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offer sacrifice

  • 101 ἀποθύω

    ἀπο-θύω, [tense] fut.
    A

    - θύσω IG4.951.45

    (Epid.):— offer up as a votive sacrifice,

    χιμαίρας X.An.3.2.12

    ;

    ἡγεμόσυνα 4.8.25

    ;

    εὐχήν Diph.43.10

    ; ἴατρα IGl. c.

    Greek-English dictionary (Αγγλικά Ελληνικά-λεξικό) > ἀποθύω

  • 102 ἀπορρέζω

    ἀπορρέζω, [tense] fut. -ρέξω,
    A sacrifice, χίμαρον v.l. in Theoc.Ep.4.15; offer partof., Is.Fr. 105.

    Greek-English dictionary (Αγγλικά Ελληνικά-λεξικό) > ἀπορρέζω

  • 103 ἐπιθύω

    A sacrifice upon, h.Ap.491 (tm.); sacrifice besides or after,

    τέλεον νεαροῖς ἐπιθύσας A.Ag. 1504

    ;

    ἐπὶ δ' ἔθυσα μητέρα E.Or. 562

    :—[voice] Med., Νέρωνι Τάλβαν ἐ. Plu.Galb.14, cf. Marc.29, Artem.1.12.
    II. burn incense, LXX3 Ki.12.33, J.BJ7.3.3, D.S.12.11, 18.61, Porph.Abst.2.59;

    λιβανωτόν D.S.18.61

    , v.l. in Ar.Pl. 1116: generally, offer on,

    ἐπὶ τοῦ βωμοῦ τὰς δεκάτας D.H.1.40

    codd.
    ------------------------------------
    2. c.inf., strive vehemently to do a thing,

    ἐρύσσασθαι.. Τρῶες ἐπιθύουσι Il. 18.175

    ;

    θυμὸς ἐπιθύει κιθαρίζειν h.Merc. 475

    ;

    δεδαῆσθαι A.R.2.1154

    ;

    κύσσαι.. στόμα Id.1.1238

    :—[voice] Med., rush upon, flood, Νεῖλος ἐπεθύσατο (sic) αὔλακι γαίης Epic.Anon.in BKT5(1).119. (Prob. a compound of ἰθύω [pron. full] [ῠ], with [pron. full] metri gr.: taken as ἐπῐ-θύω by Epic.Anon. l.c.)

    Greek-English dictionary (Αγγλικά Ελληνικά-λεξικό) > ἐπιθύω

  • 104 ἐπιρρέζω

    A offer sacrifices at a place, ὅθι πάντες ἐπιρρέζεσκον ὁδῖται ([dialect] Ion. [tense] impf.) Od.17.211.
    2. sacrifice afterwards or besides, Ζηνὶ

    χοῖρον Theoc.24.99

    , cf.AP6.157 (Theodorid.);

    ὄϊν GDI3639a5

    ([place name] Cos): abs., IG12(1).677.29 ([place name] Ialysus).

    Greek-English dictionary (Αγγλικά Ελληνικά-λεξικό) > ἐπιρρέζω

  • 105 ὑπό

    ὑπό [pron. full] [ῠ], Prep. with gen., dat., and acc.: [dialect] Aeol. [full] ὐπά Alc.39; [dialect] Boeot. [full] ὑπά
    A

    Ἀρχ.Δελτ. 14

    Pl. ii 19 (Thespiae, iii B.C.); [dialect] Ion. ηυπύ only in IG 14.871 (Cumae, v B.C.); Arc. [full] ὁπύ Schwyzer 664.15,21 (Orchom.Arc., iv B.C.); in [dialect] Ep. [full] ὑπαί (also B. 12.139): this is found in Hom. only six times as a well-attested reading (

    ὑ. πόδα Il.2.824

    ,

    ὑ. δέ 3.217

    , 11.417, 12.149,

    ὑ. δείους 10.376

    , 15.4); elsewh. (before λ ν ρ ϝ ) it is weakly attested as v. l. for ὑπὸ ([etym.] ?ὑπόX ¯ ), e.g. ποσσὶ δ' ὑπὸ (v.l. ὑπαὶ)

    λιπαροῖσι Il.2.44

    , al.; but ὑπαὶ νεφέων is given by most codd. in Il.15.625, 16.375 (v. Allen ed. maj.), and

    ὑπαὶ νεφέεσσι Anon.

    ap. Plu.2.38e; also in compds.,

    ὑπαιδείδοικα h.Merc. 165

    , ὑπαιφοινίσσω (q. v.); it is not freq. in Trag. Poets, A.Ag. 892, 944, 1164 (lyr.), Eu. 417, S.El. 711, 1418 (lyr.), Inach. in PTeb. 692 ii5 (lyr.), E.El. 1188 (lyr.), Ar. Ach. 970 (paratrag.). (With ὑπό ([etym.] ὕπο) cf. Skt. úpa 'towards, near to, etc.', Goth. uf 'under'.)
    A WITH GENITIVE,
    I of Place, with Verbs of motion, from under, αὖτις ἀναστήσονται ὑ. ζόφου they will rise again from under the gloom, Il.21.56;

    ὑ. χθονὸς ἧκε φόωσδε Hes.Th. 669

    ;

    ῥέει κρήνη ὑ. σπείους Od.9.141

    , cf. Pl.Phdr. 230b;

    ὄσσε δεινὸν ὑ. βλεφάρων ἐξεφάανθεν Il.19.17

    ; ἐσιδόντες ὑπαὶ χειμῶνος αἴγλαν from under the storm-cloud, B.12.139; esp. of rescuing from under another's power, after the Verbs ἐρύεσθαι, ἁρπάζειν, ῥύεσθαι, ἐρύειν, Il.9.248, 13.198, 17.224, 235;

    ἤγαγεν ὑμέτερόνδ' ἀνδροκτασίης ὕ. λυγρῆς

    from the consequences of,

    23.86

    ; also ἵππους μὲν λῦσαν ὑ. ζυγοῦ from under the yoke, 8.543, Od.4.39; ὑπ' ἀρνειοῦ λυόμην I loosed myself from under the ram, 9.463; σπλάγχνων ὕπο ματέρος μόλεν, i.e. was born, Pi.N.1.35, cf. O.6.43; rarely in Trag.,

    ὑ. πτερῶν σπάσας E.Andr. 441

    ;

    περᾷ γὰρ ἥδ' ὑ. σκηνῆς πόδα Id.Hec.53

    ; once in Hdt.,

    τὰς δέ οἱ ἵππους ὑ. τοῦ ἅρματος νεμομένας ἀφανισθῆναι 4.8

    ;

    αἴ τις ὑ. τῶν νομίων τῶν ἐπιϝοικων ἀνχωρέῃ SIG47.27

    (Locris, v B.C.); cf. ὑπέκ.
    2 of the object under which a thing is or is placed, under, beneath, with collat. sense of motion, as μοχλὸν ὑ. σποδοῦ ἤλασα πολλῆς thrust it in under the embers, Od. 9.375;

    ὑ. στέρνοιο τυχήσας Il.4.106

    ;

    τοὺς μὲν ὑ. χθονὸς εὐρυοδείης πέμψαν Hes.Th. 717

    : also without the sense of motion,

    ὑπ' ἀνθερεῶνος ὀχεὺς τέτατο Il.3.372

    ;

    βάθιστον ὑ. χθονός ἐστι βέρεθρον 8.14

    ;

    ἐτέθαπτο ὑ. χθονός Od.11.52

    ;

    κεκευθὼς πολεμίας ὑ. χθονός A.Th. 588

    ;

    ὑπ' ἀγκῶνος βέλη Pi.O.2.83

    ;

    νέρθεν ὑπ' ἐγκεφάλοιο Il.16.347

    ;

    τὰ ὑ. γῆς δικαιωτήρια Pl.Phdr. 249a

    ;

    δεξιὰν ὑφ' εἵματος κρύπτειν E.Hec. 342

    ; φέρειν ζώνης ὕπο ib. 762: Thom.Mag.p.375 R. says that ὑ. = under takes gen. in [dialect] Att., acc. in 'Hellenic' Greek; κατακρύψας ὑ. κόπρου, which is v.l. in Od.9.329 for ὑ. κόπρῳ, is called by Eust.1631.36 Ἀττικώτερον, ὁποῖον καὶ τὸ φέρειν τι ὑ. κόλπου ἢ ὑ. μάλης (v. κόλπος, μάλη); but in [dialect] Att. Prose, Hdt., and the Koine ὑ. c. gen. in signfs. 1.1, 2 is almost limited to these and a few other phrases, esp. ὑ. γῆς; it is not found at all in Th., LXX, Ptolemaic papyri, and NT; X. has ὑ. ἁμάξης ( = from under) An.6.4.22,25; the Orators have only ὑ. μάλης, Lys.Fr.54, D.29.12; ὑ. γῆς is found in Pl.Ap. 18b, Mx. 246d, R. 414d, al., Arist.Mete. 352b6, al., Hipparch.2.2.45, Plb.18.18.10 ([etym.] ὑ. τῆς γῆς), 21.28.3,10.
    II of Cause or Agency, freq. with pass. Verbs, and with intr. Verbs in pass. sense,

    μή πως τάχ' ὑπ' αὐτοῦ δουρὶ δαμήῃς Il.3.436

    , cf. 4.479;

    ἡνιόχοιο ἐν κονίῃσι πεσόντος ὑφ' Ἕκτορος 17.428

    ; εὖτ' ἂν πολλοὶ ὑφ' Ἕκτορος θνῂσκοντες πίπτωσι 1.242;

    τὸν.. τοκέα ὑ. τοῦ.. παιδὸς ἀποθνῄσκειν Hdt.1.137

    ;

    οἵαις ὑπ' αὐτοῦ πημοναῖσι κάμπτομαι A.Pr. 308

    , cf. Th.7, al.;

    πέλεκυς.. ὅς τ' εἶσιν διὰ δουρὸς ὑπ' ἀνέρος Il.3.61

    ;

    ὑπ' Ἀχαιῶν.. φοβέοντο.. ἀπὸ νηῶν 16.303

    ;

    πάσχειν δὲ κακῶς ἐχθρὸν ὑπ' ἐχθρῶν A.Pr. 1042

    (anap.);

    ὑ. τοῦ Μήδου δεινότερα τούτων πάσχοντες Th.1.77

    ;

    ἐκπεσόντες ὑ. τοῦ πλήθους Id.4.66

    ;

    ἀναστάτων Καμαριναίων γενομένων ὑ. Συρακοσίων Id.6.5

    ;

    ὑφ' ὑμῶν αὐτῶν καὶ μὴ ὑ. τῶν πολεμίων τοῦτο παθεῖν Id.4.64

    ; κλύοντές ἐσμεν αἰσχίστους λόγους.. τοῦδ' ὑπ' ἀνδρὸς ἀρτίως we have been called shameful names by.., S.Aj. 1321; κακῶς ὑ. τῶν πολιτῶν ἀκούειν to be ill spoken of by.., Isoc.4.77, cf. Pl.Hp.Ma. 304e, X.An. 7.7.23; of a subordinate agent, ὑ. κήρυκος προαγορεύειν, ἀπειπεῖν κηρύκων ὕπο, Hdt.9.98, E.Alc. 737, cf. Th.6.32;

    ἐμῶν ὑπ' ἀγγέλων.. πορεύεται S.Tr. 391

    ;

    ὑ. ἀγγέλων πέμπων Pl.Phlb. 66a

    : sts. with a verbal Subst., τὸ ὑ. νόμου ἐπίταγμα (i. e. ἐπιταττόμενον) Id.R. 359a;

    ἐκφορὰ φίλων ὕπο A.Th. 1029

    ;

    ἡ ὑπ' ἀρετῆς Ἡρακλέους παίδευσις X. Mem.2.1.34

    ;

    ἡ ὑ. πάντων τιμή Id.Cyr.3.3.2

    ;

    Ἥρας δεσμοὶ ὑ. ὑέος Pl. R. 378d

    ; so ἄτρωτον ἦν ὑ. στύγους ( = οὐ τετρωμένον) prob. in A.Ch. 532.
    2 also in pregnant phrases, not only of the immediate act of the agent, but also of its further result, ὅθ' ὑ. λιγέων ἀνέμων σπέρχωσιν ἄελλαι hasten driven on by them, Il.13.334; ὑφ' Ἕκτορος.. φεύγοντες fleeing before him, 18.149,

    χάσσονται ὑπ' ἔγχεος 13.153

    , cf. 7.64, 11.119, 424, Od.5.320, 7.263, al.;

    πράγματα εἶχον ὑ. λῃστῶν X.HG5.1.5

    ; ἔπαινον, αἰτίαν ἔχειν ὑ. τινῶν, Hdt.9.78, A.Eu.99;

    οὐκέτι ἀποχωρεῖν οἷόν τ' ἦν ὑ. τῶν ἱππέων Th.7.78

    , cf. Ar.V. 1084.
    3 freq. of things as well as persons,

    ὡς διάκειμαι ὑ. τῆς νόσου Th.7.77

    ;

    κεῖμαι νούσου ὕ. στυγερᾶς IG42(1).125.8

    (Epid., iii B.C.);

    χαλεπῶς ἔχειν ὑ. τραυμάτων Pl.Tht. 142b

    ;

    ὑ. δόρατος πλαγείς IG42(1).122.64

    (Epid., iv B.C.); ὑ. ἔχιος φῦμα ib.123.4 (ibid., iv B.C.); ἰάθη ὑ. ὄφιος ib.121.113 (ibid., iv B.C.);

    κατεσκεύασαν τὰς πύλας κλείεσθαι ὑ. σφύρας τε μεγάλης καὶ κτύπου παμμεγέθους γιγνομένου Aen.Tact.20.4

    : of the agency of feelings, passions, etc.,

    ἀνόρουσ' ὑ. χάρματος h.Cer. 371

    ; ἐνδακρύειν, ἀνολολύξαι χαρᾶς ὕπο, A.Ag. 541, 587;

    μαίνεται.. ὑφ' ἡδονῆς S.El. 1153

    ;

    χλωρὸς ὑπαὶ δείους Il.10.376

    ;

    ὑ. δέους ἔρρηξε φωνήν Hdt.1.85

    , cf. Th.6.33;

    οὐ δυνατὸν τὸν δῆμον ἐσόμενον ὑ. τῶν κακῶν καρτερεῖν Id.4.66

    ;

    ὑ. κακοῦ ἀγρυπνίῃσι εἴχετο Hdt.3.129

    ;

    ὑπ' ἄλγους A.Eu. 183

    ;

    ὑπ' ὀργῆς Ar.V. 1083

    ;

    ὑ. λύπης S.OT 1073

    : hence ὑπό is used even with active Verbs, where a passive word may be supplied, e.g. ὑ. ἀρετῆς καὶ προθυμίης συνεπλήρουν τὰς νέας from courage, i. e. impelled by courage, Hdt.8.1;

    ὤρυσσον ὑ. μαστίγων Id.7.22

    , cf. 56; οὐδὲ σέ γε δόλος ἔσχ' ὑ. χειρὸς ἐμᾶς by my agency, S.Ph. 1118 (lyr.); αἰ μήτις αὐτὸς δοίη, μὴ ὑπ' ἀνάγκας not under compulsion, GDI5128.5 ([place name] Vaxos).
    4 ὑπό freq. serves to denote the attendant or accompanying circumstances,

    νέφος ἐρχόμενον κατὰ πόντον ὑ. Ζεφύροιο ἰωῆς Il.4.276

    , cf. 16.591, etc.: sts. with part. added, ἀμφὶ δὲ νῆες σμερδαλέον κονάβησαν ἀϋσάντων ὑπ' Ἀχαιῶν at their shouting, i.e. when they shouted, 2.334, 16.277;

