Translation: from latin

sharpened

  • 1 acūmen

        acūmen inis, n    [acuo]. — Prop., a point: stili: lignum: sine acumine, O.: commissa in unum tereti acumine crura, i. e. united in a tapering tail, O. — Fig., of the mind, etc., acuteness, keenness, sharpness: ingeniorum: ingenii, N.: argutum iudicis, H.: admovere acumina chartis, H. —Poet., plur, tricks, pretences: meretricis, H.
    * * *
    sharpened point, spur; sting; peak, promontory; sharpness/cunning/acumen; fraud

    Latin-English dictionary > acūmen

  • 2 acūtus

        acūtus adj. with comp. and sup.    [P. of acuo], sharpened, pointed, sharp, cutting: sudes, Cs.: ferrum, H.: aures, pointed, H.: acuta leto Saxa (i. e. ad letum dandum), H.—Fig., to the senses, sharp, pungent, shrill: sonus acutissimus, highest treble: aera, shrill, H.: stridor, H.: sol, oppressive, H.: morbus, violent, H. — Subst: acuta belli, violent calamities, H.— Adv: resonare acutum, shrilly, H. —Of the senses, keen, sharp: oculi: nares, i. e. rigid censoriousness, H.—Of the mind, keen, acute, discerning, penetrating, intelligent, sagacious, cunning: si qui acutiores in contione steterunt: hominum genus: studia, i. e. requiring a keen mind: homo ad fraudem, N.— Adv: acutum cernis, keenly, H.
    * * *
    I
    acuta -um, acutior -or -us, acutissimus -a -um ADJ
    sharp, sharpened, pointed/tapering; severe; glaring; acute, wise; high-pitched
    II
    acuta, acutum ADJ
    of small radius; acute (angle)

    Latin-English dictionary > acūtus

  • 3 cippus

        cippus ī, m    —Prop., a pale, stake, post, pillar. —Hence, a pillar at a grave, H.—Plur., in war, a bulwark of sharpened stakes, chevaux-de-frise, Cs.
    * * *
    boundary stone/post/pillar; tombstone (usu. indicating extent of cemetery); stocks/fetter/prison; tree stump; bulwark of sharpened stakes (pl.) (L+S)

    Latin-English dictionary > cippus

  • 4 prae-acūtus

        prae-acūtus adj.,    sharp in front, sharpened, pointed: cacumina, Cs.: sudes, S.: cuspis, O.

    Latin-English dictionary > prae-acūtus

  • 5 acutatus

    acutata, acutatum ADJ

    Latin-English dictionary > acutatus

  • 6 exacutus

    exacuta, exacutum ADJ
    sharpened; stimulated

    Latin-English dictionary > exacutus

  • 7 praeacutus

    praeacuta, praeacutum ADJ
    sharpened, pointed

    Latin-English dictionary > praeacutus

  • 8 acuo

    ăcŭo, ui, ūtum, 3, v. a. ( part. fut. acuturus, not used) [cf. 2. acer], to make sharp or pointed, to sharpen, whet.
    I.
    Lit.:

    ne stridorem quidem serrae audiunt, cum acuitur,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 40; so,

    ferrum,

    Verg. A. 8, 386; Hor. C. 1, 2, 21:

    enses,

    Ov. M. 15, 776:

    gladium,

    Vulg. Deut. 32, 41:

    sagittas,

    id. Jer. 51, 11.— Poet.:

    fulmen,

    Lucr. 6, 278:

    dentes,

    Hor. C. 3, 20, 10; cf. Tib. 4, 3, 3.—
    II.
    Trop.
    A.
    First, of the tongue, qs. to whet, i. e. to sharpen, exercise, improve:

    acuere linguam exercitatione dicendi,

    Cic. Brut. 97:

    linguam causis,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 3, 23; so Vulg. Psa. 139, 4; so in gen.: se, to exercise one's self, to make one's self ready:

    acueram me ad exagitandam hanc ejus legationem,

    Cic. Att. 2, 7: mentem, ingenium, prudentiam, etc.; to sharpen:

    multa, quae acuant mentem, multa quae obtundant,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 33; so id. Brut. 33; id. Phil. 2, 17; id. de Or. 1, 20.—
    B.
    Acuere aliquem (with or without ad aliquid), to spur on, incite, stir up, arouse:

    ad crudelitatem,

    Cic. Lig. 4; id. Fam. 15, 21:

    illos sat aetas acuet,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 49; Cic. Rosc. Am. 33, 110:

    ita duae res, quae languorem afferunt ceteris, illum acuebant, otium et solitudo,

    id. Off. 3, 1; Liv. 28, 19:

    curis acuens mortalia corda,

    Verg. G. 1, 123:

    auditisque lupos acuunt balatibus agni,

    id. ib. 4, 435:

    quam Juno his acuit verbis,

    id. A. 7, 330.—
    C.
    Aliquid, to rouse up, kindle, excite (mostly poet.):

    saevus in armis Aeneas acuit Martem et se suscitat irā,

    Verg. A. 12, 108:

    iram,

    Vulg. Sap. 5, 21:

    studia,

    Val. Max. 2, 2, no. 3.—
    D.
    In gramm.: acuere syllabam, to give an acute accent to (opp. gravem ponere), Quint. 1, 5, 22; cf. Prisc. Op. Min. 159 Lind.: accentus acutus ideo inventus est, quod acuat sive elevet syllabam.—Hence, ăcūtus, a, um, P.a., sharpened, made pointed; hence,
    A.
    Lit., sharp, pointed ( acer denotes natural sharpness, etc.: acutus, that produced by exertion, skill, etc.: sermo acer, impassioned, passionate; sermo acutus, pointed, acute discourse):

    vide ut sit acutus culter probe,

    Plaut. Mil. 5, 4:

    ferrum,

    Hor. A. P. 304:

    cuspis,

    Verg. A. 5, 208:

    gladius,

    Vulg. Psa. 56, 5:

    carex,

    Verg. G. 3, 231; elementa, i. e. pointed, jagged atoms (opp. to perplexa, connected), Lucr. 2, 463:

    nasus,

    Plaut. Cap. 3, 4, 114:

    oculi,

    of a pointed shape, id. Ps. 4, 7, 121:

    aures,

    pointed, Hor. C. 2, 19, 4:

    saxa,

    id. ib. 3, 27, 61; so Verg. A. 1, 45.—
    2.
    Transf.
    a.
    Of the senses themselves, sharp, keen:

    oculos acrīs atque cicutos,

    Cic. Planc. 66:

    nares,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 29; Cels. 2, 6.—
    b.
    Of objects affecting the senses, sharp, acute; of the voice, soprano or treble: inde loci lituus sonitus effudit acutos, Enn. ap. Paul. ex Fest. p. 116 Müll. (Ann. v. 522 ed. Vahl.):

    hinnitu,

    Verg. G. 3, 94:

    voces,

    id. Cir. 107; Ov. M. 3, 224:

    stridore,

    Hor. C. 1, 34, 15:

    vocem ab acutissimo sono usque ad gravissimum sonum recipiunt,

    from the highest treble to the lowest base, Cic. de Or. 1, 59, 251; cf. ib. 3, 57, 216; Somn. Scip. 5; Rep. 6, 18.—
    c.
    In gen., of things affecting the body, of either heat or cold from their similar effects, keen, sharp, violent, severe:

    sol,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 10, 17:

    radii solis,

    Ov. H. 4, 159:

    gelu,

    Hor. C. 1, 9, 4; cf. Lucr. 1, 495; Verg. G. 1, 93; so,

    febris,

    Cels. 2, 4:

    morbus,

    id. 3 (opp. longus), rapid.— Subst. with gen.:

    acuta belli,

    violent, severe misfortunes of war, Hor. C. 4, 4, 76 (= graves belli molestias).—
    B.
    Fig.
    1.
    Of intellectual qualities, acute, clear-sighted, intelligent, sagacious (very freq.):

