Translation: from english to russian

from russian to english

penal terms

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  • penal — ► ADJECTIVE 1) relating to the punishment of offenders under the legal system. 2) extremely severe: penal rates of interest. ORIGIN Old French, from Latin poena pain, penalty …   English terms dictionary

  • penal — adjective 1》 relating to or prescribing the punishment of offenders under the legal system.     ↘(of an act or offence) punishable by law. 2》 (especially of taxation or interest rates) extremely severe. Derivatives penally adverb Origin ME: from… …   English new terms dictionary

  • Penal military unit — Penal battalions, penal companies, etc., are military units consisting of convicted persons for which military service was either the assigned punishment or a voluntary replacement of imprisonment.Nazi Germany See Afrika Brigade 999 (also… …   Wikipedia

  • Penal Laws — • Treats of the penal legislation affecting Catholics in English speaking countries since the Reformation. Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Penal Laws     Penal Laws      …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Penal substitution — is a theory of the atonement within Christian theology, especially associated with the Reformed tradition. It argues that Christ, by his own sacrificial choice, was punished (penalised) in the place of sinners (substitution), thus satisfying the… …   Wikipedia

  • penal — pe·nal / pēn əl/ adj 1: of, relating to, or being punishment penal sanctions 2: making one (as an offender) punishable a penal offense; also: criminal (2) 3: used as a place of con …   Law dictionary

  • penal sum — n: a sum to be paid as a penalty esp. under the terms of a bond Merriam Webster’s Dictionary of Law. Merriam Webster. 1996 …   Law dictionary

  • penal code —    Criminal legislation in Spain until 1996 was governed by the Penal Code of 1848. In 1995, the parliament approved a completely revised code, designed to bring together the various modifications enacted since 1848, and to adapt the criminal law …   Encyclopedia of contemporary Spanish culture

  • Penal Laws (Ireland) — The Penal Laws in Ireland ( ga. Na Péindlíthe) refers to a series of laws imposed under British rule that sought to discriminate against Roman Catholics and Protestant dissenters in favour of the established Church of Ireland. [ T. A. Jackson,… …   Wikipedia

  • Penal law — This article is about penal law as understood in the English law system. For a more general article, see criminal law. In the most general sense, penal is the body of laws that are enforced by the State in its own name and impose penalties for… …   Wikipedia

  • PENAL LAW — Principles of Legality Under talmudic law, no act is a criminal offense and punishable as such unless laid down in express terms in the Bible (the Written Law). For this purpose, it is not sufficient that there should be a provision imposing a… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

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