    ἴαχε σάλπιγξ ἄστυ περιπλομένων δηΐων ὕ. 18.220

    .
    5 of accompanying music, to give the time,

    κώμαζον ὑπ' αὐλοῦ Hes.Sc. 281

    , cf. 278;

    ᾄδων ὑπ' αὐλητῆρος Archil.123

    , cf. Thgn.825, Charon Fr.9;

    πίνειν ὑ. σάλπιγγος Ar.Ach. 1001

    : generally, of anything attendant, δαΐδων ὕ. λαμπομενάων ἠγίνεον by torchlight, Il.18.492, cf. E.Hel. 639 (lyr.), Ion 1474 (lyr.);

    καταθάψομεν.. ὑ. κλαυθμῶν A.Ag. 1554

    (anap.);

    ὑπ' εὐκλείας θανεῖν E.Hipp. 1299

    ;

    εἴσειμ' ὑπαὶ πτερύγων κιχλᾶν καὶ κοψίχων Ar.Ach. 970

    ; ὑπ' εὐφήμου βοῆς θῦσαι offer a sacrifice accompanied by it, S.El. 630; ὑ. φανοῦ πορεύεσθαι by lantern-light, X.Lac.5.7; ὑ. πομπῆς ἐξάγειν τινά in or with solemn procession, Hdt.2.45, cf. Ar.Th. 1030; ὑ. βίης βήξας coughing with violence, violently, Hdt.6.107; ἐτόξευον ὑ. μαστίγων, i.e. they shot and lashed, X.An.3.4.25: v. infr. B. 11.4, C. IV. 1.
    6 ὑ. Ἑλλανοδικᾶν, = ἐπί c. gen., SIG171 (Olympia, iv B.C.).
    7 Math., ἡ ὑ. ΘΔΗ the angle ΘΔΗ ( = ἡ ὑ. τῶν ΘΔ, ΔΗ περιεχομένη γωνία), Procl. Hyp.2.26; but also τὸ ὑ. τῶν ΑΓ, ΓΒ the rectangle contained by ΑΓ, ΓΒ, = ΑΓ χ ΓΒ, Euc.2.4.
    8 ναῦλον ὄνων γ εἰς τὴν πόλιν ὑ. οἴνου laden with wine, Pap. in Hermes 28.163 (ii A.D.), cf. ib.479, and infr. C. IV. 2.
    B WITH DATIVE (esp. in Poets, never in LXX (Jb.12.5 is dub. l.) or NT, not common in Arist., Ptolemaic papyri, or Plb.), of Position under,

    ὑ. ποσσί Il.2.784

    , al.; ὑ. πλατανίστῳ ib. 307, cf. 18.558; ὑ. Τμώλῳ at its foot, 2.866, cf. Od.1.186;

    Βερύσιοι ὑ. τῇ Ἴδῃ IG12.191.11

    , cf. 373.118, al.;

    ὑ. τῇ ἀκροπόλι Hdt.6.105

    ; τῶν θανόντων ὑπ' Ἰλίῳ under its walls, E.Hec. 764, cf. A.Ag. 860;

    πέτρῃ ὕ. γλαφυρῇ εὗδον, Βορέω ὑπ' ἰωγῇ Od.14.533

    ;

    ὑ. τοῖς ὄρεσιν ἔχειν τὰς πηγάς Arist.Mete. 350b27

    ;

    ὑ. πέτρᾳ παῖς IG42(1).122.19

    (Epid., iv B.C.); ὑ. τῷ ναῷ ἀστραγαλίζοντος αὐτοῦ ib.121.25 (ibid., iv B.C.); ηυπὺ τῇ κλίνῃ τούτῃ ληνὸς (or Λῆνος) ηύπυ ib.14.871 (Cumae, v B.C.);

    στρουθοὶ ὑ. τῇ τραπέζῃ Michel 832.33

    (Samos, iv B.C.);

    ὑ. τῇ μασχάλῃ Hp.Art.11

    ;

    χέλυν δ' ὑ. μασχάλῃ εἶχεν h.Merc. 242

    ;

    ὑ. ταῖς μασχάλαις Arist.PA 688b5

    ,14; ὁ ὑ. τῇ γῇ ἀήρ under the earth, Id.Cael. 295a28; ἐὰν ὑ. σοὶ κατακλινῇ lies next below you, Pl.Smp. 222e; ὑφ' ἅρμασι under, i.e. yoked to, the chariot, Il.8.402, 18.244;

    εἶχε μάχαιραν ὑφ' αὑτῷ παρεσκευασμένος Plb.8.20.6

    codd., cf. POxy. 1800 Fr.2.36 (Vit.Aesop.);

    ὑ. τοῖς χιτωνίσκοις περιζώματα φοροῦσιν Plb.12.26a

    .4, cf. 13.7.9; τά τε θηρία καὶ τὰς ὑπ' αὐτοῖς σχεδίας under them, on which they stood, Id.3.46.8;

    τῆς γῆς τῆς ὑ. τῷ κόσμῳ κειμένης Timae.

    ap. eund.12.25.7;

    οἱ ὑ. τῇ ἄρκτῳ, τῇ μεσημβρία, οἰκοῦντες Adam.2.31

    , cf. Arist.Pr. 940a37, Phgn. 806b16;

    ὑ. τῷ μετώπῳ ὀφρύες Id.HA 491b14

    ;

    ὑ. τῷ γενείῳ Plb.34.10.9

    ;

    τὰ ὑ. τοῖς ὕδασι καὶ ὑμέσι καὶ ὑέλοις Hero

    *Deff.135.12;

    ὑ. τῷ δέρματι Gal. 18(2).102

    .
    2 with Verbs of motion, where rest or position follows, εἷσαν ὑ. φηγῷ set [him] down under it, Il.5.693;

    ἔζευξαν ὑφ' ἅρμασιν.. ἵππους Od.3.478

    , cf. Il.24.782;

    ὑ. δ' ἄξοσι.. ἔπιπτον 16.378

    , cf. X.Cyr.7.1.37;

    δέμνι' ὑπ' αἰθούσῃ θέμεναι Il.24.644

    .
    3 in such phrases as ὑ. χερσί τινος ἁλῶναι, δαμῆναι, 2.374, 860, al.;

    ἐμῇς ὑ. χερσὶ δάμασσον 3.352

    ;

    ὑ. δουρὶ δαμῆναι 5.653

    , etc.;

    ἔκπεσον ἵππων Ἀτρεΐδεω ὑ. χερσί 11.180

    ;

    ὤλετο.. ὑ. γαμφηλῇσι λέοντος 16.489

    ;

    πέπληγμαι δ' ὑπαὶ δάκει φοινίῳ A.Ag. 1164

    (lyr.);

    ἐν κονίῃσι πέσοιεν ὑπ' ἀνδράσι Il.6.453

    ;

    ὑ. τινὶ κτείνεσθαι 16.490

    .
    4 behind,

    ὑ. φάλαγγι Ascl.Tact.6.1

    ; under the cover or protection of,

    ὑ. τούτῳ τῷ φράγματι τοὺς ὑπορύσσοντας εἶναι Aen.Tact.37.9

    ;

    ὑ. ταῖς αὑτῶν ἀσφαλείαις Plb. 1.57.8

    , 4.12.10, 16.6.1.
    II of the person under whose hand, power, or influence, or the thing by or through which a thing is done, ὑπ' Ἀργείοισι φέβοντο fled before them, Il.11.121; freq. in Hom. with intr. or pass. Verbs,

    ἐφόβηθεν ὑφ' Ἕκτορι Il.15.637

    ;

    ὁρμηθέντες ὑ. πληγῇσιν ἱμάσθλης Od.13.82

    ;

    βῆ.. θεῶν ὑ. πομπῇ Il.6.171

    ;

    ὦρτο δὲ κῦμα πνοιῇ ὕπο 23.215

    ;

    ὑ. λαίλαπι βέβριθε χθών 16.384

    ; τεκεῖν, τεκέσθαι ὑ. τινί, 2.714, 728, 742;

    ἀτῆθαι ὑ. τῷ μεμφομένῳ GDI4994.8

    ([place name] Crete);

    ὁ χρησμὸς ὁ γεγονὼς ὑ. τοῖ Ἀπόλλωνι Inscr.Magn.38.5

    , cf. 12,31,52.
    2 expressing subjection or dependence, ὑ. τινί under one's power,

    δέδμητο δὲ λαὸς ὑπ' αὐτῷ Od.3.305

    , cf. Il.9.156;

    ὑπ' ἀνδράσιν οἶκον ἔχουσιν Od. 7.68

    ; εἶναι ὑ. τισί to be subordinate, subject to them, Th.1.32; ὑ. Χείρωνι τεθραμμένος under the eye of.., Pl.R. 391c; ἔχειν ὑφ' ἑαυτῷ have under one, at one's command, X.Cyr.2.1.26;

    τὰ θηρία τὰ ὑ. τοῖς ἀνθρώποις Pl.R. 563c

    ;

    ὑ. τινὶ στρατεύσασθαι Plu.Cic.44

    : in pregnant sense,

    ἵνα.. πάντα ὑ. Πέρσῃσι γένηται Hdt.7.11

    , cf. Th.7.64;

    ὑπ' ἑωυτῷ ποιήσασθαι Hdt.7.157

    ;

    κινδυνεύσαιμ' ἂν ὑ. τῇ δυσχερεστάτῃ γενέσθαι τύχῃ Lys.24.6

    ;

    ὑ. τῷ Μακεδόνι ταττομένων Plb.18.11.4

    ;

    τοὺς τραφέντας ὑ. τούτοις Id.6.7.2

    .
    3 of the subordination of things coming under a class,

    αἱ ὑ. ταῖς τέχναις ἐργασίαι Pl.Smp. 205c

    ;

    τὸ ὑ. ταῖς γεωμετρίαις Id.R. 511b

    ;

    ὄργανα.. τὰ ὑ. τῇ μουσικῇ Id.Hp.Ma. 295d

    .
    4 as in A. 11.5, ὑπ' αὐλητῆρι πρόσθ' ἔκιον advanced to the music of the flute-player, Hes.Sc. 283; ὑπ' αὐλῷ, ὑ. κήρυκι καὶ θεολόγῳ, Luc.DDeor.2.2, Alex.19;

    ὑ. μάστιξι διορύττειν τὸν Ἄθω Plu.2.470e

    : generally, of attendant circumstances,

    ἐξ ἁλὸς εἶσι.. πνοιῇ ὕπο Ζεφύροιο Od.4.402

    ; ὑ. ῥάβδοις καὶ πελέκεσι κατιών escorted by the lictors, Plu.Publ.10; ὑ. σκότῳ, νυκτί, A.Ag. 1030 (lyr.), A.R. 1.1022, etc.;

    λάμπει δ' ὑ. μαρμαρυγαῖς ὁ χρυσός B.3.17

    ;

    αἰθομένα δᾲς ὑ. ξανθαἵσι πεύκαις Pi.Fr.79

    ;

    ὑ. φωτὶ πολλῷ προσῄει Plu.Galb.14

    ;

    ὑ. λαμπάσιν ἡμμέναις Hld.10.41

    ; ὑ. πολλῷ στρατῷ escorted by a great host, Nic.Dam.10J.;

    ὑ. δικαιοσύνῃ διαγαγεῖν τὸν βίον Pl.Ep. 335d

    .— ὑπό has no sense c. dat. which it has not also c. gen.; but all its senses c. gen. do not belong to the dat.:—later ὑπό c. dat. is found as a mere periphr. of the dat.,

    στέφος.. αὐτὸς ὑφ' ἡμετέραις πλεξάμενος παλάμαις AP5.73

    (Rufin.), cf. 85 (Claudian.);

    λέων ὑπ' ἄκοντι τετυμμένος A.R.2.26

    , cf. Man.2.131.
    C WITH ACCUSATIVE, of Place; to express motion towards and under an object, ὑ. σπέος ἤλασε μῆλα drove them under, i.e. into, the cave, Il.4.279;

    ὑ. ζυγὸν ἤγαγεν Od.3.383

    ; σεῦ ὕστερος εἶμ' ὑ. γαῖαν, i.e. shall die, Il.18.333;

    νέεσθαι ὑ. ζόφον 23.51

    , cf. Od.3.335; κατακρύπτειν τινὰ ὑ. τὴν αὐτὴν θύρην under shelter of it, i.e. behind it, Hdt.1.12;

    πάϊς ὣς ὑ. μητέρα δύσκεν εἰς Αἴαντα Il.8.271

    ;

    ὅκως ἔωσι ὑ. τὸν πεζὸν στρατὸν τὸν σφέτερον Hdt.9.96

    ;

    ὑ. τὸν πρῶτον λόχον τῶν ὁπλιτῶν τὸν πρῶτον λόχον τῶν ψιλῶν τετάχθαι Ael.Tact.15.2

    ; of coming close up under a lofty citadel, ἤλθεθ' ὑ. Τροίην up to T., Od.4.146;

    ὅτ' ἔμελλεν ὑ. πτόλιν αἰπύ τε τεῖχος ἵξεσθαι Il.11.181

    ;

    παυρότερον λαὸν ἀγαγόνθ' ὑ. τεῖχος ἄρειον 4.407

    ;

    ὑ. τὰ τείχη φεύγειν Plb.1.74.11

    ;

    ὑ. τὰς ἴλας φεύγειν Id.3.65.7

    , cf. 3.105.6, 11.21.5, al.;

    ὑ. ταὐτὸ στέγος εἰσελθεῖν GDI3536

    B 3 ([place name] Cnidus);

    πᾶν ὃ ἐὰν ἔλθῃ.. ὑ. τὴν ῥάβδον LXXLe.27.32

    , cf. De.4.11, al.; so ὑ. δικαστήριον ὑπαχθείς, ἀγαγόντες, Hdt.6.72, 104 (cf. ὑπάγειν ὑ. τοὺς ἐφόρους ib.82) prob. refers to the elevated seats of the judges in court, cf. ὑπάγω A ΙΙ.
    2 of Position or Extension under an object, without sense of motion,

    Ἀρκαδίην ὑ. Κυλλήνης ὄρος Il.2.603

    , cf. 824, etc.;

    ἰκριώσασι ὑ. τὴν ὀροφήν IG12.374.76

    ; ἐργασαμένοις τὸ ἄνθεμον ὑ. τὴν ἀσπίδα ib.371.9;

    τὰ μὲν ὑ. τὸν λόφον καὶ τὰμ φάραγγα Inscr.Prien.37.162

    (ii B.C.);

    ἀνθέντω ὑ. τὸν ναὸν τᾶς Δάματρος IG5(1).1498.13

    (loc. inc., ii B.C.); ὅσσοι ἔασιν ὑπ' ἠῶ τ' ἠέλιόν τε everywhere under the sun, Il.5.267;

    ὑπ' αὐγὰς ἠελίοιο φοιτῶσι Od.2.181

    ;

    τῶν ὑ. τοῦτον τὸν ἥλιον.. ἀνθρώπων D.18.270

    ;

    τὰ ὑ. τὴν ἄρκτον Hdt. 5.10

    , cf. Arist.Mete. 362a17;

    οἴκησις ἡ λεγομένη ὑ. τὸν πόλον Gem.5.38

    , cf. 16.21, al.;

    ὑ. τὸν οὐρανόν LXXEx.17.14

    , al., UPZ106.14 (i B.C.);

    τὸ ὑ. τὴν ἀκρόπολιν Th.2.17

    ;

    ὁ ὑ. γῆν λεγόμενος εἶναι θεός Hdt.7.114

    , cf. Il.19.259; ὑ. γῆν is more freq. than ὑ. γῆς in Arist., Mete. 349b29, al., in Hipparch., 1.3.10, al., and entirely supersedes ὑ. γῆς in Hdt., 2.124, 125, 127, 148, 150, 3.102, 4.195, 7.114, and Gem., 2.19, al.; it is found also in Plb.21.28.11, etc.; ὑ. γῆν the nadir, opp. μεσουράνημα, PLond.1.98r.49, 110.33 (i/ii A.D.); also

    ἄγχε δέ μιν.. ἱμὰς ἁπαλὴν ὑ. δειρήν Il.3.371

    ;

    Τρῶες.. πτῶσσον ὑ. κρημνούς 21.26

    ;

    ἀγέροντο.. ἄλσος ὕ. σκιερόν Od.20.278

    ;

    τρωφεὶς ὑ. τὸν ὀφθαλμόν IG42(1).122.120

    (Epid., iv B.C.);

    οὐλὴ ὑπ' ὀφθαλμὸν δεξιόν PCair.Zen76.13

    (iii B.C.);

    ὑ. τὸ μέρος τοῦ ἐνοφειλομένου ὑπογραψάτω ὅσον ἰδίᾳ ἔχει PRev.Laws 19.2

    (iii B.C.);

    κείμενος ὑ. τὸν ὀμφαλόν Sor.1.7

    , cf. 67, al.;

    ὑ. τὰς πύλας ἵππων πόδες φαίνονται Th.5.10

    ;

    μὴ ὑποτιθέναι κύλικα ὑ. τὴν κλίνην IG12(5).593

    A21 (Ceos, v B. C.); ὑ. τὸν ὀδόν ib.42(1).102.249 (Epid., iv B.C.);

    καταψύξατε ὑ. τὸ δένδρον LXX Ge.18.4

    ; ὑ. τὸν λέβητα ib.Ec.7.7(6); ὑ. τοὺς πόδας ib.La.3.34;

    εἰς τοὺς ὑ. πόδα χωρεῖ τόπους Dsc.5.75

    (v.