    Antisthenes homo acutus magis quam eruditus,

    Cic. Att. 12, 37; so id. de Or. 1, 51; id. N. D. 1, 16; Nep. Dion. 8, 1:

    homo ingenio prudentiāque acutissimus,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 39:

    acutae sententiae,

    id. Opt. Gen. Or. 2, 5:

    motus animorum ad excogitandum acuti,

    id. Or. 1, 113:

    studia,

    id. Gen. 50:

    conclusiones,

    Quint. 2, 20, 5.—
    2.
    In gramm.: accentus acutus, the acute accent (opp. gravis), Prisc. p. 159, ed. Lindem.— Comp. Plin. 13, 1, 2.— Adv.: ăcūte, sharply, keenly, acutely:. cernere, Lucr. 4, 804; ib. 811:

    conlecta,

    Cic. Deiot. 33:

    excogitat,

    id. Verr. 4, 147:

    respondeo,

    id. Cael. 17:

    scribo,

    id. Verr. 3, 20; so, ăcūtum:

    cernis,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 26:

    resonarent,

    ib. 8, 41: and, ăcūta: canis ululat, Enn. ap. Fest. p. 9 Müll. (Ann. 346 Vahl.).— Comp., Cic. Inv. 2, 16.— Sup., Cic. Off. 1, 44; id. Verr. 3, 20.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > acuo

  • 9 acuta

    ăcŭo, ui, ūtum, 3, v. a. ( part. fut. acuturus, not used) [cf. 2. acer], to make sharp or pointed, to sharpen, whet.
    I.
    Lit.:

    ne stridorem quidem serrae audiunt, cum acuitur,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 40; so,

    ferrum,

    Verg. A. 8, 386; Hor. C. 1, 2, 21:

    enses,

    Ov. M. 15, 776:

    gladium,

    Vulg. Deut. 32, 41:

    sagittas,

    id. Jer. 51, 11.— Poet.:

    fulmen,

    Lucr. 6, 278:

    dentes,

    Hor. C. 3, 20, 10; cf. Tib. 4, 3, 3.—
    II.
    Trop.
    A.
    First, of the tongue, qs. to whet, i. e. to sharpen, exercise, improve:

    acuere linguam exercitatione dicendi,

    Cic. Brut. 97:

    linguam causis,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 3, 23; so Vulg. Psa. 139, 4; so in gen.: se, to exercise one's self, to make one's self ready:

    acueram me ad exagitandam hanc ejus legationem,

    Cic. Att. 2, 7: mentem, ingenium, prudentiam, etc.; to sharpen:

    multa, quae acuant mentem, multa quae obtundant,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 33; so id. Brut. 33; id. Phil. 2, 17; id. de Or. 1, 20.—
    B.
    Acuere aliquem (with or without ad aliquid), to spur on, incite, stir up, arouse:

    ad crudelitatem,

    Cic. Lig. 4; id. Fam. 15, 21:

    illos sat aetas acuet,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 49; Cic. Rosc. Am. 33, 110:

    ita duae res, quae languorem afferunt ceteris, illum acuebant, otium et solitudo,

    id. Off. 3, 1; Liv. 28, 19:

    curis acuens mortalia corda,

    Verg. G. 1, 123:

    auditisque lupos acuunt balatibus agni,

    id. ib. 4, 435:

    quam Juno his acuit verbis,

    id. A. 7, 330.—
    C.
    Aliquid, to rouse up, kindle, excite (mostly poet.):

    saevus in armis Aeneas acuit Martem et se suscitat irā,

    Verg. A. 12, 108:

    iram,

    Vulg. Sap. 5, 21:

    studia,

    Val. Max. 2, 2, no. 3.—
    D.
    In gramm.: acuere syllabam, to give an acute accent to (opp. gravem ponere), Quint. 1, 5, 22; cf. Prisc. Op. Min. 159 Lind.: accentus acutus ideo inventus est, quod acuat sive elevet syllabam.—Hence, ăcūtus, a, um, P.a., sharpened, made pointed; hence,
    A.
    Lit., sharp, pointed ( acer denotes natural sharpness, etc.: acutus, that produced by exertion, skill, etc.: sermo acer, impassioned, passionate; sermo acutus, pointed, acute discourse):

    vide ut sit acutus culter probe,

    Plaut. Mil. 5, 4:

    ferrum,

    Hor. A. P. 304:

    cuspis,

    Verg. A. 5, 208:

    gladius,

    Vulg. Psa. 56, 5:

    carex,

    Verg. G. 3, 231; elementa, i. e. pointed, jagged atoms (opp. to perplexa, connected), Lucr. 2, 463:

    nasus,

    Plaut. Cap. 3, 4, 114:

    oculi,

    of a pointed shape, id. Ps. 4, 7, 121:

    aures,

    pointed, Hor. C. 2, 19, 4:

    saxa,

    id. ib. 3, 27, 61; so Verg. A. 1, 45.—
    2.
    Transf.
    a.
    Of the senses themselves, sharp, keen:

    oculos acrīs atque cicutos,

    Cic. Planc. 66:

    nares,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 29; Cels. 2, 6.—
    b.
    Of objects affecting the senses, sharp, acute; of the voice, soprano or treble: inde loci lituus sonitus effudit acutos, Enn. ap. Paul. ex Fest. p. 116 Müll. (Ann. v. 522 ed. Vahl.):

    hinnitu,

    Verg. G. 3, 94:

    voces,

    id. Cir. 107; Ov. M. 3, 224:

    stridore,

    Hor. C. 1, 34, 15:

    vocem ab acutissimo sono usque ad gravissimum sonum recipiunt,

    from the highest treble to the lowest base, Cic. de Or. 1, 59, 251; cf. ib. 3, 57, 216; Somn. Scip. 5; Rep. 6, 18.—
    c.
    In gen., of things affecting the body, of either heat or cold from their similar effects, keen, sharp, violent, severe:

    sol,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 10, 17:

    radii solis,

    Ov. H. 4, 159:

    gelu,

    Hor. C. 1, 9, 4; cf. Lucr. 1, 495; Verg. G. 1, 93; so,

    febris,

    Cels. 2, 4:

    morbus,

    id. 3 (opp. longus), rapid.— Subst. with gen.:

    acuta belli,

    violent, severe misfortunes of war, Hor. C. 4, 4, 76 (= graves belli molestias).—
    B.
    Fig.
    1.
    Of intellectual qualities, acute, clear-sighted, intelligent, sagacious (very freq.):

    Antisthenes homo acutus magis quam eruditus,

    Cic. Att. 12, 37; so id. de Or. 1, 51; id. N. D. 1, 16; Nep. Dion. 8, 1:

    homo ingenio prudentiāque acutissimus,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 39:

    acutae sententiae,

    id. Opt. Gen. Or. 2, 5:

    motus animorum ad excogitandum acuti,

    id. Or. 1, 113:

    studia,

    id. Gen. 50:

    conclusiones,

    Quint. 2, 20, 5.—
    2.
    In gramm.: accentus acutus, the acute accent (opp. gravis), Prisc. p. 159, ed. Lindem.— Comp. Plin. 13, 1, 2.— Adv.: ăcūte, sharply, keenly, acutely:. cernere, Lucr. 4, 804; ib. 811:

    conlecta,

    Cic. Deiot. 33:

    excogitat,

    id. Verr. 4, 147:

    respondeo,

    id. Cael. 17:

    scribo,

    id. Verr. 3, 20; so, ăcūtum:

    cernis,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 26:

    resonarent,

    ib. 8, 41: and, ăcūta: canis ululat, Enn. ap. Fest. p. 9 Müll. (Ann. 346 Vahl.).— Comp., Cic. Inv. 2, 16.— Sup., Cic. Off. 1, 44; id. Verr. 3, 20.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > acuta

