Translation: from latin

one of the three summits of Mount Œta

  • 1 Rhoduntia

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Rhoduntia

  • 2 Tichius

    Tichĭūs, untis, m., one of the summits of Mount Œta, Liv. 36, 16; 36, 17; 36, 19.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Tichius

  • 3 Pyra

    pyra, ae, f., = pura.
    I.
    A funeral pile, pyre (pure Lat. rogus), Verg. A. 6, 215; 11, 185; Ov. F. 2, 534; id. Ib. 36; Auct. B. Afr. 91; Vulg. Ezech. 24, 9.—
    B.
    A fire, Vulg. Act. 28, 2.—
    II.
    Pyra, ae, f., the name of the place on Mount Œta where Hercules is said to have burned himself, Liv. 36, 30.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Pyra

  • 4 Trachin

    Trāchīn, īnis, or Trāchyn, ynos, f., = Trachin or Trachun, a town of Thessaly, on Mount Œta, where Hercules caused himself to be burned, Plin. 4, 7, 14, § 28; Sen. Herc. Oet. 135; 195; 1432; id. Troad. 818; Ov. M. 11, 627.—Hence, Trāchīnĭus, a, um, adj., of or belonging to Trachin, Trachinian:

    tellus,

    Ov. M. 11, 269:

    miles,

    Luc. 3, 177:

    heros,

    i. e. Ceyx, king of Trachin, Ov. M. 11, 351; called also, absol., Trachinius, id. ib. 11, 282; cf.

    puppis,

    the vessel in which Ceyx was shipwrecked, id. ib. 11, 502:

    herba,

    Plin. 27, 13, 114, § 141:

    rosa,

    id. 21, 4, 10, § 16:

    Halcyone,

    the consort of Ceyx, Stat. S. 3, 5, 57.—In plur. subst.: Trāchīnĭae, ārum, f., The Trachinian Women, a tragedy of Sophocles, Cic. Tusc. 2, 8, 20.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Trachin

  • 5 Trachiniae

    Trāchīn, īnis, or Trāchyn, ynos, f., = Trachin or Trachun, a town of Thessaly, on Mount Œta, where Hercules caused himself to be burned, Plin. 4, 7, 14, § 28; Sen. Herc. Oet. 135; 195; 1432; id. Troad. 818; Ov. M. 11, 627.—Hence, Trāchīnĭus, a, um, adj., of or belonging to Trachin, Trachinian:

    tellus,

    Ov. M. 11, 269:

    miles,

    Luc. 3, 177:

    heros,

    i. e. Ceyx, king of Trachin, Ov. M. 11, 351; called also, absol., Trachinius, id. ib. 11, 282; cf.

    puppis,

    the vessel in which Ceyx was shipwrecked, id. ib. 11, 502:

    herba,

    Plin. 27, 13, 114, § 141:

    rosa,

    id. 21, 4, 10, § 16:

    Halcyone,

    the consort of Ceyx, Stat. S. 3, 5, 57.—In plur. subst.: Trāchīnĭae, ārum, f., The Trachinian Women, a tragedy of Sophocles, Cic. Tusc. 2, 8, 20.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Trachiniae

  • 6 Trachinius

    Trāchīn, īnis, or Trāchyn, ynos, f., = Trachin or Trachun, a town of Thessaly, on Mount Œta, where Hercules caused himself to be burned, Plin. 4, 7, 14, § 28; Sen. Herc. Oet. 135; 195; 1432; id. Troad. 818; Ov. M. 11, 627.—Hence, Trāchīnĭus, a, um, adj., of or belonging to Trachin, Trachinian:

    tellus,

    Ov. M. 11, 269:

    miles,

    Luc. 3, 177:

    heros,

    i. e. Ceyx, king of Trachin, Ov. M. 11, 351; called also, absol., Trachinius, id. ib. 11, 282; cf.

    puppis,

    the vessel in which Ceyx was shipwrecked, id. ib. 11, 502:

    herba,

    Plin. 27, 13, 114, § 141:

    rosa,

    id. 21, 4, 10, § 16:

    Halcyone,

    the consort of Ceyx, Stat. S. 3, 5, 57.—In plur. subst.: Trāchīnĭae, ārum, f., The Trachinian Women, a tragedy of Sophocles, Cic. Tusc. 2, 8, 20.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Trachinius

  • 7 Trachyn

    Trāchīn, īnis, or Trāchyn, ynos, f., = Trachin or Trachun, a town of Thessaly, on Mount Œta, where Hercules caused himself to be burned, Plin. 4, 7, 14, § 28; Sen. Herc. Oet. 135; 195; 1432; id. Troad. 818; Ov. M. 11, 627.—Hence, Trāchīnĭus, a, um, adj., of or belonging to Trachin, Trachinian:

    tellus,

    Ov. M. 11, 269:

    miles,

    Luc. 3, 177:

    heros,

    i. e. Ceyx, king of Trachin, Ov. M. 11, 351; called also, absol., Trachinius, id. ib. 11, 282; cf.

    puppis,

    the vessel in which Ceyx was shipwrecked, id. ib. 11, 502:

    herba,

    Plin. 27, 13, 114, § 141:

    rosa,

    id. 21, 4, 10, § 16:

    Halcyone,

    the consort of Ceyx, Stat. S. 3, 5, 57.—In plur. subst.: Trāchīnĭae, ārum, f., The Trachinian Women, a tragedy of Sophocles, Cic. Tusc. 2, 8, 20.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Trachyn

  • 8 sacer

        sacer cra, crum, adj. with sup.    [1 SAC-], dedicated, consecrated, devoted, sacred: aedes: aedificia: locus: iura sacerrima lecti, O.: luctus late, V.: aurum, L.: tus, O.: ales (as regarded in augury), V.: tempus, H.: commissum, a crime against religion: vitis (sacred to Bacchus), H.: robur, O.: aqua, H.: fontes, V.: sacer interpresque deorum Orpheus, H.: sacro Dianae celebris die, H.: terra sacra deorum est: Sacra Iovi quercus, O.: Cereri Polyphoetes, V.: mensis Manibus, O.—As nom prop.: legiones in Sacrum montem secessisse, to the Sacred mount (on the right bank of the Anio, three miles from Rome), L.: Sacra via, Holy street (between the Forum and the Capitol): Ibam forte viā Sacrā, H.— Regarded with reverence, holy, awful, venerable: silentium, H.; cf. ut sacrosancti habeantur, quibus ipsi dii neque sacri neque sancti sunt, L.— Devoted, forfeited, accursed, given over: sacer esto, H.: eum, qui cuiquam nocuerit, sacrum sanciri, L.: ut eius caput Iovi sacrum esset, L.— Accursed, execrable, detestable, horrible, infamous: Auri fames, V.: Remi Sacer nepotibus cruor, H.
    * * *
    sacra, sacrum ADJ
    sacred, holy, consecrated; accursed, horrible, detestable

    Latin-English dictionary > sacer

  • 9 Gorgo

    Gorgo, ŏnis, or -gūs (also Gorgŏ-na, ae, Prud. steph. 10, 278), f., = Gorgô, a daughter of Phorcus, called Medusa, whose hair consisted of snakes, and who turned all she looked upon to stone; she was killed by Perseus. Her head was fixed on the shield of Pallas, and from her blood sprang the winged horse Pegasus, Ov. M. 4, 699; 5, 180; 202; Verg. A. 2, 616; 8, 438; Val. Fl. 3, 54; Mart. 9, 26, 5; Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 56, § 124.—In apposition:

    ora Medusae Gorgonis anguineis cincta fuisse comis,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 7, 12.— Plur., the Gorgons, the three daughters of Phorcus, Stheno, Euryale, and Medusa, all of whom are described as above, Verg. A. 6, 289; Plin. 6, 31, 36, § 200; Mart. 10, 4, 9. —
    II.
    Derivv.
    A.
    Gorgŏnĕus, a, um, adj., of or belonging to Gorgon, Gorgonian:

    crines,

    Ov. M. 4, 801; 5, 196:

    domus,

    the dwelling of Gorgon, id. ib. 4, 779:

    ignis,

    id. A. A. 3, 504:

    venena,

    i. e. snaky hair like that of Gorgon, Verg. A. 7, 341:

    equus,

    i. e. Pegasus, Ov. F. 3, 450; Stat. Th. 4, 61:

    caballus, the same,

    Juv. 3, 118.—Hence also:

    lacus,

    the fountain Hippocrene, on Mount Helicon, which burst forth where Pegasus struck the ground with his hoof, Prop. 3, 3 (4, 2), 32.—
    B.
    Gorgŏnĭa, ae, f., coral (which hardens in the air), Plin. 37, 10, 59, § 164.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Gorgo

  • 10 Gorgona

    Gorgo, ŏnis, or -gūs (also Gorgŏ-na, ae, Prud. steph. 10, 278), f., = Gorgô, a daughter of Phorcus, called Medusa, whose hair consisted of snakes, and who turned all she looked upon to stone; she was killed by Perseus. Her head was fixed on the shield of Pallas, and from her blood sprang the winged horse Pegasus, Ov. M. 4, 699; 5, 180; 202; Verg. A. 2, 616; 8, 438; Val. Fl. 3, 54; Mart. 9, 26, 5; Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 56, § 124.—In apposition:

    ora Medusae Gorgonis anguineis cincta fuisse comis,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 7, 12.— Plur., the Gorgons, the three daughters of Phorcus, Stheno, Euryale, and Medusa, all of whom are described as above, Verg. A. 6, 289; Plin. 6, 31, 36, § 200; Mart. 10, 4, 9. —
    II.
    Derivv.
    A.
    Gorgŏnĕus, a, um, adj., of or belonging to Gorgon, Gorgonian:

    crines,

    Ov. M. 4, 801; 5, 196:

    domus,

    the dwelling of Gorgon, id. ib. 4, 779:

    ignis,

    id. A. A. 3, 504:

    venena,

    i. e. snaky hair like that of Gorgon, Verg. A. 7, 341:

    equus,

    i. e. Pegasus, Ov. F. 3, 450; Stat. Th. 4, 61:

    caballus, the same,

    Juv. 3, 118.—Hence also:

    lacus,

    the fountain Hippocrene, on Mount Helicon, which burst forth where Pegasus struck the ground with his hoof, Prop. 3, 3 (4, 2), 32.—
    B.
    Gorgŏnĭa, ae, f., coral (which hardens in the air), Plin. 37, 10, 59, § 164.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Gorgona

  • 11 Gorgoneus

    Gorgo, ŏnis, or -gūs (also Gorgŏ-na, ae, Prud. steph. 10, 278), f., = Gorgô, a daughter of Phorcus, called Medusa, whose hair consisted of snakes, and who turned all she looked upon to stone; she was killed by Perseus. Her head was fixed on the shield of Pallas, and from her blood sprang the winged horse Pegasus, Ov. M. 4, 699; 5, 180; 202; Verg. A. 2, 616; 8, 438; Val. Fl. 3, 54; Mart. 9, 26, 5; Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 56, § 124.—In apposition:

    ora Medusae Gorgonis anguineis cincta fuisse comis,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 7, 12.— Plur., the Gorgons, the three daughters of Phorcus, Stheno, Euryale, and Medusa, all of whom are described as above, Verg. A. 6, 289; Plin. 6, 31, 36, § 200; Mart. 10, 4, 9. —
    II.
    Derivv.
    A.
    Gorgŏnĕus, a, um, adj., of or belonging to Gorgon, Gorgonian:

    crines,

    Ov. M. 4, 801; 5, 196:

    domus,

    the dwelling of Gorgon, id. ib. 4, 779:

    ignis,

    id. A. A. 3, 504:

    venena,

    i. e. snaky hair like that of Gorgon, Verg. A. 7, 341:

    equus,

    i. e. Pegasus, Ov. F. 3, 450; Stat. Th. 4, 61:

    caballus, the same,

    Juv. 3, 118.—Hence also:

    lacus,

    the fountain Hippocrene, on Mount Helicon, which burst forth where Pegasus struck the ground with his hoof, Prop. 3, 3 (4, 2), 32.—
    B.
    Gorgŏnĭa, ae, f., coral (which hardens in the air), Plin. 37, 10, 59, § 164.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Gorgoneus

  • 12 Gorgonia

    Gorgo, ŏnis, or -gūs (also Gorgŏ-na, ae, Prud. steph. 10, 278), f., = Gorgô, a daughter of Phorcus, called Medusa, whose hair consisted of snakes, and who turned all she looked upon to stone; she was killed by Perseus. Her head was fixed on the shield of Pallas, and from her blood sprang the winged horse Pegasus, Ov. M. 4, 699; 5, 180; 202; Verg. A. 2, 616; 8, 438; Val. Fl. 3, 54; Mart. 9, 26, 5; Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 56, § 124.—In apposition:

    ora Medusae Gorgonis anguineis cincta fuisse comis,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 7, 12.— Plur., the Gorgons, the three daughters of Phorcus, Stheno, Euryale, and Medusa, all of whom are described as above, Verg. A. 6, 289; Plin. 6, 31, 36, § 200; Mart. 10, 4, 9. —
    II.
    Derivv.
    A.
    Gorgŏnĕus, a, um, adj., of or belonging to Gorgon, Gorgonian:

    crines,

    Ov. M. 4, 801; 5, 196:

    domus,

    the dwelling of Gorgon, id. ib. 4, 779:

    ignis,

    id. A. A. 3, 504:

    venena,

    i. e. snaky hair like that of Gorgon, Verg. A. 7, 341:

    equus,

    i. e. Pegasus, Ov. F. 3, 450; Stat. Th. 4, 61:

    caballus, the same,

    Juv. 3, 118.—Hence also:

    lacus,

    the fountain Hippocrene, on Mount Helicon, which burst forth where Pegasus struck the ground with his hoof, Prop. 3, 3 (4, 2), 32.—
    B.
    Gorgŏnĭa, ae, f., coral (which hardens in the air), Plin. 37, 10, 59, § 164.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Gorgonia

  • 13 nitor

    1.
    nītor, nīsus and nixus ( inf. nitier, Lucr. 1, 1059; old form of the part. perf.: gnitus et gnixus a genibus prisci dixerunt, Paul. ex Fest. p. 96 Müll.), 3, v. dep. n. [from gnitor; root gnic- or gnig-; cf.: nico, conivere], to bear or rest upon something.
    I.
    Lit.
    (α).
    With abl.: ambae te obsecramus genibus nixae, we implore thee upon our knees, i. e. kneeling, Plaut. Rud. 3, 3, 33:

    stirpibus suis niti,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 13, 37:

    herbescens viriditas, quae nixa fibris stirpium sensim adulescit,

    id. Sen. 15, 51:

    hastili nixus,

    id. Rab. Perd. 7, 21:

    mulierculā nixus,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 33, § 86:

    juvenis, qui nititur hastā,

    Verg. A. 6, 760:

    paribus nitens Cyllenius alis Constitit,

    id. ib. 4, 252:

    nixus baculo,

    Ov. P. 1, 8, 52.—
    (β).
    With in and acc.:

    nixus in hastam,

    Verg. A. 12, 398.—
    (γ).
    With de:

    de quā pariens arbore nixa dea est,

    Ov. H. 21, 100.—
    (δ).
    With gen. of place:

    humi nitens,

    Verg. A. 2, 380.—
    (ε).
    Absol.: Sisiphu' versat Saxum sudans nitendo, Poët. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 5, 10:

    niti modo ac statim concidere,

    to strive to rise, Sall. J. 101, 11.—
    B.
    Transf.
    1.
    To make one's way with an effort, to press forward, advance; and, with respect to the goal, to mount, climb, fly, etc. (mostly poet.):

    quaedam serpentes ortae extra aquam simul ac primum niti possunt, aquam persequuntur,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 48, 124:

    nituntur gradibus,

    Verg. A. 2, 442:

    in altas rupes,

    Luc. 4, 37:

    ad sidera,

    Verg. G. 2, 427:

    in aëra,

    Ov. P. 2, 7, 27:

    in adversum,

    id. M. 2, 72:

    sursum nitier,

    Lucr. 1, 1059.—Of violent bodily motion:

    niti corporibus et ea huc illuc, quasi vitabundi aut jacientes tela agitare,

    to struggle, Sall. J. 60, 4.—
    2.
    To strain in giving birth, to bring forth, Plin. 9, 35, 54, § 107 (al. eniti):

    nitor,

    I am in labor, Ov. M. 9, 302; Pseud.-Ov. Her. 21, 100.—
    3.
    To strain for a stool, Suet. Vesp. 20.—
    II.
    Trop.
    A.
    To strive, to exert one's self, make an effort, labor, endeavor:

    moderatio modo virium adsit et tantum, quantum potest, quisque nitatur,

    Cic. Sen. 10, 33; Nep. Att. 15, 2:

    nisurus contra regem,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 37; Sall. C. 38, 2:

    pro aliquo,

    Liv. 35, 10; cf.:

    pro libertate summā ope niti,

    Sall. J. 31, 17:

    nitebantur, ne gravius in eum consuleretur,

    Sall. J. 13, 8; cf.:

    unus Miltiades maxime nitebatur, ut, etc.,

    Nep. Milt. 4, 2. — Inf.:

    summā vi Cirtam irrumpere nititur,

    Sall. J. 25, 9:

    patriam recuperare niti,

    Nep. Pelop. 2:

    ingenio nitor non periisse meo,

    Ov. P. 3, 5, 34; id. M. 8, 694.— Absol., of soldiers hard pressed in battle:

    tamen virtute et patientia nitebantur atque omnia vulnera sustinebant,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 45.—
    2.
    To strive after a thing:

    ad immortalitatem gloriae niti,

    Cic. Sen. 23, 82:

    ad summa, Quint. prooem. § 20: in vetitum,

    Ov. Am. 3, 4, 17.—
    3.
    To try to prove, contend in argument, argue, with acc. and inf.:

    nitamur igitur nihil posse percipi,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 21, 68.—
    B.
    To rest, rely, depend upon a thing.
    (α).
    With in and abl.:

    nixus in nomine inani,

    Lucr. 5, 909:

    conjectura in quā nititur divinatio,

    Cic. Div. 2, 26, 55:

    ea, in quibus causa nititur,

    id. Cael. 10, 25:

    cujus in vitā nitebatur salus civitatis,

    id. Mil. 7, 19.—
    (β).
    With abl.:

    spe niti,

    Cic. Att. 3, 9, 2:

    consilio atque auctoritate alicujus,

    id. Off. 1, 34, 122; id. Fam. 1, 5, a, 2:

    si quis hoc uno nititur quod sit ignobilis,

    id. Clu. 40, 112.—
    (γ).
    With ubi:

    quo confugies? ubi nitere?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 64, § 155.—Hence, P. a., as subst., Nixus, i, m., only plur., Nixi, ōrum, m., three guardian deities of women in labor, the statues of whom, representing them in a kneeling posture, stood on the Capitol before the chapel of Minerva, Paul. ex Fest. p. 174 Müll.:

    magno Lucinam Nixosque patres clamore vocabam,

    Ov. M. 9, 294.
    2.
    nĭtor, ōris, m. [niteo], brightness, splendor, lustre, sheen.
    I.
    Lit.:

    nitor exoriens aurorae,

    Lucr. 4, 538:

    diurnus,

    the daylight, Ov. H. 18, 78:

    herbarum viridis,

    Lucr. 5, 783:

    argenti et auri,

    Ov. P. 3, 4, 23:

    eboris,

    Plin. 7, 15, 13, § 64:

    materiae,

    of the wood, id. 16, 40, 79, § 215:

    speculi,

    id. 11, 37, 64, § 170:

    gladii,

    id. 2, 25, 22, § 89:

    nigerrimus gemmae,

    id. 37, 10, 69, § 184:

    nitorem cutis facit sal,

    id. 31, 7, 41, § 84.— Plur.:

    nitores splendoresque auri,

    Gell. 2, 6, 4.—
    B.
    Transf.
    1.
    Sleekness, plumpness, good looks, beauty:

    nitor corporis,

    Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 10:

    urit me Glycerae nitor,

    Hor. C. 1, 19, 5:

    Liparei nitor Hebri,

    id. ib. 3, 12, 6:

    nullus totā nitor in cute,

    Juv. 9, 13.—
    2.
    Neatness, elegance, brilliancy of external appearance:

    si quem... aliquid offendit, si purpurae genus, si amicorum catervae, si splendor, si nitor,

    Cic. Cael. 31, 77:

    habitus,

    Juv. 3, 180:

    oppidum praecipui nitoris,

    Plin. 4, 12, 26, § 85.—
    3.
    In gen., color, Lucr. 2, 819:

    ludis et externo tincta nitore caput,

    Prop. 2, 14, 26 (3, 11, 2).—
    II.
    Trop., of speech, splendor, elegance, grace of style. —With gen.:

    adhibendus erit in eis explicandis quidam orationis nitor,

    Cic. Or. 32, 115:

    domesticus eloquii,

    Ov. P. 2, 2, 51:

    nitor et cultus descriptionum,

    Tac. Or. 20:

    translationum,

    Quint. 12, 10, 36.— Absol.:

    sublimitas et magnificentia et nitor,

    Quint. 8, 3, 3:

    eruditione ac nitore praestare,

    id. 10, 1, 98:

    scripsit non sine cultu ac nitore,

    id. 10, 1, 124.—
    B.
    Of character, dignity, excellence:

    generis,

    Ov. P. 2, 9, 17; splendid liberality, Stat. S. 3, 3, 149.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > nitor