    πούς 1.6

    g); ἡ ὑ. πόδα (sc. γραμμή ) the base of a triangle, Hero *Mens.55; also ὑπ' αὐγὰς.. λεύσσουσαι πέπλους holding them up to the light, E.Hec. 1154; also ὑ. τὸν ὀφθαλμόν close to the eye, Arist. Pr. 874a9;

    ὑποκειμένης τῆς Εὐβοίας ὑ. τὴν Ἀττικήν Isoc.4.108

    ;

    ὑπ' αὐτὴν ἐσχάτην στήλην ἔχων ἔχριμπτ' ἀεὶ σύριγγα S.El. 720

    ;

    εἰ θεωρήσειεν ὑπ' αὐγὰς τὸν ἀνθρώπειον βίον Iamb.Protr.8

    (cf.

    αὐγή 1

    ): of subordinate position.

    κατακλίνεσθαι ὑ. τινά Luc.Symp.9

    ; τίς ὑ. τίνα; who is next to whom, Onos.10.2.
    b Math., ὁ κύβος ὁ ὑ. τὴν.. σφαῖραν inscribed in the sphere, Papp.440.5;

    εἶναι ὑ. τὸ αὐτὸ ὕψος Euc.11.29

    , Archim.Sph.Cyl.1.19; ὑ. τὰν αὐτὰν γωνίαν subtending.., Id.Aren. 1.20 (cj.), cf. 21;

    αἱ γωνίαι ὑφ' ἃς αἱ ὁμόλογοι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσι Euc.6.6

    ,al.
    II of subjection, control, dependence, never in Hom., once in Hdt.,

    ὑ. βασιλέα δασμοφόρος 7.108

    ;

    ὑ. σφᾶς ποιεῖσθαι Th.4.60

    , cf. Pl.R. 348d, Arist. HA 488a10, etc.;

    ἕως κα ᾖ ὑ. τὸν πατέρα Test.Epict.3.29

    ;

    ὑ. τιν' ἦν τῶν βασιλέων Men.340

    ;

    τί δ' οὐ κρατέοντος ὑπ' ἰσχύν; Call.Jov.75

    , cf. 74;

    ὑ. Δία Γῆν Ἥλιον Sammelb. 5616

    (i A.D.), POxy.722.6 (i/ii A.D.), etc. (v.

    ἥλιος 11.1

    );

    ὑ. θεὸν καὶ ἄνθρωπον Michel854.52

    (Halic., iii B.C.);

    τοῦ τοπαρχοῦντος ὑ. σέ PCair.Zen.322.3

    (iii B.C.);

    στρατενσάμενον ὑ. ἄρχοντα Ἀντίοχον IG12(1).43.7

    ([place name] Rhodes);

    μηδὲ ὑ. δεσπότην ὤν LXXPr. 6.7

    , cf. Ps.143.2; for ὑ. χεῖρα, v. χείρ; οἱ ὑ. τινά X.Cyr.3.3.6,8.8.5, etc.;

    τοῖς ὑφ' αὑτὸν τεταγμένοις GDI3750.75

    ([place name] Rhodes).
    III of Time, in the course of, during, or to be left untranslated in English,

    ἐκέλευε Τοωσὶ ποτὶ πτόλιν ἡγήσασθαι νύχθ' ὕ. τήνδ' ὀλοήν Il.22.102

    ;

    ὑ. τὴν νύκτα ταύτην Hdt.9.51

    , cf. 58; ὑ. τὴν πρώτην ἐπελθοῦσαν νύκτα ἀπέδρη Id 6.2;

    τῆς κολοκύνθης.. ἣ ἐγενήθη ὑ. νύκτα καὶ ὑ. νύκτα ἀπώλετο LXXJn.4.10

    : rarely with stress on the duration, πάνθ' ὑ. μηνιθμόν throughout its continuance, Il.16.202;

    ὑ. τὸν παρεόντα τόνδε πόλεμον Hdt.9.60

    ; οὐδὲν τῶν κατ' Αἴγυπτον ὑ. ταῦτα ἑτεροιωθῆναι during that time, Id.2.142;

    ὑ. τὸν χρόνον ὃν οἱ ἑξήκοντα καὶ τριηκόσιοι ἦρχον οἵδε ἐθεόρεον IG12(8).276.4

    ([place name] Thasos).
    2 also of Time, about, sts. more precisely at, and of events, about or at the time of, ὑπ' αὐτὸν τὸν χρόνον ὅτε .. Ar.Ach. 139, cf. Hdt.7.165;

    ὑπ' αὐτὸν τὸν καιρόν Plb. 11.27.4

    , 16.15.8; ὑφ' ἕνα καιρόν at one time, Diog.Oen.38;

    ὑ. τὸν αὐτὸν χρόνον Th.2.26

    ;

    ὑ. τοὺς αὐτοὺς χρόνους Id.1.100

    ;

    ὑ. τὸν σεισμόν Id.2.27

    , cf. Plb.4.33.5, Plu.Alex.14; ὑ. τὴν ἑωθινήν, ὑ. τὴν ὄρφνην, Plb. 18.19.5,7;

    ὑ. τὸν ὄρθρον Act.Ap.5.21

    , Gp.2.4.3; ποιεῖσθαι τοὺς περιπάτους ὑ. τὸ ψῦχος in the cool of the morning, Plb.5.56.10; ὑφ' ἓν πάντες all at once, at the same time, Arr.Epict.3.22.33, cf. S.E.M. 10.124, Sor.1.103, al.; παιδάριον ὑ. τὴν ἀναπνοὴν ἑπτὰ καὶ πέντε στίχους συνεῖρον in one breath, Plb.10.47.9; ὑφ' ἓν ἐκτρῖψαι at one blow, LXX Wi.12.9; ὑ. μίαν ἄρσιν καὶ θέσιν ἀνατείνοντες καὶ κατατιθέμενοι, of a squad of diggers, Gp.2.45.5; ὑ. μίαν φωνήν Aristeas 178; πῶς γὰρ ἂν ὑ. τὰς αὐτὰς ἡμέρας ἔν τε τῇ Ἰταλίᾳ καὶ ἐν τῇ Κιλικίᾳ.. πολεμήσειε; at the same time, D.C.36.35; sts. c. part., ὑ. τὸν νηὸν κατακαέντα at the time of its burning, Hdt.1.51; ὑ. τὴν κατάλυσιν τοῦ πολέμου just at the end, X.Mem.2.8.1, cf. Plu.Mar.46; ὑ. τὸν θυμὸν ἐκ χειρὸς ἐπιστρατευσαμένων at the very time of their anger, Plb. 2.19.10;

    ὑ. παροξυσμόν Gal.19.215

    ; παραδόντω τοῖς αἱρεθεῖσι εἰς τὸν ὑπ' αὐτὰ (or ὕπαυτα as Adv. = ἑξῆς)

    ἐνιαυτόν IG9(1).694.60

    (Corc., ii/i B.C.);

    ὑ. κύνα Arist.HA 547a14

    , Thphr.CP1.13.3, D.S.19.109;

    ὑ. τὰς θερινὰς [τροπὰς] καὶ τοῦ κυνὸς τὴν ἐπιτολήν Gp.2.6.17

    .
    IV of accompaniment,

    ὑπὸ ὄρχησίν τε καὶ ᾠδήν Pl.Lg. 670a

    ;

    ὑ. αὐλὸν διαλέγεσθαι X.Smp.6.3

    codd. (ὑ. τοῦ αὐλοῦ Cobet); ὑ. κήρυκα (v.

    κῆρυξ 1.3

    ).—Compare A.11.5, B.11.4.
    2 ὄνον ἕνα ὑ. λαχανόσπερμον laden with.., Meyer Ostr.81.2 (i A. D.), cf. PFay.p.324 (i A.D.);

    ὄνοι ὑ. δένδρα BGU 362i6

    , al. (iii A.D.); cf. supr. A.11.8.
    D POSITION: ὑ. can follow its Subst., becoming by anastrophe ὕπο. It is freq. separated from the Subst. by intervening words, as in Il.2.465, Od.5.320, 7.130:— ὑπαί is placed after its case in A. Eu. 417, S.El. 1418, Inach. l.c., although acc. to Hdn.Gr.1.480 it cannot suffer anastrophe.
    E AS ADV., under, below, beneath, freq. in Hom.; esp. of young animals, under the mother, i.e. at the breast, Od.4.636, 21.23.
    2 behind, Hdt.7.61: cf. C. 1.
    II ὑπ' ἐκ or ὑπέκ, v. ὑπέκ.—In Hom. the separation of the Prep. from its Verb by tmesis is very freq., and sts. it follows, in which case it suffers anastrophe,

    φυγὼν ὕπο νηλεὲς ἦμαρ Od.9.17

    .
    F IN COMPOSITION:
    I under, as well of rest as of motion, as in ὕπειμι, ὑποβαίνω, etc.
    2 of the casing or covering of one thing with another, as ὑπάργυρος, ὑπόχρυσος.
    3 of the agency or influence under which a thing is done, to express subjection or subordination, ὑποδαμνάω, ὑποδμώς, ὑφηνίοχος, cf. ἐπί G. 111.
    II denoting what is in small degree or gradual, somewhat, a little, as in ὑποκινέω, ὑποδεής, ὑπόλευκος (so in tmesi,

    ὑ. τι ἀσεβῆ Pl.Phdr. 242d

    , cf. Grg. 493c;

    ὑ. τι μικρὸν ἐπιθήκισα Ar.V. 1290

    (lyr.)).
    III underhand, secretly, as in ὑποθέω, ὑποθωπεύω, ὑποκορίζομαι, ὑπόρνυμι.

    Greek-English dictionary (Αγγλικά Ελληνικά-λεξικό) > ὑπό

  • 106 ῥέζω

    ῥέζω (A), freq. in [dialect] Ep. and Trag. (v. infr.), but rare in [dialect] Att. Prose and Com. (Pherecr. 152 is mock heroic): [tense] impf.
    A

    ἔρεζον Il.2.400

    , [dialect] Ep.

    ῥέζον Od.3.5

    , [dialect] Ion.

    ῥέζεσκον Il.8.250

    : [tense] fut.

    ῥέξω Od.11.31

    , A.Eu. 788 (lyr.), al.: [tense] aor.

    ἔρρεξα Il.9.536

    , 10.49, Pl.Lg. 642c; poet. also

    ἔρεξα Hom.

    (v. infr.), Hes.Fr. 174, S.OC 538 (lyr.), etc.; [dialect] Aeol. part.

    ῥέξαις Pi.O. 9.94

    :—[voice] Pass., [tense] aor. 1 opt.

    ῥεχθείη Hp.Epid.7.11

    ; part.

    ῥεχθείς Il.9.250

    , 20.198. ( ῥέζω from ϝρέγ-yω, cogn. with ἔρδω from ϝέργ-yω [through ϝέρzδω]: [dialect] Dor. and [dialect] Boeot. [full] ῥέδδω Eust.226.8, 984.1, Hsch.; [tense] aor. part.

    ϝρέξαντα IG4.1607

    ([place name] Cleonae).)
    I do, act, deal, opp. εἰπεῖν, Od.4.205, 22.314; opp. παθεῖν, v. infr.:—Constr.,
    2 more freq. trans. c. acc. rei, do, accomplish, make,

    ὅσ' ἂν πεπνυμένος ἀνὴρ εἴποι καὶ ῥέξειε 4.205

    ;

    μέρμερα ἔργα, ὅσσ' ἄνδρες ῥέξαντες.. Il.10.525

    , cf. Od.22.314; τί ῥέξομεν; Il.11.838;

    μέγα ῥέξας τι καὶ ἐσσομένοισι πυθέσθαι 22.305

    , cf. 2.274;

    ὅ τι ποσσίν τε ῥέξῃ καὶ χερσίν Od.8.148

    ; so in Lyr. and Trag.,

    ῥέζοντά τι καὶ παθεῖν ἔοικε Pi.N.4.32

    ; τί ῥέξω; A.Eu. 788, cf. Th. 104 (both lyr.); τί ῥέξας τύχοιμ' ἂν.. ; Id.Ch. 316 (lyr.):—[voice] Pass., οὐδέ τι μῆχος ῥεχθέντος κακοῦ ἔστ' ἄκος εὑρεῖν for the mischief if once done, Il.9.250;

    ῥεχθὲν δέ τε νήπιος ἔγνω 17.32

    .
    3 c. dupl. acc. pers. et rei, do something to one,

    κακὰ ῥέξαι τινά 3.354

    , Od.2.73;

    ἀγαθὰ ῥ. τινά 22.209

    , cf. Il.9.647;

    οὐδέν σε ῥέξω κακά 24.370

    , cf. 4.32, Od.2.72: with Adv., κακῶς μιν ἔρ. wronged him, 23.56; so

    ἡ πόλις ἡμᾶς οὐ καλῶς ἔρρεξε Pl.Lg. 642c

    : but c. dat. pers., μηκέτι μοι κακὰ ῥέζετε do me (ethic dat.) no more mischiefs, Od.20.314;

    ὅσα βροτοῖς ἔρεξας κακά E.Med. 1292

    (lyr.).
    4 with strengthd. signf., εἴ τι νόος ῥέξει if it shall avail aught, be of any service, Il.14.62.
    II in special sense, perform sacrifices, ἱερὰ ῥ. Od.1.61, 3.5; ῥ. ἑκατόμβας ἀθανάτοις offer a hecatomb to the gods, Il.23.206, cf. Od. 5.102, Pi.P.10.34;

    ῥ. θαλύσιά τινι Il.9.535

    ;

    θύματα Ζηνὶ τῆς ἁλώς εως S.Tr. 288

    : abs., do sacrifice,

    ῥ. θεῷ Il.2.400

    , 8.250, etc.: sts. with the victim in acc., σοί.. ῥέξω βοῦν ἦνιν will sacrifice it, 10.292, cf. Od.9.553, 10.523.
    ------------------------------------
    ῥέζω (B), [dialect] Dor. Verb,= βάπτω,
    A dye, Phot., EM703.27, cf. Epich. 107. (Cf. ῥέγος, ῥεγεύς, ῥεγιστής, and lengthd. ῥῆγος, ῥηγεύς, also ῥογεύς:—cogn. with Skt. rajyate 'is coloured or red'.)