  • 10 acutatus

    ăcūtātus, a, um, adj. [id.], sharpened:

    sagittæ,

    Veg. 1, 22, 4.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > acutatus

  • 11 adeo

    1.
    ăd-ĕo, ĭī, and rarely īvi, ĭtum (arch. adirier for adiri, Enn. Rib. Trag. p. 59), 4, v. n. and a. (acc. to Paul. ex Fest. should be accented a/deo; v. Fest. s. v. adeo, p. 19 Müll.; cf. the foll. word), to go to or approach a person or thing (syn.: accedo, aggredior, advenio, appeto).
    I.
    Lit.
    A.
    In gen., constr.
    (α).
    With ad (very freq.): sed tibi cautim est adeundum ad virum, Att. ap. Non. 512, 10:

    neque eum ad me adire neque me magni pendere visu'st,

    Plaut. Cur. 2, 2, 12:

    adeamne ad eam?

    Ter. And. 4, 1, 15; id. Eun. 3, 5, 30: aut ad consules aut ad te aut ad Brutum adissent, Cic. Fragm. ap. Non. 208, 5:

    ad M. Bibulum adierunt, id. Fragm. ap. Arus. p. 213 Lind.: ad aedis nostras nusquam adiit,

    Plaut. Aul. 1, 1, 24:

    adibam ad istum fundum,

    Cic. Caec. 29 —
    (β).
    With in: priusquam Romam atque in horum conventum adiretis, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 11, § 26 ed. Halm.—Esp.: adire in jus, to go to law:

    cum ad praetorem in jus adissemus,

    Cic. Verr. 4, § 147; id. Att. 11, 24; Caes. B. C. 1, 87, and in the Plebiscit. de Thermens. lin. 42: QVO DE EA RE IN IOVS ADITVM ERIT, cf. Dirks., Versuche S. p. 193.—
    (γ).
    Absol.:

    adeunt, consistunt, copulantur dexteras,

    Plaut. Aul. 1, 2, 38:

    eccum video: adibo,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 7, 5.—
    (δ).
    With acc.:

    ne Stygeos adeam non libera manes,

    Ov. M. 13, 465:

    voces aetherias adiere domos,

    Sil. 6, 253:

    castrorum vias,

    Tac. A. 2, 13:

    municipia,

    id. ib. 39:

    provinciam,

    Suet. Aug. 47:

    non poterant adire eum,

    Vulg. Luc. 8, 19:

    Graios sales carmine patrio,

    to attain to, Verg. Cat. 11, 62; so with latter supine:

    planioribus aditu locis,

    places easier to approach, Liv. 1, 33.—With local adv.:

    quoquam,

    Sall. J. 14:

    huc,

    Plaut. Truc. 2, 7, 60.—
    B.
    Esp.,
    1.
    To approach one for the purpose of addressing, asking aid, consulting, and the like, to address, apply to, consult (diff. from aggredior, q. v.). —Constr. with ad or oftener with acc.; hence also pass.:

    quanto satius est, adire blandis verbis atque exquaerere, sintne illa, etc.,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 35:

    aliquot me adierunt,

    Ter. And. 3, 3, 2:

    adii te heri de filia,

    id. Hec. 2, 2, 9: cum pacem peto, cum placo, cum adeo, et cum appello meam, Lucil. ap. Non. 237, 28:

    ad me adire quosdam memini, qui dicerent,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 10:

    coram adire et alloqui,

    Tac. H. 4, 65.— Pass.:

    aditus consul idem illud responsum retulit,

    when applied to, Liv. 37, 6 fin.:

    neque praetores adiri possent,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 5.—Hence: adire aliquem per epistulam, to address one in writing, by a letter:

    per epistulam, aut per nuntium, quasi regem, adiri eum aiunt,

    Plaut. Mil. 4, 6, 9 and 10; cf. Tac. A. 4, 39; id. H. 1, 9.—So also: adire deos, aras, deorum sedes, etc., to approach the gods, their altars, etc., as a suppliant (cf.:

    acced. ad aras,

    Lucr. 5, 1199): quoi me ostendam? quod templum adeam? Att. ap. Non. 281, 6:

    ut essent simulacra, quae venerantes deos ipsos se adire crederent,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 27:

    adii Dominum et deprecatus sum,

    Vulg. Sap. 8, 21:

    aras,

    Cic. Phil. 14, 1:

    sedes deorum,

    Tib. 1, 5, 39:

    libros Sibyllinos,

    to consult the Sibylline Books, Liv. 34, 55; cf. Tac. A. 1, 76:

    oracula,

    Verg. A. 7, 82.—
    2.
    To go to a thing in order to examine it, to visit:

    oppida castellaque munita,

    Sall. J. 94:

    hiberna,

    Tac. H. 1, 52.—
    3.
    To come up to one in a hostile manner, to assail, attack:

    aliquem: nunc prior adito tu, ego in insidiis hic ero,

    Ter. Ph. 1, 4, 52:

    nec quisquam ex agmine tanto audet adire virum,

    Verg. A. 5, 379:

    Servilius obvia adire arma jubetur,

    Sil. 9, 272.
    II.
    Fig.
    A.
    To go to the performance of any act, to enter upon, to undertake, set about, undergo, submit to (cf.: accedo, aggredior, and adorior).—With ad or the acc. (class.):

    nunc eam rem vult, scio, mecum adire ad pactionem,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 2, 25:

    tum primum nos ad causas et privatas et publicas adire coepimus,

    Cic. Brut. 90:

    adii causas oratorum, id. Fragm. Scaur. ap. Arus. p. 213 Lind.: adire ad rem publicam,

    id. de Imp. Pomp. 24, 70:

    ad extremum periculum,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 7.—With acc.:

    periculum capitis,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 38:

    laboribus susceptis periculisque aditis,

    id. Off. 1, 19:

    in adeundis periculis,

    id. ib. 24; cf.:

    adeundae inimicitiae, subeundae saepe pro re publica tempestates,

    id. Sest. 66, 139: ut vitae periculum aditurus videretur, Auct. B. G. 8, 48: maximos labores et summa pericula. Nep. Timol. 5:

    omnem fortunam,

    Liv. 25, 10:

    dedecus,

    Tac. A. 1, 39:

    servitutem voluntariam,

    id. G. 24:

    invidiam,

    id. A. 4, 70:

    gaudia,

    Tib. 1, 5, 39.—Hence of an inheritance, t. t., to enter on:

    cum ipse hereditatem patris non adisses,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 16; so id. Arch. 5; Suet. Aug. 8 and Dig.;

    hence also: adire nomen,

    to assume the name bequeathed by will, Vell. 2, 60.—
    B.
    Adire manum alicui, prov., to deceive one, to make sport of (the origin of this phrase is unc.; Acidalius conjectures that it arose from some artifice practised in wrestling, Wagner ad Plaut. Aul. 2, 8, 8):

    eo pacto avarae Veneri pulcre adii manum,

    Plaut. Poen. 2, 11; so id. Aul. 2, 8, 8; id. Cas. 5, 2, 54; id. Pers. 5, 2, 18.
    2.
    ăd-ĕō̆, adv. [cf. quoad and adhuc] (acc. to Festus, it should be accented adéo, v. the preced. word; but this distinction is merely a later invention of the grammarians; [p. 33] cf. Gell. 7, 7).
    I.
    In the ante-class. per.,
    A.
    To designate the limit of space or time, with reference to the distance passed through; hence often accompanied by usque (cf. ad), to this, thus far, so far, as far.
    1.
    Of space:

    surculum artito usque adeo, quo praeacueris,

    fit in the scion as far as you have sharpened it, Cato, R. R. 40, 3.— Hence: res adeo rediit, the affair has gone so far (viz., in deterioration, “cum aliquid pejus exspectatione contigit,” Don. ad Ter. Ph. 1, 2, 5):

    postremo adeo res rediit: adulescentulus saepe eadem et graviter audiendo victus est,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 61; cf. id. Ph. 1, 2, 5.—
    2.
    Of time, so long ( as), so long ( till), strengthened by usque, and with dum, donec, following, and in Cic. with quoad:

    merces vectatum undique adeo dum, quae tum haberet, peperisset bona,

    Plaut. Merc. 1, 1, 76; 3, 4, 72; id. Am. 1, 2, 10 al.:

    nusquam destitit instare, suadere, orare, usque adeo donec perpulit,

    Ter. And. 4, 1, 36; Cato, R. R. 67; id. ib. 76:

    atque hoc scitis omnes usque adeo hominem in periculo fuisse, quoad scitum sit Sestium vivere,

    Cic. Sest. 38, 82.—
    B.
    For the purpose of equalizing two things in comparison, followed by ut: in the same degree or measure or proportion... in which; or so very, so much, so, to such a degree... as (only in comic poets), Plaut. Ep. 4, 1, 38:

    adeon hominem esse invenustum aut infelicem quemquam, ut ego sum?

    Ter. And. 1, 5, 10.—Also followed by quasi, when the comparison relates to similarity:

    gaudere adeo coepit, quasi qui cupiunt nuptias,

    in the same manner as those rejoice who desire marriage, Ter. Heaut. 5, 1, 12.—
    C.
    (Only in the comic poets) = ad haec, praeterea, moreover, besides, too: ibi tibi adeo lectus dabitur, ubi tu haud somnum capias ( beside the other annoyances), a bed, too, shall be given you there, etc., Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 80.—Hence also with etiam:

    adeo etiam argenti faenus creditum audio,

    besides too, id. Most. 3, 1, 101.—
    D.
    (Only in the comic poets.) Adeo ut, for this purpose that, to the end that:

    id ego continuo huic dabo, adeo me ut hic emittat manu,

    Plaut. Rud. 5, 3, 32:

    id adeo te oratum advenio, ut, etc.,

    id. Aul. 4, 10, 9:

    adeo ut tu meam sententiam jam jam poscere possis, faciam, etc.,

    id. ib. 3, 2, 26 (where Wagner now reads at ut):

    atque adeo ut scire possis, factum ego tecum hoc divido,

    id. Stich. 5, 4, 15. (These passages are so interpreted by Hand, I. p. 138; others regard adeo here = quin immo.)—
    E.
    In narration, in order to put one person in strong contrast with another. It may be denoted by a stronger emphasis upon the word to be made conspicuous, or by yet, on the contrary, etc.:

    jam ille illuc ad erum cum advenerit, narrabit, etc.: ille adeo illum mentiri sibi credet,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 2, 4 sq.; so id. Merc. 2, 1, 8 al.
    II.
    To the Latin of every period belongs the use of this word,
    A.
    To give emphasis to an idea in comparison, so, so much, so very, with verbs, adjectives, and substantives:

    adeo ut spectare postea omnīs oderit,

    Plaut. Capt. prol. 65:

    neminem quidem adeo infatuare potuit, ut ei nummum ullum crederet,

    Cic. Fl. 20, 47:

    adeoque inopia est coactus Hannibal, ut, etc.,

    Liv. 22, 32, 3 Weiss.:

    et voltu adeo modesto, adeo venusto, ut nil supra,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 92:

    nemo adeo ferus est, ut, etc.,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 39.—With usque:

    adeo ego illum cogam usque, ut mendicet meus pater,

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 4, 10:

    usque adeo turbatur,

    even so much, so continually, Verg. E. 1, 12; Curt. 10, 1, 42; Luc. 1, 366.—In questions:

    adeone me fuisse fungum, ut qui illi crederem?

    Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 49:

    adeone hospes hujus urbis, adeone ignarus es disciplinae consuetudinisque nostrae, ut haec nescias?

    Cic. Rab. 10, 28; so id. Phil. 2, 7, 15; id. Fam. 9, 10; Liv. 2, 7, 10; 5, 6, 4.—With a negative in both clauses, also with quin in the last:

    non tamen adeo virtutum sterile saeculum, ut non et bona exempla prodiderit,

    Tac. H. 1, 3; so Suet. Oth. 9:

    verum ego numquam adeo astutus fui, quin, etc.,

    Ter. Ad. 2, 2, 13.—

    Sometimes the concluding clause is to be supplied from the first: quis genus Aeneadum, quis Trojae nesciat urbem?... non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Poeni, viz.,

    that we know not the Trojans and their history, Verg. A. 1, 565:

    adeo senuerunt Juppiter et Mars?

    Juv. 6, 59.—Hence (post-Cic.): adeo non ut... adeo nihil ut... so little that, so far from that... (in reference to which, it should be noticed that in Latin the negative is blended with the verb in one idea, which is qualified by adeo) = tantum abest ut: haec dicta adeo nihil moverunt quemquam, ut legati prope violati sint, these words left them all so unmoved that, etc., or had so little effect, etc., Liv. 3, 2, 7: qui adeo non tenuit iram, ut gladio cinctum in senatum venturum se esse palam diceret, who restrained his anger so little that, etc. (for, qui non—tenuit iram adeo, ut), id. 8, 7, 5; so 5, 45, 4; Vell. 2, 66, 4: Curt. 3, 12, 22.—Also with contra in the concluding clause:

    apud hostes Afri et Carthaginienses adeo non sustinebant, ut contra etiam pedem referrent,

    Liv. 30, 34, 5. —
    B.
    Adeo is placed enclitically after its word, like quidem, certe, and the Gr. ge, even, indeed, just, precisely. So,
    1.
    Most freq. with pronouns, in order to render prominent something before said, or foll., or otherwise known (cf. in Gr. egôge, suge, autos ge, etc., Viger. ed. Herm. 489, vi. and Zeun.): argentariis male credi qui aiunt, nugas praedicant: nam et bene et male credi dico; id adeo hodie ego expertus sum, just this (touto ge), Plaut. Curc. 5, 3, 1; so id. Aul. 2, 4, 10; 4, 2, 15; id. Am. 1, 1, 98; 1, 2, 6; id. Ep. 1, 1, 51; 2, 2, 31; 5, 2, 40; id. Poen. 1, 2, 57: plerique homines, quos, cum nihil refert, pudet;

    ubi pudendum'st ibi eos deserit pudor, is adeo tu es,

    you are just such a one, id. Ep. 2, 1, 2:

    cui tu obsecutus, facis huic adeo injuriam,

    Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 68: tute adeo jam ejus verba audies, you yourself shall hear what he has to say (suge akousêi), Ter. And. 3, 3, 27: Dolabella tuo nihil scito mihi esse jucundius: hanc adeo habebo gratiam illi, i. e. hanc, quae maxima est, gratiam (tautên ge tên charin), Caes. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 16:

    haec adeo ex illo mihi jam speranda fuerunt,

    even this, Verg. A. 11, 275.—It is often to be translated by the intensive and, and just, etc. (so esp. in Cic. and the histt.): id adeo, si placet, considerate, just that (touto ge skopeite), Cic. Caec. 30, 87:

    id adeo ex ipso senatus consulto cognoscite,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 64, 143; cf. id. Clu. 30, 80:

    ad hoc quicumque aliarum atque senatus partium erant, conturbari remp., quam minus valere ipsi malebant. Id adeo malum multos post annos in civitatem reverterat,

