
    lay on, put on ἱμάτιόν τινι (Lev 19:19.—Od. 14, 520 χλαῖναν) Mk 11:7; without the dat. 10:50 v.l. τὴν χεῖρα lay the hand (Dt 15:10) ἐπί τι on someth. Lk 9:62. τὰς χεῖρας hands τινί on someone violently (Polyb. 3, 2, 8; 3, 5, 5; Lucian, Tim. 4; UPZ 106, 19 [99 B.C.]; Jos., Bell. 2, 491; Esth 6:2; Just., D. 95, 4) Mk 14:46; Ac 4:3. Also ἐπί τινα (PLeid G 19 [II B.C.], H 26) Mt 26:50; Lk 20:19; 21:12; J 7:44 (ἔβαλεν v.l.); Ac 5:18; 21:27 (Just., D. 93, 4 μέχρις … τοῦ Χριστοῦ ‘even on the Messiah’). The sing. τ. χεῖρα in this connection is rare (Aristoph., Nub. 933, Lysistr. 440; Gen 22:12; 2 Km 18:12) no one laid a hand on him J 7:30. ἐ. τὰς χεῖρας foll. by inf. of purpose Ac 12:1; ἐπίβλημα ἐπὶ ἱματίῳ Mt 9:16; ἐπὶ ἱμάτιον Lk 5:36.
    set to, intr., act.
    throw oneself or beat upon (Pla., Phdr. 248a; Polyb. 5, 18, 3; 1 Macc 4:2) break over τὰ κύματα εἰς τὸ πλοῖον the waves broke over the boat Mk 4:37.
    The mng. of καὶ ἐπιβαλὼν ἔκλαιεν Mk 14:72 is in doubt. Theophylact. offers a choice betw. ἐπικαλυψάμενος τ. κεφαλήν (so ASchlatter, Zürcher Bibel ’31; Field, Notes 41–43; but in that case τὸ ἱμάτιον could scarcely be omitted) and ἀρξάμενος, which latter sense is supported by the v.l. ἤρξατο κλαίειν and can mean begin (PTebt 50, 12 [112/111 B.C.] ἐπιβαλὼν συνέχωσεν=‘he set to and dammed up’ [Mlt. 131f]; Diogen. Cyn. in Diog. L. 6, 27 ἐπέβαλε τερετίζειν). The transl. would then be and he began to weep (EKlostermann; OHoltzmann; JSchniewind; CCD; s. also B-D-F §308). Others (BWeiss; HHoltzmann; 20th Cent.; Weymouth; L-S-J-M) proceed fr. the expressions ἐ. τὸν νοῦν or τὴν διάνοιαν (Diod S 20, 43, 6) and fr. the fact that ἐ. by itself, used w. the dat., can mean think of (M. Ant. 10, 30; Plut., Cic. 862 [4, 4]; Ath. 7, 1 ‘deal with a problem’), to the mng. and he thought of it, or when he reflected on it., viz. Jesus’ prophecy. Wlh. ad loc. has urged against this view that it is made unnecessary by the preceding ἀνεμνήσθη κτλ. Least probable of all is the equation of ἐπιβαλών with ἀποκριθείς (HEwald) on the basis of Polyb. 1, 80, 1; 22, 3, 8; Diod S 13, 28, 5 ἐπιβαλὼν ἔφη. Both REB (‘he burst into tears’) and NRSV (‘he broke down and wept’) capture the sense. Prob. Mk intends the reader to understand a wild gesture connected with lamentation (s. EdeMartino, Morte e pianto rituale nel mondo antico, ’58, esp. 195–235).
    to be scheduled for someone’s possession, fall to, belong to, intr., act. an extension of mng. 2, τὸ ἐπιβάλλον μέρος the part that falls to someone (Diod S 14, 17, 5; SIG 346, 36; 546 B, 19; 1106, 80; POxy 715, 13ff; PFouad 25 verso I, 12f; PFay 93, 8; cp. Tob 6:12; Ath., R. 49, 2 τῆς ἐπιβαλλούσης ἑκάστῳ χώρας ‘the place appropriate to each’—Dssm., NB 57 [BS 230]) Lk 15:12 (JDerrett, Law in the NT ’70, 106). Impers. ἐπιβάλλει τινί someone has opportunity or it is proper for someone (Polyb. 18, 51, 1; OGI 443, 10; UPZ 110, 10 [164 B.C.] πᾶσιν ἐπιβάλλει; Tob 3:17; Jos., Bell. 1, 434, Ant. 19, 6) Pol 1:1. Lk 15:12 that which belongs to me, ‘is coming to me’.
    to apply oneself earnestly to someth., take someth. upon oneself, undertake (lit. ‘throw oneself upon’), mid. w. acc. (Thu. 6, 40, 2; UPZ 41, 26 [161/160 B.C.] πᾶν ὸ̔ ἂν ἐπιβάλλησθε; Just., D. 68, 1 w. inf.) πρᾶξιν Hm 10, 2, 2. πολλά Hs 6, 3, 5.—M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἐπιβάλλω

  • 3 βουβάλιον 2

    βουβάλιον 2.
    Grammatical information: n.
    Meaning: `wild cucumber, ἄγριος σικυός (Ps. Diosc., Hp. ap. H.)
    Origin: PG [a word of Pre-Greek origin]X [probably]
    Etymology: Explained from the pref. βου- (s.v.) and βάλλω, as the ripe fruit falls upon touch with an explosion; André, Études class. 24 (1956) 40-2. But this looks like folketymology; the structure of the word is strange.As a plant, rather Pre-Gr.

    Greek-English etymological dictionary (Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά ετυμολογική λεξικό) > βουβάλιον 2