    Greek-English dictionary (Αγγλικά Ελληνικά-λεξικό) > ῥέζω

  • 107 ἱερεύω

    ἱερεύω, ἷρεύω, ipf. iter. ἷρεύεσκον, fut. inf. ἱερεύσειν, aor. ἱέρευσα, pass. plup. ἱέρευτο, mid. aor. inf. ἷρεύσασθαι: sacrifice, esp. by killing the victim, offer, then, in general, slaughter, Il. 6.174 ; ξείνῳ, ‘in honor of the guest,’ Od. 14.414; mid., subjective, Od. 19.198.

    A Homeric dictionary (Greek-English) (Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά ομηρικό λεξικό) > ἱερεύω

  • 108 ἷρεύω

    ἱερεύω, ἷρεύω, ipf. iter. ἷρεύεσκον, fut. inf. ἱερεύσειν, aor. ἱέρευσα, pass. plup. ἱέρευτο, mid. aor. inf. ἷρεύσασθαι: sacrifice, esp. by killing the victim, offer, then, in general, slaughter, Il. 6.174 ; ξείνῳ, ‘in honor of the guest,’ Od. 14.414; mid., subjective, Od. 19.198.

    A Homeric dictionary (Greek-English) (Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά ομηρικό λεξικό) > ἷρεύω

  • 109 θύω 2

    θύω 2.
    Grammatical information: v.
    Meaning: `offer by burning, sacrifice, slaughter' (Il.); in LSJ θύω Α.
    Other forms: fut. θύσω, aor. θῦσαι (Il.), τυθῆναι (Hdt.), perf. τέθῠκα, τέθῠμαι (Att.),
    Compounds: often with prefix, e. g. ἐκ-, κατα-, προ-, συν-,
    Derivatives: Derivations partly show the older meaning `smoke, incense' (s. below): 1. θῦμα `offer' (IA etc.); 2. ἔκ-, πρό-θυσις from ἐκ-, προ-θύω (late); 3. θυσία s. below on θύτης; 4. θύος n. with θυέστης a. o. `incense', s. v.; 5. θύον `life-tree', s. v.; 6. θυητά n. pl. `incense' (Aret.; on the formation cf. θυηλη s.v.); 7. θυ(ε)ία f. `strong smelling ceder, thuya' with θυῖον n. `resin' (Thphr.); formation unclear; to θύος (s. v.)? 8. θύτης m. `offerer' (hell.; ἐκ-θύτης from ἐκ-θύω E.); θύτας (Thess.), with θυτεῖον `offerplace' (Aeschin.), θυτικός `belonging to an offer' (hell., directly from θύω), θυσία `offer, offerfeast' (h. Cer.; cf. Fraenkel Nom. ag. 1, 224, Porzig Satzinhalte 200); from there θυσιάζω `offer' with θυσίασμα, - αστήριος, - ον; 9. θυτήρ m. `id.' (trag.) with θυτήριον `sacrificial animal' (E.), also `altar', name of the constellation Ara (Arat.; Scherer Gestirnnamen 192); 10. θύστας ὁ ἱερεὺς παρὰ Κρησί H., f. θυστάς, - άδος `belonging to the sacrifice' (A., S.; Fraenkel Nom. ag. 1, 182; 2, 37, E. Kretschmer Glotta 18, 85); 11. θύστρα n. = θύματα (Kos); 12. θυ\<σ\> τηρίοις θυμιατηρίοις H.; 13. θυσμικός `regarding the sacrifice' ( ἔτος; Paros, Tenos); the - σ- in the last words hardly with Schulze Q. 320 n. 1 and Fraenkel l. c. from the σ-stem in θύος, but rather with Solmsen KZ 29, 114 analogical [to what?] (cf. μύστης a. o.). - With λ-, resp. μ-suffix in θυηλη, θυμός, θύμον, [not in θυμάλωψ], s. vv.; with μελ-suffix (Frisk Eranos 41, 51) θῠμέλη `hearth, altar' (trag.; not with Aly Glotta 5, 60ff. prop. "practice-ground" from 1. θύω `storm') with θυμελικός.
    Origin: XX [etym. unknown]
    Etymology: The regular stemformation of θύω will be the resultof inner-Greek adjustment. The original paradigma can no longer be reconstructed. As the nearest parallel is given Lat. suf-fiō, - īre `incense', explained from *-dhu̯-ii̯ō, which is of course very far away. - It is often supposed that 1. θύω and 2. θύω were originally identical, but this is far from clear; one assumes a development like `stieben, stäuben, wirbeln, stürmen, rauchen' v. t., but this can well be wrong. The different languages show a mass of formations and meanings which can no longer be interpreted, see Pok. 261-267, (268-271). - S. further τύφω. θάνατος, θολός, ἀθύρω have nothing to do with our verb.- P. Pagot, RPh LXXV (2001) 144 connects Hitt. tuhhae `pant, sigh' from * dʰ(e)uh₂-, which is however very far as regards the meaning.
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    Greek-English etymological dictionary (Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά ετυμολογική λεξικό) > θύω 2

  • 110 ἱερός

    Grammatical information: adj.
    Meaning: "holy", `dedicated to a god, divine', also in gen. praising `glorious, excellent, strong, quick etc.' (cf. below); ἱερόν n. `consecrated area, temple' (posthom.), ἱερά n. pl., rarely sg. `Weihgeschenk, sacrifice(animal)' (Il.).
    Other forms: Dor., NWGr. ἱαρός, Ion. poet. ἰ̄ρός, Aeol. ἶρος
    Compounds: As 1. member in many compp., not mentioned here.
    Derivatives: (Dialectforms not noted): 1. ἱερεύς (Il.), Arc. Cypr. ἱερής, Ion. also ἱέρεως (hardly taken from ἀρχιέρεως, Sommer Nominalkomp. 129, Egli Heteroklisie 111f. with new explan.) m. `who performs the sacrifices (τὰ ἱερά), offerer, priest' (Schulze KZ 52, 193 = Kl. Schr. 573; after Boßhardt Die Nom. auf - ευς rather backformation from ἱερεύω; on meaning and spread E. Kretschmer Glotta 18, 81f.). From ἱερεύς: a) several feminines (cf. on βασιλεύς): ἱέρεια (Il.), Cypr. ἰερήϜιϳα, Ion. ἱερέη, -ῆ; ἱερηΐς (Megar.), ἱέρισσα (pap. IIa); b) the nouns ἱερεία `priest-ship' (Thyateira; cf. Bechtel Dial. 1, 311), ἱερεῖον, -ήϊον `sacrif. animal' (Il.), ἱερ(ε)ωσύνη `priest-ship' (IA) with ἱερ(ε)ώσυνος `priesterly' (hell.); c) the adjective ἱερευτικός `priesterly (pap.); d) the denominatives ἱερεύω `offer, devote' (Il.) with ἱέρευσις (sch.) and ἱερεύσιμος (Plu. 2, 729d, besides θύσιμος; Arbenz Die Adj. auf - ιμος 94), or from ἱερός, ἱερά; ἱερεώομαι, ἱερεώσασθαι `be priest' (hell.; Schulze Symb. phil. Danielsson 304 = Kl. Schr. 325). - 2. ἱερόλας = ἱερεύς (S. Fr. 57; uncertain; on the formation Chantraine Formation 238). - 3. ἱερῖτιν καθαρμοῦ δεομένην, ἱκέτιν H. (A. Fr. 93). - 4. ἱερατικός `priesterly, hieratic' (Pl. Plt. 290d, Arist.; cf. also ἱερατεύω, ἱερατεία below). - 5. Ι῝ερυς PN (Leumann Glotta 32, 220). - 6. Several denomin.: a) ἱερεύω, cf. om ἱερεύς; b) ἱεράομαι care for the victims ( ἱερά)' (Hdt., Th.); c) ἱεράζω `id.' (Ion. islands), Boeot. ἱαρειάδδω, prob. from ἱαρεία; d) ἱερόω `consecrate' (Att., Locr. etc.) with ἱέρωμα `consecration' (Cret., Epid. etc.), ἱερωτός (Thess.); e) ἱερίζω = καθαίρω H. (s. ἁγνίτης) with ἱεριστής `who cares for the ἱερα' and ἱερισμός `holy service' (hell.); f) ἱερατεύω `be priest' with ἱερατεία, ἱεράτευμα, ἱερατεῖον; ἱεριτεύω `id.'; ἱερωτεύω `id.' with ἱερωτεία; all dialectical, hell.; on the formation Schwyzer 732, Solmsen Glotta 1, 80.
    Origin: IE [Indo-European] [299] * ish₁ro- `holy'
    Etymology: The different meanings, partly also the variation in form induced many scholars to split ἱερός in two or even in three words. Thus one has because of the long anlaut in ἱ̄ερὸν ἰχθύν Π 407, ἱαρὸς ὄρνις (Alkm. Fr. 26) and ἱερὸς ὄρ. (AP 7, 171), which can be easily explained as metr. lengthening, assumed a special Ϝῑερός `rapid, quick', from where ἱέραξ `hawk' (s. v.). In the meaning `strong, forceful' ἱερός would however be identical with Skt. iṣirá- etwa `strong, active'; here also Celtic river names like Isara (Krahe Beitr. z. Namenforschung 4, 121f.). A third ἱερός, as `holy', would have connections with Italic and Germanic, e. g. Osc. aisusis `sacrifiis', Paelign. aisis, Umbr. erus `dis', OHG ēra ` Ehre'. Thus esp. Schulze Q. 207ff. after Ahrens Phil. 27, 585ff., Solmsen Unt. 147ff. For uniform origin, though in parts different, Kuhn KZ 2, 274, Meillet Zeitschr. celt. Phil. 10, 309, Devoto Studi etr. 5, 316, v. Wilamowitz Glaube 1, 21f., Specht in Schaeder ZDMG 94, 408, Duchesne-Guillemin Mélanges Boisacq 1, 333ff., who as support of the old comparison with Skt. iṣirá- pointed to the agreement between ἱερὸν μένος and Skt. iṣiréṇa mánasā (instr.). On which now R. Schmitt Dichtung u. Dichtersprache 111-114. - Kretschmer Glotta 11, 278ff. (s. also Glotta 30, 88) considered ἱερός as cross of Gr. * aisaros, * eiseros `divine' (with Etr. aesar `god' and Osc. aisusis etc.) and an IE word for `strong' (= Skt. iṣirá-). - See P. Wülfing von Martitz, Glotta 38 (1960) 272-307 and 39 (1961)24-43; s. also Belardi Doxa 3, 207. J.P. Locher, Unters. ἱερός haupts. bei Homer (Berne 1963). The change ἱερός, ἱαρός, ἰ̄ρός (IE * iseros, *isr̥os, *isrós ?) Schwyzer 482 and 243; Ramat, Sprache 8 (1962) 4-28 connects Skt. iṣṇāti `set in movement', which gives * ish₁ro-. Lesbian ἶρος must be due to assimilation. Dot. ἱαρός is due to dev. before r. On the aspiration ibd. 219f. On the meaning (against ἅγιος, ἁγνός) Nilsson Gr. Rel. 1, 61ff.; also J. Chr. Bolkestein Ο῝σιος en εὑσεβής. diss. Amsterdam 1936, Palmer Eranos 53, 4ff., Defradas Rev. de phil. 81, 208ff. - Older lit. in Bq. García Ramón, Akten VII. Fachtagung, Innsbruck 1992, 183-205, connects 1. eis- (Pok. 299f.) `set in motion', i. e. Skt. iṣṇāti, Gr. ἰνάω (ῑ-), which gives * h₁ish₂-ro-, but assumes that between s and cons. a laryngeal was lost, giving ἰ̃ ρος etc.; - ερος and - αρος would be replacements.
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  • 111 ῥέζω 1

    ῥέζω 1.
    Grammatical information: v.
    Meaning: `to act, to perform', esp. of a sacrifice, `to offer a sacrifice' (ep. Il.).
    Other forms: Fut. ῥέξω, aor. ῥέξαι, pass. ῥεχθῆναι.
    Dialectal forms: Myc. woze 3 sg. pres. \/ worzei\/ Aura Jorro 2, 451.
    Compounds: Rarely w. ἐπι-, κατα- a.o.
    Derivatives: Vbaladj. ἄ-ρεκ-τος `undone' (Τ 150, Simon.), Nom. ag. ῥεκτήρ, - ῆρος m. `doer' (Hes., Man.; Benveniste Noms d'ag. 39), - τήριος `effective' (Ion Hist.), f. - τειρα (Man.); ῥέκτης m. `id.' (Plu., Aret.), - τικός `capable of smth.' (Porph.), also ῥέκτας `sacrificer' (Tauromenion; Rom. times); παρρέκτης πάντα πράττων ἐπὶ κακῳ̃ H.; cf. Fraenkel Nom. ag. 1, 150 a. 175; on ῥέζω with derivv. E. Kretschmer Glotta 18, 85 f.
    Origin: IE [Indo-European] [1168] *u̯erǵ- `work'
    Etymology: Beside the full grade (Ϝ)έργον stood originally a zero grade yot-present, IE *u̯r̥ǵ-i̯-eti (= Av. vǝrǝzyeiti a.o.), of which he Greek representative *Ϝράζω (= Myc. woze), was replaced by the full grade ἔρδω \< *Ϝέργ-ι̯ω (after Ϝέργον). As secondary full grade, with diff. position of the liquida, came for it Ϝρεγ-, first in the aor. a. fut. ῥέξαι, ῥέξω, to which the pres. ῥέζω was formed, vbaladj. ἄ-ρ(ρ)εκτος etc.; cf. Schwyzer 716 n. 2 w. lit. On traces of the same full grade in Alban. a. Celt. Pok. 1168 w. lit.; on this w. extensive treatment Bader Les composés grecs du type de demiourgos (Études et Comm. 57 [Paris 1965]) 1ff. -- Further s. ἔρδω and ἔργον.
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    Greek-English etymological dictionary (Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά ετυμολογική λεξικό) > ῥέζω 1

  • 112 σπένδω

    Grammatical information: v.
    Meaning: `to offer a libation, to pour, to bestow'; `to make a ceasefire agreement (whilst performing a libation)'; the last also in the sense of `to reassure, to promise' resp. `to secure smth.' (Gortyn; on this Willetts Glotta 43, 251 ff.).
    Compounds: Also w. prefix, e.g. κατα-, ἐπι-.
    Derivatives: σπονδή f. `libation, offering of wine' (Β 341 = Δ 159), pl. usu. `ceasefire agreement (sanctified with a libation), truce, peace treaty, pax dei' (IA. etc.). Compp., z.B. σπονδο-φόρος m. `herald of the truce, the pax dei' (Pi.); often as 2. member, e.g. ὑπό-σπονδος `under a ceasefire agreement, under safe-conduct' (IA). From this σπονδ-εῖος `belonging to the offering', also metr. `spondeus' (D.H. a. o.), - εῖον n. `libation vessel' (hell.); also - ειακός, - ειάζω, - ειασμός (late); - ικός `belonging to the offering' (pap.); - ήσιμα n. pl. `id.' (Philem.; after ὀνή-σιμος a. o.; cf. also παρασπόνδησις [Plb.] from παρασπονδ-έω [: παρά-σπονδος] and Arbenz 83); - ῖτις ( σταγών) `id.' (AP; Redard 114); σπόνδικες οἱ τὰς σπονδὰς χέοντες H. (Schwyzer 497). -- Extensive treatment in A. Citron Semantische Untersuchung zu σπένδεσθαι - σπένδειν - εὔχεσθαι (Winterthur 1965).
    Origin: IE [Indo-European] [989] * spend- `bring a drink-offering'
    Etymology: Old expression of cult- and juridical language, also retained in Hitt. and Latin: Hitt. šipant- (e.g. 3. sg. šipant-i [= σπένδει], 3. pl. - anzi) `bring a fluid sacrifice, libate, consecrate (by sprinkling?), execute a ritual' (Kronasser Etymologie 1, 522 ff. with some doubt about the etym.); Lat. spondeō (iterative) `promise ceremonially, assure, guarantee'. Details in Ernout-Meillet a. W.-Hofmann s. v. (w. lit.).
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  • 113 αἴνεσις