    And just this evil, Sall. C. 37, 11; so 37, 2; id. J. 68, 3; Liv. 2, 29, 9; 4, 2, 2: id adeo manifestum erit, si cognoverimus, etc., and this, precisely this, will be evident, if, etc., Quint. 2, 16, 18 Spald.—It is rarely used with ille:

    ille adeo illum mentiri sibi credet,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 2, 6.—Sometimes with the rel. pron.: quas adeo haud quisquam liber umquam tetigit, Plaut: Poen. 1, 2, 57; Cic. Fin. 2, 12, 37. —With interrog. pron.:

    Quis adeo tam Latinae linguae ignarus est, quin, etc.,

    Gell. 7, 17.—Adeo is joined with the pers. pron. when the discourse passes from one person to another, and attention is to be particularly directed to the latter: Juppiter, tuque adeo summe Sol, qui res omnes inspicis, and thou especially, and chiefly thou, Enn. ap. Prob.:

    teque adeo decus hoc aevi inibit,

    Verg. E. 4, 11; id. G. 1, 24: teque, Neptune, invoco, vosque adeo venti, Poët. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 34, 73;

    and without the copulative: vos adeo... item ego vos virgis circumvinciam,

    Plaut. Rud. 3, 4, 25.— Ego adeo often stands for ego quidem, equidem (egôge):

    tum libertatem Chrysalo largibere: ego adeo numquam accipiam,

    Plaut. Bacch. 4, 7, 30; so id. Mil. 4, 4, 55; id. Truc. 4, 3, 73:

    ego adeo hanc primus inveni viam,

    Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 16:

    nec me adeo fallit,

    Verg. A. 4, 96.—Ipse adeo (autos ge), for the sake of emphasis:

    atque hercle ipsum adeo contuor,

    Plaut. As. 2, 3, 24:

    ipsum adeo praesto video cum Davo,

    Ter. And. 2, 5, 4:

    ipse adeo senis ductor Rhoeteus ibat pulsibus,

    Sil. 14, 487.—
    2.
    With the conditional conjj. si, nisi, etc. (Gr. ei ge), if indeed, if truly:

    nihili est autem suum qui officium facere immemor est, nisi adeo monitus,

    unless, indeed, he is reminded of it, Plaut. Ps. 4, 7, 2: Si. Num illi molestae quippiam hae sunt nuptiae? Da. Nihil Hercle: aut si adeo, bidui est aut tridui haec sollicitudo, and if, indeed, etc. (not if also, for also is implied in aut), Ter. And. 2, 6, 7.—
    3.
    With adverbs: nunc adeo (nun ge), Plaut. As. 3, 1, 29; id. Mil. 2, 2, 4; id. Merc. 2, 2, 57; id. Men. 1, 2, 11; id. Ps. 1, 2, 52; id. Rud. 3, 4, 23; Ter. And. 4, 5, 26; Verg. A. 9, 156: jam adeo (dê ge), id. ib. 5, 268; Sil. 1, 20; 12, 534; Val. Fl. 3, 70. umquam adeo, Plaut. Cas. 5, 4, 23:

    inde adeo,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 1:

    hinc adeo,

    Verg. E. 9, 59: sic adeo (houtôs ge), id. A. 4, 533; Sil. 12, 646:

    vix adeo,

    Verg. A. 6, 498:

    non adeo,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 57; Verg. A. 11, 436. —
    4.
    With adjectives = vel, indeed, even, very, fully:

    quot adeo cenae, quas deflevi, mortuae!

    how very many suppers, Plaut. Stich. 1, 3, 59: quotque adeo fuerint, qui temnere superbum... Lucil. ap. Non. 180, 2: nullumne malorum finem adeo poenaeque dabis (adeo separated from nullum by poet. license)? wilt thou make no end at all to calamity and punishment? Val. Fl. 4, 63:

    trīs adeo incertos caeca caligine soles erramus,

    three whole days we wander about, Verg. A. 3, 203; 7, 629.—And with comp. or the adv. magis, multo, etc.:

    quae futura et quae facta, eloquar: multo adeo melius quam illi, cum sim Juppiter,

    very much better, Plaut. Am. 5, 2, 3; so id. Truc. 2, 1, 5:

    magis adeo id facilitate quam aliā ullā culpā meā, contigit,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 4, 15.—
    5.
    With the conjj. sive, aut, vel, in order to annex a more important thought, or to make a correction, or indeed, or rather, or even only:

    sive qui ipsi ambīssent, seu per internuntium, sive adeo aediles perfidiose quoi duint,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 71:

    si hercle scivissem, sive adeo joculo dixisset mihi, se illam amare,

    id. Merc. 5, 4, 33; so id. Truc. 4, 3, 1; id. Men. 5, 2, 74; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 9: nam si te tegeret pudor, sive adeo cor sapientia imbutum foret, Pacuv. ap. Non. 521, 10:

    mihi adeunda est ratio, quā ad Apronii quaestum, sive adeo, quā ad istius ingentem immanemque praedam possim pervenire,

    or rather, Cic. Verr 2, 3, 46, 110; Verg. A. 11, 369; so, atque adeo:

    ego princeps in adjutoribus atque adeo secundus,

    Cic. Att. 1, 17, 9.—
    6.
    With the imperative, for emphasis, like tandem, modo, dum, the Germ. so, and the Gr. ge (cf. L. and S.), now, I pray:

    propera adeo puerum tollere hinc ab janua,

    Ter. And. 4, 4, 20 (cf. xullabete g auton, Soph. Phil. 1003).—
    C.
    Like admodum or nimis, to give emphasis to an idea (for the most part only in comic poets, and never except with the positive of the adj.; cf. Consent. 2023 P.), indeed, truly, so very, so entirely:

    nam me ejus spero fratrem propemodum jam repperisse adulescentem adeo nobilem,

    so very noble, Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 123:

    nec sum adeo informis,

    nor am I so very ugly, Verg. E. 2, 25:

    nam Caii Luciique casu non adeo fractus,

    Suet. Aug. 65:

    et merito adeo,

    and with perfect right, Ter. Hec. 2, 1, 42:

    etiam num credis te ignorarier aut tua facta adeo,

    do you, then, think that they are ignorant of you or your conduct entirely? id. Ph. 5, 8, 38.—
    D.
    To denote what exceeds expectation, even: quam omnium Thebis vir unam esse optimam dijudicat, quamque adeo cives Thebani rumificant probam, and whom even the Thebans (who are always ready to speak evil of others) declare to be an honest woman, Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 44.— Hence also it denotes something added to the rest of the sentence, besides, too, over and above, usually in the connection: -que adeo (rare, and never in prose; cf.

    adhuc, I.): quin te Di omnes perdant qui me hodie oculis vidisti tuis, meque adeo scelestum,

    and me too, Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 122; cf. id. 4, 2, 32:

    haec adeo tibi me, ipsa palam fari omnipotens Saturnia jussit,

    Verg. A. 7, 427.
    III.
    After Caesar and Cicero (the only instance of this use adduced from Cicero's works, Off. 1, 11, 36, being found in a passage rejected by the best critics, as B. and K.).
    A.
    For adding an important and satisfactory reason to an assertion, and then it always stands at the beginning of the clause, indeed, for:

    cum Hanno perorāsset, nemini omnium cum eo certare necesse fuit: adeo prope omnis senatus Hannibalis erat: the idea is,