  • 4 δίδωμι

    δίδωμι (Hom.+) by-form διδῶ (B-D-F §94, 1; Rob. 311f) Rv 3:9 (δίδω Tregelles, δίδωμι v.l.), 3 sg. διδοῖ (GrBar 7:2), 3 pl. διδόασι; impf. 3 sg. ἐδίδου, ἐδίδει (Hs 6, 2, 7; cp. Mk 4:8 cod. W), 3 pl. ἐδίδουν, ἐδίδοσαν J 19:3; ptc. διδῶν (Hs 8, 3, 3); fut. δώσω; 1 aor. ἔδωκα, subj. 3 sg. δώσῃ J 17:2; Rv 8:3 v.l. (on this W-S.§14, 9; B-D-F §95, 1; Rob. 308f), 1 pl. δώσωμεν Mk 6:37 v.l., 3 pl. δώσωσιν Rv 4:9 v.l.; pf. δέδωκα; plpf. ἐδεδώκειν (and without augm. δεδώκειν Mk 14:44; Lk 19:15; J 11:57); 2 aor. subj. 3 sg. δῷ J 15:16 (δώῃ v.l.); also in the form δώῃ Eph 1:17; 2 Ti 2:25 (in both δῷ as v.l.): in all these cases read δώῃ subj., not δῴη opt., s. below; δοῖ Mk 8:37 (B-D-F §95, 2; Mlt. 55; Rdm.2 97f and Glotta 7, 1916, 21ff; GKilpatrick in Festschrift JSchmid ’63, 135), pl. δῶμεν, δῶτε, δῶσιν; 2 aor. opt. 3 sg. Hellenist. (also LXX) δῴη for δοίη Ro 15:5; 2 Th 3:16; 2 Ti 1:16, 18 (on Eph 1:17; 2 Ti 2:25 s. above); 2 aor. impv. δός, δότε, inf. δοῦναι, ptc. δούς; pf. δέδωκα LXX. Pass.: 1 fut. δοθήσομαι (W-S. §14, 8ff); 1 aor. ἐδόθην; pf. δέδομαι.
    to give as an expression of generosity, give, donate as a gen. principle: μακάριόν ἐστιν μᾶλλον διδόναι ἢ λαμβάνειν it is more blessed to give than to receive Ac 20:35 (Theophyl. Sim., Ep. 42 τὸ διδόναι ἢ τὸ λαβεῖν οἰκειότερον); cp. 1 Cl 2:1; Hm 2:4ff (the contrast δίδωμι … λαμβάνω is frequently found: Epicharmus, Fgm. 273 Kaibel; Com. Fgm. Adesp. 108, 4 K.; Maximus Tyr. 32, 10c ὀλίγα δούς, μεγάλα ἔλαβες; Sir 14:16; Tat. 29, 2).—On the logion Ac 20:35 s. Unknown Sayings 77–81: giving is blessed, not receiving (cp. EHaenchen on Ac 20:35; Aristot., EN 4, 3, 26; Plut., Mor. 173d). S. μᾶλλον 3c. δὸς τοῖς πτωχοῖς give to the poor Mt 19:21 (HvonCampenhausen, Tradition u. Leben ’60, 114–56). τινὶ ἔκ τινος give someone some (of a substance: Tob 4:16; Ezk 48:12) Mt 25:8. S. also 7:11; 14:7.
    to give someth. out, give, bestow, grant δ. δακτύλιον εἰς τὴν χεῖρα put a ring on the finger Lk 15:22 (cp. Esth 3:10—δίδωμί τι εἰς τ. χεῖρα also Aristoph., Nub. 506; Herodas 3, 70). give τινί τι someth. to someone τὸ ἅγιον τοῖς κυσίν Mt 7:6 (Ps.-Lucian, Asin. 33 τὰ ἔγκατα τοῖς κυσὶ δότε).—A certificate of divorce to one’s wife 5:31 (Dt 24:1; conversely of the wife Just., A II, 2, 6 ῥεπούδιον δοῦσα); without dat. 19:7. Of bread (w. dat. or acc. somet. to be supplied fr. the context) 26:26f; Mk 2:26; 14:22; Lk 6:4; 11:7f; 22:19; J 21:13 (difft. Mt 14:19; 15:36; Mk 6:41; 8:6 the disciples transfer to others what they have received). W. inf. foll. δ. τινὶ φαγεῖν give someone someth. to eat Mt 14:16; 25:35, 42; Mk 5:43; 6:37; J 6:31 al. (cp. Gen 28:20; Ex 16:8, 15; Lev 10:17); someth. to drink Mt 27:34; Mk 15:23; J 4:7; Rv 16:6 (Hdt. 4, 172, 4; Aristoph., Pax 49; Jos., Ant. 2, 64; schol. on Nicander, Alexiph. 146 δὸς πιεῖν τί τινι, without dat. 198; PGM 13, 320 δὸς πεῖν[=πιεῖν]; Jos., Ant. 2, 64).—τὰς ῥάβδους GJs 9:1.—Lk 15:29 (Hipponax 43 Deg.).
    to express devotion, give δόξαν δ. θεῷ give God the glory, i.e. praise, honor, thanks (Josh 7:19; Ps 67:35; 1 Esdr 9:8; 2 Ch 30:8 and oft.) Lk 17:18; J 9:24 (practically=promise under oath to tell the truth); Ac 12:23 al. δόξαν καὶ τιμήν (2 Ch 32:33) give glory and honor Rv 4:9. Through a sacrificial offering θυσίαν δ. bring an offering Lk 2:24 (cp. Jos., Ant. 7, 196 θυσίαν ἀποδοῦναι τ. θεῷ).
    to cause to happen, esp. in ref. to physical phenomena, produce, make, cause, give fig. extension of mng. 1 ὑετὸν δ. (3 Km 17:14; Job 5:10; Zech 10:1; PsSol 5:9) yield rain Js 5:18; send rain Ac 14:17. τέρατα cause wonders to appear Ac 2:19 (Jo 3:3). Of heavenly bodies φέγγος δ. give light, shine Mt 24:29; Mk 13:24 (cp. Is 13:10). Of a musical instrument φωνὴν δ. (cp. Ps 17:14; 103:12; Jdth 14:9; Pind., N. 5, 50b [93]) produce a sound 1 Cor 14:7f.
    to put someth. in care of another, entrust
    of things entrust τινί τι someth. to someone money Mt 25:15; Lk 19:13, 15; the keys of the kgdm. Mt 16:19; perh. Lk 12:48. W. εἰς τὰς χεῖρας added J 13:3 (cp. Gen 39:8; Is 22:21; 29:12 al.) or ἐν τῇ χειρί τινος 3:35 (cp. Jdth 9:9; Da 1:2; 7:25 Theod.; 1 Macc 2:7). Of spiritual things J 17:8, 14; Ac 7:38.
    of pers. τινά τινι entrust someone to another’s care J 6:37, 39; 17:6, 9, 12, 24; Hb 2:13 (Is 8:18).
    of payment pay, give τινί τι Mt 20:4; 26:15; 28:12; Mk 14:11; Lk 22:5; Rv 11:18. Fig. repay someone (Mélanges Nicole, var. contributors, JNicole Festschr. 1905, p. 246 [HvanHerwerden=PLips 40 III, 3 p. 129] λίθῳ δέδωκεν τῷ υἱῷ μου; Ps 27:4) Rv 2:23. Of taxes, tribute, rent, etc. τινὶ ἀπό τινος pay rent of someth. Lk 20:10 (cp. 1 Esdr 6:28). τὶ pay (up), give someth. Mt 16:26; 27:10; Mk 8:37; δ. κῆνσον, φόρον καίσαρι pay tax to the emperor (Jos., Bell. 2, 403) Mt 22:17; Mk 12:14; Lk 20:22. Of inheritance pay out a portion of property Lk 15:12.
    as commercial t.t. for bookkeeping λόγον δ. render account (POxy 1281, 9 [21 A.D.]; PStras 32, 9 δότω λόγον; cp. Phil 4:15) Ro 14:12.
    of a bank deposit, equivalent to τιθέναι put, place, deposit ἀργύριον ἐπὶ τράπεζαν put money in the bank Lk 19:23.
    appoint to special responsibility, appoint (Num 14:4) κριτάς judges Ac 13:20; w. double acc. appoint someone someth. (PLille 28, II [III B.C.] αὐτοῖς ἐδώκαμεν μεσίτην Δωρίωνα) τοὺϚ μὲν ἀποστόλους some (to be) apostles Eph 4:11. τινὰ κεφαλήν make someone head 1:22. Also δ. τινὰ εἴς τι B 14:7 (Is 42:6).
    to cause someth. to happen, give (Philo, Leg. All. 3, 106 δ. χρόνον εἰς μετάνοιαν) δ. γνῶσιν σωτηρίας= to give (his people) knowledge of salvation = to tell (his people) how to be saved Lk 1:77.
    to bear as a natural product, yield, produce of a field and its crops καρπὸν δ. yield fruit (Ps 1:3) Mt 13:8; Mk 4:7f; fig. ἔδωκεν μοὶ Κύριος καρπὸν δικαιοσύνης αὐτοῦ GJs 6:3 (Pr 11:30).
    to dedicate oneself for some purpose or cause, give up, sacrifice τὸ σῶμά μου τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν διδόμενον my body, given up for you Lk 22:19 (cp. Thu. 2, 43, 2; Libanius, Declam. 24, 23 Förster οἱ ἐν Πύλαις ὑπὲρ ἐλευθερίας τ. Ἑλλήνων δεδωκότες τὰ σώματα; of Menas δ. ἀπροφασίστως ἑαυτόν ‘gave of himself unstintingly’ OGI 339, 19f; Danker, Benefactor 321–23; for use of δ. in a testamentary context cp. Diog. L. 5, 72); ἑαυτὸν (τὴν ψυχὴν) δ. give oneself up, sacrifice oneself (ref. in Nägeli 56; 1 Macc 6:44; 2:50) w. dat. 2 Cor 8:5. λύτρον ἀντι πολλῶν give oneself up as a ransom for many Mt 20:28; Mk 10:45 (ἀντί 3). Also ἀντίλυτρον ὑπέρ τινος 1 Ti 2:6. ὐπέρ τινος for or because of a person or thing J 10:15 v.l.; Gal 1:4; Tit 2:14; AcPl Ha 8, 24 (on the form of these passages s. KRomaniuk, NovT 5, ’62, 55–76). ἑαυτὸν δ. τῷ θανάτῳ ISm 4:2 (cp. Just., A I, 21, 2 πυρί); δ. ἑαυτὸν εἰς τὸ θηρίον face the beast Hv 4, 1, 8.
    to cause (oneself) to go, go, venture somewhere (cp. our older ‘betake oneself’) (Polyb. 5, 14, 9; Diod S 5, 59, 4; 14, 81, 2; Jos., Ant. 7, 225; 15, 244) εἰς τὸ θέατρον Ac 19:31; εἰς τὴν ἔρημον GJs 1:4.
    to use an oracular device, draw/cast lots Ac 1:26.
    to grant by formal action, grant, allow, freq. of God (cp. 7 above) ἐξουσίαν δ. (Hippol., Ref. 5, 26, 21 grant someone the power or authority, give someone the right, etc. (cp. TestJob 20:3; Jos., Ant. 2, 90, Vi. 71) Mt 9:8; 28:18; 2 Cor 13:10; Rv 9:3; 1 Cl 61:1; τοῦ πατεῖν ἐπάνω τινός tread on someth. Lk 10:19. τὴν σοφίαν τοῦ γράψαι τὴν ἱστορίαν ταύτην the ability to write this account GJs 25:1. ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς δύναμιν καὶ ἐξουσίαν ἐπί Lk 9:1 (cp. Just., D. 30, 3 ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ δύναμιν). ταῦτά σοι πάντα δώσω i.e. put them under your control Mt 4:9 of the devil. Simple δ. w. inf. (Appian, Liby. 19 §78 ἢν [=ἐὰν] ὁ θεὸς δῷ ἐπικρατῆσαι 106 §499) δέδοται it is given, granted to someone γνῶναι τὰ μυστήρια to know the secrets Mt 13:11; cp. ἡ δοθεῖσα αὐτῷ γνῶσις B 9:8 (Just., D. 7, 3 εἰ μή τῳ θεός δῷ συνιέναι) ἔδωκεν ζωὴν ἔχειν he has granted (the privilege) of having life J 5:26. μετὰ παρρησίας λαλεῖν to speak courageously Ac 4:29 and oft. Rather freq. the inf. is to be supplied fr. the context (Himerius, Or. 38 [4], 8 εἰ θεὸς διδοίη=if God permits) οἷς δέδοται sc. χωρεῖν Mt 19:11. ἦν δεδομένον σοι sc. ἐξουσίαν ἔχειν J 19:11. W. acc. and inf. foll. (Appian, Mithrid. 11, §37; Heliodorus 5, 12, 2 δώσεις με πιστεύειν) οὐδὲ δώσεις τὸν ὅσιόν σου ἰδεῖν διαφθοράν you will not permit your holy one to see corruption Ac 2:27; 13:35 (both Ps 15:10). ἔδωκεν αὐτὸν ἐμφανῆ γενέσθαι granted that he should be plainly seen 10:40. δὸς … ῥαγήναι τὰ δέσμα grant that our chains be broken AcPl Ha 3,11f. Pregnant constr.: grant, order (Diod S 9, 12, 2 διδ. λαβεῖν=permit to; 19, 85, 3 τὶ=someth.; Appian, Bell. Civ. 4, 125 §524 ὁ καιρὸς ἐδίδου=the opportunity permitted; Biogr. p. 130 ἐδίδου θάπτειν τ. ἄνδρα) ἐδόθη αὐτοῖς ἵνα μὴ ἀποκτείνωσιν orders were given them not to kill Rv 9:5; cp. 19:8.—Of an oath w. double inf. Lk 1:73f. S. also 17 below.
    to cause to come into being, institute περιτομὴν δ. institute circumcision B 9:7.
    give up, someth. that has been under one’s control for a relatively long time, give up, give back ἡ θάλασσα τ. νεκρούς the sea gave up its dead Rv 20:13.
    to proffer someth., extend, offer χεῖρα hold out one’s hand (to someone) Ac 9:41 (cp. 1 Macc 6:58; 2 Macc 12:11; Jos., Bell. 6, 318). (τὸν) μαστὸν τῇ παῖδι GJs 5:2; 6:3.
    In many phrases this word relates to an activity or an abstract object, and with tr. freq. determined by the noun object; cp. 13 above.
    of humans: of a plan conceived in a meeting give counsel or advice: δ. for ποιεῖν (cp. κατά A2b β and s. s.v. συμβούλιον), which is read by some mss., in συμβούλιον δ. conspired (against Jesus) Mk 3:6. ἀφορμὴν δ. give an occasion (for someth.) 2 Cor 5:12; Hm 4, 1, 11; μαρτυρίαν δ. give testimony 1 Cl 30:7; δ. τὸ μαρτύριον bear witness AcPl Ha 4, 28; γνώμην δ. give an opinion 1 Cor 7:25; 2 Cor 8:10; ἐγκοπὴν δ. cause a hindrance 1 Cor 9:12; ἐντολὴν δ. command, order J 11:57; 12:49; 1J 3:23; ἐντολὴν καινὴν δ. give a new commandment J 13:34; εὔσημον λόγον δ. speak plainly or intelligibly 1 Cor 14:9; παραγγελίαν δ. give an instruction 1 Th 4:2; δ. τὴν ἐν [κυρίῳ σφραγίδα] seal in the Lord AcPl Ha 11, 23 (restored after the Coptic); προσκοπὴν δ. put an obstacle in (someone’s) way 2 Cor 6:3; δ. ἐκδίκησιν take vengeance 2 Th 1:8; ῥάπισμα δ. τινί slap someone J 18:22; 19:3; σημεῖον δ. give a sign Mt 26:48; τόπον δ. τινί make room for someone (Plut., Gai. Gracch. 840 [13, 3]) Lk 14:9; fig. leave room for Ro 12:19 (cp. τόπος 4); Eph 4:27. ὑπόδειγμα δ. give an example J 13:15; φίλημα δ. τινί give someone a kiss Lk 7:45.—δὸς ἐργασίαν Lk 12:58 is prob. a Latinism=da operam take pains, make an effort (B-D-F §5, 3b note 9; Rob. 109), which nevertheless penetrated the popular speech (OGI 441, 109 [senatorial decree 81 B.C.]; POxy 742, 11 [colloq. letter 2 B.C.] δὸς ἐργασίαν; PMich 203, 7; 466, 33f [Trajan]; PGiss 11, 16 [118 A.D.]; PBrem 5, 8 [117/119 A.D.]).
    esp. oft. of God (Hom. et al.) and Christ: give, grant, impose (of punishments etc.), send, of gifts, peace τινί τι Eph 4:8; 1 Cl 60:4; τινί τινος give someone some of a thing Rv 2:17. Also τινὶ ἔκ τινος 1J 4:13. τὶ εἴς τινα 1 Th 4:8 (Ezk 37:14); εἰς τὰς καρδίας put into the hearts Rv 17:17 (cp. X., Cyr. 8, 2, 20 δ. τινί τι εἰς ψυχήν). Also ἐν τ. καρδίαις δ. (cp. ἐν 3) 2 Cor 1:22; 8:16 (cp. Ezk 36:27). εἰς τὴν διάνοιαν Hb 8:10 (Jer 38: 33); ἐπὶ καρδίας Hb 10:16 (δ. ἐπί w. acc. as Jer 6:21, and s. Jer 38:33 ἐπὶ καρδίας αὐτῶν γράψω). W. ἵνα foll. grant that Mk 10:37.—The pass. occurs very oft. in this sense (Plut., Mor. 265d; 277e) Lk 8:10; Rv 6:4; 7:2; 13:7, 14f and oft. ἐκδίκησιν διδόναι τινί inflict punishment on someone 2 Th 1:8; βασανισμὸν καὶ πένθος δ. τινί send torment and grief upon someone Rv 18:7; ὄνομα δ. GJs 6:2, χάριν δ. (Jos., Bell. 7, 325) Js 4:6; 1 Pt 5:5 (both Pr 3:34); GJs 14:2; υἱοθεσίαν AcPl Ha 2, 28; 9,12; ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν 2, 30f; μεγαλεῖα 6,13. W. gen. foll. over someone Mt 10:1; Mk 6:7; J 17:2.—B. 749. Schmidt, Syn. 193–203. DELG. M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > δίδωμι