    αἴνεσις, εως, ἡ (Philod., παρρ. col. 8a, p. 48 [10 Oliv.]; LXX; Philo, Spec. Leg. 1, 224; Iren. 1, 14, 8 [Harv. I 143, 10]) praise ἀναφέρειν θυσίαν αἰνέσεως offer a sacrifice of praise Hb 13:15 (cp. זֶבַח תּוֹדָה Lev 7:12, 13, 15); cp. 1 Cl 35:12 (Ps 49:23); 52:3 (Ps 49:14); ἀναγγέλλειν τὴν αἴ. τινος proclaim the praise of someone 1 Cl 18:15 (Ps 50:17). S. αἰνέω.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > αἴνεσις

  • 114 δίδωμι

    δίδωμι (Hom.+) by-form διδῶ (B-D-F §94, 1; Rob. 311f) Rv 3:9 (δίδω Tregelles, δίδωμι v.l.), 3 sg. διδοῖ (GrBar 7:2), 3 pl. διδόασι; impf. 3 sg. ἐδίδου, ἐδίδει (Hs 6, 2, 7; cp. Mk 4:8 cod. W), 3 pl. ἐδίδουν, ἐδίδοσαν J 19:3; ptc. διδῶν (Hs 8, 3, 3); fut. δώσω; 1 aor. ἔδωκα, subj. 3 sg. δώσῃ J 17:2; Rv 8:3 v.l. (on this W-S.§14, 9; B-D-F §95, 1; Rob. 308f), 1 pl. δώσωμεν Mk 6:37 v.l., 3 pl. δώσωσιν Rv 4:9 v.l.; pf. δέδωκα; plpf. ἐδεδώκειν (and without augm. δεδώκειν Mk 14:44; Lk 19:15; J 11:57); 2 aor. subj. 3 sg. δῷ J 15:16 (δώῃ v.l.); also in the form δώῃ Eph 1:17; 2 Ti 2:25 (in both δῷ as v.l.): in all these cases read δώῃ subj., not δῴη opt., s. below; δοῖ Mk 8:37 (B-D-F §95, 2; Mlt. 55; Rdm.2 97f and Glotta 7, 1916, 21ff; GKilpatrick in Festschrift JSchmid ’63, 135), pl. δῶμεν, δῶτε, δῶσιν; 2 aor. opt. 3 sg. Hellenist. (also LXX) δῴη for δοίη Ro 15:5; 2 Th 3:16; 2 Ti 1:16, 18 (on Eph 1:17; 2 Ti 2:25 s. above); 2 aor. impv. δός, δότε, inf. δοῦναι, ptc. δούς; pf. δέδωκα LXX. Pass.: 1 fut. δοθήσομαι (W-S. §14, 8ff); 1 aor. ἐδόθην; pf. δέδομαι.
    to give as an expression of generosity, give, donate as a gen. principle: μακάριόν ἐστιν μᾶλλον διδόναι ἢ λαμβάνειν it is more blessed to give than to receive Ac 20:35 (Theophyl. Sim., Ep. 42 τὸ διδόναι ἢ τὸ λαβεῖν οἰκειότερον); cp. 1 Cl 2:1; Hm 2:4ff (the contrast δίδωμι … λαμβάνω is frequently found: Epicharmus, Fgm. 273 Kaibel; Com. Fgm. Adesp. 108, 4 K.; Maximus Tyr. 32, 10c ὀλίγα δούς, μεγάλα ἔλαβες; Sir 14:16; Tat. 29, 2).—On the logion Ac 20:35 s. Unknown Sayings 77–81: giving is blessed, not receiving (cp. EHaenchen on Ac 20:35; Aristot., EN 4, 3, 26; Plut., Mor. 173d). S. μᾶλλον 3c. δὸς τοῖς πτωχοῖς give to the poor Mt 19:21 (HvonCampenhausen, Tradition u. Leben ’60, 114–56). τινὶ ἔκ τινος give someone some (of a substance: Tob 4:16; Ezk 48:12) Mt 25:8. S. also 7:11; 14:7.
    to give someth. out, give, bestow, grant δ. δακτύλιον εἰς τὴν χεῖρα put a ring on the finger Lk 15:22 (cp. Esth 3:10—δίδωμί τι εἰς τ. χεῖρα also Aristoph., Nub. 506; Herodas 3, 70). give τινί τι someth. to someone τὸ ἅγιον τοῖς κυσίν Mt 7:6 (Ps.-Lucian, Asin. 33 τὰ ἔγκατα τοῖς κυσὶ δότε).—A certificate of divorce to one’s wife 5:31 (Dt 24:1; conversely of the wife Just., A II, 2, 6 ῥεπούδιον δοῦσα); without dat. 19:7. Of bread (w. dat. or acc. somet. to be supplied fr. the context) 26:26f; Mk 2:26; 14:22; Lk 6:4; 11:7f; 22:19; J 21:13 (difft. Mt 14:19; 15:36; Mk 6:41; 8:6 the disciples transfer to others what they have received). W. inf. foll. δ. τινὶ φαγεῖν give someone someth. to eat Mt 14:16; 25:35, 42; Mk 5:43; 6:37; J 6:31 al. (cp. Gen 28:20; Ex 16:8, 15; Lev 10:17); someth. to drink Mt 27:34; Mk 15:23; J 4:7; Rv 16:6 (Hdt. 4, 172, 4; Aristoph., Pax 49; Jos., Ant. 2, 64; schol. on Nicander, Alexiph. 146 δὸς πιεῖν τί τινι, without dat. 198; PGM 13, 320 δὸς πεῖν[=πιεῖν]; Jos., Ant. 2, 64).—τὰς ῥάβδους GJs 9:1.—Lk 15:29 (Hipponax 43 Deg.).
    to express devotion, give δόξαν δ. θεῷ give God the glory, i.e. praise, honor, thanks (Josh 7:19; Ps 67:35; 1 Esdr 9:8; 2 Ch 30:8 and oft.) Lk 17:18; J 9:24 (practically=promise under oath to tell the truth); Ac 12:23 al. δόξαν καὶ τιμήν (2 Ch 32:33) give glory and honor Rv 4:9. Through a sacrificial offering θυσίαν δ. bring an offering Lk 2:24 (cp. Jos., Ant. 7, 196 θυσίαν ἀποδοῦναι τ. θεῷ).
    to cause to happen, esp. in ref. to physical phenomena, produce, make, cause, give fig. extension of mng. 1 ὑετὸν δ. (3 Km 17:14; Job 5:10; Zech 10:1; PsSol 5:9) yield rain Js 5:18; send rain Ac 14:17. τέρατα cause wonders to appear Ac 2:19 (Jo 3:3). Of heavenly bodies φέγγος δ. give light, shine Mt 24:29; Mk 13:24 (cp. Is 13:10). Of a musical instrument φωνὴν δ. (cp. Ps 17:14; 103:12; Jdth 14:9; Pind., N. 5, 50b [93]) produce a sound 1 Cor 14:7f.
    to put someth. in care of another, entrust
    of things entrust τινί τι someth. to someone money Mt 25:15; Lk 19:13, 15; the keys of the kgdm. Mt 16:19; perh. Lk 12:48. W. εἰς τὰς χεῖρας added J 13:3 (cp. Gen 39:8; Is 22:21; 29:12 al.) or ἐν τῇ χειρί τινος 3:35 (cp. Jdth 9:9; Da 1:2; 7:25 Theod.; 1 Macc 2:7). Of spiritual things J 17:8, 14; Ac 7:38.
    of pers. τινά τινι entrust someone to another’s care J 6:37, 39; 17:6, 9, 12, 24; Hb 2:13 (Is 8:18).
    of payment pay, give τινί τι Mt 20:4; 26:15; 28:12; Mk 14:11; Lk 22:5; Rv 11:18. Fig. repay someone (Mélanges Nicole, var. contributors, JNicole Festschr. 1905, p. 246 [HvanHerwerden=PLips 40 III, 3 p. 129] λίθῳ δέδωκεν τῷ υἱῷ μου; Ps 27:4) Rv 2:23. Of taxes, tribute, rent, etc. τινὶ ἀπό τινος pay rent of someth. Lk 20:10 (cp. 1 Esdr 6:28). τὶ pay (up), give someth. Mt 16:26; 27:10; Mk 8:37; δ. κῆνσον, φόρον καίσαρι pay tax to the emperor (Jos., Bell. 2, 403) Mt 22:17; Mk 12:14; Lk 20:22. Of inheritance pay out a portion of property Lk 15:12.
    as commercial t.t. for bookkeeping λόγον δ. render account (POxy 1281, 9 [21 A.D.]; PStras 32, 9 δότω λόγον; cp. Phil 4:15) Ro 14:12.
    of a bank deposit, equivalent to τιθέναι put, place, deposit ἀργύριον ἐπὶ τράπεζαν put money in the bank Lk 19:23.
    appoint to special responsibility, appoint (Num 14:4) κριτάς judges Ac 13:20; w. double acc. appoint someone someth. (PLille 28, II [III B.C.] αὐτοῖς ἐδώκαμεν μεσίτην Δωρίωνα) τοὺϚ μὲν ἀποστόλους some (to be) apostles Eph 4:11. τινὰ κεφαλήν make someone head 1:22. Also δ. τινὰ εἴς τι B 14:7 (Is 42:6).
    to cause someth. to happen, give (Philo, Leg. All. 3, 106 δ. χρόνον εἰς μετάνοιαν) δ. γνῶσιν σωτηρίας= to give (his people) knowledge of salvation = to tell (his people) how to be saved Lk 1:77.
    to bear as a natural product, yield, produce of a field and its crops καρπὸν δ. yield fruit (Ps 1:3) Mt 13:8; Mk 4:7f; fig. ἔδωκεν μοὶ Κύριος καρπὸν δικαιοσύνης αὐτοῦ GJs 6:3 (Pr 11:30).
    to dedicate oneself for some purpose or cause, give up, sacrifice τὸ σῶμά μου τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν διδόμενον my body, given up for you Lk 22:19 (cp. Thu. 2, 43, 2; Libanius, Declam. 24, 23 Förster οἱ ἐν Πύλαις ὑπὲρ ἐλευθερίας τ. Ἑλλήνων δεδωκότες τὰ σώματα; of Menas δ. ἀπροφασίστως ἑαυτόν ‘gave of himself unstintingly’ OGI 339, 19f; Danker, Benefactor 321–23; for use of δ. in a testamentary context cp. Diog. L. 5, 72); ἑαυτὸν (τὴν ψυχὴν) δ. give oneself up, sacrifice oneself (ref. in Nägeli 56; 1 Macc 6:44; 2:50) w. dat. 2 Cor 8:5. λύτρον ἀντι πολλῶν give oneself up as a ransom for many Mt 20:28; Mk 10:45 (ἀντί 3). Also ἀντίλυτρον ὑπέρ τινος 1 Ti 2:6. ὐπέρ τινος for or because of a person or thing J 10:15 v.l.; Gal 1:4; Tit 2:14; AcPl Ha 8, 24 (on the form of these passages s. KRomaniuk, NovT 5, ’62, 55–76). ἑαυτὸν δ. τῷ θανάτῳ ISm 4:2 (cp. Just., A I, 21, 2 πυρί); δ. ἑαυτὸν εἰς τὸ θηρίον face the beast Hv 4, 1, 8.
    to cause (oneself) to go, go, venture somewhere (cp. our older ‘betake oneself’) (Polyb. 5, 14, 9; Diod S 5, 59, 4; 14, 81, 2; Jos., Ant. 7, 225; 15, 244) εἰς τὸ θέατρον Ac 19:31; εἰς τὴν ἔρημον GJs 1:4.
    to use an oracular device, draw/cast lots Ac 1:26.
    to grant by formal action, grant, allow, freq. of God (cp. 7 above) ἐξουσίαν δ. (Hippol., Ref. 5, 26, 21 grant someone the power or authority, give someone the right, etc. (cp. TestJob 20:3; Jos., Ant. 2, 90, Vi. 71) Mt 9:8; 28:18; 2 Cor 13:10; Rv 9:3; 1 Cl 61:1; τοῦ πατεῖν ἐπάνω τινός tread on someth. Lk 10:19. τὴν σοφίαν τοῦ γράψαι τὴν ἱστορίαν ταύτην the ability to write this account GJs 25:1. ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς δύναμιν καὶ ἐξουσίαν ἐπί Lk 9:1 (cp. Just., D. 30, 3 ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ δύναμιν). ταῦτά σοι πάντα δώσω i.e. put them under your control Mt 4:9 of the devil. Simple δ. w. inf. (Appian, Liby. 19 §78 ἢν [=ἐὰν] ὁ θεὸς δῷ ἐπικρατῆσαι 106 §499) δέδοται it is given, granted to someone γνῶναι τὰ μυστήρια to know the secrets Mt 13:11; cp. ἡ δοθεῖσα αὐτῷ γνῶσις B 9:8 (Just., D. 7, 3 εἰ μή τῳ θεός δῷ συνιέναι) ἔδωκεν ζωὴν ἔχειν he has granted (the privilege) of having life J 5:26. μετὰ παρρησίας λαλεῖν to speak courageously Ac 4:29 and oft. Rather freq. the inf. is to be supplied fr. the context (Himerius, Or. 38 [4], 8 εἰ θεὸς διδοίη=if God permits) οἷς δέδοται sc. χωρεῖν Mt 19:11. ἦν δεδομένον σοι sc. ἐξουσίαν ἔχειν J 19:11. W. acc. and inf. foll. (Appian, Mithrid. 11, §37; Heliodorus 5, 12, 2 δώσεις με πιστεύειν) οὐδὲ δώσεις τὸν ὅσιόν σου ἰδεῖν διαφθοράν you will not permit your holy one to see corruption Ac 2:27; 13:35 (both Ps 15:10). ἔδωκεν αὐτὸν ἐμφανῆ γενέσθαι granted that he should be plainly seen 10:40. δὸς … ῥαγήναι τὰ δέσμα grant that our chains be broken AcPl Ha 3,11f. Pregnant constr.: grant, order (Diod S 9, 12, 2 διδ. λαβεῖν=permit to; 19, 85, 3 τὶ=someth.; Appian, Bell. Civ. 4, 125 §524 ὁ καιρὸς ἐδίδου=the opportunity permitted; Biogr. p. 130 ἐδίδου θάπτειν τ. ἄνδρα) ἐδόθη αὐτοῖς ἵνα μὴ ἀποκτείνωσιν orders were given them not to kill Rv 9:5; cp. 19:8.—Of an oath w. double inf. Lk 1:73f. S. also 17 below.
    to cause to come into being, institute περιτομὴν δ. institute circumcision B 9:7.
    give up, someth. that has been under one’s control for a relatively long time, give up, give back ἡ θάλασσα τ. νεκρούς the sea gave up its dead Rv 20:13.
    to proffer someth., extend, offer χεῖρα hold out one’s hand (to someone) Ac 9:41 (cp. 1 Macc 6:58; 2 Macc 12:11; Jos., Bell. 6, 318). (τὸν) μαστὸν τῇ παῖδι GJs 5:2; 6:3.
    In many phrases this word relates to an activity or an abstract object, and with tr. freq. determined by the noun object; cp. 13 above.
    of humans: of a plan conceived in a meeting give counsel or advice: δ. for ποιεῖν (cp. κατά A2b β and s. s.v. συμβούλιον), which is read by some mss., in συμβούλιον δ. conspired (against Jesus) Mk 3:6. ἀφορμὴν δ. give an occasion (for someth.) 2 Cor 5:12; Hm 4, 1, 11; μαρτυρίαν δ. give testimony 1 Cl 30:7; δ. τὸ μαρτύριον bear witness AcPl Ha 4, 28; γνώμην δ. give an opinion 1 Cor 7:25; 2 Cor 8:10; ἐγκοπὴν δ. cause a hindrance 1 Cor 9:12; ἐντολὴν δ. command, order J 11:57; 12:49; 1J 3:23; ἐντολὴν καινὴν δ. give a new commandment J 13:34; εὔσημον λόγον δ. speak plainly or intelligibly 1 Cor 14:9; παραγγελίαν δ. give an instruction 1 Th 4:2; δ. τὴν ἐν [κυρίῳ σφραγίδα] seal in the Lord AcPl Ha 11, 23 (restored after the Coptic); προσκοπὴν δ. put an obstacle in (someone’s) way 2 Cor 6:3; δ. ἐκδίκησιν take vengeance 2 Th 1:8; ῥάπισμα δ. τινί slap someone J 18:22; 19:3; σημεῖον δ. give a sign Mt 26:48; τόπον δ. τινί make room for someone (Plut., Gai. Gracch. 840 [13, 3]) Lk 14:9; fig. leave room for Ro 12:19 (cp. τόπος 4); Eph 4:27. ὑπόδειγμα δ. give an example J 13:15; φίλημα δ. τινί give someone a kiss Lk 7:45.—δὸς ἐργασίαν Lk 12:58 is prob. a Latinism=da operam take pains, make an effort (B-D-F §5, 3b note 9; Rob. 109), which nevertheless penetrated the popular speech (OGI 441, 109 [senatorial decree 81 B.C.]; POxy 742, 11 [colloq. letter 2 B.C.] δὸς ἐργασίαν; PMich 203, 7; 466, 33f [Trajan]; PGiss 11, 16 [118 A.D.]; PBrem 5, 8 [117/119 A.D.]).
    esp. oft. of God (Hom. et al.) and Christ: give, grant, impose (of punishments etc.), send, of gifts, peace τινί τι Eph 4:8; 1 Cl 60:4; τινί τινος give someone some of a thing Rv 2:17. Also τινὶ ἔκ τινος 1J 4:13. τὶ εἴς τινα 1 Th 4:8 (Ezk 37:14); εἰς τὰς καρδίας put into the hearts Rv 17:17 (cp. X., Cyr. 8, 2, 20 δ. τινί τι εἰς ψυχήν). Also ἐν τ. καρδίαις δ. (cp. ἐν 3) 2 Cor 1:22; 8:16 (cp. Ezk 36:27). εἰς τὴν διάνοιαν Hb 8:10 (Jer 38: 33); ἐπὶ καρδίας Hb 10:16 (δ. ἐπί w. acc. as Jer 6:21, and s. Jer 38:33 ἐπὶ καρδίας αὐτῶν γράψω). W. ἵνα foll. grant that Mk 10:37.—The pass. occurs very oft. in this sense (Plut., Mor. 265d; 277e) Lk 8:10; Rv 6:4; 7:2; 13:7, 14f and oft. ἐκδίκησιν διδόναι τινί inflict punishment on someone 2 Th 1:8; βασανισμὸν καὶ πένθος δ. τινί send torment and grief upon someone Rv 18:7; ὄνομα δ. GJs 6:2, χάριν δ. (Jos., Bell. 7, 325) Js 4:6; 1 Pt 5:5 (both Pr 3:34); GJs 14:2; υἱοθεσίαν AcPl Ha 2, 28; 9,12; ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν 2, 30f; μεγαλεῖα 6,13. W. gen. foll. over someone Mt 10:1; Mk 6:7; J 17:2.—B. 749. Schmidt, Syn. 193–203. DELG. M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > δίδωμι