  • 14 Nixi

    1.
    nītor, nīsus and nixus ( inf. nitier, Lucr. 1, 1059; old form of the part. perf.: gnitus et gnixus a genibus prisci dixerunt, Paul. ex Fest. p. 96 Müll.), 3, v. dep. n. [from gnitor; root gnic- or gnig-; cf.: nico, conivere], to bear or rest upon something.
    I.
    Lit.
    (α).
    With abl.: ambae te obsecramus genibus nixae, we implore thee upon our knees, i. e. kneeling, Plaut. Rud. 3, 3, 33:

    stirpibus suis niti,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 13, 37:

    herbescens viriditas, quae nixa fibris stirpium sensim adulescit,

    id. Sen. 15, 51:

    hastili nixus,

    id. Rab. Perd. 7, 21:

    mulierculā nixus,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 33, § 86:

    juvenis, qui nititur hastā,

    Verg. A. 6, 760:

    paribus nitens Cyllenius alis Constitit,

    id. ib. 4, 252:

    nixus baculo,

    Ov. P. 1, 8, 52.—
    (β).
    With in and acc.:

    nixus in hastam,

    Verg. A. 12, 398.—
    (γ).
    With de:

    de quā pariens arbore nixa dea est,

    Ov. H. 21, 100.—
    (δ).
    With gen. of place:

    humi nitens,

    Verg. A. 2, 380.—
    (ε).
    Absol.: Sisiphu' versat Saxum sudans nitendo, Poët. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 5, 10:

    niti modo ac statim concidere,

    to strive to rise, Sall. J. 101, 11.—
    B.
    Transf.
    1.
    To make one's way with an effort, to press forward, advance; and, with respect to the goal, to mount, climb, fly, etc. (mostly poet.):

    quaedam serpentes ortae extra aquam simul ac primum niti possunt, aquam persequuntur,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 48, 124:

    nituntur gradibus,

    Verg. A. 2, 442:

    in altas rupes,

    Luc. 4, 37:

    ad sidera,

    Verg. G. 2, 427:

    in aëra,

    Ov. P. 2, 7, 27:

    in adversum,

    id. M. 2, 72:

    sursum nitier,

    Lucr. 1, 1059.—Of violent bodily motion:

    niti corporibus et ea huc illuc, quasi vitabundi aut jacientes tela agitare,

    to struggle, Sall. J. 60, 4.—
    2.
    To strain in giving birth, to bring forth, Plin. 9, 35, 54, § 107 (al. eniti):

    nitor,

    I am in labor, Ov. M. 9, 302; Pseud.-Ov. Her. 21, 100.—
    3.
    To strain for a stool, Suet. Vesp. 20.—
    II.
    Trop.
    A.
    To strive, to exert one's self, make an effort, labor, endeavor:

    moderatio modo virium adsit et tantum, quantum potest, quisque nitatur,

    Cic. Sen. 10, 33; Nep. Att. 15, 2:

    nisurus contra regem,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 37; Sall. C. 38, 2:

    pro aliquo,

    Liv. 35, 10; cf.:

    pro libertate summā ope niti,

    Sall. J. 31, 17:

    nitebantur, ne gravius in eum consuleretur,

    Sall. J. 13, 8; cf.:

    unus Miltiades maxime nitebatur, ut, etc.,

    Nep. Milt. 4, 2. — Inf.:

    summā vi Cirtam irrumpere nititur,

    Sall. J. 25, 9:

    patriam recuperare niti,

    Nep. Pelop. 2:

    ingenio nitor non periisse meo,

    Ov. P. 3, 5, 34; id. M. 8, 694.— Absol., of soldiers hard pressed in battle:

    tamen virtute et patientia nitebantur atque omnia vulnera sustinebant,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 45.—
    2.
    To strive after a thing:

    ad immortalitatem gloriae niti,

    Cic. Sen. 23, 82:

    ad summa, Quint. prooem. § 20: in vetitum,

    Ov. Am. 3, 4, 17.—
    3.
    To try to prove, contend in argument, argue, with acc. and inf.:

    nitamur igitur nihil posse percipi,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 21, 68.—
    B.
    To rest, rely, depend upon a thing.
    (α).
    With in and abl.:

    nixus in nomine inani,

    Lucr. 5, 909:

    conjectura in quā nititur divinatio,

    Cic. Div. 2, 26, 55:

    ea, in quibus causa nititur,

    id. Cael. 10, 25:

    cujus in vitā nitebatur salus civitatis,

    id. Mil. 7, 19.—
    (β).
    With abl.:

    spe niti,

    Cic. Att. 3, 9, 2:

    consilio atque auctoritate alicujus,

    id. Off. 1, 34, 122; id. Fam. 1, 5, a, 2:

    si quis hoc uno nititur quod sit ignobilis,

    id. Clu. 40, 112.—
    (γ).
    With ubi:

    quo confugies? ubi nitere?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 64, § 155.—Hence, P. a., as subst., Nixus, i, m., only plur., Nixi, ōrum, m., three guardian deities of women in labor, the statues of whom, representing them in a kneeling posture, stood on the Capitol before the chapel of Minerva, Paul. ex Fest. p. 174 Müll.:

    magno Lucinam Nixosque patres clamore vocabam,

    Ov. M. 9, 294.
    2.
    nĭtor, ōris, m. [niteo], brightness, splendor, lustre, sheen.
    I.
    Lit.:

    nitor exoriens aurorae,

    Lucr. 4, 538:

    diurnus,

    the daylight, Ov. H. 18, 78:

    herbarum viridis,

    Lucr. 5, 783:

    argenti et auri,

    Ov. P. 3, 4, 23:

    eboris,

    Plin. 7, 15, 13, § 64:

    materiae,

    of the wood, id. 16, 40, 79, § 215:

    speculi,

    id. 11, 37, 64, § 170:

    gladii,

    id. 2, 25, 22, § 89:

    nigerrimus gemmae,

    id. 37, 10, 69, § 184:

    nitorem cutis facit sal,

    id. 31, 7, 41, § 84.— Plur.:

    nitores splendoresque auri,

    Gell. 2, 6, 4.—
    B.
    Transf.
    1.
    Sleekness, plumpness, good looks, beauty:

    nitor corporis,

    Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 10:

    urit me Glycerae nitor,

    Hor. C. 1, 19, 5:

    Liparei nitor Hebri,

    id. ib. 3, 12, 6:

    nullus totā nitor in cute,

    Juv. 9, 13.—
    2.
    Neatness, elegance, brilliancy of external appearance:

    si quem... aliquid offendit, si purpurae genus, si amicorum catervae, si splendor, si nitor,

    Cic. Cael. 31, 77:

    habitus,

    Juv. 3, 180:

    oppidum praecipui nitoris,

    Plin. 4, 12, 26, § 85.—
    3.
    In gen., color, Lucr. 2, 819:

    ludis et externo tincta nitore caput,

    Prop. 2, 14, 26 (3, 11, 2).—
    II.
    Trop., of speech, splendor, elegance, grace of style. —With gen.:

    adhibendus erit in eis explicandis quidam orationis nitor,

    Cic. Or. 32, 115:

    domesticus eloquii,

    Ov. P. 2, 2, 51:

    nitor et cultus descriptionum,

    Tac. Or. 20:

    translationum,

    Quint. 12, 10, 36.— Absol.:

    sublimitas et magnificentia et nitor,

    Quint. 8, 3, 3:

    eruditione ac nitore praestare,

    id. 10, 1, 98:

    scripsit non sine cultu ac nitore,

    id. 10, 1, 124.—
    B.
    Of character, dignity, excellence:

    generis,

    Ov. P. 2, 9, 17; splendid liberality, Stat. S. 3, 3, 149.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Nixi

  • 15 Nixus

    1.
    nītor, nīsus and nixus ( inf. nitier, Lucr. 1, 1059; old form of the part. perf.: gnitus et gnixus a genibus prisci dixerunt, Paul. ex Fest. p. 96 Müll.), 3, v. dep. n. [from gnitor; root gnic- or gnig-; cf.: nico, conivere], to bear or rest upon something.
    I.
    Lit.
    (α).
    With abl.: ambae te obsecramus genibus nixae, we implore thee upon our knees, i. e. kneeling, Plaut. Rud. 3, 3, 33:

    stirpibus suis niti,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 13, 37:

    herbescens viriditas, quae nixa fibris stirpium sensim adulescit,

    id. Sen. 15, 51:

    hastili nixus,

    id. Rab. Perd. 7, 21:

    mulierculā nixus,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 33, § 86:

    juvenis, qui nititur hastā,

    Verg. A. 6, 760:

    paribus nitens Cyllenius alis Constitit,

    id. ib. 4, 252:

    nixus baculo,

    Ov. P. 1, 8, 52.—
    (β).
    With in and acc.:

    nixus in hastam,

    Verg. A. 12, 398.—
    (γ).
    With de:

    de quā pariens arbore nixa dea est,

    Ov. H. 21, 100.—
    (δ).
    With gen. of place:

    humi nitens,

    Verg. A. 2, 380.—
    (ε).
    Absol.: Sisiphu' versat Saxum sudans nitendo, Poët. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 5, 10:

    niti modo ac statim concidere,

    to strive to rise, Sall. J. 101, 11.—
    B.
    Transf.
    1.
    To make one's way with an effort, to press forward, advance; and, with respect to the goal, to mount, climb, fly, etc. (mostly poet.):

    quaedam serpentes ortae extra aquam simul ac primum niti possunt, aquam persequuntur,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 48, 124:

    nituntur gradibus,

    Verg. A. 2, 442:

    in altas rupes,

    Luc. 4, 37:

    ad sidera,

    Verg. G. 2, 427:

    in aëra,

    Ov. P. 2, 7, 27:

    in adversum,

    id. M. 2, 72:

    sursum nitier,

    Lucr. 1, 1059.—Of violent bodily motion:

    niti corporibus et ea huc illuc, quasi vitabundi aut jacientes tela agitare,

    to struggle, Sall. J. 60, 4.—
    2.
    To strain in giving birth, to bring forth, Plin. 9, 35, 54, § 107 (al. eniti):

    nitor,

    I am in labor, Ov. M. 9, 302; Pseud.-Ov. Her. 21, 100.—
    3.
    To strain for a stool, Suet. Vesp. 20.—
    II.
    Trop.
    A.
    To strive, to exert one's self, make an effort, labor, endeavor:

    moderatio modo virium adsit et tantum, quantum potest, quisque nitatur,

    Cic. Sen. 10, 33; Nep. Att. 15, 2:

    nisurus contra regem,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 37; Sall. C. 38, 2:

    pro aliquo,

    Liv. 35, 10; cf.:

    pro libertate summā ope niti,

    Sall. J. 31, 17:

    nitebantur, ne gravius in eum consuleretur,

    Sall. J. 13, 8; cf.:

    unus Miltiades maxime nitebatur, ut, etc.,

    Nep. Milt. 4, 2. — Inf.:

    summā vi Cirtam irrumpere nititur,

    Sall. J. 25, 9:

    patriam recuperare niti,

    Nep. Pelop. 2:

    ingenio nitor non periisse meo,

    Ov. P. 3, 5, 34; id. M. 8, 694.— Absol., of soldiers hard pressed in battle:

    tamen virtute et patientia nitebantur atque omnia vulnera sustinebant,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 45.—
    2.
    To strive after a thing:

    ad immortalitatem gloriae niti,

    Cic. Sen. 23, 82:

    ad summa, Quint. prooem. § 20: in vetitum,

    Ov. Am. 3, 4, 17.—
    3.
    To try to prove, contend in argument, argue, with acc. and inf.:

    nitamur igitur nihil posse percipi,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 21, 68.—
    B.
    To rest, rely, depend upon a thing.
    (α).
    With in and abl.:

    nixus in nomine inani,

    Lucr. 5, 909:

    conjectura in quā nititur divinatio,

    Cic. Div. 2, 26, 55:

    ea, in quibus causa nititur,

    id. Cael. 10, 25:

    cujus in vitā nitebatur salus civitatis,

    id. Mil. 7, 19.—
    (β).
    With abl.:

    spe niti,

    Cic. Att. 3, 9, 2:

    consilio atque auctoritate alicujus,

    id. Off. 1, 34, 122; id. Fam. 1, 5, a, 2:

    si quis hoc uno nititur quod sit ignobilis,

    id. Clu. 40, 112.—
    (γ).
    With ubi:

    quo confugies? ubi nitere?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 64, § 155.—Hence, P. a., as subst., Nixus, i, m., only plur., Nixi, ōrum, m., three guardian deities of women in labor, the statues of whom, representing them in a kneeling posture, stood on the Capitol before the chapel of Minerva, Paul. ex Fest. p. 174 Müll.:

    magno Lucinam Nixosque patres clamore vocabam,

    Ov. M. 9, 294.
    2.
    nĭtor, ōris, m. [niteo], brightness, splendor, lustre, sheen.
    I.
    Lit.:

    nitor exoriens aurorae,

    Lucr. 4, 538:

    diurnus,

    the daylight, Ov. H. 18, 78:

    herbarum viridis,

    Lucr. 5, 783:

    argenti et auri,

    Ov. P. 3, 4, 23:

    eboris,

    Plin. 7, 15, 13, § 64:

    materiae,

    of the wood, id. 16, 40, 79, § 215:

    speculi,

    id. 11, 37, 64, § 170:

    gladii,

    id. 2, 25, 22, § 89:

    nigerrimus gemmae,

    id. 37, 10, 69, § 184:

    nitorem cutis facit sal,

    id. 31, 7, 41, § 84.— Plur.:

    nitores splendoresque auri,

    Gell. 2, 6, 4.—
    B.
    Transf.
    1.
    Sleekness, plumpness, good looks, beauty:

    nitor corporis,

    Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 10:

    urit me Glycerae nitor,

    Hor. C. 1, 19, 5:

    Liparei nitor Hebri,

    id. ib. 3, 12, 6:

    nullus totā nitor in cute,

    Juv. 9, 13.—
    2.
    Neatness, elegance, brilliancy of external appearance:

    si quem... aliquid offendit, si purpurae genus, si amicorum catervae, si splendor, si nitor,

    Cic. Cael. 31, 77:

    habitus,

    Juv. 3, 180:

    oppidum praecipui nitoris,

    Plin. 4, 12, 26, § 85.—
    3.
    In gen., color, Lucr. 2, 819:

    ludis et externo tincta nitore caput,

    Prop. 2, 14, 26 (3, 11, 2).—
    II.
    Trop., of speech, splendor, elegance, grace of style. —With gen.:

    adhibendus erit in eis explicandis quidam orationis nitor,

    Cic. Or. 32, 115:

    domesticus eloquii,

    Ov. P. 2, 2, 51:

    nitor et cultus descriptionum,

    Tac. Or. 20:

    translationum,

    Quint. 12, 10, 36.— Absol.:

    sublimitas et magnificentia et nitor,

    Quint. 8, 3, 3:

    eruditione ac nitore praestare,

    id. 10, 1, 98:

    scripsit non sine cultu ac nitore,

    id. 10, 1, 124.—
    B.
    Of character, dignity, excellence:

    generis,

    Ov. P. 2, 9, 17; splendid liberality, Stat. S. 3, 3, 149.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Nixus

  • 16 summum

    sŭpĕrus, a, um (ante-class. collat. form of the nom. sing. sŭpĕr in two passages:

    super inferque vicinus,

    Cato, R. R. 149, 1:

    totus super ignis,

    Lucr. 1, 649; gen. plur. in signif. I. B. 1. infra, superum, Verg. A. 1, 4; Ov. M. 1, 251 et saep.), adj. [super].
    I.
    Posit.
    A.
    Adj.
    1.
    In gen., that is above, upper, higher: inferus an superus tibi fert deus funera, Liv. And. ap. Prisc. p. 606 P.:

    at ita me di deaeque superi atque inferi et medioxumi,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 1, 36:

    omnes di deaeque superi, inferi,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 4, 6:

    ad superos deos potius quam ad inferos pervenisse,

    Cic. Lael. 3, 12:

    limen superum inferumque salve,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 1, 1:

    portae Phrygiae limen,

    id. Bacch. 4, 9, 31; 4, 9, 63; Novat. ap. Non. p. 336, 13 (Com. Rel. v. 49 Rib.):

    carmine di superi placantur, carmine manes,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 138:

    di,

    id. C. 1, 1, 30; 4, 7, 18:

    superis deorum Gratus et imis,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 19:

    ut omnia supera, infera, prima, ultima, media videremus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 26, 64:

    spectatores superarum rerum atque caelestium,

    id. N. D. 2, 56, 140:

    omnes caelicolas, omnes supera alta tenentes,

    Verg. A. 6, 788:

    supera ad convexa,

    to heaven, id. ib. 6, 241 (Rib. super); 6, 750; 10, 251: cum superum lumen nox intempesta teneret, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1, 14 (Ann. v. 106 Vahl.):

    lumen,

    Lucr. 6, 856: templum superi Jovis, i. e. of the Capitoline Jupiter (opp. Juppiter inferus, i. e. Pluto), Cat. 55, 5; Sen. Herc. Fur. 48:

    domus deorum,

    Ov. M. 4, 735: mare superum, the upper, i. e. the Adriatic and Ionian Sea (opp. mare inferum, the lower or Etruscan Sea), Plaut. Men. 2, 1, 11; Cic. de Or. 3, 19, 69; id. Att. 9, 3, 1; Liv. 41, 1, 3; Mel. 2, 4, 1; Plin. 3, 5, 10, § 44; Suet. Caes. 34; 44;

    so without mare (colloq.): iter ad superum,

    Cic. Att. 9, 5, 1.—Adverb.:

    de supero, quom huc accesserit,

    from above, Plaut. Am. 3, 4, 18; so,

    ex supero,

    Lucr. 2, 227; 2, 241; 2, 248. —
    2.
    In partic., upper, i. e. of the upper regions or upper world (opp. the lower regions):

    supera de parte,

    i. e. of the earth, Lucr. 6, 855:

    superas evadere ad auras,

    Verg. A. 6, 128:

    superum ad lumen ire,

    id. ib. 6, 680:

    aurae,

    Ov. M. 5, 641:

    orae,

    Verg. A. 2, 91:

    limen,

    id. ib. 6, 680.—
    B.
    Substt.
    1.
    Sŭpĕri, orum, m.
    (α).
    They who are above (opp. inferi, those in the dungeon), Plaut. Aul. 2, 7, 6:

    multum fleti ad superos,

    i. e. those living on earth, Verg. A. 6, 481:

    (Pompeius) Quam apud superos habuerat magnitudinem, illibatam detulisset ad Inferos,

    the inhabitants of the upper world, Vell. 2, 48, 2; cf.:

    ut oblitos superum paterere dolores,

    Val. Fl. 1, 792: si nunc redire posset ad superos pater, Poet. ap. Charis. 5, p. 252:

    epistula ad superos scripta,

    i. e. to the survivors, Plin. 2, 109, 112, § 248.—
    (β).
    (Sc. di.) The gods above, the celestial deities:

    quae Superi Manesque dabant,

    Verg. A. 10, 34:

    aspiciunt Superi mortalia,

    Ov. M. 13, 70:

    o Superi!

    id. ib. 1, 196; 14, 729;

    pro Superi,

    id. Tr. 1, 2, 59:

    terris jactatus et alto Vi Superum,

    Verg. A. 1, 4:

    illa propago Contemptrix Superum,

    Ov. M. 1, 161:

    exemplo Superorum,

    id. Tr. 4, 4, 19; so,

    Superorum,

    id. P. 1, 1, 43:

    postquam res Asiae Priamique evertere gentem Immeritam visum Superis,

    Verg. A. 3, 2:

    scilicet is Superis labor est,

    id. ib. 4, 379; Hor. C. 1, 6, 16:

    superis deorum Gratus et imis,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 19:

    flectere Superos,

    Verg. A. 7, 312:

    te per Superos... oro,

    id. ib. 2, 141 et saep.—
    2.
    sŭpĕra, orum, n.
    (α).
    The heavenly bodies:

    Hicetas caelum, solem, lunam, stellas, supera denique omnia stare censet,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 39, 123; cf.:

    cogitantes supera atque caelestia, haec nostra contemnimus,

    id. ib. 2, 41, 127: di, quibus est potestas motus superum atque inferum, Enn. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 25, 38 (Trag. Rel. v. 163 Vahl.).—
    (β).
    Higher places (sc. loca):

    supera semper petunt,

    tend upwards, Cic. Tusc. 1, 18, 42:

    (Alecto) Cocyti petit sedem, supera ardua relinquens,

    the upper world, Verg. A. 7, 562.
    II.
    Comp.: sŭpĕrĭor, ius.
    A.
    Lit., of place, higher, upper:

    inferiore omni spatio vacuo relicto, superiorem partem collis castris compleverant,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 46:

    dejectus qui potest esse quisquam, nisi in inferiorem locum de superiore motus?