  • 5 καταβαίνω

    καταβαίνω impf. κατέβαινον; fut. καταβήσομαι; 2 aor. κατέβην, impv. κατάβηθι and κατάβα (Diog. L. 2, 41) Mk 15:30 v.l.; pf. καταβέβηκα (Hom.+; gener. ‘go/come down’)
    to move downward, come/go/climb down lit.
    of pers.:
    α. w. indication of the place fr. which one comes or goes down: ἀπό τινος (Pind., N. 6, 51; X., Cyr. 5, 5, 6; Ael. Aristid. 51, 22 K.=27 p. 538 D.: ἀπὸ τ. ὄρους; Gen 38:1; Ex 32:15 ἀπὸ τ. ὄρους; 4 Km 1:16; Na 3:7 v.l.; Ezk 47:1; JosAs 5:11 ἀπὸ τ. ἅρματος; Jos., Ant. 6, 108) Mt 8:1; Mk 9:9 v.l.; ἀπὸ ὀρινῆς GJs 18:1 (pap; 19:1 codd.). Come down fr. a cross (Chariton 4, 3, 6 κατέβαινε τοῦ σταυροῦ, after the command κατάβηθι) Mt 27:40, 42; Mk 15:30, 32. Get out of a boat (cp. Ezk 27:29) Mt 14:29. W. ἔκ τινος: ἐκ τ. ὄρους (Il. 13, 17; X., An. 7, 4, 12; Ex 19:14; 32:1; Dt 9:15; 10:5; Josh 2:23) 17:9; Mk 9:9. ἐντεῦθεν 1 Cl 53:2 (Dt 9:12); GJs 4:2b. Abs., though it is clear fr. the context where the descent is from Mk 13:15 (s. δ); Lk 19:5f; J 5:7; Ac 20:10; 23:10; B 4:8; 14:3 (the two last Ex 32:7, where ἐντεῦθεν is added); MPol 7:2. Of someone on an elevation GJs 1:4; 4:3; 16:2. W. inf. foll. (Gen. 11:5; 43:20; Ex 3:8) Mt 24:17; Lk 17:31. καταβὰς ἔστη 6:17.Go, return, go back κατέβησαν εὐφραινόμενοι GJs 6:3 they returned (home) with joy. Here the prep. functions as an auxiliary adv. (cp. Gen 43:13; Jer 43:14).
    β. as in LXX (for יָרַד 3 Km 22:2; 4 Km 8:29; 10:13 al.) of going away fr. Jerusalem or Palestine: ἀπὸ Ἱεροσολύμων Mk 3:22; Lk 10:30 (cp. 1 Macc 16:14); Ac 25:7; cp. Lk 10:31; Ac 24:1, 22. Of the temple GJs 5:1 s. under δ. W. geograph. reff. in general (oft. LXX; TestSim 4:3 εἰς Αἴγυπτον; Jos., Vi. 68 εἰς Τιβεριάδα) εἰς Αἴγυπτον Ac 7:15 (also κ. ἐκεῖ Did., Gen. 227, 5). εἰς Ἀντιόχειαν 18:22.—14:25; 16:8; 25:6; Lk 2:51; J 2:12. Abs. J 4:47, 49, 51; Ac 8:15; 10:20.
    γ. of coming down fr. heaven (Maximus Tyr. 11, 12e κ. ἐκ τ. θεοῦ μέχρι γῆς) ἀπὸ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ (Diogenes, Ep. 38, 1; Da 4:13, 23 Theod.; Philo, Migr. Abr. 185; Ar. 15, 1) J 6:38; 1 Th 4:16. ἐξ οὐρανοῦ (Chariton 6, 3, 4 τὶς ἐξ οὐρ. καταβέβηκε. Of things Dt 28:24; 4 Km 1:10) Mt 28:2; J 3:13 (for the contrast ἀναβαίνω εἰς τ. οὐρ. … καταβαίνω cp. Pr 30:4; PGM 4, 546f; cp. Iren. 1, 9, 3 [Harv. I 84, 5]); 6:33, 41f, 50f, 58; Rv 10:1; 18:1; 20:1. Abs. (Aristob. in Eus., PE 8, 10, 13 [=Holladay p. 144 ln. 94]; PGM 4, 3024; 36, 299; Orig., C. Cels. 4, 3, 2; Did., Gen. 110, 17) Ac 7:34 (Ex 3:8); J 1:51; Eph 4:10.
    δ. w. indication of the place to which one goes or comes down εἰς τ. οἰκίαν Mk 13:15 v.l. (cp. α above). εἰς τὸν παράδεισον αὐτῆς in her garden GJs 2:4; εἰς τὴν ἄβυσσον Ro 10:7. εἰς ᾅδου (Ar. 11, 3; Diod S 4, 25, 4 and Artem. 2, 55 with ἀναβαίνειν ἐξ ᾅδου) 1 Cl 51:4 (Num 16:30; Ps 54:16). εἰς τὰ κατώτερα μέρη τῆς γῆς (s. κατώτερος) Eph 4:9. Esp. of baptism κ. εἰς (τὸ) ὕδωρ go down into the water Ac 8:38; B 11:8, 11; Hm 4, 3, 1; Hs 9, 16, 4 and 6a; cp. 6b. εἰς τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ (from the temple) home(ward) Lk 18:14; sim. ἐκ τοῦ ναοῦ … καὶ ἥκει ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ αὐτοῦ GJs 5:1; cp. 8:1. ἐπὶ τὴν θάλασσαν (X., Ages. 1, 18; cp. Gen 24:16, 45) J 6:16. ἐπὶ τὸν λιμένα AcPl Ha 5, 15; πρὸς τοὺς ἄνδρας (cp. 1 Km 10:8; 4 Km 1:15; 1 Macc 10:71) Ac 10:21; cp. 14:11 θεοὶ … κατέβησαν πρὸς ἡμᾶς. ἄγγελος … κυρίου κατέβη πρὸς Ἰωακείμ GJs 4:2a. ἄγγελος κατέβαινεν ἐν τ. κολυμβήθρᾳ into the pool J 5:4 (cp. Judg 7:9f B κ. ἐν τ. παρεμβολῇ). Of the descent of the devil: πρός τινα Rv 12:12 (cp. Philo, Gig. 12 [ψυχαὶ] πρὸς σώματα κατέβησαν).
    of things etc.: a sheet fr. heaven (cp. SibOr 2, 20) come down Ac 10:11; 11:5. Every good gift comes down ἀπὸ τοῦ πατρὸς τῶν φώτων Js 1:17. Of the New Jerusalem κ. ἐκ τ. οὐρανοῦ ἀπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ Rv 3:12; 21:2, 10. Of the Holy Spirit at the baptism of Jesus: καταβ. εἰς αὐτόν come down and enter into him Mk 1:10. ἐπʼ αὐτόν upon him Mt 3:16; Lk 3:22; J 1:32f. Of rain (cp. Ps 71:6; Is 55:10; Jos., Ant. 2, 343) fall Mt 7:25, 27. Of a storm come down Lk 8:23. Of fire fall down ἀπὸ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ (cp. Jos., Ant. 2, 343) 9:54. ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ εἰς τὴν γῆν Rv 13:13. ἐκ τ. οὐρανοῦ (4 Km 1:10, 14; 2 Macc 2:10) 20:9. Of hail ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ἐπί τινα fall down fr. heaven upon someone 16:21. Of drops of blood ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν Lk 22:44 (cp. Sir 35:15 δάκρυα ἐπὶ σιαγόνα). Of a road lead away ἀπὸ Ἰερουσαλήμ Ac 8:26.
    to suffer humiliation, fig. extension of mng. 1 be brought down ἕως ᾅδου (cp. Is 14:11, 15. ἕως as Ps 106:26; ApcEsdr 4:32 p. 29, 9 Tdf.) Mt 11:23; Lk 10:15 (both w. καταβιβασθήσῃ as v.l.; s. καταβιβάζω).—M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > καταβαίνω

  • 6 καταλαμβάνω

    καταλαμβάνω (s. λαμβάνω; Hom.+) 2 aor. κατέλαβον; pf. κατείληφα. Mid.: fut. καταλήψομαι LXX; 2 aor. κατελαβόμην. Pass.: fut. 3 pl. καταλη(μ)θήσονται (PsSol 15:9); 1 aor. κατελήμφθην Phil 3:12 (B-D-F §101 p. 53 s.v. λαμβ.; Mlt-H. 246f s.v. λαμβ.; on the form κατειλήφθη J 8:4 in the older NT editions s. W-S. §12, 1); pf. 3 sg. κατείληπται, ptc. κατειλημμένος. Gener. ‘to seize, lay hold of’ (of forceful seizure Plut., Cleom. 806 [4, 2]; POxy 1101, 26; PsSol 8:19)
    to make someth. one’s own, win, attain, act. and pass. (Diog. L. 5, 12 καταλαμβάνω means ‘come into possession of an inheritance’); abs. (though τὸ βραβεῖον is to be supplied fr. the context) of the winning of a prize 1 Cor 9:24. As a result of διώκειν (cp. Diod S 17, 73, 3 ἐπιδιώκων … τὸν Δαρεῖον … καταλαβών; Sir 11:10 ἐὰν διώκῃς, οὐ μὴ καταλάβῃς; 27:8) Phil 3:12a, 13: Χριστόν, corresp. to κατελήμφθην ὑπὸ Χριστοῦ Ἰ. vs. 12b. δικαιοσύνην Ro 9:30. ἐπίγνωσιν πατρός Dg 10:1 cj (vGebhardt for καὶ λάβῃς). The pass. is found in the mng. make one’s own in the ending of Mark in the Freer ms. 3 (KHaacker, ZNW 63, ’72, 125–29).—This may also be the mng. of κ. in J 1:5 ἡ σκοτία αὐτὸ (=τὸ φῶς) οὐ κατέλαβεν (-λαμβάνει Tat. 13, 1; cp. Arrian., An. Alex. 1, 5, 10 εἰ νὺξ αὐτοὺς καταλήψεται ‘if the night would overtake them’; here preceded in 1, 5, 9 by k. in the sense ‘occupy’ of positions above a plain; s. Wetstein on J 1:5 and 2b below) the darkness did not grasp it (Hdb. ad loc.; so also Bultmann, and similarly JDyer, JBL 79, ’60, 70f: appreciate), in which case grasp easily passes over to the sense comprehend (the act. [for the mid. in the same sense s. 4a below] has the latter sense in Pla., Phdr. 250d; Polyb. 8, 4, 6; Dionys. Hal. 5, 46, 3; PTebt 15, 5; 38, 18; EpArist 1; Aristobul. [Eus., PE 8, 10, 10 and 17=Denis 219, 18 and 221, 5/Holladay p. 140, 2f and 148, 3]; Philo, Mut. Nom. 4; Jos., Vi. 56). Most Greek commentators since Origen take κ. here as overcome, suppress (Hdt. 1, 46 κ. τινῶν αὐξανομένην τὴν δύναμιν; 1, 87 τὸ πῦρ; WNagel, ZNW 50, ’59, 132–37). So Goodsp. put out (Probs. 93f). But perh. J intended to include both mngs. here (so FGingrich, ClW 37, ’43, 77), and some such transl. as master would suggest this (so MSmith, JBL 64, ’45, 510f).
    to gain control of someone through pursuit, catch up with, seize
    of authority figures catch up with, overtake (Hdt. 1:63 τοὺς φεύγοντας; Polyb. 1:47; Gen. 31:23; Judg 18:22; PsSol 15:8) διωκόμενοι κατελήμφθησαν they were pursued and overtaken AcPl Ha 11, 18.
    mostly of varieties of evil seize w. hostile intent, overtake, come upon (Hom.+; oft. LXX; TestSol 2:4 D; Wetstein and Zahn [comm.] on J 1:5 for other exx.; s. also SIG 434/5, 14) μὴ ἡμᾶς καταλάβῃ κακά lest evil overtake us (cp. Gen 19:19; Num 32:23) 2 Cl 10:1; cp. B 4:1. Of a hostile divinity ὅπου ἐὰν αὐτὸν καταλάβῃ wherever it seizes him (the sick man) Mk 9:18.
    esp. used of night, evening, darkness coming upon a pers. (Dionys. Hal. 2, 51, 3 ἑσπέρα γὰρ αὐτοὺς κατέλαβεν; Lucian, Tox. 31; 52; Philo, De Jos. 145; Jos., Ant. 5, 61 καταλαβοῦσα νύξ, Vi. 329 [GrBar 9:1]. But the thought in these instances is not necessarily always that of night as something hostile to humans in general. κ. can also mean simply ‘arrive’, ‘come on’, as in numerous exx. cited by Wetstein [above]; s. also Dionys. Hal. 10, 56, 1 ἐπεὶ κατέλαβεν ὁ τ. ἀρχαιρεσιῶν καιρός; Strabo 3, 1, 5; Jos., Ant. 4, 78) GJs 14:1 κατέλαβεν (-ἐβαλεν pap) αὐτὸν νύξ; J 6:17 v.l. σκοτία. In imagery, w. sugg. of sense in 2b: 12:35.
    to come upon someone, with implication of surprise, catch
    of moral authorities catch, detect (PLille 3, 58 [III B.C.]; Just., D. 47, 5 [noncanonical dominical saying]; PRyl 138, 15. Esp. of the detection of adultery Epict. 2, 4, 1; BGU 1024 III, 11; Sus 58) τινὰ ἐπί τινι someone in someth. ἐπὶ μοιχείᾳ in adultery (Diod S 10, 20, 2 ἐπὶ μοιχείᾳ κατειλημμένη) J 8:3 a woman caught in the act of adultery. Pass. (Just., A I, 47, 6) w. ptc. indicating the punishable act ἐπʼ αὐτοφώρῳ μοιχουομένη in the act of committing adultery vs. 4.
    of a thief: in imagery of the coming of ‘the day’, unexpected by the ‘children of darkness’ and fraught w. danger for them 1 Th 5:4.
    to process information, understand, grasp
    learn about someth. through process of inquiry, mid. grasp, find, understand (Dionys. Hal. 2, 66, 6; Sext. Emp., Math. 7, 288; Vett. Val. 225, 8; TestJob 37:6 τὰ βάθη τοῦ κυρίου al.; Philo, Mos. 1, 278; Jos., Ant. 8, 167; Tat. 4:2 [on Ro 1:20]; Ath. 5, 2; 24, 2) w. acc. and inf. Ac 25:25. W. ὅτι foll. 4:13; 10:34. W. indirect discourse foll. Eph 3:18.
    on J 1:5 s. 1 and 2 above.—B. 701; 1207. M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > καταλαμβάνω