  • 115 ζάω

    ζάω contr. ζῶ (Hom.+) impf. ἔζων (Ro 7:9 B ἔζην; on this form s. Schwyzer I 675; B-D-F §88; Mlt-H. 194, both w. ref.); fut. ζήσω (uniformly attested Ro 6:2; Hb 12:9); the later (since Hippocr. VII p. 536 L.; LXX; AscIs 3:9; Jos., Ant. 1, 193 al.) form ζήσομαι (B-D-F §77; Rob. 356) is more common (on the fut. forms s. JLee, NovT 22, ’80, 289–98; GKilpatrick, ibid. 25, ’83, 146–51); 1 aor. ἔζησα. On the LXX usage s. Thackeray 269; for forms in pap, Gignac II 370.
    to be alive physically, live
    of physical life in contrast to death
    α. gener. Ac 22:22; Ro 7:1, 2, 3; 14:8ac; 1 Cor 7:39; 2 Cor 5:15a; 6:9; Hb 9:17. ψυχὴ ζῶσα a living soul (Gen 1:20 al.; Just., D. 6, 1 ζῇ ψυχῇ) 1 Cor 15:45 (Gen 2:7); Rv 16:3 v.l. ὅσα ἔτη ζῇ as many years as he lives B 10:6 (cp. SIG 663, 6; Sb 173, 6 Αὐρήλιος ζήσας ἔτη νε´; En 10:10). τὸ ζῆν life (Attic wr., ins, pap, LXX) ὥστε ἐξαπορηθῆναι ἡμᾶς καὶ τοῦ ζῆν so that we even despaired of life 2 Cor 1:8. διὰ παντὸς τοῦ ζῆν during the whole lifetime Hb 2:15 (cp. Diod S 1, 74, 3 διατελεῖν πάντα τὸν τοῦ ζῆν χρόνον; 4, 46, 4). ἔτι ζῶν while he was still living= before his death Mt 27:63 (CB I/2 660 no. 618 Ζώσιμος ἔτι ζῶν κατεσκεύασεν; 3 Km 12:6). ζῶντες ἐβλήθησαν … εἰς τὴν λίμνην τοῦ πυρός they were thrown alive into the lake of fire Rv 19:20. ζῶσα τέθνηκεν though alive she is dead 1 Ti 5:6 (cp. Sextus 7). ἡμεῖς οἱ ζῶντες we during our (earthly) life 2 Cor 4:11; the same phrase= we who are still living 1 Th 4:15, 17. Here the opp. is νεκροί, as in Mt 22:32; Mk 12:27; Lk 20:38a. ζῶντες καὶ νεκροί the living and the dead Ac 10:42; Ro 14:9b; 2 Ti 4:1; 1 Pt 4:5; 2 Cl 1:1; B 7:2.—Occasionally the contrast betw. νεκρός and ζῆν is used fig. with ref. to the realm of religion and ethics Lk 15:24 v.l., 32.
    β. of dead persons who return to life become alive again: of humans in general (3 Km 17:23) Mt 9:18; Ac 9:41; 20:12; Rv 20:4, 5; AcPl Ha 11, 7. Of Jesus Mk 16:11; Lk 24:5, 23; Ac 1:3; 25:19; Ro 14:9a; 2 Cor 13:4a; Rv 1:18b; 2:8 (Just., D. 69, 6 νεκροὺς … ζῆν ποιήσας).
    γ. of sick persons, if their illness terminates not in death but in recovery be well, recover (Artem. 4, 4 ἔζησεν ὁ παῖς=became well; 5, 71; 72; PGM 1, 188; 4 Km 1:2; 8:8 εἰ ζήσομαι ἐκ τῆς ἀρρωστίας μου ταύτης; Jos., Vi. 421) Mk 5:23; J 4:50, 51, 53.—Of removal of anxiety 1 Th 3:8.
    δ. also of healthy persons live on, remain alive (X., An. 3, 2, 39 ὅστις δὲ ζῆν ἐπιθυμεῖ πειράσθω νικᾶν; Ep. 56 of Apollonius of Tyana [Philostrat. I 359, 14]; ApcMos 31 διὰ τί σὺ ἀποθνῄσκεις καγὼ ζῶ;) Ac 25:24; 28:4. ἐὰν ὁ κύριος θελήσῃ ζήσομεν Js 4:15. ὸ̓ς ἔχει τὴν πληγὴν τῆς μαχαίρης καὶ ἔζησεν Rv 13:14.
    ε. of beings that in reality, or as they are portrayed, are not subject to death: of Melchizedek Hb 7:8 (opp. ἀποθνῄσκοντες ἄνθρωποι). Jesus as everlasting high priest πάντοτε ζῶν 7:25.—In this sense it is most comprehensively applied to God (s. CBurchard, Untersuch. zu JosAs p. 103) (ὁ) θεὸς (ὁ) ζῶν (cp. 4 Km 19:4, 16; Is 37:4, 17; Hos 2:1; Da 6:21 Theod.; 3 Macc 6:28; TestAbr A 17 p. 99, 10 [Stone p. 46]; TestJob 37:2; JosAs 49:3 al.; SibOr 3, 763; POxy 924, 11 [IV A.D., Gnostic]; PGM 4, 1038 ὁ μέγας ζῶν θεός; 7, 823; 12, 79; Philo, Decal. 67 ὁ ζῶν ἀεὶ θεός; Orig., C. Cels. 8, 59, 18.—The phrase ‘the living God’ is not found in Joseph.) Mt 16:16; 26:63; J 6:69 v.l.; Ac 14:15; Ro 9:26 (Hos 2:1); 2 Cor 3:3; 6:16; 1 Th 1:9; 1 Ti 3:15; 4:10; 6:17 v.l.; Hb 3:12; 9:14; 10:31; 12:22; Rv 1:18a; 4:10; 7:2; 10:6; 2 Cl 20:2; GJs 20:1; AcPl Ha 2, 32; also ὁ ζῶν πατήρ J 6:57. W. the addition εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων Rv 15:7; cp. 4:9 (cp. Tob 13:2; Sir 18:1). God takes a sovereign oath in the words ζῶ ἐγώ as surely as I live (Num 14:28 al.) Ro 14:11 (Is 49:18; classical parallels GStählin, NovT 5, ’62, 142 n. 2). ζῇ κύριος ὁ θεός [μου] as surely as the Lord my God lives GJs 4:1; 6:1; 13:3; 15:3; 19:3 (Judg 8:19; 1 Km 25:34 al; GrBar 1:7; cp. ApcEsdr 2:7); in expanded form καὶ ζῇ ὁ Χριστὸς αὐτοῦ 15:4 (s. deStrycker ad loc.).—Christ lives διὰ τὸν πατέρα because of the Father J 6:57b (s. Bultmann, comm. ad loc.).
    w. mention of that upon which life depends ἐπί τινι on the basis of someth. (Andoc. 1, 100; Isocr. 10, 18; Ael. Aristid. 28, 103 K.=49 p. 525 D.) ζ. ἐπʼ ἄρτῳ live on bread Mt 4:4; Lk 4:4 (both Dt 8:3). ζ. ἔκ τινος obtain one’s living fr. someth. (Aristoph., Eccl. 591; Demosth. 57, 36; POxy 1117, 19; 1557, 12; TestJob 47:1f) 1 Cor 9:14.
    w. more precise mention of the sphere (Artem. 3, 62 ἐν ἀγορᾷ ζ.=spend his life in the marketplace) ζ. ἐν σαρκί live in the flesh in contrast to the heavenly life Phil 1:22; Gal 2:20c; ζ. ἐν κόσμῳ live in the world Col 2:20. ζ. ἐν θεῷ, live in God (as the Being who penetrates and embraces everything) Ac 17:28 (s. κινέω 3). For AcPl Ha 1, 15 s. 2a end.
    to live in a transcendent sense, live, of the sanctified life of a child of God (ζῆν in the sense of a higher type of life than the animal: X., Mem. 3, 3, 11; Cass. Dio 69, 19: after years of public service, Similis retires and prepares this epitaph: Σίμιλις ἐνταύθα κεῖται βιοὺς μὲν ἔτη τόσα, ζήσας δὲ ἔτη ἑπτά=Here lies Similis, existing for so many years, but alive for only seven.).
    in the world ἐγὼ ἔζων χωρὶς νόμου ποτέ I was once (truly) alive without law (this has been interpr. to mean when no law existed; Paul is then regarded as speaking fr. the viewpoint of humanity in paradise before the command Gen 2:16 f; 3:3. Another interpr. thinks of Paul as referring to the period in his life when he was not conscious of the existence and significance of the law. In view of Paul’s climactic affirmation in Ro 7:25, Paul probably illustrates in the first person the perils of a Christian who succumbs to the illusion that moral action is connected with law rather than with the ‘spirit of life in Christ’ Ro 8:2) Ro 7:9. Even now those who listen to the voice of the Son of God enjoy this life J 5:25; cp. 11:26; likew. those who receive him into their being ὁ τρώγων τὸν ἄρτον 6:57c; cp. Ro 6:11, 13 (ἐκ νεκρῶν ζῶντας); Gal 2:19; Rv 3:1. This heavenly life on earth is a ζ. πνεύματι Gal 5:25 or a life not of mere human achievement, but of Christ who lives in Christians 2:20ab. Also of the superhuman power of the apostle ζήσομεν σὺν αὐτῷ ἐκ δυνάμεως θεοῦ εἰς ὑμᾶς we shall live with him (Christ) through God’s power in our dealings with you 2 Cor 13:4. ὁ κύριος βούλεται ζῆν ἡμᾶς ἐν θεῷ=the Lord wills that we live under God’s direction AcPl Ha 1, 15 (opp. ἀποθανεῖν ἐν ἁμαρτίαις; s. 1c end)
    in the glory of the life to come (Sir 48:11; cp. Dt 4:1; 8:1; 30:16).
    α. abs. Lk 10:28; J 11:25; 14:19; Ro 8:13b; Hb 12:9. ἐμοὶ τ. ζῆν Χριστός= life is possible for me only where Christ is (hence death is gain) Phil 1:21 (s. OSchmitz, GHeinrici Festschr. 1914, 155–69). Another common interpr. is for me to live is Christ, i.e. while I am alive I experience real life in connection with Christ; w. death comes life in all fullness in the presence of Jesus.
    β. More specifically εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα have eternal life (Ps.-Lucian, Philopatr. 17 ζῆν εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα; PsSol 14:2) J 6:51, 58 (in J the blessed life which the follower of Jesus enjoys here and now in the body is simply continued in the heavenly life of the future. In other respects also the dividing line betw. the present and the future life is somet. nonexistent or at least not discernible); B 6:3; 8:5; 9:2; 11:10f; ἅμα σὺν αὐτῷ (i.e. Χριστῷ) ζ. live together with Christ 1 Th 5:10; ζ. διʼ αὐτοῦ (i.e. Chr.) 1J 4:9; ζ. κατὰ θεὸν πνεύματι live, as God (lives), in the Spirit 1 Pt 4:6. ὁ δίκαιος ἐκ πίστεως ζήσεται (cp. Hab 2:4) he that is just through faith will have life Ro 1:17 (AFeuillet, NTS 6, ’59, 52–80; but s. Fitzmyer, Ro [AB] ad loc.); Gal 3:11; Hb 10:38. This life is τὸ ἀληθινὸν ζῆν ITr 9:2; IEph 11:1. Christ is called τὸ ἀδιάκριτον ἡμῶν ζῆν our unshakable or inseparable life 3:2. τὸ διὰ παντὸς ἡμῶν ζῆν our total life 1 Mg 1:2—The law-directed pers. believes concerning legal performance: ὁ ποιήσας αὐτὰ ζήσεται ἐν αὐτοῖς (Lev 18:5) Gal 3:12; cp. Ro 10:5 (cp. Dio Chrys. 58 [75], 1 οἱ τοῦτον [= τ. νόμον] φυλάττοντες ἔχονται τῆς σωτηρίας=those who observe law have a firm grip on security).
    to conduct oneself in a pattern of behavior, live (Hom. et al.)
    used w. adverbs or other modifiers: adv. (Sallust. 19 p. 34, 25 κακῶς ζῆν [Just., A I, 4, 7]; SIG 889, 13ff; Wsd 14:28; Philo; Jos., Ant. 12, 198; Ath. 3, 1 δίκην θηρίων) ἀσώτως Lk 15:13. ἐθνικῶς and ἰουδαϊκῶς Gal 2:14. εὐσεβῶς 2 Ti 3:12. πανούργως Hm 3, 3. σωφρόνως κ. δικαίως κ. εὐσεβῶς Tit 2:12 (Plut., Mor. 1108c ζῆν σωφρόνως κ. δικαίως; cp. Diog. L. 10, 132; 140; Ar. 15, 10).—Φαρισαῖος live as a Pharisee Ac 26:5. ἐν πίστει Gal 2:20d. ἐν ἁμαρτίᾳ Ro 6:2; ζ. ἐν τούτοις live in these (sins) Col 3:7. κατὰ ἀλήθειαν in keeping w. the truth IEph 6:2 (cp. Philo, Post. Cai. 73 κατὰ βούλημα τὸ τοῦ θεοῦ ζ.; Jos., Ant. 4, 302 κατὰ τ. νόμους ζ.; Just., D. 47, 4 κατὰ τὸν νόμον; Orig., C. Cels. 7, 12, 7 κατὰ τὰς θείας γραφάς). κατὰ θεόν 8:1 (cp. SIG 910 A and B). κατὰ Ἰησοῦν Χριστόν IPhld 3:2. κατὰ Χριστιανισμόν live in accordance w. (our) commitment to Christ IMg 10:1. κατὰ σάρκα Ro 8:12f; Dg 5:8; κατὰ κυριακὴν ζ. (opp. σαββατίζειν) include the observance of the Lord’s day in one’s life IMg 9:1. Of a married woman ζ. μετὰ ἀνδρός live w. her husband Lk 2:36 (for the added acc. of extent of time cp. Ael. Aristid. 46 p. 332 D.; Pr 28:16; ἥτις ἔζησεν καλῶς μετʼ ἐμοῦ ἔτη 28, μῆνας 4, ἡμέρας 5: SEG II, 384, 6–8 [restored]; s. also FDanker, Jesus and the New Age ’88, 71).
    τινί live for someone or someth., for the other’s benefit (Hom. et al.; Demosth. 7, 17 οἳ οὐκ αἰσχύνονται Φιλίππῳ ζῶντες καὶ οὐ τῇ ἑαυτῶν πατρίδι; Dionys. Hal. 3, 17 … παῖδες, τῷ πατρὶ ζῶντες) ζ. τῷ θεῷ (4 Macc 7:19; 16:25; Philo, Mut. Nom. 13, Rer. Div. Her. 111; s. SAalen, NTS 13, ’67, 10) Lk 20:38b (cp. Soph., Ajax 970); Ro 6:10, 11; Gal 2:19; Hm 3:5; AcPl Ha 10, 7; τῷ κυρίῳ Ro 14:8b (cp. Plut., Cleom. 819 [31, 5]). For Christ 2 Cor 5:15; τῷ ἐμῷ βασιλεῖ AcPl Ha 9, 26 (restored after Aa I 112, 14) τῇ δικαιοσύνῃ ζ. 1 Pt 2:24; ἑαυτῷ ζ. live for oneself (Menand., Fgm. 646 Kö. οὐχ ἑαυτῷ ζῆν μόνον; Diod S 10, 33, 2 ζ. ἑαυτοῖς=live for themselves) Ro 14:7.
    to be full of vitality, be lively the ptc. is used fig. w. respect to things (cp. τῶν δένδρων τῶν ζῶντων ParJer 9:3), of spring water in contrast w. cistern water ὕδωρ ζῶν (Gen 26:19; Lev 14:5; Jer 2:13 v.l.; Zech 14:8.—Stagnant water is called ὕ. νεκρόν: Synes., Ep. 114, 254d) J 4:10f (Hdb. exc. on J 4:14); 7:38; D 7:1f (Wengst p. 77 n. 57). ζώσας πηγάς Rv 7:17 v.l.
    to be life-productive, offer life ptc. used w. respect to things (SIG 1173 [138 A.D.], 5 ζῶσαι ἀρεταὶ ἐγένοντο=miracles full of divine life occurred) λόγια ζῶντα words that meant life Ac 7:38. λόγος ζῶν θεοῦ 1 Pt 1:23; cp. Hb 4:12. ὁδὸς ζῶσα a living way 10:20. ἐλπὶς ζῶσα a living hope 1 Pt 1:3.—ζ. is also used of things which serve as descriptions of pers. who communicate divine life: of Christ ὁ ἄρτος ὁ ζῶν J 6:51a. λίθος ζῶν 1 Pt 2:4. Of Christians: θυσία ζῶσα a living sacrifice Ro 12:1. λίθοι ζῶντες 1 Pt 2:5.—τὰ παρὰ ζώσης φωνῆς καὶ μενούσης the (words) of a living and abiding voice Papias (2:4) (opp. ἐκ τῶν βιβλίων).—Lit. s. ζωή end. DELG s.v. ζώω.M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ζάω