    Cic. Caecin. 18, 50:

    in superiore qui habito cenaculo,

    Plaut. Am. 3, 1, 3:

    tota domus superior vacat,

    the upper part of, Cic. Att. 12, 10:

    superior accumbere,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 1, 42:

    de loco superiore dicere,

    i. e. from the tribunal, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 42, § 102:

    agere,

    i. e. from the rostra, id. ib. 2, 1, 5, § 14;

    and in gen. of the position of the speaker: multos et ex superiore et ex aequo loco sermones habitos,

    id. Fam. 3, 8, 2:

    sive ex inferiore loco sive ex aequo sive ex superiore loquitur,

    id. de Or. 3, 6, 23: ex loco superiore in ipsis fluminis ripis praeliabantur, from a height or eminence, Caes. B. G. 2, 23; so,

    ex loco superiore,

    id. ib. 3, 4:

    loca,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 4;

    3, 3, 2: ex superioribus locis in planitiem descendere,

    id. B. C. 3, 98:

    qui in superiore acie constiterant,

    id. B. G. 1, 24:

    ex superiore et ex inferiore scriptura docendum,

    i. e. what goes before and after, the context, Cic. Inv. 2, 40, 117; cf.:

    posteriori superius non jungitur,

    id. Ac. 2, 14, 44.—
    B.
    Trop.
    1.
    Of time or order of succession, former, past, previous, preceding:

    superiores solis defectiones,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 16, 25:

    quid proxima, quid superiore nocte egeris,

    id. Cat. 1, 1, 1:

    refecto ponte, quem superioribus diebus hostes resciderant,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 58:

    superioribus aestivis,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 46:

    superioribus temporibus,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 17, 1:

    tempus (opp. posterius),

    id. Dom. 37, 99:

    tempora (opp. inferiora),

    Suet. Claud. 41:

    annus,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 18, § 47:

    anno superiore,

    id. Har. Resp. 8, 15:

    superioris anni acta,

    Suet. Caes. 23:

    in superiore vita,

    Cic. Sen. 8, 26: milites superioribus proeliis exercitati, [p. 1811] Caes. B. G. 2, 20:

    testimonium conveniens superiori facto,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 53:

    superius facinus novo scelere vincere,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 44, § 116:

    superioris more crudelitatis uti,

    Nep. Thras. 3, 1:

    superius genus,

    mentioned previously, Plin. 13, 25, 48, § 146:

    nuptiae,

    former marriage, Cic. Clu. 6, 15:

    vir,

    first husband, id. Caecin. 6, 17.—
    b.
    Esp., of age, time of life, etc., older, elder, senior, more advanced, former:

    omnis juventus omnesque superioris aetatis,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 5:

    aetate superiores,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 10, 1:

    superior Africanus,

    the Elder, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 10, § 25; id. Off. 1, 33, 121:

    Dionysius,

    id. ib. 2, 7, 25; Nep. Dion, 1, 1; cf.:

    quid est aetas hominis, nisi memoria rerum veterum cum superiorum aetate contexitur,

    Cic. Or. 34, 120.—
    2.
    Of strength or success in battle or any contest, victorious, conquering, stronger, superior:

    Caesar quod hostes equitatu superiores esse intellegebat,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 65:

    numero superiores,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 12:

    hoc ipso fiunt superiores, quod nullum acceperant detrimentum,

    id. ib. 8, 19:

    se quo impudentius egerit, hoc superiorem discessurum,

    Cic. Caecin. 1, 2:

    semper discessit superior,

    Nep. Hann. 1, 2:

    si primo proelio Catilina superior discessisset,

    Sall. C. 39, 4:

    ut nostri omnibus partibus superiores fuerint,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 15:

    multo superiores bello esse,

    Nep. Alcib. 4, 7:

    superiorem Appium in causa fecit,

    Liv. 5, 7, 1.—
    3.
    Of quality, condition, number, etc., higher, more distinguished, greater, superior.
    (α).
    With abl. respect.:

    pecuniis superiores,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 34, 59:

    loco, fortuna, fama superiores,

    id. Lael. 25, 94:

    habes neminem honoris gradu superiorem,

    id. Fam. 2, 18, 2:

    ordine,

    id. ib. 13, 5, 2:

    facilitate et humanitate superior,

    id. Off. 1, 26, 90:

    si superior ceteris rebus esses,

    id. Div. in Caecil. 19, 61.—
    (β).
    Absol.:

    ut ii, qui superiores sunt, submittere se debent in amicitia, sic quodam modo inferiores extollere,

    Cic. Lael. 20, 72; cf. id. ib. 20, 71:

    ut quanto superiores sumus, tanto nos geramus summissius,

    id. Off. 1, 26, 90:

    invident homines maxime paribus aut inferioribus... sed etiam superioribus invidetur,

    id. de Or. 2, 52, 209:

    premendoque superiorem sese extollebat,

    Liv. 22, 12, 12:

    cui omnem honorem, ut superiori habuit,

    Vell. 2, 101, 1.
    III.
    Sup., in three forms, ‡ superrimus, supremus, and summus.
    A.
    sŭperrĭmus, assumed as orig. form of supremus by Varr. L. L. 7, § 51 Mull.; Charis. p. 130 P.—
    B.
    sū̆prēmus, a, um, highest, loftiest, topmost.
    1.
    Lit. (only poet.; cf.

    summus, C. 1.): montesque supremos Silvifragis vexat flabris,

    the highest points, the tops, summits, Lucr. 1, 274; so,

    montes,

    Verg. G. 4, 460; Hor. Epod. 17, 68:

    rupes,

    Sen. Oedip. 95:

    arx,

    Claud. III. Cons. Hon. 167; cf.:

    supremae Tethyos unda,

    Mart. Spect. 3, 6.—
    2.
    Trop.
    a.
    Of time or order of succession, last, latest, extreme, final, = ultimus (class.).
    (α).
    In gen.: SOL OCCASVS SVPREMA TEMPESTAS ESTO, XII. Tab. ap. Gell. 17, 2, 10.—Hence, as subst.: suprēma, ae, f. (sc. tempestas), the last part of the day, the hour of sunset: suprema summum diei; hoc tempus duodecim Tabulae dicunt occasum esse solis;

    sed postea lex praetoria id quoque tempus jubet esse supremum, quo praeco in comitio supremam pronuntiavit populo,

    Varr. L. L. 6, § 5 Mull.; cf. Censor. de Die Nat. 24; Plin. 7, 60, 60, § 212:

    quae (urbs), quia postrema coaedificata est, Neapolis nominatur,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119:

    supremo te sole domi manebo,

    at sunset, Hor. Ep. 1, 5, 3:

    jubare exorto jam nocte suprema, Col. poet. 10, 294: in te suprema salus,

    last hope, Verg. A. 12, 653: supremam bellis imposuisse manum, the last or finishing hand, Ov. R. Am. 114. — suprēmum, adverb., for the last time:

    quae mihi tunc primum, tunc est conspecta supremum,

    Ov. M. 12, 526.—
    (β).
    In partic., with regard to the close of life, last, closing, dying:

    supremo vitae die,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 29, 71; id. Sen. 21, 78; id. Mur. 36, 75:

    dies,

    id. Phil. 1, 14, 34; Hor. C. 1, 13, 20; id. Ep. 1, 4, 13:

    hora,

    Tib. 1, 1, 59:

    tempus,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 98; Cat. 64, 151:

    incestum pontifices supremo supplicio sanciunto,

    i. e. the penalty of death, Cic. Leg. 2, 9, 22:

    mors,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 173:

    finis,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 12:

    iter,

    id. C. 2, 17, 11:

    lumen,

    Verg. A. 6, 735: sociamque tori vocat ore supremo, with his dying mouth, dying breath, Ov. M. 8, 521; so,

    ore,

    id. Tr. 3, 3, 87:

    haec digressu dicta supremo Fundebat,

    Verg. A. 8, 583:

    Nero in suprema ira duos calices crystallinos fregit,

    in his last agony, Plin. 37, 2, 10, § 29;

    supremis suis annis,

    in his last years, id. 23, 1, 27, § 58:

    suprema ejus cura,

    id. 7, 45, 46, § 150:

    spoliatus illius supremi diei celebritate,

    Cic. Mil. 32, 86: honor, the last honors, i. e. funeral rites or ceremonies, Verg. A. 11, 61:

    funera,

    Ov. M. 3, 137:

    oscula,

    id. ib. 6, 278:

    tori,

    i. e. biers, id. F. 6, 668:

    ignis,

    id. Am. 1, 15, 41:

    ignes,

    id. M. 2, 620; 13, 583:

    officia,

    Tac. A. 5, 2; Petr. 112, 1: judicia hominum, a last will or testament, Quint. 6, 3, 92; Plin. Ep. 7, 20, 7; 7, 31, 5; so,

    tabulae,

    Mart. 5, 33, 1; 5, 41, 1:

    tituli,

    i. e. an epitaph, id. ib. 9, 19, 3.—So of cities, etc.:

    Troiae sorte suprema,

    Verg. A. 5, 190:

    dies regnis,

    Ov. F. 2, 852. — suprēmum and suprēmō, adverb.:

    animam sepulcro Condimus, et magna supremum voce ciemus,

    for the last time, for a last farewell, Verg. A. 3, 68; Plin. 11, 37, 55, § 150; Tac. H. 4, 14; Ov. M. 12, 526:

    anima exitura supremo,

    Plin. 11, 53, 115, § 277.— Substt.
    1.
    sŭprēmum, i, n., the last moment, end (very rare):

    ventum ad supremum est,

    Verg. A. 12, 803.—
    2.
    suprēma, orum, n.
    (α).
    The last moments, the close of life, death:

    ut me in supremis consolatus est!

    Quint. 6, prooem. § 11; Tac. A. 6, 50; 12, 66; cf.:

    statua Herculis sentiens suprema tunicae,

    the last agonies caused by it, Plin. 34, 8, 19, § 93:

    circa suprema Neronis,

    the time of his death, id. 16, 44, 86, § 236; 7, 3, 3, § 33.—
    (β).
    The last honors paid to the dead, funeral rites or ceremonies, a funeral:

    supremis divi Augusti,

    Plin. 7, 3, 3, § 33; 16, 44, 86, § 236; Tac. A. 1, 61; 3, 49; 4, 44; id. H. 4, 59; 4, 45:

    suprema ferre (sc. munera),

    Verg. A. 6, 213; cf. id. ib. 11, 25 al.—
    (γ).
    A last will, testament:

    nihil primo senatus die agi passus, nisi de supremis Augusti,

    Tac. A. 1, 8:

    miles in supremis ordinandis ignarus uxorem esse praegnantem, etc.,

    Dig. 29, 1, 36, § 2.—
    (δ).
    The relics, remains of a burned corpse, the ashes, = reliquiae, Amm. 25, 9, 12; Sol. 1 med.
    b.
    Of degree or rank, the highest, greatest, most exalted, supreme:

    multa, quae appellatur suprema, instituta in singulos duarum ovium, triginta boum... ultra quam (numerum) multam dicere in singulos jus non est, et propterea suprema appellatur, id est, summa et maxima,

    Gell. 11, 1, 2 sq.:

    macies,

    Verg. A. 3, 590:

    Juppiter supreme,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 9, 55; id. Capt. 2, 3, 66; 5, 2, 23; id. Ps. 2, 2, 33; Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 42: Junonis supremus conjunx, Poet. ap. Plin. 35, 10, 37, § 115:

    med antidhac Supremum habuisti com item consiliis tuis,

    most intimate, Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 15.—
    C.
    summus, a, um [from sup-imus, sup-mus], uppermost, highest, topmost; the top of, highest part of (cf. Roby, Gram. 2, § 1295).
    1.
    Lit. (class., while supremus is mostly poet.):

    summum oportet olfactare vestimentum muliebre,

    the top, outside of, Plaut. Men. 1, 2, 56: Galli summa arcis adorti Moenia, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 1, 4 (Ann. v. 169 Vahl.): Thyestes summis saxis fixus, id. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 44, 107 (Trag. v. 413 ib.): montibus summis, id. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, 71 Mull. (Epigr. v. 43 ib.):

    summum jugum montis,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 21:

    summus mons,

    the top of, id. ib. 1, 22:

    feriunt summos fulmina montes,

    the mountain tops, Hor. C. 2, 10, 11; cf.: in summo montis vertice, Poet. ap. Quint. 8, 3, 48:

    locus castrorum,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 23:

    in summa sacra via,

    on the highest part of, Cic. Planc. 7, 17; cf. id. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119:

    in summa columna conlocare,

    id. Div. 1, 24, 48:

    quam (urbem) ad summum theatrum,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119:

    Janus summus ab imo,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 54:

    ad aquam summam appropinquare,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 23, 64: mento summam aquam attingens enectus siti, Poet. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 5, 10:

    in aqua summa natare,

    the top, surface of, Plaut. Cas. 2, 6, 33:

    apud summum puteum,

    id. Mil. 4, 4, 16:

    per summa volare aequora,

    Verg. A. 5, 819:

    summa cacumina linquunt,

    id. ib. 6, 678:

    mari summo,

    id. ib. 1, 110:

    prospexi Italiam summa ab unda,

    id. ib. 6, 357:

    summaque per galeam delibans oscula,

    id. ib. 12, 434:

    amphoras complures complet plumbo, summas operit auro,

    Nep. Hann. 9, 3: summa procul villarum culmina fumant, Verg. E. 1, 83:

    summam cutem novacula decerpito,

    Col. 12, 56, 1.—Of position, place, at table:

    summus ego (in triclinio) et prope me Viscus Thurinus et infra Varius, etc.,

    I was highest, I reclined at the top, Hor. S. 2, 8, 20.—Hence, subst.: summus, i, m., he who sits in the highest place, at the head of the table:

    standum est in lecto, si quid de summo petas,

    Plaut. Men. 1, 1, 27: is sermo, qui more majorum a summo adhibetur in poculis, by the head of the table, i. e. by the president of the feast, Cic. Sen. 14, 46; so,

    a summo dare (bibere),

    Plaut. As. 5, 2, 41; Pers. 5, 1, 19.—
    b.
    summum, i, n., the top, surface; the highest place, the head of the table, etc.:

    ab ejus (frontis) summo, sicut palmae, rami quam late diffunduntur,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 26:

    qui demersi sunt in aqua... si non longe absunt a summo,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 14, 48:

    leviter a summo inflexum bacillum,

    id. Div. 1, 17, 30:

    igitur discubuere... in summo Antonius,

    Sall. H. 3, 4 Dietsch:

    puteos ac potius fontes habet: sunt enim in summo,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 17, 25:

    nuces mersit in vinum et sive in summum redierant, sive subsederant, etc.,

    Petr. 137 fin.: oratori summa riguerunt, the extremities of his body, Sen. Ira, 2, 3, 3.—In mal. part.:

    summa petere,

    Mart. 11, 46, 6; Auct. Priap. 76.—
    2.
    Transf., of the voice:

    jubeo te salvere voce summa,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 30; cf.:

    citaret Io Bacche! modo summa Voce, modo, etc.,

    at the top of his voice, Hor. S. 1, 3, 7:

    vox (opp. ima),

    Quint. 11, 3, 15:

    summa voce versus multos uno spiritu pronuntiare,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 61, 261; cf.:

    summo haec clamore,

    Plaut. Merc. prol. 59. —Adverb.: summum, at the utmost or farthest:

    exspectabam hodie, aut summum cras,

    Cic. Att. 13, 21, 2:

    bis, terve summum,

    id. Fam. 2, 1, 1:

    triduo aut summum quatriduo,

    id. Mil. 9, 26; cf. Liv. 21, 35, and 31, 42 Drak.—
    2.
    Trop.
    a.
    Of time or order of succession, last, latest, final (rare but class.):

    haec est praestituta summa argento dies,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 140; so,

    venit summa dies,

    Verg. A. 2, 324:

    ad summam senectutem jactari, quam, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 1, 1: vixit ad summam senectutem, to extreme old age, id. Fragm. ap. Non. 401, 31:

    cum esset summa senectute,

    id. Phil. 8, 10, 31:

    in fluvium primi cecidere, in corpora summi,

    Luc. 2, 211:

    summo carmine,

    at the end, Hor. C. 3, 28, 13:

    eadem in argumentis ratio est, ut potentissima prima et summa ponantur,

    the first and the last, at the beginning and the end, Quint. 6, 4, 22; cf. neutr. absol.: Celsus putat, primo firmum aliquod (argumentum) esse ponendum, summo firmissimum, imbecilliora medio;

    quia et initio movendus sit judex et summo impellendus,

    at the last, at the close, id. 7, 1, 10.— Adverb.: summum, for the last time:

    nunc ego te infelix summum teneoque tuorque,

    Albin. 1, 137. —
    b.
    Of rank, etc., highest, greatest, first, supreme, best, utmost, extreme; most distinguished, excellent, or noble; most important, weighty, or critical, etc. (so most freq. in prose and poetry): summa nituntur vi, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 168 Vahl.): bellum gerentes summum summa industria, id. ap. Non. p. 402, 3 (Trag. v. 104 ib.):

    summi puerorum amores,

    Cic. Lael. 10, 33:

    spes civium,

    id. ib. 3, 11:

    fides, constantia justitiaque,

    id. ib. 7, 25: in amore summo summaque inopia, Caec. ap. Cic. N. D. 3, 29, 72:

    qui in virtute summum bonum ponunt,

    id. ib. 6, 20:

    non agam summo jure tecum,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 4:

    tres fratres summo loco nati,

    id. Fam. 2, 18, 2:

    qui summo magistratui praeerat,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 16:

    concedunt in uno Cn. Pompeio summa esse omnia,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 17, 51:

    quae (vitia) summo opere vitare oportebit,

    id. Inv. 1, 18, 26:

    turpitudo,

    id. Lael. 17, 61:

    summum in cruciatum se venire,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 31:

    scelus,

    Sall. C. 12, 5:

    hiems,

    the depth of winter, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 40, § 86; id. Fam. 13, 60, 2:

    cum aestas summa esse coeperat,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 12, § 29; 2, 5, 31, § 80:

    ut summi virtute et animo praeessent imbecillioribus,

    id. Rep. 1, 34, 51:

    summi ex Graecia sapientissimique homines,

    id. ib. 1, 22, 36; cf.:

    summi homines ac summis ingeniis praediti,

    id. de Or. 1, 2, 6:

    optimi et summi viri diligentia,

    id. Rep. 1, 35, 54: cum par habetur honos summis et infimis [p. 1812] id. ib. 1, 34, 53: He. Quo honore'st illic? Ph. Summo atque ab summis viris, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 29:

    summus Juppiter,

    id. Cist. 2, 1, 40:

    ubi summus imperator non adest ad exercitum,

    id. Am. 1, 2, 6:

    miles summi inperatoris,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 10, 28: deum qui non summum putet (amorem), Caecil. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 32, 68:

    amicus summus,

    the best friend, Ter. Phorm. 5, 8 (9), 60; 1, 1, 1; id. And. 5, 6, 6; cf. absol.:

    nam is nostro Simulo fuit summus,

    id. Ad. 3, 2, 54; so id. Eun. 2, 2, 40.— Poet. in neutr. plur.:

    summa ducum Atrides,

    the chief, Ov. Am. 1, 9, 37; cf. Lucr. 1, 86:

    summo rei publicae tempore,

    at a most important period, most critical juncture, Cic. Phil. 5, 17, 46:

    in summo et periculosissimo rei publicae tempore,

    id. Fl. 3, 6; cf.:

    summa salus rei publicae,

    id. Cat. 1, 5, 11: quod summa res publica in hujus periculo tentatur, the highest welfare of the State, the common welfare, the good of the State, the whole State or commonwealth, id. Rosc. Am. 51, 148; so,

    res publica,

    id. Planc. 27, 66; id. Verr. 2, 2, 10, § 28; id. Cat. 1, 6, 14; 3, 6, 13; id. Inv. 1, 16, 23; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 14, 2:

    ad summam rem publicam,

    Liv. 33, 45, 4 al.:

    quo res summa loco, Panthu?

    the general cause, Verg. A. 2, 322: mene igitur socium summis adjungere rebus, Nise, fugis? in these enterprises of highest moment, etc., id. ib. 9, 199; esp.: summum jus, a right pushed to an extreme:

    non agam summo jure tecum,

    deal exactingly, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 4; cf.: exsistunt etiam saepe injuriae calumnia quadam et nimis callida juris interpretatione;

    ex quo illud summum jus summa injuria factum est, jam tritum sermone proverbium,

    id. Off. 1, 10, 33. — Hence, summē, adv., in the highest degree, most highly or greatly, extremely:

    quod me sollicitare summe solet,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 72, 295:

    cupere aliquid,

    id. Quint. 21, 69; Caes. B. C. 3, 15:

    contendere,

    Cic. Quint. 24, 77: studere, Mat. ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 2:

    diffidere,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7, 2:

    admirari,

    Quint. 10, 1, 70:

    summe jucundum,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 18, 2:

    officiosi,

    id. Verr. 2, 1, 24, § 63:

    summe disertus vir,

    Quint. 12, 1, 23:

    summe munitus locus,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 31:

    summe haec omnia mihi videntur esse laudanda,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 17, 57:

    mei summe observantissimus,

    Plin. Ep. 10, 26 (11), 1.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > summum

