Translation: from english

southern tenant farmers’ union

  • 1 Southern Tenant Farmers' Union

    сокр STFU; ист
    Радикальный профсоюз мелких фермеров-издольщиков [ sharecroppers] Юга. Основан в июле 1934 в штате Арканзас по инициативе двух социалистов, Х. Митчелла [Mitchell, H. L.] и К. Иста [East, Clay], но имел более широкую базу поддержки. При том, что организация выступала под лозунгами "дать землю безземельным" ["land for the landless"] и за крестьянские кооперативы, ее основной протест был направлен против действий Администрации регулирования сельского хозяйства [ Agricultural Adjustment Administration] по сокращению сбора урожая хлопка (многие издольщики вынуждены были прекращать обработку своих участков и наниматься на работу). Негры составляли около 2/3 членов профсоюза. Несколько крупных забастовок привлекли внимание общества к проблемам издольщиков; профсоюз нашел поддержку среди некоторых политиков времен "Нового курса" [ New Deal]. На федеральном уровне и в штатах были созданы специальные комиссии, но реальные действия были предприняты лишь после столкновений на расовой почве в штате Арканзас. В 1937 был принят закон Бэнкхеда - Джонса [ Bankhead-Jones Act], учреждена Администрация по защите фермерских хозяйств [ Farm Security Administration]. Влияние профсоюза резко снизилось, но в разных организационных формах он просуществовал до 1960.

    English-Russian dictionary of regional studies > Southern Tenant Farmers' Union

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