  • 116 θυσία

    θυσία, ας, ἡ (s. θύω and next entry; Pind., Hdt.+).
    act of offering, offering fig. ἐπὶ τῇ θυσίᾳ τ. πίστεως ὑμῶν as you offer your faith Phil 2:17 (though mng. 2b is not impossible for the complex set of imagery in this pass.; s. below).
    that which is offered as a sacrifice, sacrifice, offering
    lit.
    α. (stated gener. Dg 3:5; Just., D. 43, 1 al.; Ath. 26, 3) Mt 9:13; 12:7 (both Hos 6:6); Mk 9:49 v.l., s. ἁλίζω; Hb 10:5 (Ps 39:7), 26. Pl. Mk 12:33; Lk 13:1 (cp. Jos., Bell. 2, 30 παρὰ ταῖς ἰδίαις θυσίαις ἀπεσφάχθαι); Hb 10:1, 8; 1 Cl 4:2 (Gen 4:5; cp. Diod S 12, 20, 2 τῶν θεῶν οὐ χαιρόντων ταῖς τῶν πονηρῶν θυσίαις); B 2:4, 5 (Is 1:11), 7 (Jer 7:22). The various kinds are specified 1 Cl 41:2. ἀνάγειν θυσίαν bring an offering Ac 7:41 (ἀνάγω 3). Also ἀναφέρειν θ. Hb 7:27 (ἀναφέρω 3); δοῦναι θ. Lk 2:24. προσφέρειν (Ex 32:6; Lev 2:1, 8 and oft.; Just., D. 41, 3 al.) Ac 7:42 (Am 5:25); Hb 5:1; 8:3; 10:11; 11:4; 1 Cl 10:7. Pass. Hb 9:9. φέρειν θ. (2 Ch 29:31, Jer 17:26; Just. A I, 24, 2 al.) 1 Cl 4:1 (Gen 4:3). προσάγεσθαι θ. (cp. 1 Esdr 1:16) be led as a sacrifice 1 Cl 31:3.
    β. of a sacrificial meal (Polycrates: 588 Fgm. 1 Jac. equated w. θοίνη [‘feast’]; Ps.-Callisth. 3, 29, 9 τὴν θυσίαν ἐποιησάμεθα τῶν Σωτηρίων=the meal to celebrate deliverance) ἐσθίειν τὰς θ. eat the sacrifices (Ps 105:28; Num 25:2) 1 Cor 10:18. The Eucharist is spoken of as a sacrifice or offering and sacrificial meal D 14:1ff (s. Knopf, Hdb. exc. on D 9 and 10, p. 24f).
    γ. of the sacrificial death of Christ which, in contrast to the earthly sacrifices, is to be classed among the κρείττονες θυσίαι Hb 9:23; 10:12. διὰ τῆς θυσίας αὐτοῦ 9:26. παρέδωκεν ἑαυτὸν ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν θυσίαν τ. θεῷ Eph 5:2 (Diod S 4, 82, 2 τὴν θυσίαν ὑπὲρ ἁπάντων τ. Ἑλλήνων).—B 7:3.—Of aspiration to martyrdom ἵνα διὰ τῶν ὀργάνων τούτων θεοῦ θυσία εὑρεθῶ IRo 4:2. προσδεχθείην … σήμερον ἐν θυσίᾳ πίονι καὶ προσδεκτῇ MPol 14:2.
    fig. (Sextus 47: the doing of good as the only θυσία pleasing to God; sim. Persius 2, 73–75, a pure heart is the appropriate sacrifice in temples: compositum ius fasque animo … haec cedo ut admoveam templis) a broken spirit designated as θ. 1 Cl 18:16f; 52:4; B 2:10 (all three Ps 50:19). θ. αἰνέσεως praise-offering (s. on αἴνεσις) is used fig. in our lit. of spiritual sacrifice 1 Cl 35:12 (Ps 49:23); 52:3 (Ps 49:14). It is explained Hb 13:15 as καρπὸς χειλέων ὁμολογούντων τῷ ὀνόματι αὐτοῦ (=τ. θεοῦ).—εἰ σπένδομαι ἐπὶ τῇ θυσίᾳ τῆς πίστεως ὑμῶν even if I must pour out my blood over the sacrifice of your faith (i.e., consisting in your faith) Phil 2:17 (cp. Arrian, Anab. 6, 19, 5 σπείσας ἐπὶ τῇ θυσίᾳ τὴν φιάλην; but s. 1 above). θ. δεκτή an acceptable sacr. (s. δεκτός 2) Phil 4:18; Hs 5, 3, 8; cp. Hb 13:16 and 2aγ end. πνευματικαὶ θ. spiritual sacrifices 1 Pt 2:5 (cp. Herm. Wr. 13, 18; 19; 21 λογικαὶ θυσίαι; s. on this Rtzst., Mysterienrel.3 38; 328f.—SibOr 8, 408 ζῶσα θυσία). παρακαλῶ ὑμᾶς παραστῆσαι τὰ σώματα ὑμῶν θυσίαν ζῶσαν I appeal to you to present your bodies as a living sacrifice Ro 12:1 (παριστάναι θυσίαν is a t.t. of sacrificial procedure: OGI 332, 17 and 42; 456, 20f; 764, 23 and 33 al., SIG2 554, 6; SIG3 694, 50.—PSeidensticker, Lebendiges Opfer Röm 12:1, diss. Münster, ’54).—OSchmitz, Die Opferanschauung d. spät. Judentums u. die Opferaussagen d. NTs 1910; HWenschkewitz, D. Spiritualisierung der Kultusbegriffe Tempel, Priester u. Opfer im NT ’32; WvLoewenich, Z. Verständnis d. Opfergedankens im Hb: ThBl 12, ’32, 167–72; JBrinktrine, D. Messopferbegr. in den ersten 2 Jahrh. 1918; RYerkes, ATR 29, ’47, 28–33; RdeVaux, Les Sacrifices de l’Ancien Testament ’64. BHHW II 1345–52; Pauly-W. XVIII 579–627; JCasabona, Recherches sur le vocabulaire des Sacrifices en Grec ’66.—B. 1467. DELG s.v. 2 θύω B6. TRE XXV esp. 253–78. M-M. Sv. S. also εὐχαριστία 3.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > θυσία

  • 117 θύω

    θύω impf. ἔθυον; fut. θύσω LXX; 1 aor. ἔθυσα; pf. τέθυκα LXX. Pass.: 1 aor. ἐτύθην, ptc. τυθείς (Just. D. 111, 3), θυθείς (Mel., P. 71, 516 ); pf. ptc. τεθυμένος (Hom.+).
    [b] to make a cultic offering, sacrifice (this is the primary mng. and the one most commonly found) τινί τι someth. in honor of someone (Diod S 16, 18, 5; 17, 100, 1; Lucian, Dial. Deor. 2, 4; SIG 589, 48; 993, 11f; Gen 46:1; Jos., Bell. 2, 214 τῷ θεῷ χαριστήρια; SibOr 3, 626) 1 Cor 10:20 (Dt 32:17). τ. θεῷ θυσίαν offer a sacr. to God 1 Cl 52:3 (Ps 49:14). τινί in honor of someone (X., Cyr. 8, 7, 3; Mitt-Wilck. I/2, 116, 2 θύε πᾶσι τοῖς θεοῖς; BGU 287, 7; LXX; EpArist 138; Jos., Bell. 1, 56 τῷ θεῷ; Just., D. 46, 7; 136, 3 τῇ Βάαλ; Ath. 1, 1 Ποσειδῶνι) Ac 14:18; 2 Cl 3:1. Abs. (Lucian, Jupp. Trag. 22, beg.; PHib 28, 7; LXX; Ath. 13, 1; 26, 2) Ac 14:13; MPol 12:2. (Used also of human sacrifice: Apollodorus [II B.C.]: 244 Fgm. 125 Jac.=Porph., De Abst. 2, 55; Ar. 9, 1 τὰ ἴδια τέκνα to Cronos; Just., D. 19, 6 τὰ τέκνα ὑμῶν ἐθύετε τοῖς δαιμονίοις al.)
    to take life, kill, slaughter, in a gener. sense
    humans (Eur., Iph. T. 621; Sir 34:20; 1 Macc 7:19) abs. in agricultural imagery J 10:10, which also requires placement in b.
    animals J 10:10 (GKilpatrick, BT 12, ’61, 130–32, kill for food; in this sense also the killing of a rooster by thieves Aesop, Fab. 122 P.=195 H.; sheep 143 P.=262 H.; oxen [subject to slaughtering instead of professional butchering] 290 P.=Babr. 21. S. also Tob 7:8; Jos., Ant. 1, 197 μόσχον; Tat. 23, 2 ζῶα); calf Lk 15:23, 27, 30; pass. Mt 22:4.
    to kill ceremonially, slaughter sacrifically (on the close relation betw. sacrifice and slaughter s. Ltzm., Hdb. on 1 Cor 10:25) τὸ πάσχα the Passover lamb (Ex 12:21; Dt 16:2, 5f; 1 Esdr 1:6; 7:12) Mk 14:12. Pass. Lk 22:7; hence τὸ πάσχα ἡμῶν ἐτύθη Χριστός 1 Cor 5:7 (Just., D. 111, 3; Mel., P. 71, 516 B.; θύω of the sacrifice of a person, s. 1 above). Abs. Ac 10:13; 11:7
    celebrate, but perh. only when an animal is slaughtered in connection with a celebration (Polyaenus 1, 44. θ. εὐαγγέλια=‘a joyous festival’; Appian, Syr. 4 §17; 16 §69 γάμους both times; Athen. 12, 43, 532e θ. τὰ ἐπινίκια; Achilles Tat. 8, 19, 3 θ. τοὺς γάμους.—Philochorus no. 328 Fgm. 65 Jac. uses θυσία of domestic family festivals) Mk 14:12; Lk 22:7 (s. 3 above).—DELG s.v. 2 θύω B1. TRE XXV 253–71. M-M. EDNT. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > θύω