  • 17 Superi

    sŭpĕrus, a, um (ante-class. collat. form of the nom. sing. sŭpĕr in two passages:

    super inferque vicinus,

    Cato, R. R. 149, 1:

    totus super ignis,

    Lucr. 1, 649; gen. plur. in signif. I. B. 1. infra, superum, Verg. A. 1, 4; Ov. M. 1, 251 et saep.), adj. [super].
    I.
    Posit.
    A.
    Adj.
    1.
    In gen., that is above, upper, higher: inferus an superus tibi fert deus funera, Liv. And. ap. Prisc. p. 606 P.:

    at ita me di deaeque superi atque inferi et medioxumi,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 1, 36:

    omnes di deaeque superi, inferi,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 4, 6:

    ad superos deos potius quam ad inferos pervenisse,

    Cic. Lael. 3, 12:

    limen superum inferumque salve,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 1, 1:

    portae Phrygiae limen,

    id. Bacch. 4, 9, 31; 4, 9, 63; Novat. ap. Non. p. 336, 13 (Com. Rel. v. 49 Rib.):

    carmine di superi placantur, carmine manes,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 138:

    di,

    id. C. 1, 1, 30; 4, 7, 18:

    superis deorum Gratus et imis,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 19:

    ut omnia supera, infera, prima, ultima, media videremus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 26, 64:

    spectatores superarum rerum atque caelestium,

    id. N. D. 2, 56, 140:

    omnes caelicolas, omnes supera alta tenentes,

    Verg. A. 6, 788:

    supera ad convexa,

    to heaven, id. ib. 6, 241 (Rib. super); 6, 750; 10, 251: cum superum lumen nox intempesta teneret, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1, 14 (Ann. v. 106 Vahl.):

    lumen,

    Lucr. 6, 856: templum superi Jovis, i. e. of the Capitoline Jupiter (opp. Juppiter inferus, i. e. Pluto), Cat. 55, 5; Sen. Herc. Fur. 48:

    domus deorum,

    Ov. M. 4, 735: mare superum, the upper, i. e. the Adriatic and Ionian Sea (opp. mare inferum, the lower or Etruscan Sea), Plaut. Men. 2, 1, 11; Cic. de Or. 3, 19, 69; id. Att. 9, 3, 1; Liv. 41, 1, 3; Mel. 2, 4, 1; Plin. 3, 5, 10, § 44; Suet. Caes. 34; 44;

    so without mare (colloq.): iter ad superum,

    Cic. Att. 9, 5, 1.—Adverb.:

    de supero, quom huc accesserit,

    from above, Plaut. Am. 3, 4, 18; so,

    ex supero,

    Lucr. 2, 227; 2, 241; 2, 248. —
    2.
    In partic., upper, i. e. of the upper regions or upper world (opp. the lower regions):

    supera de parte,

    i. e. of the earth, Lucr. 6, 855:

    superas evadere ad auras,

    Verg. A. 6, 128:

    superum ad lumen ire,

    id. ib. 6, 680:

    aurae,

    Ov. M. 5, 641:

    orae,

    Verg. A. 2, 91:

    limen,

    id. ib. 6, 680.—
    B.
    Substt.
    1.
    Sŭpĕri, orum, m.
    (α).
    They who are above (opp. inferi, those in the dungeon), Plaut. Aul. 2, 7, 6:

    multum fleti ad superos,

    i. e. those living on earth, Verg. A. 6, 481:

    (Pompeius) Quam apud superos habuerat magnitudinem, illibatam detulisset ad Inferos,

    the inhabitants of the upper world, Vell. 2, 48, 2; cf.:

    ut oblitos superum paterere dolores,

    Val. Fl. 1, 792: si nunc redire posset ad superos pater, Poet. ap. Charis. 5, p. 252:

    epistula ad superos scripta,

    i. e. to the survivors, Plin. 2, 109, 112, § 248.—
    (β).
    (Sc. di.) The gods above, the celestial deities:

    quae Superi Manesque dabant,

    Verg. A. 10, 34:

    aspiciunt Superi mortalia,

    Ov. M. 13, 70:

    o Superi!

    id. ib. 1, 196; 14, 729;

    pro Superi,

    id. Tr. 1, 2, 59:

    terris jactatus et alto Vi Superum,

    Verg. A. 1, 4:

    illa propago Contemptrix Superum,

    Ov. M. 1, 161:

    exemplo Superorum,

    id. Tr. 4, 4, 19; so,

    Superorum,

    id. P. 1, 1, 43:

    postquam res Asiae Priamique evertere gentem Immeritam visum Superis,

    Verg. A. 3, 2:

    scilicet is Superis labor est,

    id. ib. 4, 379; Hor. C. 1, 6, 16:

    superis deorum Gratus et imis,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 19:

    flectere Superos,

    Verg. A. 7, 312:

    te per Superos... oro,

    id. ib. 2, 141 et saep.—
    2.
    sŭpĕra, orum, n.
    (α).
    The heavenly bodies:

    Hicetas caelum, solem, lunam, stellas, supera denique omnia stare censet,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 39, 123; cf.:

    cogitantes supera atque caelestia, haec nostra contemnimus,

    id. ib. 2, 41, 127: di, quibus est potestas motus superum atque inferum, Enn. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 25, 38 (Trag. Rel. v. 163 Vahl.).—
    (β).
    Higher places (sc. loca):

    supera semper petunt,

    tend upwards, Cic. Tusc. 1, 18, 42:

    (Alecto) Cocyti petit sedem, supera ardua relinquens,

    the upper world, Verg. A. 7, 562.
    II.
    Comp.: sŭpĕrĭor, ius.
    A.
    Lit., of place, higher, upper:

    inferiore omni spatio vacuo relicto, superiorem partem collis castris compleverant,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 46:

    dejectus qui potest esse quisquam, nisi in inferiorem locum de superiore motus?

    Cic. Caecin. 18, 50:

    in superiore qui habito cenaculo,

    Plaut. Am. 3, 1, 3:

    tota domus superior vacat,

    the upper part of, Cic. Att. 12, 10:

    superior accumbere,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 1, 42:

    de loco superiore dicere,

    i. e. from the tribunal, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 42, § 102:

    agere,

    i. e. from the rostra, id. ib. 2, 1, 5, § 14;

    and in gen. of the position of the speaker: multos et ex superiore et ex aequo loco sermones habitos,

    id. Fam. 3, 8, 2:

    sive ex inferiore loco sive ex aequo sive ex superiore loquitur,

    id. de Or. 3, 6, 23: ex loco superiore in ipsis fluminis ripis praeliabantur, from a height or eminence, Caes. B. G. 2, 23; so,

    ex loco superiore,

    id. ib. 3, 4:

    loca,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 4;

    3, 3, 2: ex superioribus locis in planitiem descendere,

    id. B. C. 3, 98:

    qui in superiore acie constiterant,

    id. B. G. 1, 24:

    ex superiore et ex inferiore scriptura docendum,

    i. e. what goes before and after, the context, Cic. Inv. 2, 40, 117; cf.:

    posteriori superius non jungitur,

    id. Ac. 2, 14, 44.—
    B.
    Trop.
    1.
    Of time or order of succession, former, past, previous, preceding:

    superiores solis defectiones,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 16, 25:

    quid proxima, quid superiore nocte egeris,

    id. Cat. 1, 1, 1:

    refecto ponte, quem superioribus diebus hostes resciderant,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 58:

    superioribus aestivis,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 46:

    superioribus temporibus,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 17, 1:

    tempus (opp. posterius),

    id. Dom. 37, 99:

    tempora (opp. inferiora),

    Suet. Claud. 41:

    annus,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 18, § 47:

    anno superiore,

    id. Har. Resp. 8, 15:

    superioris anni acta,

    Suet. Caes. 23:

    in superiore vita,

    Cic. Sen. 8, 26: milites superioribus proeliis exercitati, [p. 1811] Caes. B. G. 2, 20:

    testimonium conveniens superiori facto,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 53:

    superius facinus novo scelere vincere,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 44, § 116:

    superioris more crudelitatis uti,

    Nep. Thras. 3, 1:

    superius genus,

    mentioned previously, Plin. 13, 25, 48, § 146:

    nuptiae,

    former marriage, Cic. Clu. 6, 15:

    vir,

    first husband, id. Caecin. 6, 17.—
    b.
    Esp., of age, time of life, etc., older, elder, senior, more advanced, former:

    omnis juventus omnesque superioris aetatis,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 5:

    aetate superiores,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 10, 1:

    superior Africanus,

    the Elder, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 10, § 25; id. Off. 1, 33, 121:

    Dionysius,

    id. ib. 2, 7, 25; Nep. Dion, 1, 1; cf.:

    quid est aetas hominis, nisi memoria rerum veterum cum superiorum aetate contexitur,

    Cic. Or. 34, 120.—
    2.
    Of strength or success in battle or any contest, victorious, conquering, stronger, superior:

    Caesar quod hostes equitatu superiores esse intellegebat,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 65:

    numero superiores,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 12:

    hoc ipso fiunt superiores, quod nullum acceperant detrimentum,

    id. ib. 8, 19:

    se quo impudentius egerit, hoc superiorem discessurum,

    Cic. Caecin. 1, 2:

    semper discessit superior,

    Nep. Hann. 1, 2:

    si primo proelio Catilina superior discessisset,

    Sall. C. 39, 4:

    ut nostri omnibus partibus superiores fuerint,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 15:

    multo superiores bello esse,

    Nep. Alcib. 4, 7:

    superiorem Appium in causa fecit,

    Liv. 5, 7, 1.—
    3.
    Of quality, condition, number, etc., higher, more distinguished, greater, superior.
    (α).
    With abl. respect.:

    pecuniis superiores,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 34, 59:

    loco, fortuna, fama superiores,

    id. Lael. 25, 94:

    habes neminem honoris gradu superiorem,

    id. Fam. 2, 18, 2:

    ordine,

    id. ib. 13, 5, 2:

    facilitate et humanitate superior,

    id. Off. 1, 26, 90:

    si superior ceteris rebus esses,

    id. Div. in Caecil. 19, 61.—
    (β).
    Absol.:

    ut ii, qui superiores sunt, submittere se debent in amicitia, sic quodam modo inferiores extollere,

    Cic. Lael. 20, 72; cf. id. ib. 20, 71:

    ut quanto superiores sumus, tanto nos geramus summissius,

    id. Off. 1, 26, 90:

    invident homines maxime paribus aut inferioribus... sed etiam superioribus invidetur,

    id. de Or. 2, 52, 209:

    premendoque superiorem sese extollebat,

    Liv. 22, 12, 12:

    cui omnem honorem, ut superiori habuit,

    Vell. 2, 101, 1.
    III.
    Sup., in three forms, ‡ superrimus, supremus, and summus.
    A.
    sŭperrĭmus, assumed as orig. form of supremus by Varr. L. L. 7, § 51 Mull.; Charis. p. 130 P.—
    B.
    sū̆prēmus, a, um, highest, loftiest, topmost.
    1.
    Lit. (only poet.; cf.

    summus, C. 1.): montesque supremos Silvifragis vexat flabris,

    the highest points, the tops, summits, Lucr. 1, 274; so,

    montes,

    Verg. G. 4, 460; Hor. Epod. 17, 68:

    rupes,

    Sen. Oedip. 95:

    arx,

    Claud. III. Cons. Hon. 167; cf.:

    supremae Tethyos unda,

    Mart. Spect. 3, 6.—
    2.
    Trop.
    a.
    Of time or order of succession, last, latest, extreme, final, = ultimus (class.).
    (α).
    In gen.: SOL OCCASVS SVPREMA TEMPESTAS ESTO, XII. Tab. ap. Gell. 17, 2, 10.—Hence, as subst.: suprēma, ae, f. (sc. tempestas), the last part of the day, the hour of sunset: suprema summum diei; hoc tempus duodecim Tabulae dicunt occasum esse solis;

    sed postea lex praetoria id quoque tempus jubet esse supremum, quo praeco in comitio supremam pronuntiavit populo,

    Varr. L. L. 6, § 5 Mull.; cf. Censor. de Die Nat. 24; Plin. 7, 60, 60, § 212:

    quae (urbs), quia postrema coaedificata est, Neapolis nominatur,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119:

    supremo te sole domi manebo,

    at sunset, Hor. Ep. 1, 5, 3:

    jubare exorto jam nocte suprema, Col. poet. 10, 294: in te suprema salus,

    last hope, Verg. A. 12, 653: supremam bellis imposuisse manum, the last or finishing hand, Ov. R. Am. 114. — suprēmum, adverb., for the last time:

    quae mihi tunc primum, tunc est conspecta supremum,

    Ov. M. 12, 526.—
    (β).
    In partic., with regard to the close of life, last, closing, dying:

    supremo vitae die,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 29, 71; id. Sen. 21, 78; id. Mur. 36, 75:

    dies,

    id. Phil. 1, 14, 34; Hor. C. 1, 13, 20; id. Ep. 1, 4, 13:

    hora,

    Tib. 1, 1, 59:

    tempus,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 98; Cat. 64, 151:

    incestum pontifices supremo supplicio sanciunto,

    i. e. the penalty of death, Cic. Leg. 2, 9, 22:

    mors,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 173:

    finis,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 12:

    iter,

    id. C. 2, 17, 11:

    lumen,

    Verg. A. 6, 735: sociamque tori vocat ore supremo, with his dying mouth, dying breath, Ov. M. 8, 521; so,

    ore,

    id. Tr. 3, 3, 87:

    haec digressu dicta supremo Fundebat,

    Verg. A. 8, 583:

    Nero in suprema ira duos calices crystallinos fregit,

    in his last agony, Plin. 37, 2, 10, § 29;

    supremis suis annis,

    in his last years, id. 23, 1, 27, § 58:

    suprema ejus cura,

    id. 7, 45, 46, § 150:

    spoliatus illius supremi diei celebritate,

    Cic. Mil. 32, 86: honor, the last honors, i. e. funeral rites or ceremonies, Verg. A. 11, 61:

    funera,

    Ov. M. 3, 137:

    oscula,

    id. ib. 6, 278:

    tori,

    i. e. biers, id. F. 6, 668:

    ignis,

    id. Am. 1, 15, 41:

    ignes,

    id. M. 2, 620; 13, 583:

    officia,

    Tac. A. 5, 2; Petr. 112, 1: judicia hominum, a last will or testament, Quint. 6, 3, 92; Plin. Ep. 7, 20, 7; 7, 31, 5; so,

    tabulae,

    Mart. 5, 33, 1; 5, 41, 1:

    tituli,

    i. e. an epitaph, id. ib. 9, 19, 3.—So of cities, etc.:

    Troiae sorte suprema,

    Verg. A. 5, 190:

    dies regnis,

    Ov. F. 2, 852. — suprēmum and suprēmō, adverb.:

    animam sepulcro Condimus, et magna supremum voce ciemus,

    for the last time, for a last farewell, Verg. A. 3, 68; Plin. 11, 37, 55, § 150; Tac. H. 4, 14; Ov. M. 12, 526:

    anima exitura supremo,

    Plin. 11, 53, 115, § 277.— Substt.
    1.
    sŭprēmum, i, n., the last moment, end (very rare):

    ventum ad supremum est,

    Verg. A. 12, 803.—
    2.
    suprēma, orum, n.
    (α).
    The last moments, the close of life, death:

    ut me in supremis consolatus est!

    Quint. 6, prooem. § 11; Tac. A. 6, 50; 12, 66; cf.:

    statua Herculis sentiens suprema tunicae,

    the last agonies caused by it, Plin. 34, 8, 19, § 93:

    circa suprema Neronis,

    the time of his death, id. 16, 44, 86, § 236; 7, 3, 3, § 33.—
    (β).
    The last honors paid to the dead, funeral rites or ceremonies, a funeral:

    supremis divi Augusti,

    Plin. 7, 3, 3, § 33; 16, 44, 86, § 236; Tac. A. 1, 61; 3, 49; 4, 44; id. H. 4, 59; 4, 45:

    suprema ferre (sc. munera),

    Verg. A. 6, 213; cf. id. ib. 11, 25 al.—
    (γ).
    A last will, testament:

    nihil primo senatus die agi passus, nisi de supremis Augusti,

    Tac. A. 1, 8:

    miles in supremis ordinandis ignarus uxorem esse praegnantem, etc.,

    Dig. 29, 1, 36, § 2.—
    (δ).
    The relics, remains of a burned corpse, the ashes, = reliquiae, Amm. 25, 9, 12; Sol. 1 med.
    b.
    Of degree or rank, the highest, greatest, most exalted, supreme:

    multa, quae appellatur suprema, instituta in singulos duarum ovium, triginta boum... ultra quam (numerum) multam dicere in singulos jus non est, et propterea suprema appellatur, id est, summa et maxima,

    Gell. 11, 1, 2 sq.:

    macies,

    Verg. A. 3, 590:

    Juppiter supreme,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 9, 55; id. Capt. 2, 3, 66; 5, 2, 23; id. Ps. 2, 2, 33; Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 42: Junonis supremus conjunx, Poet. ap. Plin. 35, 10, 37, § 115:

    med antidhac Supremum habuisti com item consiliis tuis,

    most intimate, Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 15.—
    C.
    summus, a, um [from sup-imus, sup-mus], uppermost, highest, topmost; the top of, highest part of (cf. Roby, Gram. 2, § 1295).
    1.
    Lit. (class., while supremus is mostly poet.):

    summum oportet olfactare vestimentum muliebre,

    the top, outside of, Plaut. Men. 1, 2, 56: Galli summa arcis adorti Moenia, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 1, 4 (Ann. v. 169 Vahl.): Thyestes summis saxis fixus, id. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 44, 107 (Trag. v. 413 ib.): montibus summis, id. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, 71 Mull. (Epigr. v. 43 ib.):

    summum jugum montis,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 21:

    summus mons,

    the top of, id. ib. 1, 22:

    feriunt summos fulmina montes,

    the mountain tops, Hor. C. 2, 10, 11; cf.: in summo montis vertice, Poet. ap. Quint. 8, 3, 48:

    locus castrorum,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 23:

    in summa sacra via,

    on the highest part of, Cic. Planc. 7, 17; cf. id. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119:

    in summa columna conlocare,

    id. Div. 1, 24, 48:

    quam (urbem) ad summum theatrum,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119:

    Janus summus ab imo,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 54:

    ad aquam summam appropinquare,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 23, 64: mento summam aquam attingens enectus siti, Poet. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 5, 10:

    in aqua summa natare,

    the top, surface of, Plaut. Cas. 2, 6, 33:

    apud summum puteum,

    id. Mil. 4, 4, 16:

    per summa volare aequora,

    Verg. A. 5, 819:

    summa cacumina linquunt,

    id. ib. 6, 678:

    mari summo,

    id. ib. 1, 110:

    prospexi Italiam summa ab unda,

    id. ib. 6, 357:

    summaque per galeam delibans oscula,

    id. ib. 12, 434:

    amphoras complures complet plumbo, summas operit auro,

    Nep. Hann. 9, 3: summa procul villarum culmina fumant, Verg. E. 1, 83:

    summam cutem novacula decerpito,

    Col. 12, 56, 1.—Of position, place, at table:

    summus ego (in triclinio) et prope me Viscus Thurinus et infra Varius, etc.,

    I was highest, I reclined at the top, Hor. S. 2, 8, 20.—Hence, subst.: summus, i, m., he who sits in the highest place, at the head of the table:

    standum est in lecto, si quid de summo petas,

    Plaut. Men. 1, 1, 27: is sermo, qui more majorum a summo adhibetur in poculis, by the head of the table, i. e. by the president of the feast, Cic. Sen. 14, 46; so,

    a summo dare (bibere),

    Plaut. As. 5, 2, 41; Pers. 5, 1, 19.—
    b.
    summum, i, n., the top, surface; the highest place, the head of the table, etc.:

    ab ejus (frontis) summo, sicut palmae, rami quam late diffunduntur,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 26:

    qui demersi sunt in aqua... si non longe absunt a summo,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 14, 48:

    leviter a summo inflexum bacillum,

    id. Div. 1, 17, 30:

    igitur discubuere... in summo Antonius,

    Sall. H. 3, 4 Dietsch:

    puteos ac potius fontes habet: sunt enim in summo,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 17, 25:

    nuces mersit in vinum et sive in summum redierant, sive subsederant, etc.,

    Petr. 137 fin.: oratori summa riguerunt, the extremities of his body, Sen. Ira, 2, 3, 3.—In mal. part.:

    summa petere,

    Mart. 11, 46, 6; Auct. Priap. 76.—
    2.
    Transf., of the voice:

    jubeo te salvere voce summa,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 30; cf.:

    citaret Io Bacche! modo summa Voce, modo, etc.,

    at the top of his voice, Hor. S. 1, 3, 7:

    vox (opp. ima),

    Quint. 11, 3, 15:

    summa voce versus multos uno spiritu pronuntiare,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 61, 261; cf.:

    summo haec clamore,

    Plaut. Merc. prol. 59. —Adverb.: summum, at the utmost or farthest:

    exspectabam hodie, aut summum cras,

    Cic. Att. 13, 21, 2:

    bis, terve summum,

    id. Fam. 2, 1, 1:

    triduo aut summum quatriduo,

    id. Mil. 9, 26; cf. Liv. 21, 35, and 31, 42 Drak.—
    2.
    Trop.
    a.
    Of time or order of succession, last, latest, final (rare but class.):

    haec est praestituta summa argento dies,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 140; so,

    venit summa dies,

    Verg. A. 2, 324:

    ad summam senectutem jactari, quam, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 1, 1: vixit ad summam senectutem, to extreme old age, id. Fragm. ap. Non. 401, 31:

    cum esset summa senectute,

    id. Phil. 8, 10, 31:

    in fluvium primi cecidere, in corpora summi,

    Luc. 2, 211:

    summo carmine,

    at the end, Hor. C. 3, 28, 13:

    eadem in argumentis ratio est, ut potentissima prima et summa ponantur,

    the first and the last, at the beginning and the end, Quint. 6, 4, 22; cf. neutr. absol.: Celsus putat, primo firmum aliquod (argumentum) esse ponendum, summo firmissimum, imbecilliora medio;