  • 7 κλῆρος

    κλῆρος, ου, ὁ (Hom.+; loanw. in rabb.)
    a specially marked object, such as a pebble, a piece of pottery, or a stick, used to decide someth., lot (Diod S 13, 34, 6 κλήρῳ=by lot) βάλλειν κ. (ἐπί τι) cast lots (for someth.) Mt 27:35; Mk 15:24; Lk 23:34; J 19:24; B 6:6 (Ps 21:19. The expr. as such is oft. found in LXX, also Jos., Ant. 6, 61; schol. on Soph., Antig. 275 p. 232 Papag.; cp. 1QS 6, 16–22). ἔπεσεν ὁ κ. ἐπί τινα the lot fell upon someone (Jon 1:7) Ac 1:26b. ἀνέβη ὁ κ. ἐπὶ Συμεών GJs 24:4. ἔδωκαν κλήρους αὐτοῖς they gave them (the candidates) lots vs. 26a. On this LThornton, JTS 46, ’45, 51–59. JLindblom, VetusT 12, ’62, 164–78 (OT background); WBeardslee, NovT 4, ’60, 245–52 (Qumran).
    that which is assigned by lot or simply given as a portion or share, portion, share (Pla.; Diod S 40, 3, 7 in connection with the distribution of the country conquered by the Jews; JosAs 10:1 Potiphar and his family go to their estate; ApcMos 22 τὰ φυτὰ … τοῦ κλήρου; Mitt-Wilck. I/1, pp. 280–83; Jos., Bell. 2, 83) esp. what comes to someone by divine grace (Ael. Aristid. 30, 23 K.=10 p. 123 D.; Hierocles 4, 426 ἀθάνατος κ.=the eternal portion bestowed by the gods; LXX) λαγχάνειν τὸν κ. τῆς διακονίας ταύτης Ac 1:17 (cp. κλῆρον τῆς ἐπισκοπῆς ἔχειν Iren. 1, 27, 1 [Harv. I 215, 1]); cp. vs. 25 v.l. λαβεῖν κ. ἐν τοῖς ἡγιασμένοις receive a place among God’s holy people 26:18 (cp. Wsd 5:5 ἐν ἁγίοις ὁ κ. αὐτοῦ). μερίς and κλῆρος together (schol. on Apollon. Rhod. 1, 1082a; Dt 10:9; 12:12 al.; Is 57:6) οὐκ ἔστιν σοι μερὶς οὐδὲ κ. ἐν τῷ λόγῳ τούτῳ you have neither part nor share in this matter 8:21. μερὶς τοῦ κ. τῶν ἁγίων ἐν τῷ φωτί a share in the inheritance of God’s people in (the realm of) light Col 1:12 (cp. 1QH 11, 11f). καὶ κλῆρον καὶ μερισμὸν λαμβάνοντες ὑπὸ πνεύματος τοῦ Χριστοῦ receiving a portion and share through the spirit of Christ AcPl Ha 8, 18/Ox 1602, 22f=BMM recto 23f (of prophets). κ. Ἐφεσίων the class of the Ephesians IEph 11:2.—1 Pt 5:3 the κλῆροι seem to denote the ‘flock’ as a whole, i.e. the various parts of the people of God which have been assigned as ‘portions’ to individual elders or shepherds (of the various portions that combine to form a whole: Simplicius in Epict. p. 71, 10, where the κλῆροι of good and evil [acc. to the teaching of those who assume two original principles] are differentiated ἐξ ἀϊδίου [eternally]). Cp. Goppelt, KEK ad loc.
    someth. that inevitably happens, lot, destiny esp. of martyrs τὸν ἴδιον κ. ἀπαρτίζειν fulfill one’s own destiny MPol 6:2; cp. ITr 12:3; IRo 1:2; IPhld 5:1.—Pauly-W., XI 810ff; XIII 1451–1504; Kl. Pauly III 252.—DELG. M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > κλῆρος

  • 8 λογίζομαι

    λογίζομαι (λόγος) impf. ἐλογιζόμην; fut. λογιοῦμαι LXX; 1 aor. ἐλογισάμην; pf. λελόγιμαι LXX. Pass.: 1 aor. ἐλογίσθην; 1 fut. λογισθήσομαι. Mid. dep. (B-D-F §311; Rob. 816; 819) (Soph., Hdt.+) prim. a mathematical and accounting term, then of cognitive processes. In our lit. esp. used by Paul.; s. GThomas, ET 17, 1906, 211ff.
    to determine by mathematical process, reckon, calculate, freq. in a transf. sense
    count, take into account τὶ someth. ἡ ἀγάπη οὐ λογίζεται τὸ κακόν love keeps no score of wrongs (REB) 1 Cor 13:5 (cp. Zech 8:17). λ. τί τινι count someth. against someone, to punish the person for it (Simplicius in Epict. p. 79, 15 τὴν ἁμαρτίαν οὐ τῷ πράττοντι λογίζονται; TestZeb 9:7; Just., D. 141, 2f) μὴ λογιζόμενος αὐτοῖς τὰ παραπτώματα 2 Cor 5:19.—οὗ (v.l. ᾧ) οὐ μὴ λογίσηται κύριος ἁμαρτίαν Ro 4:8; 1 Cl 50:6 (both Ps 31:2; cp. 1 Cl 60:2). Pass. (Lev 17:4) μὴ αὐτοῖς λογισθείη (on the form s. Mlt-H. 217) 2 Ti 4:16.—But ‘place to one’s account’ can also mean credit τῷ ἐργαζομένῳ ὁ μισθὸς οὐ λογίζεται κατὰ χάριν a worker’s wages are not credited as a favor (but as a claim) Ro 4:4. ᾧ ὁ θεὸς λογίζεται δικαιοσύνην vs. 6. Pass. εἰς τὸ λογισθῆναι αὐτοῖς τ. δικαιοσύνην vs. 11.—λ. τινί τι εἴς τι credit someth. to someone as someth. pass. ἐλογίσθη αὐτῷ εἰς δικαιοσύνην (after Gen 15:6; cp. Ps 105:31; 1 Macc 2:52) Ro 4:3, 5, 9, 22 (WDiezinger, NovT 5, ’62, 288–98 [rabbinic use of λογ.]); Gal 3:6; Js 2:23; 1 Cl 10:6.—Cp. also Ro 4:10, 23f.—H-WHeidland, D. Anrechnung des Glaubens zur Gerechtigkeit ’36; FDanker, in Gingrich Festschr. ’72, 104.—λ. εἴς τινα put on someone’s account, charge to someone (cp. the commercial terminology OGI 595, 15 τὰ ἕτερα ἀναλώματα ἑαυτοῖς ἐλογισάμεθα, ἵνα μὴ τὴν πόλιν βαρῶμεν; PFay 21, 9) μή τις εἰς ἐμὲ λογίσηται so that no one may credit me 2 Cor 12:6.
    as a result of a calculation evaluate, estimate, look upon as, consider (Hyperid. 2, 20; TestSol 4:11) εἰς οὐθὲν λογισθῆναι be looked upon as nothing (Is 40:17; Wsd 3:17; 9:6) Ac 19:27. τὰ τέκνα τ. ἐπαγγελίας λογίζεται εἰς σπέρμα the children of the promise are looked upon as seed Ro 9:8 (cp. La 4:2). οὐχ ἡ ἀκροβυστία αὐτοῦ εἰς περιτομὴν λογισθήσεται; will not his uncircumcision be regarded as circumcision? 2:26. οὔτε τοὺς νομιζομένους ὑπὸ τῶν Ἑλλήνων θεοὺς λογίζονται they do not recognize the deities honored by the Greeks Dg 1:1.—Count, class (PLond II, 328, 8 p. 75 [II A.D.] of a camel’s colt: λογιζομένου νυνὶ ἐν τελείοις=‘which is now classed among the full-grown’) μετὰ ἀνόμων ἐλογίσθη he was classed among the criminals (Is 53:12) Mk 15:27 [28] v.l.; Lk 22:37. Also (exactly like the LXX) ἐν τοῖς ἀνόμοις ἐλογίσθη 1 Cl 16:13. μετὰ τῶν ἐθνῶν ἐλογίσθησαν they were counted with the nations Hs 8, 9, 3.—οὐκ ἐλογίσθη he was held in disrespect 1 Cl 16:3 (Is 53:3).—λ. τινα ὡς w. acc. consider, look upon someone as: ἡμᾶς λογιζέσθω ἄνθρωπος ὡς ὑπηρέτας Χριστοῦ 1 Cor 4:1. λ. ἡμᾶς ὡς κατὰ σάρκα περιπατοῦντας 2 Cor 10:2b. Pass. ἐλογίσθημεν ὡς πρόβατα σφαγῆς Ro 8:36 (Ps 43:23). πιστοὶ λογισθέντες regarded as believers Dg 11:2. ὁ σήμερον υἱὸς λογισθείς who today is celebrated as a Son 11:5 (Ps 2:7). λ. τινα foll. by acc. and inf. (Is 53:4) λογίζεσθε ἑαυτοὺς εἶναι νεκρούς consider yourselves dead Ro 6:11. ἡμεῖς ἐλογισάμεθα αὐτὸν εἶναι ἐν πόνῳ we deemed him to be in pain (as punishment) 1 Cl 16:4.
    to give careful thought to a matter, think (about), consider, ponder, let one’s mind dwell on τὶ someth. (PsSol 2, 28b; ApcEsdr 3:9; Philo, Leg. All. 3, 227 ταῦτα; Jos., Ant. 6, 211) Phil 4:8. Foll. by ὅτι (PsSol 2, 28a; Philo, Somn. 2, 169; Jos., Ant. 11, 142; Ath., R. 9 p. 57, 30) J 11:50; Hb 11:19. τοῦτο λ. ὅτι 2 Cor 10:11, 7 (here ἐφʼ [v.l. ἀφʼ] ἑαυτοῦ in his own mind is added); B 1:5. W. ἐν ἑαυτῷ and direct speech Hs 5, 2, 4 (cp. GrBar 4:12); w. ἐν ἑαυταῖς and direct question foll. Lk 24:1 D; also ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις αὐτῶν πότερον … ἤ Hs 9, 28, 4.—Have in mind, propose, purpose Dg 7:3 (Mel., P. 63, 455); w. inf. foll. (X., An. 2, 2, 13; 1 Macc 6:19) 2 Cor 10:2a. Think out τὶ someth. (Ps 51:4) ὡς ἐξ ἑαυτῶν as (if) of ourselves 3:5. Reason or make plans (Wsd 2:1) ὡς νήπιος like a child 1 Cor 13:11.
    to hold a view about someth., think, believe, be of the opinion w. ὅτι foll. (Just., A I, 8, 1 al.) Ro 8:18. W. acc. and ὅτι foll.: λογίζῃ τοῦτο …, ὅτι; do you imagine that? 2:3. Foll. by acc. and inf. (Wsd 15:12; Just., A I, 53, 1; Tat., Ath.) λογιζόμεθα δικαιοῦσθαι ἄνθρωπον we hold a person to be justified 3:28. λ. τι κοινὸν εἶναι 14:14. ἐμαυτὸν οὐ (v.l. οὔπω) λ. κατειληφέναι I consider that I have not yet attained Phil 3:13. ὸ̔ν λογίζομαι καὶ τοὺς ἀθέους ἐντρέπεσθαι whom, I think, even the godless respect ITr 3:2. Foll. by the inf. alone 2 Cor 11:5; Dg 3:3 (Just., D. 102, 7 al.).—ὡς λογίζομαι as I think 1 Pt 5:12; Mk 11:31 v.l.—DELG s.v. λέγω 2. M-M. EDNT. TW.

