Translation: from french

rings of power

  • 401 retaper

    I.
    v. trans.
    1. To do a 'botched' repair, to mend something in a haphazard manner. Chaque fois qu'il fait du vent, on doit retaper le poulailler: Every time it blows a gale we have to plug holes in the henhouse.
    2. To 'buck up', to cheer up. Ça m'a drôlement retapé de te voir aujourd'hui! Seeing you today did me a power of good!
    3. Se faire retaper (sch.): To 'get ploughed', to get failed at an exam.
    II.
    v. pronom.
    1. To 'pick up again', to get back to good health.
    2. To 'come out of Queer Street', to become solvent again.
    3. To get kitted out with brand-new clothes.

    Dictionary of Modern Colloquial French > retaper

  • 402 tambour

    n. m.
    1. Raisonner comme un tambour: To 'spout a load of tommy-rot', to 'talk through one's hat', to utter inanities.
    2. Il n'y a pas de quoi faire passer le tambour de ville! It's nothing to make a song-and-dance about! — It's hardly worth a mention! (Unlike his English counterpart who rings a bell to get the public's attention, the French village newsbearer, as the name suggests, beats a quick roll on the drum before an announcement.)

    Dictionary of Modern Colloquial French > tambour

  • 403 veau

    n. m.
    1. (Racing slang): 'Nag', inferior racehorse.
    2. Car definitely lacking in accelerating power, the kind of vehicle that just trundles along at a leisurely pace.
    3. (also: tête de veau): 'Burk', 'nincompoop', fool.
    4. Pleurer comme un veau: To 'blubber', to 'cry one's eyes out', to weep.

    Dictionary of Modern Colloquial French > veau

  • 404 Arrêté, un

       An arrêté is an order, a decree or a by-law, signed by someone in power, such as a minister or the head of some level of territorial authority. An arrêté préfectoral is thus a by-law or order, signed by the Prefect, and applying to some issue, location or activity under his jurisdiction.

    Dictionnaire Français-Anglais. Agriculture Biologique > Arrêté, un

  • 405 Bérégovoy, Pierre

       (1925-1993)
       Socialist Prime Minister of France 1992-1993, at the end of the second Mitterrand presidency. Former metal worker and trade unionist, who bacame a close advisor to Pierre Mendès Fance, and later private secretary to François Mitterrand. In 1992, after the disastrous months of the Cresson government, Beregovoy was appointed Prime Minister, in the hope that he could revive the flagging fortunes of the Socialist Party. he failed, and in 1993, the conservatives were returned to power. Just over a month later, he was found dead with two gunshot wounds to the head. A verdict of suicide was returned.

    Dictionnaire Français-Anglais. Agriculture Biologique > Bérégovoy, Pierre

  • 406 Bonaparte, Napoléon Bonaparte

       (1769-1821)
       Ruler of France from 1799 to 1815. Napoleon came to power as a successful military commander in the wake of the French Revolution of 1798, initially as First Consul, then as Emperor. A brilliant military and civil commander, Napoleon established good part of the basis of the modern French state, with its centralised power structure, law, and administration. Through military victories and alliances, he rapidly spread the power of post-revolutionary France across Europe. However, like Hitler in the twentieth century, he overstretched the capacities of his great army, when he tried to conquer Russia. The retreat from Moscow in 1812 was his first great defeat. It was followed however by his final undoing, defeat by the British army at the batle of Waterloo in 1815. Captured by the British, Napoleon was exiled first to Elba, from where he escaped, then to the mid atlantic island of Saint Helena, where he died in exile in 1821.

    Dictionnaire Français-Anglais. Agriculture Biologique > Bonaparte, Napoléon Bonaparte