    Hanno's speech, though so powerful, was ineffectual, and did not need a reply; for all the senators belonged to the party of Hannibal, Liv. 21, 11, 1; so id. 2, 27, 3; 2, 28, 2; 8, 37, 2; Tac. Ann. 1, 50, 81; Juv. 3, 274; 14, 233.—Also for introducing a parenthesis: sed ne illi quidem ipsi satis mitem gentem fore (adeo ferocia atque indomita [p. 34] ingenia esse) ni subinde auro... principum animi concilientur, Liv. 21, 20, 8; so id. 9, 26, 17; 3, 4, 2; Tac. A. 2, 28.—
    B.
    When to a specific fact a general consideration is added as a reason for it, so, thus (in Livy very often):

    haud dubius, facilem in aequo campi victoriam fore: adeo non fortuna modo, sed ratio etiam cum barbaris stabat,

    thus not only fortune, but sagacity, was on the side of the barbarians, Liv. 5, 38, 4:

    adeo ex parvis saepe magnarum momenta rerum pendent,

    id. 27, 9, 1; so id. 4, 31, 5; 21, 33, 6; 28, 19; Quint. 1, 12, 7; Curt. 10, 2, 11; Tac. Agr. 1:

    adeo in teneris consuescere multum est,

    Verg. G. 2, 272.—
    C.
    In advancing from one thought to another more important = immo, rather, indeed, nay: nulla umquam res publica ubi tantus paupertati ac parsimoniae honos fuerit: adeo, quanto rerum minus, tanto minus cupiditatis erat, Liv. praef. 11; so Gell. 11, 7; Symm. Ep. 1, 30, 37.—
    D.
    With a negative after ne—quidem or quoque, so much the more or less, much less than, still less (post-Aug.):

    hujus totius temporis fortunam ne deflere quidem satis quisquam digne potuit: adeo nemo exprimere verbis potest,

    still less can one describe: it by words, Vell. 2, 67, 1:

    ne tecta quidem urbis, adeo publicum consilium numquam adiit,

    still less, Tac. A. 6, 15; so id. H. 3, 64; Curt. 7, 5, 35:

    favore militum anxius et superbia viri aequalium quoque, adeo superiorum intolerantis,

    who could not endure his equals even, much less his superiors, Tac. H. 4, 80.—So in gen., after any negative: quaelibet enim ex iis artibus in paucos libros contrahi solet: adeo infinito spatio ac traditione opus non est, so much the less is there need, etc., Quint. 12, 11, 16; Plin. 17, 12, 35, § 179; Tac. H. 3, 39.—(The assumption of a causal signif. of adeo = ideo, propterea, rests upon false readings. For in Cael. Cic. Fam. 8, 15 we should read ideo, B. and K., and in Liv. 24, 32, 6, ad ea, Weiss.).—See more upon this word in Hand, Turs. I. pp. 135-155.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > adeo

  • 12 agger

    agger, ĕris, m. [ad-gero].
    I.
    Things brought to a place in order to form an elevation above a surface or plain, as rubbish, stone, earth, sand, brushwood, materials for a rampart, etc. (in the histt., esp. Cæs., freq.; sometimes in the poets): ab opere revocandi milites, qui paulo longius aggeris petendi causā processerant, Caes. B. G. 2, 20:

    aggere paludem explere,

    id. ib. 7, 58; cf. id. ib. 7, 86:

    longius erat agger petendus,

    id. B. C. 1, 42; 2, 15 al.:

    superjecto aggere terreno,

    Suet. Calig. 19; cf. id. ib. 37:

    implere cavernas aggere,

    Curt. 8, 10, 27:

    fossas aggere complent,

    Verg. A. 9, 567: avis e medio aggere exit, from the midst of the pile of wood, Ov. M. 12, 524.— But far oftener,
    II.
    Esp.
    A.
    The pile formed by masses of rubbish, stone, earth, brushwood, etc., collected together; acc. to its destination, a dam, dike, mole, pier; a hillock, mound, wall, bulwark, rampart, etc.; esp. freq. in the histt. of artificial elevations for military purposes: tertium militare sepimentum est fossa et terreus agger, a clay or mud wall, Varr. R. R. 1, 14, 2: aggeribus niveis ( with snow-drifts) informis Terra, Verg. G. 3, 354:

    atque ipsis proelia miscent Aggeribus murorum, pleon. for muris,

    id. A. 10, 24; cf. id. ib. 10, 144:

    ut cocto tolleret aggere opus, of the walls of Babylon,

    Prop. 4, 10, 22.— A dike of earth for the protection of a harbor (Ital. molo), Vitr. 5, 12, 122; Ov. M. 14, 445; 15, 690.— A causeway through a swamp:

    aggeres umido paludum et fallacibus campis imponere,

    Tac. A. 1, 61.— A heap or pile of arms:

    agger armorum,

    Tac. H. 2, 70.— Poet., for mountains:

    aggeres Alpini,

    Verg. A. 6, 830; so,

    Thessalici aggeres,

    i. e. Pelion, Ossa, Olympus, Sen. Herc. Oet. 168.— A funeral pile of wood, Ov. M. 9, 234, and Sen. Herc. Fur. 1216.— A heap of ashes:

    ab alto aggere,

    Luc. 5, 524 Weber.— A high wave of the sea:

    ab alto Aggere dejecit pelagi,

    Luc. 5, 674:

    consurgit ingens pontus in vastum aggerem,

    Sen. Hippol. 1015 (cf.:

    mons aquae,

    Verg. A. 1, 105).—
    B.
    In milit. lang.
    1.
    A mound erected before the walls of a besieged city, for the purpose of sustaining the battering engines, and which was gradually advanced to the town; cf. Smith's Dict. Antiq., and Herz. ad Caes. B. G. 2, 12:

    aggere, vineis, turribus oppidum oppugnare,

    Cic. Fam. 15, 4; id. Att. 5, 20:

    esset agger oppugnandae Italiae Graecia,

    id. Phil. 10, 9:

    celeriter vineis ad oppidum actis, aggere jacto turribusque constitutis, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 12:

    jacere,

    to throw up, Sall. J. 37, 4; so Vulg. Isa. 29, 3:

    aggerem exstruere,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 30:

    instruere,

    id. ib. 8, 41:

    promovere ad urbem,

    to bring near to the city, Liv. 5, 7.— Hence, poet.: stellatis axibus agger Erigitur, geminasque aequantis moenia turres Accipit, a mound is built provided with wheels (for moving it forwards), Luc. 3, 455; imitated by Sil. 13, 109.—Since such aggeres consisted principally of wood, they could be easily set on fire, Caes. B. C. 2, 14: horae momento simul aggerem ac vineas incendium hausit, Liv 5, 7.— Trop.:

    Graecia esset vel receptaculum pulso Antonio, vel agger oppugnandae Italiae,

    rampart, mound, Cic. Phil. 10, 4: Agger Tarquini, the mound raised by Tarquinius Superbus for the defence of the eastern part of the city of Rome, in the neighborhood of the present Porta S. Lorenzo, Plin. 3, 5, 9, § 67; cf. id. 36, 15, 24, n. 2, * Hor. S. 1, 8, 15; Juv. 5, 153; so id. 8, 43; Quint. 12, 10, 74.—Suet. uses agger for the Tarpeian rock: quoad praecipitaretur ex aggere, Calig. 27.—
    2.
    The mound raised for the protection of a camp before the trench (fossa), and from earth dug from it, which was secured by a stockade (vallum), consisting of sharpened stakes (valli); cf.