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  • 9 παρακαλέω

    παρακαλέω impf. παρεκάλουν; fut. παρακαλέσω LXX; 1 aor. παρεκάλεσα. Pass.: 1 fut. παρακληθήσομαι; 1 aor. παρεκλήθην; pf. παρακέκλημαι (Aeschyl., Hdt.+).
    to ask to come and be present where the speaker is, call to one’s side
    τινά w. inf. foll., to indicate the purpose of the call; so perh. παρεκάλεσα ὑμᾶς ἰδεῖν I have summoned you to see you Ac 28:20 (but s. 3 below).
    invite τινά someone w. inf. foll. (this can be supplied fr. context) παρεκάλει αὐτὸν εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὸν οἶκον Lk 8:41. παρεκάλει αὐτόν (i.e. εἰσελθεῖν) 15:28 (but s. 5 below). παρεκάλεσεν τὸν Φίλιππον καθίσαι Ac 8:31 (cp. Jos., Ant. 12, 172). The content of the invitation follows in direct discourse 9:38; introduced by λέγουσα 16:15. Cp. ἀνὴρ Μακεδών τις ἦν παρακαλῶν αὐτὸν καὶ λέγων … βοήθησον ἡμῖν vs. 9. Pass., w. inf. foll. παρακληθέντες δειπνῆσαι when you are invited to dine Mt 20:28 D.—Some of the passages in 5 may fit here.
    summon to one’s aid, call upon for help (Hdt. et al.) so esp. of God, upon whom one calls in time of need (Thu. 1, 118, 3; Pla., Leg. 2, 666b; 11 p. 917b; X., Hell. 2, 4, 17; Epict. 3, 21, 12; Jos., Ant. 6, 25; SIG 1170, 30f in an account of a healing: περὶ τούτου παρεκάλεσα τὸν θεόν. POxy 1070, 8f [III A.D.] τὸν μέγαν θεὸν Σάραπιν παρακαλῶ περὶ τῆς ζωῆς ὑμῶν; cp. the restoration in the pap letter of Zoilus, servant of Sarapis, in Dssm., LO 121, 11 [LAE 153, 4; the letter, ln. 8: ἐμοῦ δ̣ὲ̣ π[α]ρ̣[ακαλέσαντος τὸν θεὸν Σάραπιν]) τινά: τὸν πατέρα μου Mt 26:53. ὑπὲρ τούτου τὸν κύριον παρεκάλεσα, ἵνα 2 Cor 12:8. θεὸς … παρακαλούμενος ἀκούει God heeds, when called upon AcPt Ox 849, 27.
    to urge strongly, appeal to, urge, exhort, encourage (X. et al.; LXX) w. acc. of pers. Ac 16:40; 2 Cor 10:1; 1 Th 2:12 (but s. 5 below); 5:11; Hb 3:13; ITr 12:2; IRo 7:2. The acc. is found in the immediate context Ac 20:1; 1 Ti 5:1 (but s. 5 below). Pass. 1 Cor 14:31. τινὰ λόγῳ πολλῷ someone with many words Ac 20:2; also τινὰ διὰ λόγου πολλοῦ 15:32. τινὰ διʼ ὀλίγων γραμμάτων IPol 7:3. W. acc. of pers. and direct discourse 1 Cor 4:16; 1 Th 5:14; Hb 13:22; 1 Pt 5:1; direct discourse introduced by λέγων (B-D-F §420) Ac 2:40. W. acc. of pers. and inf. foll. (SIG 695, 43 [129 B.C.]) 11:23; 27:33f; Ro 12:1 (EKäsemann, Gottesdienst im Alltag, ’60 [Beih. ZNW], 165–71); 15:30; 16:17; 2 Cor 2:8; 6:1; Eph 4:1; Phil 4:2; Tit 2:6; 1 Pt 2:11 (cp. Phlegon: 257 Fgm. 36 II, 4 Jac. p. 1172, 19; ELohse, ZNW 45, ’54, 68–89); Jd 3 (the acc. is found in the immediate context, as Philo, Poster Cai. 138); ITr 6:1; IPhld 8:2; IPol 1:2a; Pol 9:1 al. W. inf. (acc. in the context), continued by καὶ ὅτι (s. B-D-F §397, 6; Rob. 1047) Ac 14:22. W. acc. of pers. and ἵνα foll. (PRyl 229, 17 [38 A.D.]; EpArist 318; Jos., Ant. 14, 168.—B-D-F §392, 1c; Rob. 1046) 1 Cor 1:10; 16:15f; 2 Cor 8:6; 1 Th 4:1 (π. w. ἐρωτάω as BGU 1141, 10; POxy 294, 29) 2 Th 3:12; Hm 12, 3, 2; AcPl Ha 7, 32. The ἵνα-clause expresses not the content of the appeal, as in the pass. referred to above, but its aim: πάντας παρακαλεῖν, ἵνα σῴζωνται IPol 1:2b.—Without acc. of pers.: w. direct discourse foll. ὡς τοῦ θεοῦ παρακαλοῦντος διʼ ἡμῶν• δεόμεθα since God as it were makes his appeal through us: ‘We beg’ 2 Cor 5:20. Paul serves as God’s agent (like a ‘legate of Caesar’ Dssm. LO 320 [LAE 374]) and functions as mediator (like Alexander the Great, Plut., Mor. 329c διαλλακτής; cp. also the mediatorial role of a judge IPriene 53, esp. 10f; s. also CBreytenbach, Versöhnung ’89, 64–66). W. inf. foll. 1 Ti 2:1. Abs. Ro 12:8 (mng. 4 is also poss.); 2 Ti 4:2; Tit 1:9; Hb 10:25; 1 Pt 5:12 (w. ἐπιμαρτυρεῖν); B 19:10.—W. acc. of thing impress upon someone, urge, exhort πολλὰ ἕτερα Lk 3:18. ταῦτα δίδασκε καὶ παρακάλει 1 Ti 6:2. ταῦτα λάλει καὶ παρακάλει καὶ ἔλεγχε Tit 2:15. In the case of several of the passages dealt with in this section, it is poss. that they could as well be classed under
    to make a strong request for someth., request, implore, entreat (H. Gk.: Polyb., Diod S, Epict., Plut., ins, pap, LXX, EpArist, Philo; Jos., Ant. 6, 143; 11, 338) w. acc. of pers. Mt 8:5; 18:32; Mk 1:40; 2 Cor 12:18. πολλά implore urgently (4 Macc 10:1) Mk 5:23. τινὰ περί τινος someone concerning someone or for someone Phlm 10 (for the constr. w. περί cp. POxy 1070, 8). Acc. w. direct discourse foll. (s. BGU 846, 10 παρακαλῶ σαι [= σε], μήτηρ• διαλλάγηθί μοι; PGiss 12, 4; ParJer 1:4 al.), introduced w. λέγων: Mt 8:31; 18:29; Mk 5:12; Lk 7:4 (v.l. ἠρώτων). W. acc. of pers. and inf. foll. (PTebt 12, 21 [II B.C.]; 1 Macc 9:35; Jos., Ant. 6, 25) Mk 5:17; cp. Ac 19:31. Pass. Ac 28:14. W. acc. of pers. (easily supplied fr. the context, if not expressed) and ὅπως foll. (Plut., Demetr. 907 [38, 11]; SIG 563, 4; 577, 44f [200/199 B.C.]; UPZ 109, 9 [98 B.C.]; PFlor 303, 3; 4 Macc 4:11; Jos., Ant. 13, 76) Mt 8:34 (v.l. ἵνα); Ac 25:2; IEph 3:2. W. acc. of pers. and ἵνα foll. (Epict. 2, 7, 11; PRyl 229, 17; EpArist 318.—B-D-F §392, 1c; Rob. 1046) Mt 14:36; Mk 5:18; 6:56; 7:32; 8:22; Lk 8:31f; 2 Cor 9:5. πολλά τινα, ἵνα beg someone earnestly to (cp. TestNapht 9:1) Mk 5:10; 1 Cor 16:12. W. acc. of pers. and μή w. subj. foll. IRo 4:1. W. acc. and inf. foll. Ac 24:4; pass. 13:42 (Just., D. 58, 1). Foll. by subst. inf. w. acc. (B-D-F §400, 7; 409, 5; Rob. 1068; 1085) 21:12. παρεκάλεσα ὑμᾶς ἰδεῖν I have requested to be permitted to see you 28:20 (but s. 1a above). Abs., but in such a way that the acc. is easily restored fr. the context Phlm 9 (ParJer 9:4; Just., D. 46, 2; 74, 2 [always παρακαλῶ ‘please’]; cp. New Docs 8 p. 24 ln. 7 [I B.C.]).
    to instill someone with courage or cheer, comfort, encourage, cheer up (Plut., Otho 1074 [16, 2]; Gen 37:35; Ps 118:50; Job 4:3) w. acc. of pers. (Sir 48:24; Jos., Bell. 1, 667; TestReub 4:4) 2 Cor 1:4b; 7:6a; 1 Cl 59:4; B 14:9 (Is 61:2); Hm 8:10. παρακαλεῖν τινα ἔν τινι comfort someone with someth. 2 Cor 7:6b. π. τινα ἐπί τινι comfort someone w. regard to someth. 1:4a. π. τινα ὑπέρ τινος encourage someone in someth. 1 Th 3:2. παρακαλεῖτε ἀλλήλους ἐν τοῖς λόγοις τούτοις comfort one another w. these words 4:18.—Pass. be comforted, receive comfort through words, or a favorable change in the situation Mt 5:4; Lk 16:25; Ac 20:12; 2 Cor 1:6; 7:13; 13:11; let oneself be comforted Mt 2:18 (Jer 38:15 v.l.). παρεκλήθημεν ἐφʼ ὑμῖν we have been comforted concerning you 1 Th 3:7. ἐν τῇ παρακλήσει ᾗ παρεκλήθη ἐφʼ ὑμῖν 2 Cor 7:7. διά τῆς παρακλήσεως, ἧς (on attraction, for ᾗ, s. B-D-F §294, 2; Rob. 716) παρακαλούμεθα αὐτοί by the comfort with which we ourselves are comforted 1:4c.—W. acc. of thing τὰς καρδίας Eph 6:22; Col 4:8; 2 Th 2:17; pass. Col 2:2.—Abs. 2 Cor 2:7; Ro 12:8 (but s. 2 above). παρακαλεῖν ἐν τῇ διδασκαλίᾳ encourage (others) with the teaching Tit 1:9.—ἐλθόντες παραεκάλεσαν αὐτούς (the officials) came and reassured them Ac 16:39 (s. 5 below).
    In several places παρ. appears to mean simply treat someone in an inviting or congenial manner, someth. like our ‘be open to the other, have an open door’: invite in, conciliate, be friendly to or speak to in a friendly manner (cp. 2 Macc 13:23; Ar. 15, 5 [χριστιανοὶ] τοὺς ἀδικοῦντας αὐτοὺς παρακαλοῦσιν) Lk 15:28 (but s. 1b: the father tries repeatedly [impf.] to get the son to join the party); Ac 16:39 (the officials are conciliatory, but ‘apologize to’ may be overinterpretation; s. 4); 1 Cor 4:13 (somewhat like our ‘keep the door open’); 1 Th 2:12; 1 Ti 5:1. These last three pass. may also fit in 1b.—CBjerkelund, Parakalō ’67.—M-M. EDNT. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > παρακαλέω

  • 10 συνεφίστημι

    συνεφίστημι 2 aor. συνεπέστην (Thu. et al.) intr. to join in an uprising, join in an attack κατά τινος against or upon someone Ac 16:22.—DELG s.v. ἵστημι.

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  • 11 ταπείνωσις

    ταπείνωσις, εως, ἡ (ταπεινόω; Pla., Aristot. et al.; OGI 383, 201 [I B.C.]; LXX, Test12Patr; JosAs 11:1; 13:1 cod. A [p. 57, 1 Bat. al.]; Philo, Joseph.).
    experience of a reversal in fortunes, humiliation as an experience (Epict. 3, 22, 104; PsSol 2:35; TestJud 19:2; Jos., Bell. 2, 604, Ant. 2, 234) Ac 8:33; 1 Cl 16:7 (both Is 53:8). καυχάσθω ὁ πλούσιος ἐν τῇ ταπεινώσει αὐτοῦ let the rich man boast (said in irony) in his comedown/downfall Js 1:10 (BWeiss, Beyschlag, Windisch, MDibelius, FHauck). In Diod S 11, 87, 2 ταπείνωσις is the limitation placed upon the financial worth of a wealthy man. Petosiris, Fgm. 6 lines 5; 11; 29 the word means the humiliation or depression caused by severe external losses, someth. like a breakdown.
    an unpretentious state or condition, lowliness, humility, humble station (Diod S 2, 45, 2; Horapollo 1, 6; TestAbr B 7 p. 111, 20 [Stone p. 70, opp. ὕψος]) Hb 11:20 D. ἐπιβλέπειν ἐπὶ τὴν ταπ. τινος look upon someone’s humble station i.e. show concern for someone in humble circumstances Lk 1:48 (cp. 1 Km 1:11; 9:16; Ps 30:8.—HToxopeüs, Lc. 1:48a: TT 45, 1911, 389–94). τὸ σῶμα τῆς ταπ. the humble body, of the material body in contrast to the glorified body Phil 3:21.
    a self-abasing demeanor, self-abasement, mortification (ταπεινόω 4) w. νηστεία (cp. PsSol 3:8; TestJos 10:2; JosAs 11:1) 1 Cl 53:2; 55:6.—DELG s.v. ταπεινός. M-M. TW. Spicq. Sv.

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  • 12 τράχηλος

    τράχηλος, ου, ὁ (Eur., Hdt.+; ins, pap, LXX; TestSol, TestAbr; TestNapht 2:8; JosAs, ParJer; Jos., Ant. 3, 170 al.; Ath. 20, 1) neck, throat Mt 18:6; Mk 9:42; Lk 17:2 (cp. Menand., Fgm. 224 Kö. περὶ τὸν τρ. ἁλύσιον διδόναι). ἐπιπεσεῖν ἐπὶ τὸν τράχηλόν τινος fall upon someone’s neck, embrace someone (ἐπιπίπτω 1b) Lk 15:20; Ac 20:37. ἐκρέμασεν ἁτὴν (for αὑτὴν) εἰς τὸν τράχηλον αὐτοῦ Ἅννα Anna fell upon his neck GJs 4:4 (s. κρεμάννυμι 1 and περιπλέκω).—In imagery: οἵτινες ὑπὲρ τῆς ψυχῆς μου τὸν ἑαυτῶν τράχηλον ὑπέθηκαν who risked their necks for my life Ro 16:4 (cp. Vita Philonidis ed. Crönert [SBBerlAk 1900, 951] ὑπὲρ[?] τοῦ μάλιστʼ ἀγαπωμένου παραβάλοι ἂν ἑτοίμως τὸν τράχηλον. S. on this Dssm., LO 94f [LAE 117f]. Endangering the τράχηλος Diog. L. 4, 11; s. Straub 47). On the other hand ὑποθεῖναι τὸν τράχηλον 1 Cl 63:1 bow the neck in obedience (cp. Epict. 4, 1, 77.—Sir 51:26). Also κάμπτειν τὸν τράχ. B 3:2 (Is 58:5). Opp. τὸν τράχ. σκληρύνειν 9:5 (Dt 10:16; PsSol 8:29). ἐπιθεῖναι ζυγὸν ἐπὶ τὸν τράχ. τινος Ac 15:10 (cp. schol. on Appol. Rhod. 4, 1418 τὸ βάρος ἀπὸ τοῦ τραχήλου ἀποβαλέσθαι).—B. 232. DELG. M-M.