  • 407 Chirac, Jacques

       born 1932.
       (adj. Chiraquien)
       Former conservative (Gaullist) President of France, from 1995 to 2007. Chirac's reelection in 2002 was an unexpected twist of fortune, caused by the elimination of the front-runner, socialist Lionel Jospin, pipped into third place in the first round of the election by a surge in the vote for the far right wing leader of the French National Front, Jean Marie Le Pen.Facing Le Pen in the second round, Chirac was reelected with a massive majority in what was in essence a contest between the the extreme right and everyone else. Had the second round of the election been a classic left-right contest, Chirac's re-election would not have been guaranteed.
       Jacques Chirac was a highly ambitious career politician, who worked his way rapidly up the ranks of the Gaullist movement; yet his first steps in politics were actually as a militant for the Communist party, and as a student he sold the communist newspaper l'Humanité on the streets of Paris. After graduating from "Sciences Po", he changed tack, married into Parisian high society, studied at the elite ENA (Ecole Nationale d'Administration), and then began a career in politics, working for the office of the prime minister, Georges Pompidou. In 1976, he was appointed junior minister for employment in the third Pompidou government, and from then after he remained one of the most omnipresent of conservative politicians in France. From Gaullist, he became a supporter of Valéry Giscard d'Estaing during Giscard's 1974 bid for the presidency - against the Gaullist Chaban-Delmas - and was appointed Prime Minister when Giscard won. Two years later, he resigned, complaining that Giscard was cramping his style.
       This was the start of his rise to the top. No longer prime minister, in 1977 he set about building his own power base, or rather his own two power bases, firstly as leader of a new political party, the RPR, created out of the old Gaullist UDR, and secondly by becoming elected Mayor of Paris. In 1981, he challenged Giscard for the presidency, but came third in the first round of the election, which was won by François Mitterrand. By 1986 he was clear leader of the conservative opposition. When the conservatives won the general election of that year, he was appointed prime minister, ushering in the first period of cohabitation (see below) between a president and a government of different political persuasions.
       In 1988, he was again a candidate in the presidential election, and again lost; but with his power base in Paris and in the RPR, he then had seven years in which to prepare his third, and first successful, challenge for the presidency.
       He served two terms as president, the first of seven years, the second of five - though as already stated, his reelection in 2002 was more due to the failure of the Socialist campaign and the surprise presence of Le Pen in the second round, than in his own popularity. It is still rather early to judge the Chirac presidency in a historic perspective, but early appraisals suggest that it will not be remembered as a great period in French history. It was a time during which France dramatically failed to adapt to the changes in the modern world - the end of the Cold War and the challenge of globalisation - and failed to push through the social and economic reforms that were allowing other developed nations such as France, Germany or Spain, to find their place in the new world order.

    Dictionnaire Français-Anglais. Agriculture Biologique > Chirac, Jacques

  • 408 Commune

       a) The basic unit of local government and administration in France. Established after the French Revolution in 1789, the commune system of local administration was designed for another age, in which France was very much a rural nation. Even today, there are still over 36,000 communes, each with its Maire and municipal council, each with its budget and responsibilities, including local taxation and local public services. Needless to say, with some small rural communes having less than 1000 inhabitants, finding enough skilled people to run a modern commune is often a hard task; yet in spite of efforts to rationalise, such as the grouping of rural communes into Communautés de communes, the system remains strongly resistant to change, the loss of a commune being frequently seen as the loss of local identity, not to mention the loss of a local power base
       b) See Commune de Paris

    Dictionnaire Français-Anglais. Agriculture Biologique > Commune

  • 409 Cumul des mandats

       Expression used to describe the cumulation, by a single politician, of a range of different representative functions, such as parliamentarian and mayor, or mayor and president of a regional council. The principle of combining different representative roles is deeply anchored in the French political tradition, where national politicians frequently built up their reputation and power bases in their local fiefdoms, and local politics were often in the hands of local "notables" with their fingers in many pies.. Jacques Chirac, for example, had a range of elected and ministerial jobs, and was at one time simultaneously député for the Corrèzedepartment, President of the General council of Corrèze, and Mayor of Paris. Since the 1990's, there have been attempts to outlaw the practice of double mandates. Lionel Jospin forbade ministers in his government from being mayor at the same time, and this unwritten rule continued to be applied - more or less - until the end of the Chirac presidency. Since the start of the Sarkozy presidency, it has been enforced less stringently. According to a 2007 opinion poll for Le Nouvel Observateur, 74% of French people disapprove of the principle of cumul des mandats. Reform of this aspect of French life would surely be appreciated by voters, but the principle is so well rooted in the French socio-political system, and so many decision-makers and advisors- of all political persuasions - have a vested interest in the system, that this is a reform that will likely prove very difficult to implement.

    Dictionnaire Français-Anglais. Agriculture Biologique > Cumul des mandats

  • 410 Décentralisation

       regionalisation, decentralisation, devolution of power from the central government to regional and departmental authorities. France has a long legacy as a centralised state, dating back many centuries; the centralised structure of power has survived numerous regime changes in since the French Revolution. It was not until the election of a Socialist government in 1981 that any major steps were taken to reduce the importance of Paris. The first Loi de Décentralisation, passed in 1982, transferred certain powers to the regions, and since then further powers have been devolved, including responsibility for lycées (though not the recruitment of their teachers), regional public transport services, and the management of certain social services.
       Regions are now governed by elected conseils régionaux, under the leadership of a Président de région.