    Hab. Syn. 68, and Smith's Dict. Antiq.: in litore sedes, Castrorum in morem pinnis atque aggere cingit,

    Verg. A. 7, 159; Plin. 15, 14, 14, § 47.—
    3.
    The tribunal, in a camp, formed of turf, from which the general addressed his soldiers:

    stetit aggere saltus Cespitis, intrepidus vultum meruitque timeri,

    Luc. 5, 317:

    vix eā turre senex, cum ductor ab aggere coepit,

    Stat. Th. 7, 374; cf. Tac. A. 1, 18 Lips.—
    4.
    A military or public road, commonly graded by embankments of earth (in the class. per. only in Verg. and Tac., and always in connection with viae, agger alone belonging only to later Lat.):

    viae deprensus in aggere serpens,

    Verg. A. 5, 273:

    Aurelius agger, i. e. via Aurelia,

    Rutil. Itiner. 39:

    aggerem viae tres praetoriae cohortes obtinuere,

    Tac. H. 2, 24 and 42; 3, 21 and 23.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > agger

  • 13 cippi

    cippus ( cīpus), i, m. [kindr. with scipio; cf. skêptô], a pale, stake, post, pillar, Lucil. ap. Fest. p. 258; and specif.,
    I.
    A gravestone, tombstone, * Hor. S. 1, 8, 12; Pers. 1, 37; Prud. Apoth. 361; Inscr. Orell. 4524 al.—
    II.
    In the Agrimensores, a landmark, boundary-stone or post, Simplic. ap. Goes. p. 88.—
    * III.
    In milit. lang., cippi, ōrum, m., a bulwark formed of sharpened stakes, Caes. B. G. 7, 73.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > cippi

  • 14 cippus

    cippus ( cīpus), i, m. [kindr. with scipio; cf. skêptô], a pale, stake, post, pillar, Lucil. ap. Fest. p. 258; and specif.,
    I.
    A gravestone, tombstone, * Hor. S. 1, 8, 12; Pers. 1, 37; Prud. Apoth. 361; Inscr. Orell. 4524 al.—
    II.
    In the Agrimensores, a landmark, boundary-stone or post, Simplic. ap. Goes. p. 88.—
    * III.
    In milit. lang., cippi, ōrum, m., a bulwark formed of sharpened stakes, Caes. B. G. 7, 73.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > cippus

  • 15 cipus

    cippus ( cīpus), i, m. [kindr. with scipio; cf. skêptô], a pale, stake, post, pillar, Lucil. ap. Fest. p. 258; and specif.,
    I.
    A gravestone, tombstone, * Hor. S. 1, 8, 12; Pers. 1, 37; Prud. Apoth. 361; Inscr. Orell. 4524 al.—
    II.
    In the Agrimensores, a landmark, boundary-stone or post, Simplic. ap. Goes. p. 88.—
    * III.
    In milit. lang., cippi, ōrum, m., a bulwark formed of sharpened stakes, Caes. B. G. 7, 73.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > cipus

  • 16 D

    D, d (n. indecl., sometimes f. sc. littera), the flat dental mute, corresponding in character and sound to the English d and the Greek D, was the fourth letter of the Latin alphabet, and was called de: Ter. Maur. p. 2385 P., Auson. Idyll. 12, de Litt. Monos. 14. But at the end of a syllable, or after another consonant, its sound was sharpened, so that the grammarians often discuss the question whether d or t should be written, especially in conjunctions and prepositions. Illa quoque servata est a multis differentia, ut ad cum esset praepositio, d litteram, cum autem conjunctio, t acciperet (Quint. 1, 7, 5; cf. id. 1, 4, 16). Hence we may infer that some disputed this distinction, and that the sounds of ad and at must at least have been very similar (cf. also Terent. Scaur. p. 2250, Vel. Long. p. 2230 sq., Cassiod. p. 2287, 2291). Thus also aput, it, quit, quot, aliut, set, haut are found for apud, id, quid, quod, aliud, sed, haud. It would appear from the remarks of these authors that the last two words in particular, having a proclitic character, while they distinctly retained the d sound before an initial vowel in the following word, were pronounced before a consonant almost as set, haut (Mar. Vict. p. 2462 P., Vel. Long. l. l. v. Corss. Ausspr. 1, 191 sq.). The use of t for d in the middle of a word, as Alexenter for Alexander, atnato for adnato, is very rare (cf. Wordsworth, Fragm. p. 486 sq.). On the other hand, the use of d for t, which sometimes appears in MSS. and inscrr., as ed, capud, essed, inquid (all of which occur in the Cod. palimps. of Cic. Rep.), adque, quodannis, sicud, etc., fecid, reliquid, etc. (all in inscriptions after the Augustan period), is to be ascribed to a later phonetic softening (cf. Corss. Ausspr. 1, 191 sq.).
    II.
    As an initial, the letter d, in pure Latin words, suffers only a vowel after it; the single consonantal compound dr being found only in borrowed words, such as drama, Drusus, Druidae, etc., and in the two onomatopees drenso and drindio. Accordingly, the d of the initial dv, from du, was rejected, and the remaining v either retained unaltered (as in v iginti for du iginti; cf. triginta) or changed into b (as in b ellum, b is, b onus, for du ellum, du is, du onus; v. those words and the letter B). So too in and after the 4th century A.D., di before vowels was pronounced like j (cf. J ovis for Dj ovis, and J anus for Di anus); and hence, as the Greek di ( di) passed into dz, i. e. z (as in z a for d ia, and z eta for di aeta), we sometimes find the same name written in two or three ways, as Diabolenus, Jabolenus, Zabolenus; Jadera, Diadora, Zara. In many Greek words, however, which originally began with a y sound, d was prefixed by an instinctive effort to avoid a disagreeable utterance, just as in English the initial j has regularly assumed the sound of dj: thus Gr. zugon, i. e. diugon = L. jugum; and in such cases the d sound has been prefixed in Greek, not lost in Latin and other languages (v. Curt. Griech. Etym. p. 608 sq.).b. As a medial, d before most consonants undergoes assimilation; v. ad, no. II.; assum, init., and cf. iccirco, quippiam, quicquam, for idcirco, quidpiam, quidquam; and in contractions like cette from cedite, pelluviae from pediluviae, sella from sedela. In contractions, however, the d is sometimes dropped and a compensation effected by lengthening the preceding vowel, as scāla for scand-la. D before endings which begin with s was suppressed, as pes from ped-s, lapis from lapid-s, frons from frond-s, rasi from radsi, risi from rid-si, lusi from lud-si, clausi from claud-si; but in the second and third roots of cedo, and in the third roots of some other verbs, d is assimilated, as cessi, cessum, fossum, etc. D is also omitted before s in composition when another consonant follows the s, as ascendo, aspicio, asto, astringo, and so also before the nasal gn in agnatus, agnitus, and agnosco, from gnatus, etc.: but in other combinations it is assimilated, as assentio, acclamo, accresco; affligo, affrico; agglomero, aggrego; applico, approbo, etc. In tentum, from tendo, d is dropped to avoid the combination ndt or ntt, since euphony forbids a consonant to be doubled after another.g. Final d stood only in ad, apud, sed, and in the neuter pronouns quid, quod, illud, istud, and aliud, anciently alid. Otherwise, the ending d was considered barbarous, Prisc. p. 686 P.
    III.
    The letter d represents regularly an original Indo-Germanic d, in Greek d, but which in German becomes z, in Gothic t, and in Anglo-Saxon t: cf. Gr. hêdomai, Sanscr. svad, Germ. süss, Angl.-Sax. svēte (sweet), with Lat. suadeo; domare with Gr. damaô, Germ. zähmen, Eng. tame; domus with demô, timber, O. H. Germ. zimber; duo with duô, zwei, two. But it is also interchanged with other sounds, and thus sometimes represents—
    1.
    An original t: mendax from mentior; quadraginta, quadra, etc., from quatuor.—
    2.
    An original r: ar and ad; apur or apor and apud; meridies and medidies, audio and auris; cf. arbiter, from ad-beto; arcesso for ad-cesso.—
    3.
    An original l: adeps, Gr. aleipha; dacrima and lacrima, dingua and lingua; cf. on the contrary, olere for odere, consilium and considere, Ulixes from Odusseus (v. Corss. Ausspr. 1, 223).—
    4.
    An original s: Claudius, from the Sabine Clausus, medius and misos; and, on the contrary, rosa and rhodon. —
    5.
    A Greek th: fides, pistis; gaudere, gêtheô; vad-i-monium (from va-d-s, vadis), aethlon.
    IV.
    In the oldest period of the language d was the ending of the ablat. sing. and of the adverbs which were originally ablatives (cf. Ritschl, Neue Plaut. Excur. I.; Brix ad Plaut. Trin. Prol. 10): pu CNANDO, MARID, DICTATORED, IN ALTOD MARID, NAVALED PRAEDAD on the Col. Rostr.; DE SENATVOS SENTENTIAD (thrice) IN OQVOLTOD, IN POPLICOD, IN PREIVATOD, IN COVENTIONID, and the adverbs SVPRAD SCRIPTVM EST (thrice), EXSTRAD QVAM SEI, and even EXSTRAD VRBEM, in S. C. de Bacch. So intra-d, ultra-d, citra-d, contra-d, infra-d, supra-d; contro-d, intro-d, etc.; and probably interea-d, postea-d. Here too belongs, no doubt, the adverb FACILVMED, found in the last-mentioned inscription. But this use of the d became antiquated during the 3d century B.C., and is not found at all in any inscription after 186 B. C. Plautus seems to have used or omitted it at will (Ritschl, Neue Plaut. Excurs. p. 18: Corss. Ausspr. 1, 197; 2, 1008).
    2.
    D final was also anciently found—
    a.
    In the accus. sing. of the personal pronouns med, ted, sed: INTER SED CONIOVRASE and INTER SED DEDISE, for inter se conjuravisse and inter se dedisse, in the S. C. de Bacch. This usage was retained, at least as a license of verse, when the next word began with a vowel, even in the time of Plautus. But in the classic period this d no longer appears. —
    b.
    In the imperative mood;