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  • 13 φέρω

    φέρω (Hom.+) impf. ἔφερον; fut. οἴσω J 21:18; Rv 21:26; 1 aor. ἤνεγκα, ptc. ἐνέγκας; 2 aor. inf. ἐνεγκεῖν (B-D-F §81, 2); pf. ἐνήνοχα (LXX, JosAs). Pass.: 1 aor. ἠνέχθην 2 Pt 1:17, 21a, 3 pl. ἐνέχθησαν Hs 8, 2, 1.
    to bear or carry from one place to another, w. focus on an act of transport
    lit.
    α. carry, bear (Aristoph., Ra. [Frogs] 27 τὸ βάρος ὸ̔ φέρεις; X., Mem. 3, 13, 6 φορτίον φέρειν; GrBar 12:1 κανίσκια ‘baskets’) ἐπέθηκαν αὐτῷ τὸν σταυρὸν φέρειν ὄπισθεν τοῦ Ἰησοῦ Lk 23:26 (s. σταυρός 1).—In imagery drawn from Gen 2 οὗ ξύλον φέρων καὶ καρπὸν αἱρῶν if you bear the tree (of the word) and pluck its fruit Dg 12:8. For Papias (3:2) s. 3a.
    β. bring with one, bring/take along (Diod S 6, 7, 8 γράμματα φέρων; GrBar 12:7 φέρετε ὸ̔ ἠνέγκατε ‘bring here what you have brought’, for the nuance of φέρετε s. 2a; PTebt 418, 9; 421, 6; 8) φέρουσαι ἃ ἡτοίμασαν ἀρώματα Lk 24:1. Cp. J 19:39.
    fig.
    α. carry a burden οὗτος τὰς ἁμαρτίας ἡμῶν φέρει 1 Cl 16:4 (Is 53:4).
    β. bear a name τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ κυρίου bear the name of the Lord, i.e. of a Christian Pol 6:3 (cp. Just., D. 35, 6).
    γ. bear/grant a favor χάριν τινὶ φέρειν (Il. 5, 211; Od. 5, 307; cp. Aeschyl., Ag. 421f; but not Andoc., De Reditu 9 ‘express gratitude’) ἐλπίσατε ἐπὶ τὴν φερομένην ὑμῖν χάριν ἐν ἀποκαλύψει Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ hope for the favor that is being granted you in connection w. the revelation of Jesus Christ (i.e. when he is revealed) 1 Pt 1:13.
    to cause an entity to move from one position to another, w. focus on the presentation or effecting of someth.
    a thing bring (on), produce (GrBar 12:7 φέρετε ‘bring here’ [what you have brought with you, s. 1aβ])
    α. bring (to), fetch τὶ someth. Mk 6:27, 28 (ἐπὶ πίνακι. On the bringing in of a head at a banquet cp. Diog. L. 9, 58: the presence of a severed head did not necessarily disturb the mood at a meal. Appian, Bell. Civ. 4, 20, §81 relates concerning Antony that he had the head of Cicero placed πρὸ τῆς τραπέζης); Lk 13:7 D; 15:22 v.l. for ἐξ-; Ac 4:34, 37; 5:2; 2 Ti 4:13; B 2:5; MPol 11:2; Hs 8, 1, 16 (w. double acc., of obj. and pred.); 9, 10, 1; δῶρα GJs 1:2; 5:1. Pass. Mt 14:11a (ἐπὶ πίνακι); Hv 3, 2, 7; 3, 5, 3; Hs 8, 2, 1ab; 9, 4, 7; 9, 6, 5–7; 9, 9, 4f. τινί τι (JosAs 16:1 φέρε δή μοι καὶ κηρίον μέλιτος; ApcMos 6) someth. to someone Mt 14:18 (w. ὧδε); Mk 12:15. θυσίαν τῷ θεῷ 1 Cl 4:1 (s. Gen 4:3; cp. Just., A I, 24, 2 θυσίας). The acc. is supplied fr. the context Mt 14:11b; J 2:8a. The dat. and acc. are to be supplied οἱ δὲ ἤνεγκαν Mk 12:16; J 2:8b. φέρειν πρός τινα w. acc. of the thing to be supplied (X., Cyr. 8, 3, 47; Ex 32:2) Hs 8, 4, 3; 9, 10, 2. φ. τι εἰς (1 Km 31:12) Rv 21:24, 26. μή τις ἤνεγκεν αὐτῷ φαγεῖν; do you suppose that anyone has brought him anything to eat? J 4:33. S. φόρος.
    β. Fig. bring (about) (Hom.+; Mitt-Wilck. I/2, 284, 11 [II B.C.] αἰσχύνην; PTebt 104, 30; POxy 497, 4; 1062, 14; Jos., Vi. 93, C. Ap. 1, 319; SibOr 3, 417; Just., A I, 27, 5 [βλάβην]) τὸ βάπτισμα τὸ φέρον ἄφεσιν the baptism which brings (about) forgiveness B 11:1.
    a living being, animal or human, lead, bring
    α. animals (TestAbr A 2 p. 79, 8 [Stone p. 6] ἵππους; ibid. B 2 p. 106, 21 [Stone p. 60] μόσχον) Mk 11:2, 7 (πρός τινα); Lk 15:23; Ac 14:13 (ἐπὶ τ. πυλῶνας); GJs 4:3.
    β. people: bring or lead τινά someone ἀσθενεῖς Ac 5:16. κακούργους GPt 4:10. τινὰ ἐπὶ κλίνης (Jos., Ant. 17, 197) Lk 5:18. τινά τινι someone to someone Mt 17:17 (w. ὧδε); Mk 7:32; 8:22. Also τινὰ πρός τινα Mk 1:32; 2:3; 9:17, 19f. φέρουσιν αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τὸν Γολγοθᾶν τόπον 15:22 (TestAbr A 11 p. 88, 27 [Stone p. 24] ἐπὶ τὴν ἀνατολήν). ἄλλος οἴσει (σε) ὅπου οὐ θέλεις J 21:18.
    to cause to follow a certain course in direction or conduct, move out of position, drive, the pass. can be variously rendered: be moved, be driven, let oneself be moved
    lit., by wind and weather (Apollon. Rhod. 4, 1700; Chariton 3, 5, 1; Appian, Bell. Civ. 1, 62 §278 in spite of the storm Marius leaped into a boat and ἐπέτρεψε τῇ τύχῃ φέρειν let himself be driven away by fortune; Jer 18:14; PsSol 8:2 πυρὸς … φερομένου; TestNapht 6:5; Ar. 4, 2 ἄστρα … φερόμενα; Tat. 26, 1 τῆς νεὼς φερομένης) Ac 27:15, 17.Move, pass (s. L-S-J-M s.v. φέρω B 1) φέρεσθαι δὲ διʼ αὐτοῦ … ἰχῶρας foul discharges were emitted … through it (Judas’s penis) Papias (3:2).
    fig., of the Spirit of God, by whom people are moved (cp. Job 17:1 πνεύματι φερόμενος) ὑπὸ πνεύματος ἁγίου φερόμενοι 2 Pt 1:21b. Cp. Ac 15:29 D. τῇ πίστει φερόμενος ὁ Παῦλος AcPl Ha 5, 1. Of the impulse to do good Hs 6, 5, 7. Of the powers of evil (Ps.-Plut., Hom. 133 ὑπὸ ὀργῆς φερόμενοι; Jos., Bell. 6, 284; Ath. 25, 4) PtK 2 p. 14, 11; Dg 9:1; Hs 8, 9, 3.
    also of the wind itself (Ptolem., Apotel. 1, 11, 3 οἱ φερόμενοι ἄνεμοι; Diog. L. 10, 104 τ. πνεύματος πολλοῦ φερομένου; Quint. Smyrn. 3, 718) φέρεσθαι rush Ac 2:2.
    of various other entities: of fragrance φέρεσθαι ἐπί τινα be borne or wafted to someone (Dio Chrys. 66 [16], 6 ‘rush upon someone’) ApcPt 5:16.—Of writings (Diog. L. 5, 86 φέρεται αὐτοῦ [i.e. Heraclid. Pont.] συγγράμματα κάλλιστα; Marinus, Vi. Procli 38; cp. Arrian, Anab. 7, 12, 6 λόγος ἐφέρετο Ἀλεξάνδρου=a saying of Alexander was circulated) οὗ (=τοῦ Εἰρηναίου) πολλὰ συγγράμματα φέρεται of whom there are many writings in circulation EpilMosq 2.—Of spiritual development ἐπὶ τὴν τελειότητα φερώμεθα let us move on toward perfection Hb 6:1.
    to move an object to a particular point, put, place φέρειν τὸν δάκτυλον, τὴν χεῖρα put or reach out the finger, the hand J 20:27a (ὧδε), vs. 27b.
    to cause to continue in a state or condition, sustain, fig., of the Son of God φέρων τὰ πάντα τῷ ῥήματι τῆς δυνάμεως αὐτοῦ who bears up the universe by his mighty word Hb 1:3 (cp. Plut., Lucull. 6, 3 φέρειν τὴν πόλιν; Num 11:14; Dt 1:9).
    to afford passage to a place, lead to, of a gate, lead somewhere (cp. Hdt. 2, 122; Thu. 3, 24, 1 τὴν ἐς Θήβας φέρουσαν ὁδόν; Ps.-Demosth. 47, 53 θύρα εἰς τὸν κῆπον φέρουσα; SIG 1118, 5; POxy 99, 7; 17 [I A.D.]; 69, 1 [II A.D.] θύρα φέρουσα εἰς ῥύμην) τήν πύλην τὴν φέρουσαν εἰς τὴν πόλιν Ac 12:10 (X., Hell. 7, 2, 7 αἱ εἰς τὴν πόλιν φέρουσαι πύλαι; Diog. L. 6, 78 παρὰ τῇ πύλῃ τῇ φερούσῃ εἰς τὸν Ἰσθμόν; Jos., Ant. 9, 146).—See Fitzmyer s.v. ἄγω.
    to bring a thought or idea into circulation, bring, utter, make a word, speech, announcement, charge, etc. (TestAbr B 6 p. 110, 8/Stone p. 68 [ParJer 7:8] φάσιν ‘news’; Jos., Vi. 359, C. Ap. 1, 251; Just., A I, 54, 1 ἀπόδειξιν ‘proof’, A II, 12, 5 ἀπολογίαν), as a judicial expr. (cp. Demosth. 58, 22; Polyb. 1, 32, 4; PAmh 68, 62; 69; 72) κατηγορίαν J 18:29. Cp. Ac 25:7 v.l., 18 (Field, Notes 140); 2 Pt 2:11. Perh. this is the place for μᾶλλον ἑαυτῶν κατάγνωσιν φέρουσιν rather they blame themselves 1 Cl 51:2. διδαχήν 2J 10. ὑποδείγματα give or offer examples 1 Cl 55:1 (Polyb. 18, 13, 7 τὰ παραδείγματα). τοῦτο φέρεται ἐν this is brought out = this is recorded in EpilMosq 4.—Of a divine proclamation, whether direct or indirect (Diod S 13, 97, 7 τ. ἱερῶν φερόντων νίκην; Just., D. 128, 2 τοῦ πατρὸς ὁμιλίας [of the Logos]) 2 Pt 1:17, 18, 21a.
    to demonstrate the reality of someth., establish θάνατον ἀνάγκη φέρεσθαι τοῦ διαθεμένου the death of the one who made the will must be established Hb 9:16.
    to hold out in the face of difficulty, bear patiently, endure, put up with (X., An. 3, 1, 23; Appian, Samn. 10 §13 παρρησίαν φ.=put up with candidness, Iber. 78 §337; Jos., Ant. 7, 372; 17, 342; AssMos Fgm. j βλασφημίαν; Just., D. 18, 3 πάντα; Mel., HE 4, 26, 6 θανάτου τὸ γέρας) μαλακίαν 1 Cl 16:3 (Is 53:3). τὸν ὀνειδισμὸν αὐτοῦ (i.e. Ἰησοῦ) Hb 13:13 (cp. Ezk 34:29). τὸ διαστελλόμενον 12:20. εὐκλεῶς 1 Cl 45:5. Of God ἤνεγκεν ἐν πολλῇ μακροθυμίᾳ σκεύη ὀργῆς Ro 9:22. φῶς μέγα … ὥστε τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς μὴ φέρειν a light so bright that their eyes could not endure it GJs 19:2.
    to be productive, bear, produce of a plant and its fruits, lit. and in imagery (Hom. et al.; Diod S 9, 11, 1; Aelian, VH 3, 18 p. 48, 20; Jo 2:22; Ezk 17:8; Jos., Ant. 4, 100) Mt 7:18ab; Mk 4:8; J 12:24; 15:2abc, 4f, 8, 16; Hs 2:3f, 8.—B. 707. DELG. Schmidt, Syn. III 167–93. M-M. EDNT. TW.