    Dictionnaire Français-Anglais. Agriculture Biologique > Décentralisation

  • 411 Droite, la

       Generic term used to refer to the political right, or conservatives. French conservatism has in recent decades been rather different from conservatism in the UK and most other parts of Europe. Anchored in a patrician, nationalistic and litterally 'conservative' mode, France's political right has long had a very ambivalent attitude to economic liberalism. Following in the tradition of General de Gaulle, who remains the point of reference for right-wing politicians in France to this day, la Droite, which has been in power for all but thirteen of the last fifty years, has stressed an attachment to existing traditions and institutions, and in so doing failed (along with left-wing counterparts) to modernise the nation and its economy.
       Most significantly, many French conservatives have frequently taken pains to distance themselves from economic liberalism (See libéralisme). As recently as 2007, Jacques Chirac wrote, 'Liberalism will lead to the same failures and to the same excesses as Communism'

    Dictionnaire Français-Anglais. Agriculture Biologique > Droite, la

  • 412 EDF

       the leading French power company. Formerly a nationalised utility, EDF is now a public company, in which the French government is the major shareholder. EDF has expanded its activities into many European countries, including Britain, though was very reluctant to give up its monopoly over the electricity distribution market in France. EDF is the second largest energy company in the world in terms of stock-market capitalization. In France, over 85% of the electricity produced by EDF comes from nuclear power generation.

    Dictionnaire Français-Anglais. Agriculture Biologique > EDF

  • 413 Elitism

       In spite of the national commitment to the principles of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity, France remains marked by traditions of elitism that are ingrained in the very fibre of society. The French Revolution was supposed to have done away with privileges and elites, and usher in an age of greater equality; in the event, it - and subsequent upheavals - changed the nature of the elites in France, without making a great impact on the underlying system. Indeed, the notion of 'republican elites' is one that was fundamental in the shaping of post-Revolutionary France.
       In terms of local power, the role of local notables - important figures - remains strong. Notables frequently fulfil multiple roles in local administration and structures, sometimes combining these with elected positions on a regional or national scale, giving them and their close supporters a considerable degree of power. (See Cumul des mandats). They are frequently referred to as les elites locales. The process of devolution in France, set in motion in 1982, has had the effect of strengthening the power base of local elites.
       The French education system, while offering a good quality non-selective education to all children at lower levels, is increasingly elitist towards the top, particularly when it comes to preparing for higher education. Manyclasses préparatoires, particularly those preparing students for entrance to the top institutions of higher education, called Grandes Ecoles, are very selective, and the selection process - and for that matter the system itself - often disfavours students from humble or poorer backgrounds. The Grandes Ecoles themselves, tailor-made to the needs of the nation, train the future leaders and decision makers in specific fields of the public or private sector, producing very close networks of former students, that make the British concept of the "old-boy network" seem rather informal.
       Places in the top grandes écoles and some other institutions are highly sought after, as graduates from these schools are seen in France as a sort of caste, membership of which is highly recommended, if not essential, for anyone wanting to reach the top. The classic example of this is the ENA, Ecole Normale d'Administration, the Grande Ecole designed to train top civil servants and future political leaders. In the corridors of French power, many if not most of the top positions are occupied by Enarques, graduates of the ENA. In 1967, Jean-Pierre Chevènement - himself an Enarque, and later to be Minister of the Interior under François Mitterrand - coined the word Enarchie, to define the French system of state elites.
       As for business elites, a 2006 review in the Economist observed that they "often seem to owe more allegiance to the group from which they are drawn than to the international corporations they work for."

    Dictionnaire Français-Anglais. Agriculture Biologique > Elitism

  • 414 Erignac, Claude

       (1937-1998)
       Fench senior civil servant assassinated by Corsican nationalists in 1998. As prefect of the Corsica region, Erignac represented, for Corsican nationalists, a symbol of French colonial power. He was gunned down by Corsican extremists in Ajaccio one evening in February 1998, and is the most high-ranking victim of nationalist violence on the island. After a controversial investigation and trial, a group of nationalists were found guilty of murdering Erignac. One of the accused, Yvan Colonna, claimed his innocence, and went into hiding for four years, before being recaptured and sentenced to life imprisonment in 2009.