    as estod,

    Fest. p. 230. The Oscan language retained this ending (v. Corss. Ausspr. 1, 206).—
    c.
    In the preposition se-, originally identical with the conjunction sed (it is retained in the compound seditio); also in red-, prod-, antid-, postid-, etc. ( redire, prodire, etc.); and in these words, too, it is a remnant of the ancient characteristic of the ablative (v. Corss. Ausspr. 1, 200 sq.; Roby, Lat. Gr. 1, 49).
    V.
    As an abbreviation, D usually stands for the praenomen Decimus; also for Deus, Divus, Dominus, Decurio, etc.; over epitaphs, D. M. = Diis Manibus; over temple inscriptions, D. O. M. = Deo Optimo Maxumo; in the titles of the later emperors, D. N. = Dominus Noster, and DD. NN. = Domini Nostri. Before dates of letters, D signified dabam, and also dies; hence, a. d. = ante diem; in offerings to the gods, D. D. = dono or donum dedit; D. D. D. = dat, dicat, dedicat, etc. Cf. Orell. Inscr. II. p. 457 sq.
    The Romans denoted the number 500 by D; but the character was then regarded, not as a letter, but as half of the original Tuscan numeral (or CI[C ]) for 1000.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > D

  • 17 fastigo

    fastīgo, āvi, ātum, 1, v. a. [v. fastigium], to make pointed, to sharpen to a point, to raise or bring to a point (in the verb. finit. only post-Aug., not in Cic.).
    I.
    Lit.:

    frumenta verno tempore fastigantur in stipulam,

    grow up into a straw with a sharpened point, Plin. 18, 7, 10, § 52:

    folia in exilitatem fastigantur,

    id. 24, 19, 118, § 178:

    (terra) spatiosa modice paulatim se ipsa fastigat,

    Mel. 2, 1, 5:

    se molliter (Africa),

    id. 1, 4, 1; 3, 10, 5.—In the part. perf.:

    scutis super capita densatis, stantibus primis, secundis summissioribus... fastigatam, sicut tecta aedificiorum sunt, testudinem faciebant,

    Liv. 44, 9, 6:

    collis in modum metae in acutum cacumen a fundo satis lato fastigatus,

    id. 37, 27, 7:

    fastigatus in mucronem,

    Plin. 2, 25, 22, § 89:

    fastigatā longitudine (margaritarum),

    id. 9, 35, 56, § 113.—
    B.
    Transf.
    1.
    (Cf. fastigium, I. B. 2.) Fastigatus, sloping up to a point, sloped; sloping down, steep, descending:

    collis leniter fastigatus paulatim ad planitiem redibat,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 8, 3:

    tigna... prona ac fastigata, ut secundum naturam fluminis procumberent,

    id. ib. 4, 17, 4.—
    2.
    (Cf. I. B. 3.) In the later grammarians, to mark with an accent, to accent:

    ut fastigetur, longa brevisve fuat,

    Mart. Cap. 3, § 262.—
    II.
    Trop., to elevate, exalt (late Lat.):

    qui statum celsitudinis tuae titulorum parilitate fastigat,

    Sid. Ep. 3, 6:

    quamquam diademate crinem Fastigatus eas,

    id. Carm. 2, 5.—Hence, fastīgātus, a, um, P. a., high, exalted (late Lat.):

    ad arcem fastigatissimae felicitatis evectus,

    Sid. Ep. 2. 4:

    duo fastigatissimi consulares,

    id. ib. 1, 9.— Adv.: fastīgāte, Caes. B. G. 4, 17, 4; id. B. C. 2, 10, 5.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > fastigo

  • 18 incudo

    in-cūdo, di, sum, ĕre, v. a., to forge with the hammer, to fabricate ( poet., used only in part. pass.):

    incusa auro dona,

    Pers. 2, 52: lapis, an indented or sharpened stone for a handmill, Verg. G. 1, 275; Col. 7, 1, 3.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > incudo

  • 19 praeacuo

    prae-ăcŭo, ūtum, 3, v. a., to sharpen before or at one end, to sharpen to a point:

    surculum praeacuito... eum primorem praeacuito,

    Cato, R. R. 40, 2 and 3.—Hence, praeăcūtus, a, um.
    I.
    Part.—
    II.
    P. a., sharpened before or at the end, sharpened, pointed:

    surculus aridus praeacutus,

    Cato, R. R. 40, 3:

    cacumina,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 73, 2:

    sudes,

    Sall. C. 56, 3:

    tigna paulum ab imo praeacuta,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 17:

    cuspis,

    Ov. M. 7, 131:

    bipennis,

    Plin. 8, 8, 8, § 26:

    scopuli,

    id. 9, 10, 12, § 38.—Hence, praeăcūtē, adv., very acutely, App. Mag. p. 296, 26.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > praeacuo

  • 20 praeacute

    prae-ăcŭo, ūtum, 3, v. a., to sharpen before or at one end, to sharpen to a point:

    surculum praeacuito... eum primorem praeacuito,

    Cato, R. R. 40, 2 and 3.—Hence, praeăcūtus, a, um.
    I.
    Part.—
    II.
    P. a., sharpened before or at the end, sharpened, pointed:

    surculus aridus praeacutus,

    Cato, R. R. 40, 3:

    cacumina,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 73, 2:

    sudes,

    Sall. C. 56, 3:

    tigna paulum ab imo praeacuta,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 17:

    cuspis,

    Ov. M. 7, 131:

    bipennis,

    Plin. 8, 8, 8, § 26:

    scopuli,

    id. 9, 10, 12, § 38.—Hence, praeăcūtē, adv., very acutely, App. Mag. p. 296, 26.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > praeacute

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