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  • 14 φθάνω

    φθάνω 1 aor. ἔφθασα; pf. 3 sg. ἔφθακεν SSol 2:12. (Hom.+) prim. ‘come or do someth. first or before someone’.
    to be beforehand in moving to a position, come before, precede (exx. fr. the later period, incl. ins and pap, in Clark [s. below] 375f) w. acc. of the pers. whom one precedes (Diod S 15, 61, 4 τοὺς πολεμίους; Appian, Syr. 29 §142, Bell. Civ. 5, 30 §115; SIG 783, 35 [27 B.C.] φθάνοντες ἀλλήλους; Wsd 6:13; Jos., Ant. 7, 247) ἡμεῖς οὐ μὴ φθάσωμεν τοὺς κοιμηθέντας we will by no means precede those who have fallen asleep 1 Th 4:15.
    to get to or reach a position, have just arrived, then simply arrive, reach (late and Mod. Gk.: Plut., Mor. 210e; 338a; Vett. Val. 137, 35; 174, 12 ἐπὶ ποῖον [ἀστέρα]; Herm. Wr. 9, 10; PParis 18, 14 [II A.D.] φθάσομεν εἰς Πελούσιον; PGM 3, 590; LXX [cp. Thackeray p. 288f]; TestAbr A 1 p. 77, 9 [Stone p. 2]; TestAbr B 2 p. 107, 3 al. [St. p. 62]; TestReub 5:7; TestNapht 6:9 ἐπὶ τ. γῆς [v.l. ἐπὶ τ. γῆν]; JosAs 26:5 AB; Philo, Op. M. 5, Leg. All. 3, 215 φθάσαι μέχρι θεοῦ, Conf. Lingu. 153, Mos. 1, 2.—JVogeser, Zur Sprache der griech. Heiligenlegenden, diss. Munich 1907, 46; JWittmann, Sprachl. Untersuchungen zu Cosmas Indicopleustes, diss. Munich 1913, 16) ἐπί τινα come upon someone, overtake perh. w. a suggestion of success (in an adverse sense, DDaube, The Sudden in Scripture, ’64, 35f). ἄρα ἔφθασεν ἐφʼ ὑμᾶς ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ Mt 12:28; Lk 11:20 (KClark, JBL 59, ’40, 367–83 ἐγγίζειν and φθ.; HMartin, ET 52, ’40/41, 270–75). ἔφθασεν ἐπʼ αὐτοὺς ἡ ὀργή 1 Th 2:16 (cp. Eccl 8:14a v.l.; TestLevi 6:11). ἄχρι ὑμῶν ἐφθάσαμεν 2 Cor 10:14 (SAndrews, SBLSP 36, ’97, 479 n. 30: perh. an allusion to the military award ‘corona militaris’).
    to come to or arrive at a particular state, attain φθ. εἴς τι come up to, reach, attain someth. (BGU 522, 6) Ro 9:31; Phil 3:16.—B. 701f; 703. DELG. M-M. TW. Sv.

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  • 15 φόβος

    φόβος, ου, ὁ (s. three prec. entries; Hom.+. In Hom. ‘panic flight’; then in various senses).
    intimidating entity, the act. causative sense
    intimidation (Appian, Bell. Civ. 3, 27 §104 ἐς φ. τῆς βουλῆς=to intimidate the Senate) so prob. τὸν φόβον αὐτῶν μὴ φοβηθῆτε do not be intimidated by their intimidation (cp. REB et al.) 1 Pt 3:14 (Is 8:12; s. φοβέω 1bγ and cp. 2aα below).
    concretely, someth. terrible/awe-inspiring, a terror (Soph., Philoct. 1251; Polyb. 11, 30, 2; Appian, Bell. Civ. 2, 135 §565; SIG 442, 10 [III B.C.] οὐδένα οὔτε φόβον οὔτε κίνδυνον ὑποστελλόμενοι; Just., A II, 5, 4 διὰ φόβων καὶ τιμωριῶν ὧν ἐπέφερον) οἱ ἄρχοντες οὐκ εἰσὶν φόβος Ro 13:3. So perh. also εἰδότες οὖν τὸν φόβον τοῦ κυρίου since we know what it is that causes fear of the Lord 2 Cor 5:11 (i.e. the judgment to come, vs. 10; so Goodsp., REB et al.; ambiguously NRSV; s. also Field, Notes 183f); s. 2bα below.
    the product of an intimidating/alarming force, the pass. sense
    fear, alarm, fright
    α. gener. 2 Cor 7:11; 1 Pt 1:17 (mng. fear of the coming judge, unless ἐν φ. here means reverently, as ESelwyn, 1 Pt ’46, 143); Jd 23 (mng. the fear of defiling oneself); Dg 7:3. W. τρόμος (q.v.) 1 Cor 2:3; 2 Cor 7:15; 1 Cl 12:5. Pl. fears, apprehensions, feelings of anxiety (as early as Thu. et al.; Diod S 16, 3, 1; 16, 42, 9 Ptolemy, Apotel. 2, 9, 5; Appian, Bell. Civ. 1, 16 §67; 3, 89 §368; SIG 326, 21 [307/306 B.C.]; Job 20:25; Wsd 18:17; Jos., Ant. 10, 24; 15, 44) ἔξωθεν μάχαι ἔσωθεν φόβοι 2 Cor 7:5. παράγειν φόβους ἀνθρωπίνους bring in fears of humans 2 Cl 10:3.—W. obj. gen. of pers. (Diod S 10, 19, 6 ὁ τῶν Περσῶν φόβος), or of thing (Jos., C. Ap. 1, 259; Ath. 1, 1 φόβῳ δίκης; Did., Gen. 171, 14) causing fear ὁ φόβος τῶν Ἰουδαίων the fear of the Judeans J 7:13; 19:38; 20:19. φόβος θανάτου fear of death (Epict. 2, 1, 14; 2, 18, 30 et al.; TestAbr B 14 p. 118, 24 [Stone p. 84]; Philo, Omn. Prob. Lib. 111; Ath., R. 22 p. 75, 17; Orig., C. Cels. 1, 61, 37) Hb 2:15. τοῦ βασανισμοῦ Rv 18:10, 15. νόμου Dg 11:6.—ἀπὸ (τοῦ) φόβου (τινός) because of, out of fear (of someone) Mt 14:26; 28:4; Lk 21:26; Hm 11:14. Also διὰ τ. φόβον Ac 26:14 v.l. (Hyperid. 5, 5 διὰ τὸν φ.; Arrian, Anab. 5, 15, 6 διὰ τὸν φ.; Artem. 1, 1 p. 3, 23 διὰ φόβον; TestAbr B 14 p. 118, 24 [Stone p. 84]; Philo, Mos. 1, 164 διὰ φόβον τινός; Jos., Vi. 354 διὰ τὸν φόβον; Just., A II, 9, 1 διὰ φόβον). μετὰ φόβου with or in fear (Aeneas Tact. 1257; TestAbr A 16 p. 96, 22 [Stone p. 40]; GrBar 13:1) of the feeling that accompanies an action Mt 28:8; Dg 12:6; AcPl Ha 11, 12.—As subject (En 100:8): φόβος πίπτει ἐπί τινα fear comes upon someone Ac 19:17 v.l.; Rv 11:11 v.l. ἐπιπίπτει ἐπί τινα Lk 1:12; Ac 19:17; Rv 11:11. ἐστὶν ἐπί τινα Ac 2:43b v.l. γίνεται ἐπί τινα Lk 1:65; Ac 5:5, 11 or γίνεταί τινι Ac 2:43a. λαμβάνει τινά (Jos., Vi. 148) Lk 7:16; Hv 5:4. πλησθῆναι φόβου Lk 5:26. φόβῳ συνέχεσθαι 8:37; AcPl Ha 3, 33; 11, 16. φόβον ἔχειν 1 Ti 5:20; Hm 7:2c; 12, 4, 7a; Hs 1:10. φοβεῖσθαι φόβον (μέγαν) Mk 4:41; Lk 2:9; cp. τὸν φόβον αὐτῶν μὴ φοβηθῆτε do not fear what they fear (NRSV; sim. et al.) 1 Pt 3:14 (but s. 1 above); Hm 7:1 (φοβέω 1a).
    β. specif. of slavish fear (Diog. Cyn. in Diog. L. 6, 75 δούλου τὸ φοβεῖσθαι), which is not to characterize a Christian’s relation to God οὐκ ἐλάβετε πνεῦμα δουλείας εἰς φόβον you have not received a spirit of slavery, to cause you to fear Ro 8:15. Cp. 1J 4:18abc (opp. ἀγάπη; cp. κόλασις 2, end).
    reverence, respect
    α. toward God (Polyaenus 1, 16, 1; LXX; PsSol 6:5 al.; EpArist 159 ὁ περὶ θεοῦ φόβος; 189; cp. φόβος τὰ θεῖα τοῖσι σώφροσιν βροτῶν TGF, Adesp. no. 356 p. 906) and Christ, w. τρόμος Phil 2:12 (s. τρόμος). W. ἀλήθεια 1 Cl 19:1; Pol 2:1. W. ἀγάπη 1 Cl 51:2. W. εὐλάβεια Pol 6:3. W. πίστις, εἰρήνη and other good things and virtues 1 Cl 64. W. ὑπομονή B 2:2. W. ἐλπὶς: εἰς τὸν Ἰησοῦν 11:11. W. πίστις and ἐγκράτεια Hm 6, 1, 1. W. objective gen. φόβος (τοῦ) θεοῦ (PLond 1914, 12 φόβον θεοῦ ἔχοντες ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ; Philo, Spec. Leg. 4, 199; TestLevi 13:7; TestNapht 2:9; Theoph. Ant. 1, 7 [p. 72, 26]) Ro 3:18 (Ps 35:2); 2 Cor 7:1 (ἀγάπη P46); 1 Cl 3:4; 21:6; cp. 8; B 4:11; 19:5; 20:2; Pol 4:2; Hm 10, 1, 6a; 12, 2, 4bc; D 4:9. φόβος (τοῦ) κυρίου (TestReub 4:1; TestSim 3:4) Ac 9:31; 1 Cl 22:1 (Ps 33:12); 57:5 (Pr 1:29); B 11:5 (Is 33:18 v.l.); Hm 7:4b; 8:9; 10, 1, 6b; 12, 2, 4a; 12, 3, 1. Some place here 2 Cor 5:11 (s. 1b above). φόβος Χριστοῦ Eph 5:21.—For 1 Pt 1:17 s. 2aα beg.
    β. toward humans, respect that is due officials (cp. Byzantinische Papyri [Munich], ed. AHeisenberg/LWenger, 1914, no. 2, ln. 13 p. 43: ἔχοντες τὸν φόβον … τῆς ὑμετέρας ἐνδόξου ὑπεροχῆς=having respect for your esteemed authority) Ro 13:7ab (CCranfield, NTS 6, ’60, 241–49: the ref. may be to God); fr. slave to master 1 Pt 2:18; Eph 6:5 (w. τρόμος); B 19:7=D 4:11 (w. αἰσχύνη); wife to husband 1 Pt 3:2 (cp. SEG XXXV, 1427, 5 [III A.D.]). Gener. 3:16 (w. πραΰτης).—WLütgert, Die Furcht Gottes: MKähler Festschr. 1905, SBerkelbach v.der Sprenkel, Vrees en Religie 1920, 165ff; RSander, Furcht u. Liebe im palästin. Judentum ’35.—B. 1153. DELG s.v. φέβομαι I. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > φόβος