    Dictionnaire Français-Anglais. Agriculture Biologique > Erignac, Claude

  • 415 Front Populaire

       ( Popular Front)
       an alliance of French left-wing parties prior to the Second World War. In power from 1936 to 1938, but most significantly from 1936 to 1937, under the leadership of Leon Blum, the Popular Front intruduced important new labour laws, including the right to strike, two week's annual paid holiday for all, and collective bargaining.

    Dictionnaire Français-Anglais. Agriculture Biologique > Front Populaire

  • 416 Gaulle , General Charles de

       (Derivatives. Gaulliste, a follower of de Gaulle, and gaullien, in the manner of De Gaulle)
       (1890-1970). Prime minister 1944-1946, President 1958-1969.
       De Gaulle was without doubt the most influential French politician of the twentieth century. Leader of the Free French forces in World War 2, General de Gaulle went on to become the instigator, and the first president, of France's fifth republic. He oversaw French decolonisation of Algeria and other colonies, but was also a strong nationalist, who believed in France's independent nuclear deterrent, and withdrew France from NATO's military command in a move to affirm France's independence with regard notably to the USA. He was one of the leading proponents of the European Economic Community, the EEC, precursor of the European Union, but memorably blocked Britain's application for membership in 1960, considering that Britain was too aligned with the USA.
       A firm believer in strong central power, he designed the constitution of the Fifth Republic to give very great powers to the President (far greater than in any other major western democracy), leaving the French Parliament as second fiddle. He also sought to model the European Community in the same way, concentrating power in the hands of the Commission, and opposing the extension of the powers of the European Parliament.
       Notwithstanding, de Gaulle remains an iconic figure in the life of modernFrance, and a point of reference for politicians, notably those on the right. For over thirty years, French conservative political parties have vied with each other to portray themselves as the true bearers of Gaullist values; but with the passing of time, de Gaulle's influence on French politics, and the emblematic value of his name, are declining. The modern UMP party, the party of Presient Sarkozy, may be descended in direct lineage from de Gaulle's RFP and UDR parties, and may define itself as being "gaullist", but the meaning of the word, in that case, has changed.

    Dictionnaire Français-Anglais. Agriculture Biologique > Gaulle , General Charles de

  • 417 Haut Fonctionnaire

       (see also Fonction Publique)
       Senior civil servant, person occupying a senior post in the French public administration or in the corridors of power.

    Dictionnaire Français-Anglais. Agriculture Biologique > Haut Fonctionnaire

  • 418 Libération

       1) La Libération was the liberation of France from Nazi occupation in 1944.
       2) Libération, popularlarly referred to a Libé, is one of the major French national daily papers. It was founded in 1973 by a group of intellectuals, including Jean-Paul Sartre and Serge July, as a radical left-wing paper in the spirit of the 1968 protest movement. Originally the paper took no advertising, and was run on collectivist lines. In the 1990s, the paper moved towards the centre-left, where it remains to this day; however it has generally branded itself as being unattached to any party or power, free to voice its own opinions and criticism. By the early 2000's, Libération was coming up against financial problems, and faced an uncertain future; it was rescued in 2005 by financier Edouard de Rothschild, but since then the situation has remained tense; many of the paper's employees, including July and other leading journalists, have been fired or resigned in protest against a perceived erosion of editorial independence. In 2007, the paper had a circulation of 132,000, a fall of almost 25% in six years.

    Dictionnaire Français-Anglais. Agriculture Biologique > Libération

  • 419 Notables

       Local VIPs, people with considerable power or influence in local affairs, either through election or through connections. See Elites.

    Dictionnaire Français-Anglais. Agriculture Biologique > Notables

  • 420 Premier Ministre

       The role of Prime Minister in France is not the same as that of the Prime Minister of Britain. While the British Prime Minister is politically (though not constitutionally) Britain's head of state, the French Prime Minister is only the head of the French government, and nominated as such by the President. Weekly meetings of the French cabinet (see Conseil des Ministres) are therefore presided over by the President, not by the Prime Minister. When President and Prime Minister are of the same political leaning ("left" or "right"), government policy will tend to be lead by the two; when they are from different political families (a situation known as cohabitation), the Prime Minister's role and decision-making power are considerably strengthened. The Prime Minister is responsible for forming the government, but the list of names has to be approved by the President. See Balladur, Barre, Chaban Delmas, Chirac, Jospin, Raffarin, Rocard, etc.

    Dictionnaire Français-Anglais. Agriculture Biologique > Premier Ministre

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