    quia et initio movendus sit judex et summo impellendus,

    at the last, at the close, id. 7, 1, 10.— Adverb.: summum, for the last time:

    nunc ego te infelix summum teneoque tuorque,

    Albin. 1, 137. —
    b.
    Of rank, etc., highest, greatest, first, supreme, best, utmost, extreme; most distinguished, excellent, or noble; most important, weighty, or critical, etc. (so most freq. in prose and poetry): summa nituntur vi, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 168 Vahl.): bellum gerentes summum summa industria, id. ap. Non. p. 402, 3 (Trag. v. 104 ib.):

    summi puerorum amores,

    Cic. Lael. 10, 33:

    spes civium,

    id. ib. 3, 11:

    fides, constantia justitiaque,

    id. ib. 7, 25: in amore summo summaque inopia, Caec. ap. Cic. N. D. 3, 29, 72:

    qui in virtute summum bonum ponunt,

    id. ib. 6, 20:

    non agam summo jure tecum,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 4:

    tres fratres summo loco nati,

    id. Fam. 2, 18, 2:

    qui summo magistratui praeerat,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 16:

    concedunt in uno Cn. Pompeio summa esse omnia,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 17, 51:

    quae (vitia) summo opere vitare oportebit,

    id. Inv. 1, 18, 26:

    turpitudo,

    id. Lael. 17, 61:

    summum in cruciatum se venire,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 31:

    scelus,

    Sall. C. 12, 5:

    hiems,

    the depth of winter, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 40, § 86; id. Fam. 13, 60, 2:

    cum aestas summa esse coeperat,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 12, § 29; 2, 5, 31, § 80:

    ut summi virtute et animo praeessent imbecillioribus,

    id. Rep. 1, 34, 51:

    summi ex Graecia sapientissimique homines,

    id. ib. 1, 22, 36; cf.:

    summi homines ac summis ingeniis praediti,

    id. de Or. 1, 2, 6:

    optimi et summi viri diligentia,

    id. Rep. 1, 35, 54: cum par habetur honos summis et infimis [p. 1812] id. ib. 1, 34, 53: He. Quo honore'st illic? Ph. Summo atque ab summis viris, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 29:

    summus Juppiter,

    id. Cist. 2, 1, 40:

    ubi summus imperator non adest ad exercitum,

    id. Am. 1, 2, 6:

    miles summi inperatoris,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 10, 28: deum qui non summum putet (amorem), Caecil. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 32, 68:

    amicus summus,

    the best friend, Ter. Phorm. 5, 8 (9), 60; 1, 1, 1; id. And. 5, 6, 6; cf. absol.:

    nam is nostro Simulo fuit summus,

    id. Ad. 3, 2, 54; so id. Eun. 2, 2, 40.— Poet. in neutr. plur.:

    summa ducum Atrides,

    the chief, Ov. Am. 1, 9, 37; cf. Lucr. 1, 86:

    summo rei publicae tempore,

    at a most important period, most critical juncture, Cic. Phil. 5, 17, 46:

    in summo et periculosissimo rei publicae tempore,

    id. Fl. 3, 6; cf.:

    summa salus rei publicae,

    id. Cat. 1, 5, 11: quod summa res publica in hujus periculo tentatur, the highest welfare of the State, the common welfare, the good of the State, the whole State or commonwealth, id. Rosc. Am. 51, 148; so,

    res publica,

    id. Planc. 27, 66; id. Verr. 2, 2, 10, § 28; id. Cat. 1, 6, 14; 3, 6, 13; id. Inv. 1, 16, 23; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 14, 2:

    ad summam rem publicam,

    Liv. 33, 45, 4 al.:

    quo res summa loco, Panthu?

    the general cause, Verg. A. 2, 322: mene igitur socium summis adjungere rebus, Nise, fugis? in these enterprises of highest moment, etc., id. ib. 9, 199; esp.: summum jus, a right pushed to an extreme:

    non agam summo jure tecum,

    deal exactingly, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 4; cf.: exsistunt etiam saepe injuriae calumnia quadam et nimis callida juris interpretatione;

    ex quo illud summum jus summa injuria factum est, jam tritum sermone proverbium,

    id. Off. 1, 10, 33. — Hence, summē, adv., in the highest degree, most highly or greatly, extremely:

    quod me sollicitare summe solet,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 72, 295:

    cupere aliquid,

    id. Quint. 21, 69; Caes. B. C. 3, 15:

    contendere,

    Cic. Quint. 24, 77: studere, Mat. ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 2:

    diffidere,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7, 2:

    admirari,

    Quint. 10, 1, 70:

    summe jucundum,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 18, 2:

    officiosi,

    id. Verr. 2, 1, 24, § 63:

    summe disertus vir,

    Quint. 12, 1, 23:

    summe munitus locus,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 31:

    summe haec omnia mihi videntur esse laudanda,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 17, 57:

    mei summe observantissimus,

    Plin. Ep. 10, 26 (11), 1.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Superi

  • 18 superus

    sŭpĕrus, a, um (ante-class. collat. form of the nom. sing. sŭpĕr in two passages:

    super inferque vicinus,

    Cato, R. R. 149, 1:

    totus super ignis,

    Lucr. 1, 649; gen. plur. in signif. I. B. 1. infra, superum, Verg. A. 1, 4; Ov. M. 1, 251 et saep.), adj. [super].
    I.
    Posit.
    A.
    Adj.
    1.
    In gen., that is above, upper, higher: inferus an superus tibi fert deus funera, Liv. And. ap. Prisc. p. 606 P.:

    at ita me di deaeque superi atque inferi et medioxumi,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 1, 36:

    omnes di deaeque superi, inferi,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 4, 6:

    ad superos deos potius quam ad inferos pervenisse,

    Cic. Lael. 3, 12:

    limen superum inferumque salve,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 1, 1:

    portae Phrygiae limen,

    id. Bacch. 4, 9, 31; 4, 9, 63; Novat. ap. Non. p. 336, 13 (Com. Rel. v. 49 Rib.):

    carmine di superi placantur, carmine manes,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 138:

    di,

    id. C. 1, 1, 30; 4, 7, 18:

    superis deorum Gratus et imis,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 19:

    ut omnia supera, infera, prima, ultima, media videremus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 26, 64:

    spectatores superarum rerum atque caelestium,

    id. N. D. 2, 56, 140:

    omnes caelicolas, omnes supera alta tenentes,

    Verg. A. 6, 788:

    supera ad convexa,

    to heaven, id. ib. 6, 241 (Rib. super); 6, 750; 10, 251: cum superum lumen nox intempesta teneret, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1, 14 (Ann. v. 106 Vahl.):

    lumen,

    Lucr. 6, 856: templum superi Jovis, i. e. of the Capitoline Jupiter (opp. Juppiter inferus, i. e. Pluto), Cat. 55, 5; Sen. Herc. Fur. 48:

    domus deorum,

    Ov. M. 4, 735: mare superum, the upper, i. e. the Adriatic and Ionian Sea (opp. mare inferum, the lower or Etruscan Sea), Plaut. Men. 2, 1, 11; Cic. de Or. 3, 19, 69; id. Att. 9, 3, 1; Liv. 41, 1, 3; Mel. 2, 4, 1; Plin. 3, 5, 10, § 44; Suet. Caes. 34; 44;

    so without mare (colloq.): iter ad superum,

    Cic. Att. 9, 5, 1.—Adverb.:

    de supero, quom huc accesserit,

    from above, Plaut. Am. 3, 4, 18; so,

    ex supero,

    Lucr. 2, 227; 2, 241; 2, 248. —
    2.
    In partic., upper, i. e. of the upper regions or upper world (opp. the lower regions):

    supera de parte,

    i. e. of the earth, Lucr. 6, 855:

    superas evadere ad auras,

    Verg. A. 6, 128:

    superum ad lumen ire,

    id. ib. 6, 680:

    aurae,

    Ov. M. 5, 641:

    orae,

    Verg. A. 2, 91:

    limen,

    id. ib. 6, 680.—
    B.
    Substt.
    1.
    Sŭpĕri, orum, m.
    (α).
    They who are above (opp. inferi, those in the dungeon), Plaut. Aul. 2, 7, 6:

    multum fleti ad superos,

    i. e. those living on earth, Verg. A. 6, 481:

    (Pompeius) Quam apud superos habuerat magnitudinem, illibatam detulisset ad Inferos,

    the inhabitants of the upper world, Vell. 2, 48, 2; cf.:

    ut oblitos superum paterere dolores,

    Val. Fl. 1, 792: si nunc redire posset ad superos pater, Poet. ap. Charis. 5, p. 252:

    epistula ad superos scripta,

    i. e. to the survivors, Plin. 2, 109, 112, § 248.—
    (β).
    (Sc. di.) The gods above, the celestial deities:

    quae Superi Manesque dabant,

    Verg. A. 10, 34:

    aspiciunt Superi mortalia,

    Ov. M. 13, 70:

    o Superi!

    id. ib. 1, 196; 14, 729;

    pro Superi,

    id. Tr. 1, 2, 59:

    terris jactatus et alto Vi Superum,

    Verg. A. 1, 4:

    illa propago Contemptrix Superum,

    Ov. M. 1, 161:

    exemplo Superorum,

    id. Tr. 4, 4, 19; so,

    Superorum,

    id. P. 1, 1, 43:

    postquam res Asiae Priamique evertere gentem Immeritam visum Superis,

    Verg. A. 3, 2:

    scilicet is Superis labor est,

    id. ib. 4, 379; Hor. C. 1, 6, 16:

    superis deorum Gratus et imis,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 19:

    flectere Superos,

    Verg. A. 7, 312:

    te per Superos... oro,

    id. ib. 2, 141 et saep.—
    2.
    sŭpĕra, orum, n.
    (α).
    The heavenly bodies:

    Hicetas caelum, solem, lunam, stellas, supera denique omnia stare censet,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 39, 123; cf.:

    cogitantes supera atque caelestia, haec nostra contemnimus,

    id. ib. 2, 41, 127: di, quibus est potestas motus superum atque inferum, Enn. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 25, 38 (Trag. Rel. v. 163 Vahl.).—
    (β).
    Higher places (sc. loca):

    supera semper petunt,

    tend upwards, Cic. Tusc. 1, 18, 42:

    (Alecto) Cocyti petit sedem, supera ardua relinquens,

    the upper world, Verg. A. 7, 562.
    II.
    Comp.: sŭpĕrĭor, ius.
    A.
    Lit., of place, higher, upper:

    inferiore omni spatio vacuo relicto, superiorem partem collis castris compleverant,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 46:

    dejectus qui potest esse quisquam, nisi in inferiorem locum de superiore motus?

    Cic. Caecin. 18, 50:

    in superiore qui habito cenaculo,

    Plaut. Am. 3, 1, 3:

    tota domus superior vacat,

    the upper part of, Cic. Att. 12, 10:

    superior accumbere,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 1, 42:

    de loco superiore dicere,

    i. e. from the tribunal, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 42, § 102:

    agere,

    i. e. from the rostra, id. ib. 2, 1, 5, § 14;

    and in gen. of the position of the speaker: multos et ex superiore et ex aequo loco sermones habitos,

    id. Fam. 3, 8, 2:

    sive ex inferiore loco sive ex aequo sive ex superiore loquitur,

    id. de Or. 3, 6, 23: ex loco superiore in ipsis fluminis ripis praeliabantur, from a height or eminence, Caes. B. G. 2, 23; so,

    ex loco superiore,

    id. ib. 3, 4:

    loca,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 4;

    3, 3, 2: ex superioribus locis in planitiem descendere,

    id. B. C. 3, 98:

    qui in superiore acie constiterant,

    id. B. G. 1, 24:

    ex superiore et ex inferiore scriptura docendum,

    i. e. what goes before and after, the context, Cic. Inv. 2, 40, 117; cf.:

    posteriori superius non jungitur,

    id. Ac. 2, 14, 44.—
    B.
    Trop.
    1.
    Of time or order of succession, former, past, previous, preceding:

    superiores solis defectiones,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 16, 25:

    quid proxima, quid superiore nocte egeris,

    id. Cat. 1, 1, 1:

    refecto ponte, quem superioribus diebus hostes resciderant,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 58:

    superioribus aestivis,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 46:

    superioribus temporibus,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 17, 1:

    tempus (opp. posterius),

    id. Dom. 37, 99:

    tempora (opp. inferiora),

    Suet. Claud. 41:

    annus,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 18, § 47:

    anno superiore,

    id. Har. Resp. 8, 15:

    superioris anni acta,

    Suet. Caes. 23:

    in superiore vita,

    Cic. Sen. 8, 26: milites superioribus proeliis exercitati, [p. 1811] Caes. B. G. 2, 20:

    testimonium conveniens superiori facto,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 53:

    superius facinus novo scelere vincere,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 44, § 116:

    superioris more crudelitatis uti,

    Nep. Thras. 3, 1:

    superius genus,

    mentioned previously, Plin. 13, 25, 48, § 146:

    nuptiae,

    former marriage, Cic. Clu. 6, 15:

    vir,

    first husband, id. Caecin. 6, 17.—
    b.
    Esp., of age, time of life, etc., older, elder, senior, more advanced, former:

    omnis juventus omnesque superioris aetatis,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 5:

    aetate superiores,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 10, 1:

    superior Africanus,

    the Elder, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 10, § 25; id. Off. 1, 33, 121:

    Dionysius,

    id. ib. 2, 7, 25; Nep. Dion, 1, 1; cf.:

    quid est aetas hominis, nisi memoria rerum veterum cum superiorum aetate contexitur,

    Cic. Or. 34, 120.—
    2.
    Of strength or success in battle or any contest, victorious, conquering, stronger, superior:

    Caesar quod hostes equitatu superiores esse intellegebat,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 65:

    numero superiores,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 12:

    hoc ipso fiunt superiores, quod nullum acceperant detrimentum,

    id. ib. 8, 19:

    se quo impudentius egerit, hoc superiorem discessurum,

    Cic. Caecin. 1, 2:

    semper discessit superior,

    Nep. Hann. 1, 2:

    si primo proelio Catilina superior discessisset,

    Sall. C. 39, 4:

    ut nostri omnibus partibus superiores fuerint,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 15:

    multo superiores bello esse,

    Nep. Alcib. 4, 7:

    superiorem Appium in causa fecit,

    Liv. 5, 7, 1.—
    3.
    Of quality, condition, number, etc., higher, more distinguished, greater, superior.
    (α).
    With abl. respect.:

    pecuniis superiores,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 34, 59:

    loco, fortuna, fama superiores,

    id. Lael. 25, 94:

    habes neminem honoris gradu superiorem,

    id. Fam. 2, 18, 2:

    ordine,

    id. ib. 13, 5, 2:

    facilitate et humanitate superior,

    id. Off. 1, 26, 90:

    si superior ceteris rebus esses,

    id. Div. in Caecil. 19, 61.—
    (β).
    Absol.:

    ut ii, qui superiores sunt, submittere se debent in amicitia, sic quodam modo inferiores extollere,

    Cic. Lael. 20, 72; cf. id. ib. 20, 71:

    ut quanto superiores sumus, tanto nos geramus summissius,

    id. Off. 1, 26, 90:

    invident homines maxime paribus aut inferioribus... sed etiam superioribus invidetur,

    id. de Or. 2, 52, 209:

    premendoque superiorem sese extollebat,

    Liv. 22, 12, 12:

    cui omnem honorem, ut superiori habuit,

    Vell. 2, 101, 1.
    III.
    Sup., in three forms, ‡ superrimus, supremus, and summus.
    A.
    sŭperrĭmus, assumed as orig. form of supremus by Varr. L. L. 7, § 51 Mull.; Charis. p. 130 P.—
    B.
    sū̆prēmus, a, um, highest, loftiest, topmost.
    1.
    Lit. (only poet.; cf.

    summus, C. 1.): montesque supremos Silvifragis vexat flabris,

    the highest points, the tops, summits, Lucr. 1, 274; so,

    montes,

    Verg. G. 4, 460; Hor. Epod. 17, 68:

    rupes,

    Sen. Oedip. 95:

    arx,

    Claud. III. Cons. Hon. 167; cf.:

    supremae Tethyos unda,

    Mart. Spect. 3, 6.—
    2.
    Trop.
    a.
    Of time or order of succession, last, latest, extreme, final, = ultimus (class.).
    (α).
    In gen.: SOL OCCASVS SVPREMA TEMPESTAS ESTO, XII. Tab. ap. Gell. 17, 2, 10.—Hence, as subst.: suprēma, ae, f. (sc. tempestas), the last part of the day, the hour of sunset: suprema summum diei; hoc tempus duodecim Tabulae dicunt occasum esse solis;

    sed postea lex praetoria id quoque tempus jubet esse supremum, quo praeco in comitio supremam pronuntiavit populo,

    Varr. L. L. 6, § 5 Mull.; cf. Censor. de Die Nat. 24; Plin. 7, 60, 60, § 212:

    quae (urbs), quia postrema coaedificata est, Neapolis nominatur,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119:

    supremo te sole domi manebo,

    at sunset, Hor. Ep. 1, 5, 3:

    jubare exorto jam nocte suprema, Col. poet. 10, 294: in te suprema salus,

    last hope, Verg. A. 12, 653: supremam bellis imposuisse manum, the last or finishing hand, Ov. R. Am. 114. — suprēmum, adverb., for the last time:

    quae mihi tunc primum, tunc est conspecta supremum,

    Ov. M. 12, 526.—
    (β).
    In partic., with regard to the close of life, last, closing, dying:

    supremo vitae die,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 29, 71; id. Sen. 21, 78; id. Mur. 36, 75:

    dies,

    id. Phil. 1, 14, 34; Hor. C. 1, 13, 20; id. Ep. 1, 4, 13:

    hora,

    Tib. 1, 1, 59:

    tempus,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 98; Cat. 64, 151:

    incestum pontifices supremo supplicio sanciunto,

    i. e. the penalty of death, Cic. Leg. 2, 9, 22:

    mors,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 173:

    finis,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 12:

    iter,

    id. C. 2, 17, 11:

    lumen,

    Verg. A. 6, 735: sociamque tori vocat ore supremo, with his dying mouth, dying breath, Ov. M. 8, 521; so,

    ore,

    id. Tr. 3, 3, 87:

    haec digressu dicta supremo Fundebat,

    Verg. A. 8, 583:

    Nero in suprema ira duos calices crystallinos fregit,

    in his last agony, Plin. 37, 2, 10, § 29;

    supremis suis annis,

    in his last years, id. 23, 1, 27, § 58:

    suprema ejus cura,

    id. 7, 45, 46, § 150:

    spoliatus illius supremi diei celebritate,

    Cic. Mil. 32, 86: honor, the last honors, i. e. funeral rites or ceremonies, Verg. A. 11, 61:

    funera,

    Ov. M. 3, 137:

    oscula,

    id. ib. 6, 278:

    tori,

    i. e. biers, id. F. 6, 668:

    ignis,

    id. Am. 1, 15, 41:

    ignes,

    id. M. 2, 620; 13, 583:

    officia,

    Tac. A. 5, 2; Petr. 112, 1: judicia hominum, a last will or testament, Quint. 6, 3, 92; Plin. Ep. 7, 20, 7; 7, 31, 5; so,

    tabulae,

    Mart. 5, 33, 1; 5, 41, 1:

    tituli,

    i. e. an epitaph, id. ib. 9, 19, 3.—So of cities, etc.:

    Troiae sorte suprema,

    Verg. A. 5, 190:

    dies regnis,

    Ov. F. 2, 852. — suprēmum and suprēmō, adverb.:

    animam sepulcro Condimus, et magna supremum voce ciemus,

    for the last time, for a last farewell, Verg. A. 3, 68; Plin. 11, 37, 55, § 150; Tac. H. 4, 14; Ov. M. 12, 526:

    anima exitura supremo,

    Plin. 11, 53, 115, § 277.— Substt.
    1.
    sŭprēmum, i, n., the last moment, end (very rare):

    ventum ad supremum est,

    Verg. A. 12, 803.—
    2.
    suprēma, orum, n.
    (α).
    The last moments, the close of life, death:

    ut me in supremis consolatus est!