  • 16 φωτίζω

    φωτίζω fut. φωτίσω (1 Cor 4:5; Rv 22:5) and φωτιῶ (Rv 22:5 v.l.; TestLevi 4:3; s.Thackeray 228f); 1 aor. ἐφώτισα. Pass.: 1 fut. 3 sg. pl. φωτισθήσεται,-σονται; 1 aor. ἐφωτίσθην; pf. ptc. πεφωτισμένος (cp. φῶς; Aristot.+; ins, pap, LXX; En 5:8; Test12Patr; ParJer 9:3; Philo, Joseph., Just.; Mel., P. 35, 243 al.)
    intr. (Aristot.; Theophr.; Plut., Num. 4, 9; 8, 2; Sir 42:16; Philo, Dec. 49) to function as a source of light, to shine, of God (Ps 75:5) ἐπί τινα upon someone Rv 22:5.
    trans. to cause to be illumined, give light to, light (up), illuminate (Aristarch. Sam. [III B.C.] p. 358, 20 al.; Diod S 3, 48, 4 of the sun ἀκτῖσι τὸν κόσμον; Galen XIX p. 174 K.; PGM 3, 152; 4, 2345; IDefixWünsch 4, 14; 2 Esdr 19:12, 19 τὴν ὁδόν) τινά someone Lk 11:36; Rv 22:5 v.l.; τὴν πόλιν Rv 21:23. Pass. (Anaximander, Vorsokr. 12 A 1 [in Diog. L. 2, 1] ἀπὸ ἡλίου; Plut., Mor. 1120e; Diog. L. 7, 144 the whole earth ὑπʼ αὐτοῦ [the sun] φωτίζεσθαι) 18:1.
    trans. to make known in reference to the inner life or transcendent matters and thus enlighten, enlighten, give light to, shed light upon (φῶς 2; 3) fig. ext. of 2
    in imagery of the heavenly light that is granted the ‘enlightened one’ (cp. the prayer PGM 4, 990, that calls upon the μέγιστος θεός as τὸν τὰ πάντα φωτίζοντα καὶ διαυγάζοντα τῇ ἰδίᾳ δυνάμει τὸν σύμπαντα κόσμον; Herm. Wr. 1, 32 the inspired one prays to a deity for δύναμις and χάρις: ἵνα φωτίσω τοὺς ἐν ἀγνοίᾳ. S. also 13, 18; 19 τὸ πᾶν τὸ ἐν ἡμῖν σῷζε ζωή, φώτιζε φῶς, πνευμάτιζε θεέ; Philo, Fuga 139 and TestBenj 6:4 τ. ψυχήν; Sextus 97; ViHab 14 [p. 87, 6 Sch.].—GAnrich, Das antike Mysterienwesen 1894, 125f; GWobbermin, Religionsgesch. Studien 1896, 155ff; Rtzst., Mysterienrel. 3, 1927, 44; 264; 292); τὸ φῶς τὸ ἀληθινὸν (i.e. Christ, the heavenly Redeemer) φωτίζει πάντα ἄνθρωπον J 1:9 (s. Hdb. ad loc. and s.v. φῶς 1bα.—For the combination w. φῶς: ParJer 9:3; Cleom. [II A.D.] 2, 4 p. 188, 18 τὸ φῶς τὸ φωτίζον αὐτόν; Proclus on Pla., Cratyl. p. 103, 28 Pasqu.); φωτίσαι πάντας τίς ἡ οἰκονομία τοῦ μυστηρίου to enlighten everyone about God’s private/mysterious plan Eph 3:9 (perh. in the sense ‘instruct’, cp. 4 Km 17:27f). God is implored to grant πεφωτισμένους τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς τῆς καρδίας enlightened in the eyes of (your) heart = … your inward sight 1:18 (φωτίζειν ὀφθαλμούς: 2 Esdr 9:8; Ps 18:9; Bar 1:12). The Roman Christian community is πεφωτισμένη ἐν θελήματι (i.e. of God) IRo ins (cp. Just., D. 122, 3 ἐθνῶν πεφωτισμένων). οἱ ἅπαξ φωτισθέντες Hb 6:4; cp. 10:32.
    bring to light, reveal τὶ someth. (Polyb. 22, 5, 10; Epict. 1, 4, 31 τὴν ἀλήθειαν; Plut., Mor. 902c; Jos., Ant. 8, 143 the hidden mng. of a riddle; pass., Lucian, Calum. 32; Mel., P. 41, 285 τὸ εὐαγγέλιον) τὰ κρυπτὰ τοῦ σκότους that which is hidden in the dark 1 Cor 4:5. φ. ζωὴν καὶ ἀφθαρσίαν διὰ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου bring life and immortality to light through the gospel 2 Ti 1:10. Abs., foll. by indir. question φωτίσαι τίς ἡ οἰκονομία τοῦ μυστηρίου to make clear what (God’s) mysterious plan is Eph 3:9 v.l.—DELG s.v. φάε C. M-M. EDNT. TW. Spicq. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > φωτίζω

  • 17 ἐπάγω

    ἐπάγω (s. ἄγω) fut. ἐπάξω; 1 aor. ptc. ἐπάξας (B-D-F §75; W-S. §13, 10; Mlt-H. 226; Rob. 348); 2 aor. ἐπήγαγον. Pass.: aor. subj. 3 sg. ἐπάχθῃ Sir 2:4, impv. ἐπάχθητι (Mel., Fgm. 8b 14), ptc. ἐπαχθείς 4 Macc 4:13 (cod. A for ὑπ-); pf. ptc. ἐπηγμένην 2 Macc 7:38 (Hom.+; also Just., A I, 3, 1, D. 39, 2 al., and 129, 4 ἐπήγαγον of words ‘I added’) to cause a state or condition to be or occur, bring on, bring someth. upon someone, mostly someth. bad, τινί τι (Hes., Op. 240 πῆμά τινι ἐ. al.; OGI 669, 43 πολλοῖς ἐ. κινδύνους; PRyl 144, 21 [38 A.D.] … μοι ἐ. αἰτίας; Bar 4:9, 10, 14, 29; Da 3:28, 31; TestJud 22:1; Philo, Mos. 1, 96; Jos., Vi. 18; SibOr 7, 154; Just., D. 39, 2 τὴν κρίσιν, 55, 2 κατάραν al.) κατακλυσμὸν κόσμῳ ἐπάξας 2 Pt 2:5 (cp. Gen 6:17; 3 Macc 2:4 of the deluge ἐπαγαγὼν αὐτοῖς ἀμέτρητον ὗδωρ). λύπην τῷ πνεύματι bring grief upon the spirit Hm 3:4. ἑαυτοῖς ταχινὴν ἀπώλειαν bring swift destruction upon themselves 2 Pt 2:1 (cp. ἑαυτοῖς δουλείαν Demosth. 19, 259). Also ἐπί τινά τι (Ex 11:1; 33:5; Jer 6:19; Ezk 28:7 al.; TestJud 23:3; ApcEsdr 2:20 p. 26, 12 Tdf.) ἐφʼ ἡμᾶς τὸ αἷμα τ. ἀνθρώπου τούτου bring this man’s blood upon us Ac 5:28 (cp. Judg 9:24 B ἐπαγαγεῖν τὰ αἵματα αὐτῶν, τοῦ θεῖναι ἐπὶ Ἀβιμελεχ, ὸ̔ς ἀπέκτεινεν αὐτούς). ἐ. τισὶ διωγμὸν κατά τινος stir up, within a group, a persecution against someone Ac 14:2 D.—M-M.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἐπάγω

  • 18 ἐπαναπαύομαι

    ἐπαναπαύομαι (found in act. in Aelian, NA 5, 56 and Judg 16:26 A; the mid. occurs in Hero Alex. I p. 424, 12; Epict.; Artem.; Herodian 2, 1, 2; Jos., Ant. 8, 84, almost always in LXX, once TestSol 7:7 P, and without exception in our lit.) fut. ἐπαναπαύσομαι; 1 aor. ἐπανεπαυσάμην LXX; pf. 3 sg. ἐπαναπέπαυται 4 Km 2:15; 1 Pt 4:14 v.l. Pass.: 2 fut. 3 sg. ἐπαναπαήσεται Lk 10:6 (-παύσεται v.l.); 2 aor. ἐπανεπάην D 4:2.
    to be in a state or condition of repose, rest, take one’s rest GHb 70, 18=Ox 654, 8f (but the latter text in fragmentary state, s. editor’s note); B 4:13. With implication of benefits bestowed in the process ἐπί τινα rest upon someone ἐπʼ αὐτὸν ἡ εἰρήνη ὑμῶν your peace will rest upon him Lk 10:6 (Num 11:25, 26 ἐπανεπαύσατο τ. πνεῦμα ἐπʼ αὐτούς; 4 Km 2:15; cp. 1 Pt 4:14 v.l.)
    to find well-being or inner security, find rest, comfort, support τινί in someth. and ἐπί τινα on someone (LXX) fig. (Herm. Wr. 9, 10 τῇ πίστει ἐ.) τοῖς λόγοις τ. ἁγίων D 4:2. ἐπὶ τὸν πένητα Hs 1, 2, 5 (s. ἀναπαύω). In the sense rely on (Trypho Gr. 194 [I B.C.]; Artem. 4, 65; Epict. 1, 9, 9; Mi 3:11; 1 Macc 8:11) νόμῳ Ro 2:17.—M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἐπαναπαύομαι

  • 19 ἐπεισέρχομαι

    ἐπεισέρχομαι fut. ἐπεισελεύσομαι; 2 aor. 3 pl. ἐπεισῆλθον (-θόσαν v.l. 1 Macc 16:16); pf. 3 sg. ἐπεισελήλυθεν (Just., D. 53, 2) (Hdt. et al.; pap; Philo, Op. M. 119) ‘rush in suddenly and forcibly’ (UPZ 13, 19 [160 B.C.]; 1 Macc 16:16; Jos., Ant. 11, 265) come ἐπί τινα upon someone of the Day of Judgment ἐπὶ πάντας τοὺς καθημένους ἐπὶ πρόσωπον πάσης τῆς γῆς Lk 21:35.—M-M. Lit. s. ἐπέρχομαι.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἐπεισέρχομαι

  • 20 ἐπέρχομαι

    ἐπέρχομαι fut. ἐπελεύσομαι; 2 aor. ἐπῆλθον (3 pl. ἐπῆλθαν Ac 14:19; B-D-F §81, 3; W-S. §13, 13; Mlt-H. 208); plpf. 3 sg. ἐπεληλύθει 2 Macc 9:18 (Hom.+).
    come, arrive, abs. (Just., D. 51, 2) Agr 22=Mt 20:28 D. ἀπό τινος (1 Macc 8:4) ἐπῆλθαν ἀπὸ Ἀντιοχείας Ἰουδαῖοι Judeans came fr. Antioch Ac 14:19; AcPl Ha 5, 21 (s. entry ἥττων).
    of the Holy Spirit come upon, from a superior position ἐπί τινα Lk 1:35 (FSteinmetzer, ‘Empfangen v. Hl. Geiste’ 1938); Ac 1:8 (cp. Is 32:15; for movement from a transcendent realm, cp. Biogr. p. 448 of an inspiration: τοῦτο ἐπελθὸν αὐτῷ πράττειν ἐκ τοῦ θείου).
    to occur as an event or process happen, come about
    of a period of time (Jos., Ant. 6, 305 ἡ ἐπερχομένη ἡμέρα) νύξ 1 Cl 24:3. ὁ αἰὼν ὁ ἐπερχόμενος the coming age Hv 4, 3, 5. ἐν τοῖς αἰῶσι τοῖς ἐπερχομένοις in the ages to come Eph 2:7. τῷ σαββάτῳ ἐπερχομένης τῆς κυριακῆς, ἐν ἡμέρα, ᾗ ἔμελλεν θηριουμαχεῖν ὁ Παῦλος on the Sabbath before the Lord’s Day (Sunday) on which Paul was to fight the wild beasts AcPl Ha 3, 8.
    of what happens in the course of time; in our lit. exclusively of someth. unpleasant.
    α. come (on), approach κακὰ ἐπερχόμενα 1 Cl 56:10 (Job 5:21). ἐπὶ ταῖς ταλαιπωρίαις ὑμῶν ταῖς ἐπερχομέναις over the miseries that are coming upon you Js 5:1. In the same eschatological sense (cp. Is 41:22f; τέλος ἐπερχόμενον En 10:2) κρίσιν τὴν ἐπερχομένην Hv 3, 9, 5 (Just., D. 138, 3); θλῖψις ἐ. v 4, 1, 1; Hs 7:4; cp. τὰ λοιπὰ … τὰ ἐ. Hs 9, 5, 5. τὰ ἐπερχόμενα (cp. Is 41:4, 22f; Jdth 9:5): τὰ ἐ. τῇ οἰκουμένῃ what is coming upon the world Lk 21:26.
    β. in related vein, abs. (Horapollo 2, 25 ὁ θάνατος; Pr 27:12; Jos., Ant. 2, 86) come about Ac 13:40. ἐπί τινα (Gen 42:21; Wsd 12:27; EpJer 48; 2 Macc 9:18) come upon someone ὅπως μηδὲν ἐπέλθῃ ἐπʼ ἐμὲ ὧν εἰρήκατε that none of the things you have spoken of may come upon me Ac 8:24.—Possibly to be restored in AcPl Ha 6, 25f (s. Schmidt’s transcription and note).—Lk 21:35 v.l.
    to come against someone with force, attack (Hom. et al.; ins, pap; 1 Km 30:23; ViEz 9 [p. 75, 1 Sch.]; Jos., Ant. 5, 195; 6, 23; Just., D. 139, 3 τῇ γῇ) abs. Lk 11:22 (v.l. ἐλθών).—DDaube, The Sudden in the Scriptures ’64, 34ff.—M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἐπέρχομαι

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