    Quint. 6, prooem. § 11; Tac. A. 6, 50; 12, 66; cf.:

    statua Herculis sentiens suprema tunicae,

    the last agonies caused by it, Plin. 34, 8, 19, § 93:

    circa suprema Neronis,

    the time of his death, id. 16, 44, 86, § 236; 7, 3, 3, § 33.—
    (β).
    The last honors paid to the dead, funeral rites or ceremonies, a funeral:

    supremis divi Augusti,

    Plin. 7, 3, 3, § 33; 16, 44, 86, § 236; Tac. A. 1, 61; 3, 49; 4, 44; id. H. 4, 59; 4, 45:

    suprema ferre (sc. munera),

    Verg. A. 6, 213; cf. id. ib. 11, 25 al.—
    (γ).
    A last will, testament:

    nihil primo senatus die agi passus, nisi de supremis Augusti,

    Tac. A. 1, 8:

    miles in supremis ordinandis ignarus uxorem esse praegnantem, etc.,

    Dig. 29, 1, 36, § 2.—
    (δ).
    The relics, remains of a burned corpse, the ashes, = reliquiae, Amm. 25, 9, 12; Sol. 1 med.
    b.
    Of degree or rank, the highest, greatest, most exalted, supreme:

    multa, quae appellatur suprema, instituta in singulos duarum ovium, triginta boum... ultra quam (numerum) multam dicere in singulos jus non est, et propterea suprema appellatur, id est, summa et maxima,

    Gell. 11, 1, 2 sq.:

    macies,

    Verg. A. 3, 590:

    Juppiter supreme,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 9, 55; id. Capt. 2, 3, 66; 5, 2, 23; id. Ps. 2, 2, 33; Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 42: Junonis supremus conjunx, Poet. ap. Plin. 35, 10, 37, § 115:

    med antidhac Supremum habuisti com item consiliis tuis,

    most intimate, Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 15.—
    C.
    summus, a, um [from sup-imus, sup-mus], uppermost, highest, topmost; the top of, highest part of (cf. Roby, Gram. 2, § 1295).
    1.
    Lit. (class., while supremus is mostly poet.):

    summum oportet olfactare vestimentum muliebre,

    the top, outside of, Plaut. Men. 1, 2, 56: Galli summa arcis adorti Moenia, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 1, 4 (Ann. v. 169 Vahl.): Thyestes summis saxis fixus, id. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 44, 107 (Trag. v. 413 ib.): montibus summis, id. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, 71 Mull. (Epigr. v. 43 ib.):

    summum jugum montis,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 21:

    summus mons,

    the top of, id. ib. 1, 22:

    feriunt summos fulmina montes,

    the mountain tops, Hor. C. 2, 10, 11; cf.: in summo montis vertice, Poet. ap. Quint. 8, 3, 48:

    locus castrorum,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 23:

    in summa sacra via,

    on the highest part of, Cic. Planc. 7, 17; cf. id. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119:

    in summa columna conlocare,

    id. Div. 1, 24, 48:

    quam (urbem) ad summum theatrum,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119:

    Janus summus ab imo,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 54:

    ad aquam summam appropinquare,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 23, 64: mento summam aquam attingens enectus siti, Poet. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 5, 10:

    in aqua summa natare,

    the top, surface of, Plaut. Cas. 2, 6, 33:

    apud summum puteum,

    id. Mil. 4, 4, 16:

    per summa volare aequora,

    Verg. A. 5, 819:

    summa cacumina linquunt,

    id. ib. 6, 678:

    mari summo,

    id. ib. 1, 110:

    prospexi Italiam summa ab unda,

    id. ib. 6, 357:

    summaque per galeam delibans oscula,

    id. ib. 12, 434:

    amphoras complures complet plumbo, summas operit auro,

    Nep. Hann. 9, 3: summa procul villarum culmina fumant, Verg. E. 1, 83:

    summam cutem novacula decerpito,

    Col. 12, 56, 1.—Of position, place, at table:

    summus ego (in triclinio) et prope me Viscus Thurinus et infra Varius, etc.,

    I was highest, I reclined at the top, Hor. S. 2, 8, 20.—Hence, subst.: summus, i, m., he who sits in the highest place, at the head of the table:

    standum est in lecto, si quid de summo petas,

    Plaut. Men. 1, 1, 27: is sermo, qui more majorum a summo adhibetur in poculis, by the head of the table, i. e. by the president of the feast, Cic. Sen. 14, 46; so,

    a summo dare (bibere),

    Plaut. As. 5, 2, 41; Pers. 5, 1, 19.—
    b.
    summum, i, n., the top, surface; the highest place, the head of the table, etc.:

    ab ejus (frontis) summo, sicut palmae, rami quam late diffunduntur,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 26:

    qui demersi sunt in aqua... si non longe absunt a summo,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 14, 48:

    leviter a summo inflexum bacillum,

    id. Div. 1, 17, 30:

    igitur discubuere... in summo Antonius,

    Sall. H. 3, 4 Dietsch:

    puteos ac potius fontes habet: sunt enim in summo,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 17, 25:

    nuces mersit in vinum et sive in summum redierant, sive subsederant, etc.,

    Petr. 137 fin.: oratori summa riguerunt, the extremities of his body, Sen. Ira, 2, 3, 3.—In mal. part.:

    summa petere,

    Mart. 11, 46, 6; Auct. Priap. 76.—
    2.
    Transf., of the voice:

    jubeo te salvere voce summa,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 30; cf.:

    citaret Io Bacche! modo summa Voce, modo, etc.,

    at the top of his voice, Hor. S. 1, 3, 7:

    vox (opp. ima),

    Quint. 11, 3, 15:

    summa voce versus multos uno spiritu pronuntiare,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 61, 261; cf.:

    summo haec clamore,

    Plaut. Merc. prol. 59. —Adverb.: summum, at the utmost or farthest:

    exspectabam hodie, aut summum cras,

    Cic. Att. 13, 21, 2:

    bis, terve summum,

    id. Fam. 2, 1, 1:

    triduo aut summum quatriduo,

    id. Mil. 9, 26; cf. Liv. 21, 35, and 31, 42 Drak.—
    2.
    Trop.
    a.
    Of time or order of succession, last, latest, final (rare but class.):

    haec est praestituta summa argento dies,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 140; so,

    venit summa dies,

    Verg. A. 2, 324:

    ad summam senectutem jactari, quam, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 1, 1: vixit ad summam senectutem, to extreme old age, id. Fragm. ap. Non. 401, 31:

    cum esset summa senectute,

    id. Phil. 8, 10, 31:

    in fluvium primi cecidere, in corpora summi,

    Luc. 2, 211:

    summo carmine,

    at the end, Hor. C. 3, 28, 13:

    eadem in argumentis ratio est, ut potentissima prima et summa ponantur,

    the first and the last, at the beginning and the end, Quint. 6, 4, 22; cf. neutr. absol.: Celsus putat, primo firmum aliquod (argumentum) esse ponendum, summo firmissimum, imbecilliora medio;

    quia et initio movendus sit judex et summo impellendus,

    at the last, at the close, id. 7, 1, 10.— Adverb.: summum, for the last time:

    nunc ego te infelix summum teneoque tuorque,

    Albin. 1, 137. —
    b.
    Of rank, etc., highest, greatest, first, supreme, best, utmost, extreme; most distinguished, excellent, or noble; most important, weighty, or critical, etc. (so most freq. in prose and poetry): summa nituntur vi, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 168 Vahl.): bellum gerentes summum summa industria, id. ap. Non. p. 402, 3 (Trag. v. 104 ib.):

    summi puerorum amores,

    Cic. Lael. 10, 33:

    spes civium,

    id. ib. 3, 11:

    fides, constantia justitiaque,

    id. ib. 7, 25: in amore summo summaque inopia, Caec. ap. Cic. N. D. 3, 29, 72:

    qui in virtute summum bonum ponunt,

    id. ib. 6, 20:

    non agam summo jure tecum,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 4:

    tres fratres summo loco nati,

    id. Fam. 2, 18, 2:

    qui summo magistratui praeerat,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 16:

    concedunt in uno Cn. Pompeio summa esse omnia,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 17, 51:

    quae (vitia) summo opere vitare oportebit,

    id. Inv. 1, 18, 26:

    turpitudo,

    id. Lael. 17, 61:

    summum in cruciatum se venire,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 31:

    scelus,

    Sall. C. 12, 5:

    hiems,

    the depth of winter, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 40, § 86; id. Fam. 13, 60, 2:

    cum aestas summa esse coeperat,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 12, § 29; 2, 5, 31, § 80:

    ut summi virtute et animo praeessent imbecillioribus,

    id. Rep. 1, 34, 51:

    summi ex Graecia sapientissimique homines,

    id. ib. 1, 22, 36; cf.:

    summi homines ac summis ingeniis praediti,

    id. de Or. 1, 2, 6:

    optimi et summi viri diligentia,

    id. Rep. 1, 35, 54: cum par habetur honos summis et infimis [p. 1812] id. ib. 1, 34, 53: He. Quo honore'st illic? Ph. Summo atque ab summis viris, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 29:

    summus Juppiter,

    id. Cist. 2, 1, 40:

    ubi summus imperator non adest ad exercitum,

    id. Am. 1, 2, 6:

    miles summi inperatoris,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 10, 28: deum qui non summum putet (amorem), Caecil. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 32, 68:

    amicus summus,

    the best friend, Ter. Phorm. 5, 8 (9), 60; 1, 1, 1; id. And. 5, 6, 6; cf. absol.:

    nam is nostro Simulo fuit summus,

    id. Ad. 3, 2, 54; so id. Eun. 2, 2, 40.— Poet. in neutr. plur.:

    summa ducum Atrides,

    the chief, Ov. Am. 1, 9, 37; cf. Lucr. 1, 86:

    summo rei publicae tempore,

    at a most important period, most critical juncture, Cic. Phil. 5, 17, 46:

    in summo et periculosissimo rei publicae tempore,

    id. Fl. 3, 6; cf.:

    summa salus rei publicae,

    id. Cat. 1, 5, 11: quod summa res publica in hujus periculo tentatur, the highest welfare of the State, the common welfare, the good of the State, the whole State or commonwealth, id. Rosc. Am. 51, 148; so,

    res publica,

    id. Planc. 27, 66; id. Verr. 2, 2, 10, § 28; id. Cat. 1, 6, 14; 3, 6, 13; id. Inv. 1, 16, 23; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 14, 2:

    ad summam rem publicam,

    Liv. 33, 45, 4 al.:

    quo res summa loco, Panthu?

    the general cause, Verg. A. 2, 322: mene igitur socium summis adjungere rebus, Nise, fugis? in these enterprises of highest moment, etc., id. ib. 9, 199; esp.: summum jus, a right pushed to an extreme:

    non agam summo jure tecum,

    deal exactingly, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 4; cf.: exsistunt etiam saepe injuriae calumnia quadam et nimis callida juris interpretatione;

    ex quo illud summum jus summa injuria factum est, jam tritum sermone proverbium,

    id. Off. 1, 10, 33. — Hence, summē, adv., in the highest degree, most highly or greatly, extremely:

    quod me sollicitare summe solet,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 72, 295:

    cupere aliquid,

    id. Quint. 21, 69; Caes. B. C. 3, 15:

    contendere,

    Cic. Quint. 24, 77: studere, Mat. ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 2:

    diffidere,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7, 2:

    admirari,

    Quint. 10, 1, 70:

    summe jucundum,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 18, 2:

    officiosi,

    id. Verr. 2, 1, 24, § 63:

    summe disertus vir,

    Quint. 12, 1, 23:

    summe munitus locus,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 31:

    summe haec omnia mihi videntur esse laudanda,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 17, 57:

    mei summe observantissimus,

    Plin. Ep. 10, 26 (11), 1.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > superus

  • 19 suprema

    sŭpĕrus, a, um (ante-class. collat. form of the nom. sing. sŭpĕr in two passages:

    super inferque vicinus,

    Cato, R. R. 149, 1:

    totus super ignis,

    Lucr. 1, 649; gen. plur. in signif. I. B. 1. infra, superum, Verg. A. 1, 4; Ov. M. 1, 251 et saep.), adj. [super].
    I.
    Posit.
    A.
    Adj.
    1.
    In gen., that is above, upper, higher: inferus an superus tibi fert deus funera, Liv. And. ap. Prisc. p. 606 P.:

    at ita me di deaeque superi atque inferi et medioxumi,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 1, 36:

    omnes di deaeque superi, inferi,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 4, 6:

    ad superos deos potius quam ad inferos pervenisse,

    Cic. Lael. 3, 12:

    limen superum inferumque salve,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 1, 1:

    portae Phrygiae limen,

    id. Bacch. 4, 9, 31; 4, 9, 63; Novat. ap. Non. p. 336, 13 (Com. Rel. v. 49 Rib.):

    carmine di superi placantur, carmine manes,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 138:

    di,

    id. C. 1, 1, 30; 4, 7, 18:

    superis deorum Gratus et imis,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 19:

    ut omnia supera, infera, prima, ultima, media videremus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 26, 64:

    spectatores superarum rerum atque caelestium,

    id. N. D. 2, 56, 140:

    omnes caelicolas, omnes supera alta tenentes,

    Verg. A. 6, 788:

    supera ad convexa,

    to heaven, id. ib. 6, 241 (Rib. super); 6, 750; 10, 251: cum superum lumen nox intempesta teneret, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1, 14 (Ann. v. 106 Vahl.):

    lumen,

    Lucr. 6, 856: templum superi Jovis, i. e. of the Capitoline Jupiter (opp. Juppiter inferus, i. e. Pluto), Cat. 55, 5; Sen. Herc. Fur. 48:

    domus deorum,

    Ov. M. 4, 735: mare superum, the upper, i. e. the Adriatic and Ionian Sea (opp. mare inferum, the lower or Etruscan Sea), Plaut. Men. 2, 1, 11; Cic. de Or. 3, 19, 69; id. Att. 9, 3, 1; Liv. 41, 1, 3; Mel. 2, 4, 1; Plin. 3, 5, 10, § 44; Suet. Caes. 34; 44;

    so without mare (colloq.): iter ad superum,

    Cic. Att. 9, 5, 1.—Adverb.:

    de supero, quom huc accesserit,

    from above, Plaut. Am. 3, 4, 18; so,

    ex supero,

    Lucr. 2, 227; 2, 241; 2, 248. —
    2.
    In partic., upper, i. e. of the upper regions or upper world (opp. the lower regions):

    supera de parte,

    i. e. of the earth, Lucr. 6, 855:

    superas evadere ad auras,

    Verg. A. 6, 128:

    superum ad lumen ire,

    id. ib. 6, 680:

    aurae,

    Ov. M. 5, 641:

    orae,

    Verg. A. 2, 91:

    limen,

    id. ib. 6, 680.—
    B.
    Substt.
    1.
    Sŭpĕri, orum, m.
    (α).
    They who are above (opp. inferi, those in the dungeon), Plaut. Aul. 2, 7, 6:

    multum fleti ad superos,

    i. e. those living on earth, Verg. A. 6, 481:

    (Pompeius) Quam apud superos habuerat magnitudinem, illibatam detulisset ad Inferos,

    the inhabitants of the upper world, Vell. 2, 48, 2; cf.:

    ut oblitos superum paterere dolores,

    Val. Fl. 1, 792: si nunc redire posset ad superos pater, Poet. ap. Charis. 5, p. 252:

    epistula ad superos scripta,

    i. e. to the survivors, Plin. 2, 109, 112, § 248.—
    (β).
    (Sc. di.) The gods above, the celestial deities:

    quae Superi Manesque dabant,

    Verg. A. 10, 34:

    aspiciunt Superi mortalia,

    Ov. M. 13, 70:

    o Superi!

    id. ib. 1, 196; 14, 729;

    pro Superi,

    id. Tr. 1, 2, 59:

    terris jactatus et alto Vi Superum,

    Verg. A. 1, 4:

    illa propago Contemptrix Superum,

    Ov. M. 1, 161:

    exemplo Superorum,

    id. Tr. 4, 4, 19; so,

    Superorum,

    id. P. 1, 1, 43:

    postquam res Asiae Priamique evertere gentem Immeritam visum Superis,

    Verg. A. 3, 2:

    scilicet is Superis labor est,

    id. ib. 4, 379; Hor. C. 1, 6, 16:

    superis deorum Gratus et imis,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 19:

    flectere Superos,

    Verg. A. 7, 312:

    te per Superos... oro,

    id. ib. 2, 141 et saep.—
    2.
    sŭpĕra, orum, n.
    (α).
    The heavenly bodies:

    Hicetas caelum, solem, lunam, stellas, supera denique omnia stare censet,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 39, 123; cf.:

    cogitantes supera atque caelestia, haec nostra contemnimus,

    id. ib. 2, 41, 127: di, quibus est potestas motus superum atque inferum, Enn. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 25, 38 (Trag. Rel. v. 163 Vahl.).—
    (β).
    Higher places (sc. loca):

    supera semper petunt,

    tend upwards, Cic. Tusc. 1, 18, 42:

    (Alecto) Cocyti petit sedem, supera ardua relinquens,

    the upper world, Verg. A. 7, 562.
    II.
    Comp.: sŭpĕrĭor, ius.
    A.
    Lit., of place, higher, upper:

    inferiore omni spatio vacuo relicto, superiorem partem collis castris compleverant,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 46:

    dejectus qui potest esse quisquam, nisi in inferiorem locum de superiore motus?

    Cic. Caecin. 18, 50:

    in superiore qui habito cenaculo,

    Plaut. Am. 3, 1, 3:

    tota domus superior vacat,

    the upper part of, Cic. Att. 12, 10:

    superior accumbere,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 1, 42:

    de loco superiore dicere,

    i. e. from the tribunal, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 42, § 102:

    agere,

    i. e. from the rostra, id. ib. 2, 1, 5, § 14;

    and in gen. of the position of the speaker: multos et ex superiore et ex aequo loco sermones habitos,

    id. Fam. 3, 8, 2:

    sive ex inferiore loco sive ex aequo sive ex superiore loquitur,

    id. de Or. 3, 6, 23: ex loco superiore in ipsis fluminis ripis praeliabantur, from a height or eminence, Caes. B. G. 2, 23; so,

    ex loco superiore,

    id. ib. 3, 4:

    loca,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 4;

    3, 3, 2: ex superioribus locis in planitiem descendere,

    id. B. C. 3, 98:

    qui in superiore acie constiterant,

    id. B. G. 1, 24:

    ex superiore et ex inferiore scriptura docendum,

    i. e. what goes before and after, the context, Cic. Inv. 2, 40, 117; cf.:

    posteriori superius non jungitur,

    id. Ac. 2, 14, 44.—
    B.
    Trop.
    1.
    Of time or order of succession, former, past, previous, preceding:

    superiores solis defectiones,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 16, 25:

    quid proxima, quid superiore nocte egeris,

    id. Cat. 1, 1, 1:

    refecto ponte, quem superioribus diebus hostes resciderant,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 58:

    superioribus aestivis,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 46:

    superioribus temporibus,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 17, 1:

    tempus (opp. posterius),

    id. Dom. 37, 99:

    tempora (opp. inferiora),

    Suet. Claud. 41:

    annus,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 18, § 47:

    anno superiore,

    id. Har. Resp. 8, 15:

    superioris anni acta,

    Suet. Caes. 23:

    in superiore vita,

    Cic. Sen. 8, 26: milites superioribus proeliis exercitati, [p. 1811] Caes. B. G. 2, 20:

    testimonium conveniens superiori facto,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 53:

    superius facinus novo scelere vincere,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 44, § 116:

    superioris more crudelitatis uti,

    Nep. Thras. 3, 1:

    superius genus,

    mentioned previously, Plin. 13, 25, 48, § 146:

    nuptiae,

    former marriage, Cic. Clu. 6, 15:

    vir,

    first husband, id. Caecin. 6, 17.—
    b.
    Esp., of age, time of life, etc., older, elder, senior, more advanced, former:

    omnis juventus omnesque superioris aetatis,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 5:

    aetate superiores,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 10, 1:

    superior Africanus,

    the Elder, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 10, § 25; id. Off. 1, 33, 121:

    Dionysius,

    id. ib. 2, 7, 25; Nep. Dion, 1, 1; cf.:

    quid est aetas hominis, nisi memoria rerum veterum cum superiorum aetate contexitur,

    Cic. Or. 34, 120.—
    2.
    Of strength or success in battle or any contest, victorious, conquering, stronger, superior:

    Caesar quod hostes equitatu superiores esse intellegebat,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 65:

    numero superiores,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 12:

    hoc ipso fiunt superiores, quod nullum acceperant detrimentum,

    id. ib. 8, 19:

    se quo impudentius egerit, hoc superiorem discessurum,

    Cic. Caecin. 1, 2:

    semper discessit superior,

    Nep. Hann. 1, 2:

    si primo proelio Catilina superior discessisset,

    Sall. C. 39, 4:

    ut nostri omnibus partibus superiores fuerint,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 15:

    multo superiores bello esse,

    Nep. Alcib. 4, 7:

    superiorem Appium in causa fecit,

    Liv. 5, 7, 1.—
    3.
    Of quality, condition, number, etc., higher, more distinguished, greater, superior.
    (α).
    With abl. respect.:

    pecuniis superiores,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 34, 59:

    loco, fortuna, fama superiores,

    id. Lael. 25, 94:

    habes neminem honoris gradu superiorem,

    id. Fam. 2, 18, 2:

    ordine,

    id. ib. 13, 5, 2:

    facilitate et humanitate superior,

    id. Off. 1, 26, 90:

    si superior ceteris rebus esses,

    id. Div. in Caecil. 19, 61.—
    (β).
    Absol.:

    ut ii, qui superiores sunt, submittere se debent in amicitia, sic quodam modo inferiores extollere,

    Cic. Lael. 20, 72; cf. id. ib. 20, 71:

    ut quanto superiores sumus, tanto nos geramus summissius,

    id. Off. 1, 26, 90:

    invident homines maxime paribus aut inferioribus... sed etiam superioribus invidetur,

    id. de Or. 2, 52, 209:

    premendoque superiorem sese extollebat,

    Liv. 22, 12, 12:

    cui omnem honorem, ut superiori habuit,

    Vell. 2, 101, 1.
    III.
    Sup., in three forms, ‡ superrimus, supremus, and summus.
    A.
    sŭperrĭmus, assumed as orig. form of supremus by Varr. L. L. 7, § 51 Mull.; Charis. p. 130 P.—
    B.
    sū̆prēmus, a, um, highest, loftiest, topmost.
    1.
    Lit. (only poet.; cf.

    summus, C. 1.): montesque supremos Silvifragis vexat flabris,

    the highest points, the tops, summits, Lucr. 1, 274; so,

    montes,

    Verg. G. 4, 460; Hor. Epod. 17, 68:

    rupes,

    Sen. Oedip. 95:

    arx,

    Claud. III. Cons. Hon. 167; cf.:

    supremae Tethyos unda,

    Mart. Spect. 3, 6.—
    2.
    Trop.
    a.
    Of time or order of succession, last, latest, extreme, final, = ultimus (class.).
    (α).
    In gen.: SOL OCCASVS SVPREMA TEMPESTAS ESTO, XII. Tab. ap. Gell. 17, 2, 10.—Hence, as subst.: suprēma, ae, f. (sc. tempestas), the last part of the day, the hour of sunset: suprema summum diei; hoc tempus duodecim Tabulae dicunt occasum esse solis;

    sed postea lex praetoria id quoque tempus jubet esse supremum, quo praeco in comitio supremam pronuntiavit populo,

    Varr. L. L. 6, § 5 Mull.; cf. Censor. de Die Nat. 24; Plin. 7, 60, 60, § 212:

    quae (urbs), quia postrema coaedificata est, Neapolis nominatur,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119:

    supremo te sole domi manebo,

    at sunset, Hor. Ep. 1, 5, 3:

    jubare exorto jam nocte suprema, Col. poet. 10, 294: in te suprema salus,

    last hope, Verg. A. 12, 653: supremam bellis imposuisse manum, the last or finishing hand, Ov. R. Am. 114. — suprēmum, adverb., for the last time:

    quae mihi tunc primum, tunc est conspecta supremum,

    Ov. M. 12, 526.—
    (β).
    In partic., with regard to the close of life, last, closing, dying:

    supremo vitae die,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 29, 71; id. Sen. 21, 78; id. Mur. 36, 75:

    dies,

    id. Phil. 1, 14, 34; Hor. C. 1, 13, 20; id. Ep. 1, 4, 13:

    hora,

    Tib. 1, 1, 59:

    tempus,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 98; Cat. 64, 151:

    incestum pontifices supremo supplicio sanciunto,

    i. e. the penalty of death, Cic. Leg. 2, 9, 22:

    mors,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 173:

    finis,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 12:

    iter,

    id. C. 2, 17, 11:

    lumen,

    Verg. A. 6, 735: sociamque tori vocat ore supremo, with his dying mouth, dying breath, Ov. M. 8, 521; so,

    ore,

    id. Tr. 3, 3, 87:

    haec digressu dicta supremo Fundebat,

    Verg. A. 8, 583:

    Nero in suprema ira duos calices crystallinos fregit,

    in his last agony, Plin. 37, 2, 10, § 29;

    supremis suis annis,

    in his last years, id. 23, 1, 27, § 58:

    suprema ejus cura,

    id. 7, 45, 46, § 150:

    spoliatus illius supremi diei celebritate,

    Cic. Mil. 32, 86: honor, the last honors, i. e. funeral rites or ceremonies, Verg. A. 11, 61:

    funera,

    Ov. M. 3, 137:

    oscula,

    id. ib. 6, 278:

    tori,

    i. e. biers, id. F. 6, 668:

    ignis,

    id. Am. 1, 15, 41:

    ignes,

    id. M. 2, 620; 13, 583:

    officia,

    Tac. A. 5, 2; Petr. 112, 1: judicia hominum, a last will or testament, Quint. 6, 3, 92; Plin. Ep. 7, 20, 7; 7, 31, 5; so,

    tabulae,

    Mart. 5, 33, 1; 5, 41, 1:

    tituli,

    i. e. an epitaph, id. ib. 9, 19, 3.—So of cities, etc.:

    Troiae sorte suprema,

    Verg. A. 5, 190:

    dies regnis,

    Ov. F. 2, 852. — suprēmum and suprēmō, adverb.:

    animam sepulcro Condimus, et magna supremum voce ciemus,

    for the last time, for a last farewell, Verg. A. 3, 68; Plin. 11, 37, 55, § 150; Tac. H. 4, 14; Ov. M. 12, 526:

    anima exitura supremo,

    Plin. 11, 53, 115, § 277.— Substt.
    1.
    sŭprēmum, i, n., the last moment, end (very rare):

    ventum ad supremum est,

    Verg. A. 12, 803.—
    2.
    suprēma, orum, n.
    (α).
    The last moments, the close of life, death:

    ut me in supremis consolatus est!

    Quint. 6, prooem. § 11; Tac. A. 6, 50; 12, 66; cf.:

    statua Herculis sentiens suprema tunicae,

    the last agonies caused by it, Plin. 34, 8, 19, § 93:

    circa suprema Neronis,

    the time of his death, id. 16, 44, 86, § 236; 7, 3, 3, § 33.—
    (β).
    The last honors paid to the dead, funeral rites or ceremonies, a funeral:

    supremis divi Augusti,

    Plin. 7, 3, 3, § 33; 16, 44, 86, § 236; Tac. A. 1, 61; 3, 49; 4, 44; id. H. 4, 59; 4, 45:

    suprema ferre (sc. munera),

    Verg. A. 6, 213; cf. id. ib. 11, 25 al.—
    (γ).
    A last will, testament:

    nihil primo senatus die agi passus, nisi de supremis Augusti,

    Tac. A. 1, 8:

    miles in supremis ordinandis ignarus uxorem esse praegnantem, etc.,

    Dig. 29, 1, 36, § 2.—
    (δ).
    The relics, remains of a burned corpse, the ashes, = reliquiae, Amm. 25, 9, 12; Sol. 1 med.
    b.
    Of degree or rank, the highest, greatest, most exalted, supreme:

    multa, quae appellatur suprema, instituta in singulos duarum ovium, triginta boum... ultra quam (numerum) multam dicere in singulos jus non est, et propterea suprema appellatur, id est, summa et maxima,

    Gell. 11, 1, 2 sq.:

    macies,

    Verg. A. 3, 590:

    Juppiter supreme,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 9, 55; id. Capt. 2, 3, 66; 5, 2, 23; id. Ps. 2, 2, 33; Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 42: Junonis supremus conjunx, Poet. ap. Plin. 35, 10, 37, § 115:

    med antidhac Supremum habuisti com item consiliis tuis,

    most intimate, Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 15.—
    C.
    summus, a, um [from sup-imus, sup-mus], uppermost, highest, topmost; the top of, highest part of (cf. Roby, Gram. 2, § 1295).
    1.
    Lit. (class., while supremus is mostly poet.):

    summum oportet olfactare vestimentum muliebre,

    the top, outside of, Plaut. Men. 1, 2, 56: Galli summa arcis adorti Moenia, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 1, 4 (Ann. v. 169 Vahl.): Thyestes summis saxis fixus, id. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 44, 107 (Trag. v. 413 ib.): montibus summis, id. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, 71 Mull. (Epigr. v. 43 ib.):

    summum jugum montis,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 21:

    summus mons,

    the top of, id. ib. 1, 22:

    feriunt summos fulmina montes,

    the mountain tops, Hor. C. 2, 10, 11; cf.: in summo montis vertice, Poet. ap. Quint. 8, 3, 48:

    locus castrorum,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 23:

    in summa sacra via,

    on the highest part of, Cic. Planc. 7, 17; cf. id. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119:

    in summa columna conlocare,

    id. Div. 1, 24, 48:

    quam (urbem) ad summum theatrum,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119:

    Janus summus ab imo,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 54:

    ad aquam summam appropinquare,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 23, 64: mento summam aquam attingens enectus siti, Poet. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 5, 10:

    in aqua summa natare,

    the top, surface of, Plaut. Cas. 2, 6, 33:

    apud summum puteum,

    id. Mil. 4, 4, 16:

    per summa volare aequora,

    Verg. A. 5, 819:

    summa cacumina linquunt,

    id. ib. 6, 678:

    mari summo,

    id. ib. 1, 110:

    prospexi Italiam summa ab unda,

    id. ib. 6, 357:

    summaque per galeam delibans oscula,

    id. ib. 12, 434:

    amphoras complures complet plumbo, summas operit auro,

    Nep. Hann. 9, 3: summa procul villarum culmina fumant, Verg. E. 1, 83:

    summam cutem novacula decerpito,

    Col. 12, 56, 1.—Of position, place, at table:

    summus ego (in triclinio) et prope me Viscus Thurinus et infra Varius, etc.,

    I was highest, I reclined at the top, Hor. S. 2, 8, 20.—Hence, subst.: summus, i, m., he who sits in the highest place, at the head of the table:

    standum est in lecto, si quid de summo petas,

    Plaut. Men. 1, 1, 27: is sermo, qui more majorum a summo adhibetur in poculis, by the head of the table, i. e. by the president of the feast, Cic. Sen. 14, 46; so,

    a summo dare (bibere),

    Plaut. As. 5, 2, 41; Pers. 5, 1, 19.—
    b.
    summum, i, n., the top, surface; the highest place, the head of the table, etc.:

    ab ejus (frontis) summo, sicut palmae, rami quam late diffunduntur,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 26:

    qui demersi sunt in aqua... si non longe absunt a summo,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 14, 48:

    leviter a summo inflexum bacillum,

    id. Div. 1, 17, 30:

    igitur discubuere... in summo Antonius,

    Sall. H. 3, 4 Dietsch:

    puteos ac potius fontes habet: sunt enim in summo,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 17, 25:

    nuces mersit in vinum et sive in summum redierant, sive subsederant, etc.,

    Petr. 137 fin.: oratori summa riguerunt, the extremities of his body, Sen. Ira, 2, 3, 3.—In mal. part.:

    summa petere,

    Mart. 11, 46, 6; Auct. Priap. 76.—
    2.
    Transf., of the voice:

    jubeo te salvere voce summa,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 30; cf.:

    citaret Io Bacche! modo summa Voce, modo, etc.,

    at the top of his voice, Hor. S. 1, 3, 7:

    vox (opp. ima),

    Quint. 11, 3, 15:

    summa voce versus multos uno spiritu pronuntiare,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 61, 261; cf.:

    summo haec clamore,

    Plaut. Merc. prol. 59. —Adverb.: summum, at the utmost or farthest:

    exspectabam hodie, aut summum cras,

    Cic. Att. 13, 21, 2:

    bis, terve summum,

    id. Fam. 2, 1, 1:

    triduo aut summum quatriduo,

    id. Mil. 9, 26; cf. Liv. 21, 35, and 31, 42 Drak.—
    2.
    Trop.
    a.
    Of time or order of succession, last, latest, final (rare but class.):

    haec est praestituta summa argento dies,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 140; so,

    venit summa dies,

    Verg. A. 2, 324:

    ad summam senectutem jactari, quam, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 1, 1: vixit ad summam senectutem, to extreme old age, id. Fragm. ap. Non. 401, 31:

    cum esset summa senectute,

    id. Phil. 8, 10, 31:

    in fluvium primi cecidere, in corpora summi,

    Luc. 2, 211:

    summo carmine,

    at the end, Hor. C. 3, 28, 13:

    eadem in argumentis ratio est, ut potentissima prima et summa ponantur,

    the first and the last, at the beginning and the end, Quint. 6, 4, 22; cf. neutr. absol.: Celsus putat, primo firmum aliquod (argumentum) esse ponendum, summo firmissimum, imbecilliora medio;

    quia et initio movendus sit judex et summo impellendus,

    at the last, at the close, id. 7, 1, 10.— Adverb.: summum, for the last time:

    nunc ego te infelix summum teneoque tuorque,

    Albin. 1, 137. —
    b.
    Of rank, etc., highest, greatest, first, supreme, best, utmost, extreme; most distinguished, excellent, or noble; most important, weighty, or critical, etc. (so most freq. in prose and poetry): summa nituntur vi, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 168 Vahl.): bellum gerentes summum summa industria, id. ap. Non. p. 402, 3 (Trag. v. 104 ib.):

    summi puerorum amores,

    Cic. Lael. 10, 33:

    spes civium,

    id. ib. 3, 11:

    fides, constantia justitiaque,

    id. ib. 7, 25: in amore summo summaque inopia, Caec. ap. Cic. N. D. 3, 29, 72:

    qui in virtute summum bonum ponunt,

    id. ib. 6, 20:

    non agam summo jure tecum,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 4:

    tres fratres summo loco nati,

    id. Fam. 2, 18, 2:

    qui summo magistratui praeerat,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 16:

    concedunt in uno Cn. Pompeio summa esse omnia,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 17, 51:

    quae (vitia) summo opere vitare oportebit,

    id. Inv. 1, 18, 26:

    turpitudo,

    id. Lael. 17, 61:

    summum in cruciatum se venire,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 31:

    scelus,

    Sall. C. 12, 5:

    hiems,

    the depth of winter, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 40, § 86; id. Fam. 13, 60, 2:

    cum aestas summa esse coeperat,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 12, § 29; 2, 5, 31, § 80:

    ut summi virtute et animo praeessent imbecillioribus,

    id. Rep. 1, 34, 51:

    summi ex Graecia sapientissimique homines,

    id. ib. 1, 22, 36; cf.:

    summi homines ac summis ingeniis praediti,

    id. de Or. 1, 2, 6:

    optimi et summi viri diligentia,

    id. Rep. 1, 35, 54: cum par habetur honos summis et infimis [p. 1812] id. ib. 1, 34, 53: He. Quo honore'st illic? Ph. Summo atque ab summis viris, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 29:

    summus Juppiter,

    id. Cist. 2, 1, 40:

    ubi summus imperator non adest ad exercitum,

    id. Am. 1, 2, 6:

    miles summi inperatoris,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 10, 28: deum qui non summum putet (amorem), Caecil. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 32, 68:

    amicus summus,

    the best friend, Ter. Phorm. 5, 8 (9), 60; 1, 1, 1; id. And. 5, 6, 6; cf. absol.:

    nam is nostro Simulo fuit summus,

    id. Ad. 3, 2, 54; so id. Eun. 2, 2, 40.— Poet. in neutr. plur.:

    summa ducum Atrides,

    the chief, Ov. Am. 1, 9, 37; cf. Lucr. 1, 86:

    summo rei publicae tempore,

    at a most important period, most critical juncture, Cic. Phil. 5, 17, 46:

    in summo et periculosissimo rei publicae tempore,

    id. Fl. 3, 6; cf.:

    summa salus rei publicae,

    id. Cat. 1, 5, 11: quod summa res publica in hujus periculo tentatur, the highest welfare of the State, the common welfare, the good of the State, the whole State or commonwealth, id. Rosc. Am. 51, 148; so,

    res publica,

    id. Planc. 27, 66; id. Verr. 2, 2, 10, § 28; id. Cat. 1, 6, 14; 3, 6, 13; id. Inv. 1, 16, 23; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 14, 2:

    ad summam rem publicam,

    Liv. 33, 45, 4 al.:

    quo res summa loco, Panthu?

    the general cause, Verg. A. 2, 322: mene igitur socium summis adjungere rebus, Nise, fugis? in these enterprises of highest moment, etc., id. ib. 9, 199; esp.: summum jus, a right pushed to an extreme:

    non agam summo jure tecum,

    deal exactingly, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 4; cf.: exsistunt etiam saepe injuriae calumnia quadam et nimis callida juris interpretatione;

    ex quo illud summum jus summa injuria factum est, jam tritum sermone proverbium,

    id. Off. 1, 10, 33. — Hence, summē, adv., in the highest degree, most highly or greatly, extremely:

    quod me sollicitare summe solet,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 72, 295:

    cupere aliquid,

    id. Quint. 21, 69; Caes. B. C. 3, 15:

    contendere,

    Cic. Quint. 24, 77: studere, Mat. ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 2:

    diffidere,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7, 2:

    admirari,

    Quint. 10, 1, 70:

    summe jucundum,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 18, 2:

    officiosi,

    id. Verr. 2, 1, 24, § 63:

    summe disertus vir,

    Quint. 12, 1, 23:

    summe munitus locus,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 31:

    summe haec omnia mihi videntur esse laudanda,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 17, 57:

    mei summe observantissimus,

    Plin. Ep. 10, 26 (11), 1.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > suprema

  • 20 supremum

    sŭpĕrus, a, um (ante-class. collat. form of the nom. sing. sŭpĕr in two passages:

    super inferque vicinus,

    Cato, R. R. 149, 1:

    totus super ignis,

    Lucr. 1, 649; gen. plur. in signif. I. B. 1. infra, superum, Verg. A. 1, 4; Ov. M. 1, 251 et saep.), adj. [super].
    I.
    Posit.
    A.
    Adj.
    1.
    In gen., that is above, upper, higher: inferus an superus tibi fert deus funera, Liv. And. ap. Prisc. p. 606 P.:

    at ita me di deaeque superi atque inferi et medioxumi,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 1, 36:

    omnes di deaeque superi, inferi,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 4, 6:

    ad superos deos potius quam ad inferos pervenisse,

    Cic. Lael. 3, 12:

    limen superum inferumque salve,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 1, 1:

    portae Phrygiae limen,

    id. Bacch. 4, 9, 31; 4, 9, 63; Novat. ap. Non. p. 336, 13 (Com. Rel. v. 49 Rib.):

    carmine di superi placantur, carmine manes,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 138:

    di,

    id. C. 1, 1, 30; 4, 7, 18:

    superis deorum Gratus et imis,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 19:

    ut omnia supera, infera, prima, ultima, media videremus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 26, 64:

    spectatores superarum rerum atque caelestium,

    id. N. D. 2, 56, 140:

    omnes caelicolas, omnes supera alta tenentes,

    Verg. A. 6, 788:

    supera ad convexa,

    to heaven, id. ib. 6, 241 (Rib. super); 6, 750; 10, 251: cum superum lumen nox intempesta teneret, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1, 14 (Ann. v. 106 Vahl.):

    lumen,

    Lucr. 6, 856: templum superi Jovis, i. e. of the Capitoline Jupiter (opp. Juppiter inferus, i. e. Pluto), Cat. 55, 5; Sen. Herc. Fur. 48:

    domus deorum,

    Ov. M. 4, 735: mare superum, the upper, i. e. the Adriatic and Ionian Sea (opp. mare inferum, the lower or Etruscan Sea), Plaut. Men. 2, 1, 11; Cic. de Or. 3, 19, 69; id. Att. 9, 3, 1; Liv. 41, 1, 3; Mel. 2, 4, 1; Plin. 3, 5, 10, § 44; Suet. Caes. 34; 44;

    so without mare (colloq.): iter ad superum,

    Cic. Att. 9, 5, 1.—Adverb.:

    de supero, quom huc accesserit,

    from above, Plaut. Am. 3, 4, 18; so,

    ex supero,

    Lucr. 2, 227; 2, 241; 2, 248. —
    2.
    In partic., upper, i. e. of the upper regions or upper world (opp. the lower regions):

    supera de parte,

    i. e. of the earth, Lucr. 6, 855:

    superas evadere ad auras,

    Verg. A. 6, 128:

    superum ad lumen ire,

    id. ib. 6, 680:

    aurae,

    Ov. M. 5, 641:

    orae,

    Verg. A. 2, 91:

    limen,

    id. ib. 6, 680.—
    B.
    Substt.
    1.
    Sŭpĕri, orum, m.
    (α).
    They who are above (opp. inferi, those in the dungeon), Plaut. Aul. 2, 7, 6:

    multum fleti ad superos,

    i. e. those living on earth, Verg. A. 6, 481:

    (Pompeius) Quam apud superos habuerat magnitudinem, illibatam detulisset ad Inferos,

    the inhabitants of the upper world, Vell. 2, 48, 2; cf.:

    ut oblitos superum paterere dolores,

    Val. Fl. 1, 792: si nunc redire posset ad superos pater, Poet. ap. Charis. 5, p. 252:

    epistula ad superos scripta,

    i. e. to the survivors, Plin. 2, 109, 112, § 248.—
    (β).
    (Sc. di.) The gods above, the celestial deities:

    quae Superi Manesque dabant,

    Verg. A. 10, 34:

    aspiciunt Superi mortalia,

    Ov. M. 13, 70:

    o Superi!

    id. ib. 1, 196; 14, 729;

    pro Superi,

    id. Tr. 1, 2, 59:

    terris jactatus et alto Vi Superum,

    Verg. A. 1, 4:

    illa propago Contemptrix Superum,

    Ov. M. 1, 161:

    exemplo Superorum,

    id. Tr. 4, 4, 19; so,

    Superorum,

    id. P. 1, 1, 43:

    postquam res Asiae Priamique evertere gentem Immeritam visum Superis,

    Verg. A. 3, 2:

    scilicet is Superis labor est,

    id. ib. 4, 379; Hor. C. 1, 6, 16:

    superis deorum Gratus et imis,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 19:

    flectere Superos,

    Verg. A. 7, 312:

    te per Superos... oro,

    id. ib. 2, 141 et saep.—
    2.
    sŭpĕra, orum, n.
    (α).
    The heavenly bodies:

    Hicetas caelum, solem, lunam, stellas, supera denique omnia stare censet,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 39, 123; cf.:

    cogitantes supera atque caelestia, haec nostra contemnimus,

    id. ib. 2, 41, 127: di, quibus est potestas motus superum atque inferum, Enn. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 25, 38 (Trag. Rel. v. 163 Vahl.).—
    (β).
    Higher places (sc. loca):

    supera semper petunt,

    tend upwards, Cic. Tusc. 1, 18, 42:

    (Alecto) Cocyti petit sedem, supera ardua relinquens,

    the upper world, Verg. A. 7, 562.
    II.
    Comp.: sŭpĕrĭor, ius.
    A.
    Lit., of place, higher, upper:

    inferiore omni spatio vacuo relicto, superiorem partem collis castris compleverant,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 46:

    dejectus qui potest esse quisquam, nisi in inferiorem locum de superiore motus?

    Cic. Caecin. 18, 50:

    in superiore qui habito cenaculo,

    Plaut. Am. 3, 1, 3:

    tota domus superior vacat,

    the upper part of, Cic. Att. 12, 10:

    superior accumbere,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 1, 42:

    de loco superiore dicere,

    i. e. from the tribunal, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 42, § 102:

    agere,

    i. e. from the rostra, id. ib. 2, 1, 5, § 14;

    and in gen. of the position of the speaker: multos et ex superiore et ex aequo loco sermones habitos,

    id. Fam. 3, 8, 2:

    sive ex inferiore loco sive ex aequo sive ex superiore loquitur,

    id. de Or. 3, 6, 23: ex loco superiore in ipsis fluminis ripis praeliabantur, from a height or eminence, Caes. B. G. 2, 23; so,

    ex loco superiore,

    id. ib. 3, 4:

    loca,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 4;

    3, 3, 2: ex superioribus locis in planitiem descendere,

    id. B. C. 3, 98:

    qui in superiore acie constiterant,

    id. B. G. 1, 24:

    ex superiore et ex inferiore scriptura docendum,

    i. e. what goes before and after, the context, Cic. Inv. 2, 40, 117; cf.:

    posteriori superius non jungitur,

    id. Ac. 2, 14, 44.—
    B.
    Trop.
    1.
    Of time or order of succession, former, past, previous, preceding:

    superiores solis defectiones,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 16, 25:

    quid proxima, quid superiore nocte egeris,

    id. Cat. 1, 1, 1:

    refecto ponte, quem superioribus diebus hostes resciderant,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 58:

    superioribus aestivis,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 46:

    superioribus temporibus,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 17, 1:

    tempus (opp. posterius),

    id. Dom. 37, 99:

    tempora (opp. inferiora),

    Suet. Claud. 41:

    annus,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 18, § 47:

    anno superiore,

    id. Har. Resp. 8, 15:

    superioris anni acta,

    Suet. Caes. 23:

    in superiore vita,

    Cic. Sen. 8, 26: milites superioribus proeliis exercitati, [p. 1811] Caes. B. G. 2, 20:

    testimonium conveniens superiori facto,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 53:

    superius facinus novo scelere vincere,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 44, § 116:

    superioris more crudelitatis uti,

    Nep. Thras. 3, 1:

    superius genus,

    mentioned previously, Plin. 13, 25, 48, § 146:

    nuptiae,

    former marriage, Cic. Clu. 6, 15:

    vir,

    first husband, id. Caecin. 6, 17.—
    b.
    Esp., of age, time of life, etc., older, elder, senior, more advanced, former:

    omnis juventus omnesque superioris aetatis,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 5:

    aetate superiores,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 10, 1:

    superior Africanus,

    the Elder, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 10, § 25; id. Off. 1, 33, 121:

    Dionysius,

    id. ib. 2, 7, 25; Nep. Dion, 1, 1; cf.:

    quid est aetas hominis, nisi memoria rerum veterum cum superiorum aetate contexitur,

    Cic. Or. 34, 120.—
    2.
    Of strength or success in battle or any contest, victorious, conquering, stronger, superior:

    Caesar quod hostes equitatu superiores esse intellegebat,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 65:

    numero superiores,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 12:

    hoc ipso fiunt superiores, quod nullum acceperant detrimentum,

    id. ib. 8, 19:

    se quo impudentius egerit, hoc superiorem discessurum,

    Cic. Caecin. 1, 2:

    semper discessit superior,

    Nep. Hann. 1, 2:

    si primo proelio Catilina superior discessisset,

    Sall. C. 39, 4:

    ut nostri omnibus partibus superiores fuerint,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 15:

    multo superiores bello esse,

    Nep. Alcib. 4, 7:

    superiorem Appium in causa fecit,

    Liv. 5, 7, 1.—
    3.
    Of quality, condition, number, etc., higher, more distinguished, greater, superior.
    (α).
    With abl. respect.:

    pecuniis superiores,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 34, 59:

    loco, fortuna, fama superiores,

    id. Lael. 25, 94:

    habes neminem honoris gradu superiorem,

    id. Fam. 2, 18, 2:

    ordine,

    id. ib. 13, 5, 2:

    facilitate et humanitate superior,

    id. Off. 1, 26, 90:

    si superior ceteris rebus esses,

    id. Div. in Caecil. 19, 61.—
    (β).
    Absol.:

    ut ii, qui superiores sunt, submittere se debent in amicitia, sic quodam modo inferiores extollere,

    Cic. Lael. 20, 72; cf. id. ib. 20, 71:

    ut quanto superiores sumus, tanto nos geramus summissius,

    id. Off. 1, 26, 90:

    invident homines maxime paribus aut inferioribus... sed etiam superioribus invidetur,

    id. de Or. 2, 52, 209:

    premendoque superiorem sese extollebat,

    Liv. 22, 12, 12:

    cui omnem honorem, ut superiori habuit,

    Vell. 2, 101, 1.
    III.
    Sup., in three forms, ‡ superrimus, supremus, and summus.
    A.
    sŭperrĭmus, assumed as orig. form of supremus by Varr. L. L. 7, § 51 Mull.; Charis. p. 130 P.—
    B.
    sū̆prēmus, a, um, highest, loftiest, topmost.
    1.
    Lit. (only poet.; cf.

    summus, C. 1.): montesque supremos Silvifragis vexat flabris,

    the highest points, the tops, summits, Lucr. 1, 274; so,

    montes,

    Verg. G. 4, 460; Hor. Epod. 17, 68:

    rupes,

    Sen. Oedip. 95:

    arx,

    Claud. III. Cons. Hon. 167; cf.:

    supremae Tethyos unda,

    Mart. Spect. 3, 6.—
    2.
    Trop.
    a.
    Of time or order of succession, last, latest, extreme, final, = ultimus (class.).
    (α).
    In gen.: SOL OCCASVS SVPREMA TEMPESTAS ESTO, XII. Tab. ap. Gell. 17, 2, 10.—Hence, as subst.: suprēma, ae, f. (sc. tempestas), the last part of the day, the hour of sunset: suprema summum diei; hoc tempus duodecim Tabulae dicunt occasum esse solis;

    sed postea lex praetoria id quoque tempus jubet esse supremum, quo praeco in comitio supremam pronuntiavit populo,

    Varr. L. L. 6, § 5 Mull.; cf. Censor. de Die Nat. 24; Plin. 7, 60, 60, § 212:

    quae (urbs), quia postrema coaedificata est, Neapolis nominatur,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119:

    supremo te sole domi manebo,

    at sunset, Hor. Ep. 1, 5, 3:

    jubare exorto jam nocte suprema, Col. poet. 10, 294: in te suprema salus,

    last hope, Verg. A. 12, 653: supremam bellis imposuisse manum, the last or finishing hand, Ov. R. Am. 114. — suprēmum, adverb., for the last time:

    quae mihi tunc primum, tunc est conspecta supremum,

    Ov. M. 12, 526.—
    (β).
    In partic., with regard to the close of life, last, closing, dying:

    supremo vitae die,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 29, 71; id. Sen. 21, 78; id. Mur. 36, 75:

    dies,

    id. Phil. 1, 14, 34; Hor. C. 1, 13, 20; id. Ep. 1, 4, 13:

    hora,

    Tib. 1, 1, 59:

    tempus,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 98; Cat. 64, 151:

    incestum pontifices supremo supplicio sanciunto,

    i. e. the penalty of death, Cic. Leg. 2, 9, 22:

    mors,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 173:

    finis,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 12:

    iter,

    id. C. 2, 17, 11:

    lumen,

    Verg. A. 6, 735: sociamque tori vocat ore supremo, with his dying mouth, dying breath, Ov. M. 8, 521; so,

    ore,

    id. Tr. 3, 3, 87:

    haec digressu dicta supremo Fundebat,

    Verg. A. 8, 583:

    Nero in suprema ira duos calices crystallinos fregit,

    in his last agony, Plin. 37, 2, 10, § 29;

    supremis suis annis,

    in his last years, id. 23, 1, 27, § 58:

    suprema ejus cura,

    id. 7, 45, 46, § 150:

    spoliatus illius supremi diei celebritate,

    Cic. Mil. 32, 86: honor, the last honors, i. e. funeral rites or ceremonies, Verg. A. 11, 61:

    funera,

    Ov. M. 3, 137:

    oscula,

    id. ib. 6, 278:

    tori,

    i. e. biers, id. F. 6, 668:

    ignis,

    id. Am. 1, 15, 41:

    ignes,

    id. M. 2, 620; 13, 583:

    officia,

    Tac. A. 5, 2; Petr. 112, 1: judicia hominum, a last will or testament, Quint. 6, 3, 92; Plin. Ep. 7, 20, 7; 7, 31, 5; so,

    tabulae,

    Mart. 5, 33, 1; 5, 41, 1:

    tituli,

    i. e. an epitaph, id. ib. 9, 19, 3.—So of cities, etc.:

    Troiae sorte suprema,

    Verg. A. 5, 190:

    dies regnis,

    Ov. F. 2, 852. — suprēmum and suprēmō, adverb.:

    animam sepulcro Condimus, et magna supremum voce ciemus,

    for the last time, for a last farewell, Verg. A. 3, 68; Plin. 11, 37, 55, § 150; Tac. H. 4, 14; Ov. M. 12, 526:

    anima exitura supremo,

    Plin. 11, 53, 115, § 277.— Substt.
    1.
    sŭprēmum, i, n., the last moment, end (very rare):

    ventum ad supremum est,

    Verg. A. 12, 803.—
    2.
    suprēma, orum, n.
    (α).
    The last moments, the close of life, death:

    ut me in supremis consolatus est!

    Quint. 6, prooem. § 11; Tac. A. 6, 50; 12, 66; cf.:

    statua Herculis sentiens suprema tunicae,

    the last agonies caused by it, Plin. 34, 8, 19, § 93:

    circa suprema Neronis,

    the time of his death, id. 16, 44, 86, § 236; 7, 3, 3, § 33.—
    (β).
    The last honors paid to the dead, funeral rites or ceremonies, a funeral:

    supremis divi Augusti,

    Plin. 7, 3, 3, § 33; 16, 44, 86, § 236; Tac. A. 1, 61; 3, 49; 4, 44; id. H. 4, 59; 4, 45:

    suprema ferre (sc. munera),

    Verg. A. 6, 213; cf. id. ib. 11, 25 al.—
    (γ).
    A last will, testament:

    nihil primo senatus die agi passus, nisi de supremis Augusti,

    Tac. A. 1, 8:

    miles in supremis ordinandis ignarus uxorem esse praegnantem, etc.,

    Dig. 29, 1, 36, § 2.—
    (δ).
    The relics, remains of a burned corpse, the ashes, = reliquiae, Amm. 25, 9, 12; Sol. 1 med.
    b.
    Of degree or rank, the highest, greatest, most exalted, supreme:

    multa, quae appellatur suprema, instituta in singulos duarum ovium, triginta boum... ultra quam (numerum) multam dicere in singulos jus non est, et propterea suprema appellatur, id est, summa et maxima,

    Gell. 11, 1, 2 sq.:

    macies,

    Verg. A. 3, 590:

    Juppiter supreme,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 9, 55; id. Capt. 2, 3, 66; 5, 2, 23; id. Ps. 2, 2, 33; Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 42: Junonis supremus conjunx, Poet. ap. Plin. 35, 10, 37, § 115:

    med antidhac Supremum habuisti com item consiliis tuis,

    most intimate, Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 15.—
    C.
    summus, a, um [from sup-imus, sup-mus], uppermost, highest, topmost; the top of, highest part of (cf. Roby, Gram. 2, § 1295).
    1.
    Lit. (class., while supremus is mostly poet.):

    summum oportet olfactare vestimentum muliebre,

    the top, outside of, Plaut. Men. 1, 2, 56: Galli summa arcis adorti Moenia, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 1, 4 (Ann. v. 169 Vahl.): Thyestes summis saxis fixus, id. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 44, 107 (Trag. v. 413 ib.): montibus summis, id. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, 71 Mull. (Epigr. v. 43 ib.):

    summum jugum montis,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 21:

    summus mons,

    the top of, id. ib. 1, 22:

    feriunt summos fulmina montes,

    the mountain tops, Hor. C. 2, 10, 11; cf.: in summo montis vertice, Poet. ap. Quint. 8, 3, 48:

    locus castrorum,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 23:

    in summa sacra via,

    on the highest part of, Cic. Planc. 7, 17; cf. id. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119:

    in summa columna conlocare,

    id. Div. 1, 24, 48:

    quam (urbem) ad summum theatrum,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119:

    Janus summus ab imo,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 54:

    ad aquam summam appropinquare,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 23, 64: mento summam aquam attingens enectus siti, Poet. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 5, 10:

    in aqua summa natare,

    the top, surface of, Plaut. Cas. 2, 6, 33:

    apud summum puteum,

    id. Mil. 4, 4, 16:

    per summa volare aequora,

    Verg. A. 5, 819:

    summa cacumina linquunt,

    id. ib. 6, 678:

    mari summo,

    id. ib. 1, 110:

    prospexi Italiam summa ab unda,

    id. ib. 6, 357:

    summaque per galeam delibans oscula,

    id. ib. 12, 434:

    amphoras complures complet plumbo, summas operit auro,

    Nep. Hann. 9, 3: summa procul villarum culmina fumant, Verg. E. 1, 83:

    summam cutem novacula decerpito,

    Col. 12, 56, 1.—Of position, place, at table:

    summus ego (in triclinio) et prope me Viscus Thurinus et infra Varius, etc.,

    I was highest, I reclined at the top, Hor. S. 2, 8, 20.—Hence, subst.: summus, i, m., he who sits in the highest place, at the head of the table:

    standum est in lecto, si quid de summo petas,

    Plaut. Men. 1, 1, 27: is sermo, qui more majorum a summo adhibetur in poculis, by the head of the table, i. e. by the president of the feast, Cic. Sen. 14, 46; so,

    a summo dare (bibere),

    Plaut. As. 5, 2, 41; Pers. 5, 1, 19.—
    b.
    summum, i, n., the top, surface; the highest place, the head of the table, etc.:

    ab ejus (frontis) summo, sicut palmae, rami quam late diffunduntur,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 26:

    qui demersi sunt in aqua... si non longe absunt a summo,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 14, 48:

    leviter a summo inflexum bacillum,

    id. Div. 1, 17, 30:

    igitur discubuere... in summo Antonius,

    Sall. H. 3, 4 Dietsch:

    puteos ac potius fontes habet: sunt enim in summo,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 17, 25:

    nuces mersit in vinum et sive in summum redierant, sive subsederant, etc.,

    Petr. 137 fin.: oratori summa riguerunt, the extremities of his body, Sen. Ira, 2, 3, 3.—In mal. part.:

    summa petere,

    Mart. 11, 46, 6; Auct. Priap. 76.—
    2.
    Transf., of the voice:

    jubeo te salvere voce summa,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 30; cf.:

    citaret Io Bacche! modo summa Voce, modo, etc.,

    at the top of his voice, Hor. S. 1, 3, 7:

    vox (opp. ima),

    Quint. 11, 3, 15:

    summa voce versus multos uno spiritu pronuntiare,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 61, 261; cf.:

    summo haec clamore,

    Plaut. Merc. prol. 59. —Adverb.: summum, at the utmost or farthest:

    exspectabam hodie, aut summum cras,

    Cic. Att. 13, 21, 2:

    bis, terve summum,

    id. Fam. 2, 1, 1:

    triduo aut summum quatriduo,

    id. Mil. 9, 26; cf. Liv. 21, 35, and 31, 42 Drak.—
    2.
    Trop.
    a.
    Of time or order of succession, last, latest, final (rare but class.):

    haec est praestituta summa argento dies,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 140; so,

    venit summa dies,

    Verg. A. 2, 324:

    ad summam senectutem jactari, quam, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 1, 1: vixit ad summam senectutem, to extreme old age, id. Fragm. ap. Non. 401, 31:

    cum esset summa senectute,

    id. Phil. 8, 10, 31:

    in fluvium primi cecidere, in corpora summi,

    Luc. 2, 211:

    summo carmine,

    at the end, Hor. C. 3, 28, 13:

    eadem in argumentis ratio est, ut potentissima prima et summa ponantur,

    the first and the last, at the beginning and the end, Quint. 6, 4, 22; cf. neutr. absol.: Celsus putat, primo firmum aliquod (argumentum) esse ponendum, summo firmissimum, imbecilliora medio;

    quia et initio movendus sit judex et summo impellendus,

    at the last, at the close, id. 7, 1, 10.— Adverb.: summum, for the last time:

    nunc ego te infelix summum teneoque tuorque,

    Albin. 1, 137. —
    b.
    Of rank, etc., highest, greatest, first, supreme, best, utmost, extreme; most distinguished, excellent, or noble; most important, weighty, or critical, etc. (so most freq. in prose and poetry): summa nituntur vi, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 168 Vahl.): bellum gerentes summum summa industria, id. ap. Non. p. 402, 3 (Trag. v. 104 ib.):

    summi puerorum amores,

    Cic. Lael. 10, 33:

    spes civium,

    id. ib. 3, 11:

    fides, constantia justitiaque,

    id. ib. 7, 25: in amore summo summaque inopia, Caec. ap. Cic. N. D. 3, 29, 72:

    qui in virtute summum bonum ponunt,

    id. ib. 6, 20:

    non agam summo jure tecum,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 4:

    tres fratres summo loco nati,

    id. Fam. 2, 18, 2:

    qui summo magistratui praeerat,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 16:

    concedunt in uno Cn. Pompeio summa esse omnia,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 17, 51:

    quae (vitia) summo opere vitare oportebit,

    id. Inv. 1, 18, 26:

    turpitudo,

    id. Lael. 17, 61:

    summum in cruciatum se venire,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 31:

    scelus,

    Sall. C. 12, 5:

    hiems,

    the depth of winter, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 40, § 86; id. Fam. 13, 60, 2:

    cum aestas summa esse coeperat,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 12, § 29; 2, 5, 31, § 80:

    ut summi virtute et animo praeessent imbecillioribus,

    id. Rep. 1, 34, 51:

    summi ex Graecia sapientissimique homines,

    id. ib. 1, 22, 36; cf.:

    summi homines ac summis ingeniis praediti,

    id. de Or. 1, 2, 6:

    optimi et summi viri diligentia,

    id. Rep. 1, 35, 54: cum par habetur honos summis et infimis [p. 1812] id. ib. 1, 34, 53: He. Quo honore'st illic? Ph. Summo atque ab summis viris, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 29:

    summus Juppiter,

    id. Cist. 2, 1, 40:

    ubi summus imperator non adest ad exercitum,

    id. Am. 1, 2, 6:

    miles summi inperatoris,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 10, 28: deum qui non summum putet (amorem), Caecil. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 32, 68:

    amicus summus,

    the best friend, Ter. Phorm. 5, 8 (9), 60; 1, 1, 1; id. And. 5, 6, 6; cf. absol.:

    nam is nostro Simulo fuit summus,

    id. Ad. 3, 2, 54; so id. Eun. 2, 2, 40.— Poet. in neutr. plur.:

    summa ducum Atrides,

    the chief, Ov. Am. 1, 9, 37; cf. Lucr. 1, 86:

    summo rei publicae tempore,

    at a most important period, most critical juncture, Cic. Phil. 5, 17, 46:

    in summo et periculosissimo rei publicae tempore,

    id. Fl. 3, 6; cf.:

    summa salus rei publicae,

    id. Cat. 1, 5, 11: quod summa res publica in hujus periculo tentatur, the highest welfare of the State, the common welfare, the good of the State, the whole State or commonwealth, id. Rosc. Am. 51, 148; so,

    res publica,

    id. Planc. 27, 66; id. Verr. 2, 2, 10, § 28; id. Cat. 1, 6, 14; 3, 6, 13; id. Inv. 1, 16, 23; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 14, 2:

    ad summam rem publicam,

    Liv. 33, 45, 4 al.:

    quo res summa loco, Panthu?

    the general cause, Verg. A. 2, 322: mene igitur socium summis adjungere rebus, Nise, fugis? in these enterprises of highest moment, etc., id. ib. 9, 199; esp.: summum jus, a right pushed to an extreme:

    non agam summo jure tecum,

    deal exactingly, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 4; cf.: exsistunt etiam saepe injuriae calumnia quadam et nimis callida juris interpretatione;

    ex quo illud summum jus summa injuria factum est, jam tritum sermone proverbium,

    id. Off. 1, 10, 33. — Hence, summē, adv., in the highest degree, most highly or greatly, extremely:

    quod me sollicitare summe solet,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 72, 295:

    cupere aliquid,

    id. Quint. 21, 69; Caes. B. C. 3, 15:

    contendere,

    Cic. Quint. 24, 77: studere, Mat. ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 2:

    diffidere,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7, 2:

    admirari,

    Quint. 10, 1, 70:

    summe jucundum,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 18, 2:

    officiosi,

    id. Verr. 2, 1, 24, § 63:

    summe disertus vir,

    Quint. 12, 1, 23:

    summe munitus locus,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 31:

    summe haec omnia mihi videntur esse laudanda,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 17, 57:

    mei summe observantissimus,

    Plin. Ep. 10, 26 (11), 1.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > supremum

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