  • 118 παριστάνω

    παρίστημι/παριστάνω (the word since Hom.+; the later form παριστάνω [Ro 6:13, 16; but παρίστησι 1 Cor 8:8 v.l.; Ath. 33, 1] since Polyb. et al.; Epict. 3, 22, 87; SIG 589, 46 [196 B.C.]; 814, 36 [67 A.D.]; 1109, 76.—B-D-F §93; Mlt-H. 202) pres. inf. παραστᾶν (Tat. 33, 1; Ath. 11, 3), ptc. pl. παριστῶντες (Tat. 1, 3—B-D-F §93); fut. παραστήσω; 1 aor. παρέστησα; 2 aor. παρέστην; pf. παρέστηκα, ptc. παρεστηκώς or παρεστώς; plpf. παρειστήκειν; inf. παρεστάναι (Dt 18:5; PsSol 2:36). Mid.: fut. παραστήσομαι. Pass.: 1 aor. παρεστάθην.
    trans. (pres., impf., fut., 1 aor. act.) to cause to be present in any way
    place beside, put at someone’s disposal τινά or τί τινι someone or someth. to someone (Demetr.: 722 Fgm. 7 Jac.; Socrates of Rhodes [I B.C.]: 192 Fgm. 1 p. 927, 25 Jac. [in Athen. 4, 148b]; Lucian, D. Mar. 6, 2) παραστήσει μοι λεγιῶνας Mt 26:53. τὶ someth. (cp. 2 Macc 12:3 v.l. σκάφη) κτήνη provide riding animals Ac 23:24. For protection παρέστησεν αὐτῇ τοὺς υἱούς αὐτοῦ he placed his sons at her side=Joseph placed Mary in the care of his sons GJs 18:1. Here belongs παραστήσατε ἑαυτοὺς τῷ θεῷ Ro 6:13b. W. dat. and double acc. (of the obj. and the pred.) ᾧ παριστάνετε ἑαυτοὺς δούλους (εἰς ὑπακοήν) to whomever you yield yourselves as slaves (to obey him; w. acc., followed by εἰς=to or for [s. MTreu, Alkaios ’52, p. 12]) vs. 16; μηδὲ παριστάνετε τὰ μέλη ὑμῶν ὅπλα ἀδικίας τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ vs. 13a; cp. vs. 19ab.
    present, represent
    α. lit. τινά τινι someone to someone παρέστησαν τὸν Παῦλον αὐτῷ Ac 23:33. παρθένον ἁγνὴν παραστῆσαι τῷ Χριστῷ 2 Cor 11:2. Of the ‘presentation’ of Jesus in the Temple Lk 2:22 (Billerb. II 120–23. Cp. also Olympiodorus, Life of Plato, ed. AWestermann 1850 p. 1: of Plato, said to be of transcendent origin, λαβόντες οἱ γονεῖς βρέφος ὄντα τεθείκασιν ἐν τῷ Ὑμηττῷ βουλόμενοι ὑπὲρ αὐτοῦ τοῖς ἐκεῖ θεοῖς … θῦσαι=his parents took him when he was an infant and placed him on Hymettus with the intent to sacrifice … to the gods there). W. dat. of pers., acc. of obj., and pred. acc. οἷς παρέστησεν ἑαυτὸν ζῶντα to whom he presented himself alive Ac 1:3; without a dat., which is supplied fr. the context παρέστησεν αὐτὴν ζῶσαν 9:41.
    β. fig. παραστήσω σε κατὰ πρόσωπόν σου I will show you to yourself face to face 1 Cl 35:10 (Ps 49:21).
    ‘present’ becomes almost equivalent to make, render (Plut., Mor. 676c [ἡ πίσσα] τὸν οἶνον εὔποτον παρίστησι) ἵνα παραστήσῃ αὐτὸς ἑαυτῷ ἔνδοξον τὴν ἐκκλησίαν that (Christ) might render the church glorious before himself Eph 5:27. σπούδασον σεαυτὸν δόκιμον παραστῆσαι τῷ θεῷ 2 Ti 2:15. παραστῆσαι ὑμᾶς ἁγίους κατενώπιον αὐτοῦ to make you holy before him Col 1:22. ἵνα παραστήσωμεν πάντα ἄνθρωπον τέλειον ἐν Χριστῷ that we may make everyone complete in Christ vs. 28.
    as a t.t. in the language of sacrifice offer, bring, present (παριστάναι θυσίαν, θύματα etc.: Epici p. 41, 49 B.=p. 19, 16 K.; Polyb. 16, 25, 7; Diod S 3, 72, 1; Lucian, Sacr. 13; Jos., Bell. 2, 89, Ant. 4, 113; SIG 589, 46 [196 B.C.]; 694, 49; 736, 70; OGI 456, 20; 764, 23; 38. The mid. is also used in this way since X., An. 6, 1, 22) fig. παραστῆσαι τὰ σώματα θυσίαν ζῶσαν offer bodies as a living sacrifice Ro 12:1.
    as a legal t.t. bring before (a judge) (Sb 4512, 82 [II B.C.]; OGI 669, 49; BGU 163, 3; 341, 14; 747 II, 26; 759, 22; 1139, 18). Some would prefer to understand 1 Cor 8:8 in this sense: βρῶμα ἡμᾶς οὐ παραστήσει τῷ θεῷ food will not bring us before (the judgment seat of) God. Likew. ἡμᾶς ἐγερεῖ καὶ παραστήσει σὺν ὑμῖν he will raise us and bring us, together with you, before him (=before his judgment seat) 2 Cor 4:14. But the forensic mng. is not certain in either of these places, and the sense is prob. bring before God = bring close to God (cp. Rtzst., ZNW 13, 1912, 19f).
    prove, demonstrate (Lysias 12, 51; X., Oec. 13, 1; Epict. 2, 23, 47; 2, 26, 4; Jos., Ant. 4, 47, Vi. 27; PLips 64, 34) οὐδὲ παραστῆσαι δύνανταί σοι περὶ ὧν νυνὶ κατηγοροῦσίν μου nor can they prove to you the accusations they are now making against me Ac 24:13.—On the 1 aor. pass. Hs 8, 4, 1 s. 2aγ end.
    intr. (mid. and perf., plpf., 2 aor. act., but s. also aγ end) to be present in any way, be present
    pres., fut., aor. (TestJos 2:6; 20:6; TestSol 6:1 and C 12:1; TestAbr A 20 p. 103, 19 [Stone p. 54]; ApcMos 35; Mel., P. 62, 450).
    α. approach, come τινί (to) someone (Philo, De Jos. 94) Ac 9:39; 27:23 (Plut., Lysander 444 [20, 7] αὐτῷ κατὰ τοὺς ὕπνους παραστῆναι τὸν Ἄμμωνα).—Also as a t.t. of legal usage appear before, come before (s. 1e above.—Chariton 6, 6, 4 παρέστην δικαστηρίῳ) Καίσαρί σε δεῖ παραστῆναι you must appear before the Emperor (as judge) Ac 27:24; cp. 2 Ti subscr. πάντες παραστησόμεθα τῷ βήματι τοῦ θεοῦ (v.l. Χριστοῦ) Ro 14:10. πάντας δεῖ παραστῆναι τῷ βήματι τοῦ Χριστοῦ Pol 6:2.
    β. of appearing with hostile intent (Appian, Illyr. 17 §51) abs. παρέστησαν οἱ βασιλεῖς τῆς γῆς Ac 4:26 (Ps 2:2).
    γ. come to the aid of, help, stand by τινί someone (Hom. et al.; X., Cyr. 5, 3, 19 al.; PKöln VI, 245, 22 σὺ δὲ θεὰ παρίστασο ‘and you, Goddess, be at my side’, w. suggestion of a relationship between Athena and Odysseus [for parallels and lit. s. ‘Ptocheia’ or ‘Odysseus in Disguise at Troy’ (=ASP 31), ed. MParca ’91, 59]; Mitt-Wilck. II/2, 372 VI, 7; 12; Jos., Bell. 2, 245; SibOr 8, 407) Ro 16:2. ὁ κύριός μοι παρέστη 2 Ti 4:17 (cp. PHerm 125b, 8 [III A.D.] θεὸς παρίσταταί σοι; Jos., Ant. 1, 341; SibOr 3, 705).—The 1 aor. pass. παρεστάθην αὐτῷ Hs 8, 4, 1 is prob. used in act. sense I took a position beside him (so as to be ready for service).
    perf. and plpf. (En 14:22; PsSol 2:36; TestSol 14:2 al.; TestAbr A 7 p. 84, 29 [Stone p. 16]; Just., D. 9, 1)
    α. of personal beings stand ( near or by), be present τινί (with) someone (LXX; TestJob 24:10; Jos., Bell. 2, 281) Ac 1:10; 1 Cl 34:6 (Da 7:10 Theod.). ἐνώπιόν τινος stand before someone (1 Km 16:21; TestAbr A 7 p. 84, 29f [Stone p. 16]) οὗτος παρέστηκεν ἐνώπιον ὑμῶν ὑγιής Ac 4:10.—Mostly in the ptc.: modifying a noun and followed by an indication of place: ὁ κεντυρίων ὁ παρεστηκὼς ἐξ ἐναντίας αὐτοῦ Mk 15:39 (cp. 1 Macc 11:68 S). Γαβριὴλ ὁ παρεστηκὼς ἐνώπιον τοῦ θεοῦ Lk 1:19 (cp. Jdth 4:14; Tob 12:15 S). Without indication of place (Diod S 17, 66, 7 παρεστὼς Φιλώτας=Philotas, who stood nearby; Diog. L. 2, 102; Aberciusins. 17; EpArist 19) εἷς παρεστηκὼς τῶν ὑπηρετῶν one of the servants who was standing by J 18:22. ἰδὼν τὸν μαθητὴν παρεστῶτα when he saw the disciple standing near 19:26. (ἄγγελοι) λειτουργοῦσιν παρεστῶτες 1 Cl 34:5. παρεστὼς ὁ κύριος MPol 2:2. οἱ παρεστῶτες αὐτῷ those standing near him Ac 23:2.—Subst. οἱ παρεστηκότες (PPetr II, 4, 6, 13 [III B.C.]) or οἱ παρεστῶτες (Diog. L. 9, 27) the bystanders, the spectators, those present Mk 14:47, 69f; 15:35 (vv.ll. παρεστώτων, ἑστηκότων); Lk 19:24; Ac 23:4; in vs. 2 the widely attested rdg. adds a dat.: τοῖς παρεστῶσιν αὐτῷ (cp. POxy 1204, 13 ὁ παρεστώς σοι).
    β. of a point of time be here, have come (Il. 16, 853; Demosth. 18, 90; 21, 101) παρέστηκεν ὁ θερισμός the time for the harvest is here Mk 4:29.
    γ. as an agricultural t.t. (cp. OGI 56, 68 ὅταν ὁ πρώϊμος σπόρος παραστῇ; PLille 8, 5) someth. like be fully grown σταφυλὴ παρεστηκυῖα a ripe grape (in contrast to ὄμφαξ) 1 Cl 23:4=2 Cl 11:3 (quot. of unknown orig.).—M-M. DELG s.v. ἵημι. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > παριστάνω

  • 119 παρίστημι

    παρίστημι/παριστάνω (the word since Hom.+; the later form παριστάνω [Ro 6:13, 16; but παρίστησι 1 Cor 8:8 v.l.; Ath. 33, 1] since Polyb. et al.; Epict. 3, 22, 87; SIG 589, 46 [196 B.C.]; 814, 36 [67 A.D.]; 1109, 76.—B-D-F §93; Mlt-H. 202) pres. inf. παραστᾶν (Tat. 33, 1; Ath. 11, 3), ptc. pl. παριστῶντες (Tat. 1, 3—B-D-F §93); fut. παραστήσω; 1 aor. παρέστησα; 2 aor. παρέστην; pf. παρέστηκα, ptc. παρεστηκώς or παρεστώς; plpf. παρειστήκειν; inf. παρεστάναι (Dt 18:5; PsSol 2:36). Mid.: fut. παραστήσομαι. Pass.: 1 aor. παρεστάθην.
    trans. (pres., impf., fut., 1 aor. act.) to cause to be present in any way
    place beside, put at someone’s disposal τινά or τί τινι someone or someth. to someone (Demetr.: 722 Fgm. 7 Jac.; Socrates of Rhodes [I B.C.]: 192 Fgm. 1 p. 927, 25 Jac. [in Athen. 4, 148b]; Lucian, D. Mar. 6, 2) παραστήσει μοι λεγιῶνας Mt 26:53. τὶ someth. (cp. 2 Macc 12:3 v.l. σκάφη) κτήνη provide riding animals Ac 23:24. For protection παρέστησεν αὐτῇ τοὺς υἱούς αὐτοῦ he placed his sons at her side=Joseph placed Mary in the care of his sons GJs 18:1. Here belongs παραστήσατε ἑαυτοὺς τῷ θεῷ Ro 6:13b. W. dat. and double acc. (of the obj. and the pred.) ᾧ παριστάνετε ἑαυτοὺς δούλους (εἰς ὑπακοήν) to whomever you yield yourselves as slaves (to obey him; w. acc., followed by εἰς=to or for [s. MTreu, Alkaios ’52, p. 12]) vs. 16; μηδὲ παριστάνετε τὰ μέλη ὑμῶν ὅπλα ἀδικίας τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ vs. 13a; cp. vs. 19ab.
    present, represent
    α. lit. τινά τινι someone to someone παρέστησαν τὸν Παῦλον αὐτῷ Ac 23:33. παρθένον ἁγνὴν παραστῆσαι τῷ Χριστῷ 2 Cor 11:2. Of the ‘presentation’ of Jesus in the Temple Lk 2:22 (Billerb. II 120–23. Cp. also Olympiodorus, Life of Plato, ed. AWestermann 1850 p. 1: of Plato, said to be of transcendent origin, λαβόντες οἱ γονεῖς βρέφος ὄντα τεθείκασιν ἐν τῷ Ὑμηττῷ βουλόμενοι ὑπὲρ αὐτοῦ τοῖς ἐκεῖ θεοῖς … θῦσαι=his parents took him when he was an infant and placed him on Hymettus with the intent to sacrifice … to the gods there). W. dat. of pers., acc. of obj., and pred. acc. οἷς παρέστησεν ἑαυτὸν ζῶντα to whom he presented himself alive Ac 1:3; without a dat., which is supplied fr. the context παρέστησεν αὐτὴν ζῶσαν 9:41.
    β. fig. παραστήσω σε κατὰ πρόσωπόν σου I will show you to yourself face to face 1 Cl 35:10 (Ps 49:21).
    ‘present’ becomes almost equivalent to make, render (Plut., Mor. 676c [ἡ πίσσα] τὸν οἶνον εὔποτον παρίστησι) ἵνα παραστήσῃ αὐτὸς ἑαυτῷ ἔνδοξον τὴν ἐκκλησίαν that (Christ) might render the church glorious before himself Eph 5:27. σπούδασον σεαυτὸν δόκιμον παραστῆσαι τῷ θεῷ 2 Ti 2:15. παραστῆσαι ὑμᾶς ἁγίους κατενώπιον αὐτοῦ to make you holy before him Col 1:22. ἵνα παραστήσωμεν πάντα ἄνθρωπον τέλειον ἐν Χριστῷ that we may make everyone complete in Christ vs. 28.
    as a t.t. in the language of sacrifice offer, bring, present (παριστάναι θυσίαν, θύματα etc.: Epici p. 41, 49 B.=p. 19, 16 K.; Polyb. 16, 25, 7; Diod S 3, 72, 1; Lucian, Sacr. 13; Jos., Bell. 2, 89, Ant. 4, 113; SIG 589, 46 [196 B.C.]; 694, 49; 736, 70; OGI 456, 20; 764, 23; 38. The mid. is also used in this way since X., An. 6, 1, 22) fig. παραστῆσαι τὰ σώματα θυσίαν ζῶσαν offer bodies as a living sacrifice Ro 12:1.
    as a legal t.t. bring before (a judge) (Sb 4512, 82 [II B.C.]; OGI 669, 49; BGU 163, 3; 341, 14; 747 II, 26; 759, 22; 1139, 18). Some would prefer to understand 1 Cor 8:8 in this sense: βρῶμα ἡμᾶς οὐ παραστήσει τῷ θεῷ food will not bring us before (the judgment seat of) God. Likew. ἡμᾶς ἐγερεῖ καὶ παραστήσει σὺν ὑμῖν he will raise us and bring us, together with you, before him (=before his judgment seat) 2 Cor 4:14. But the forensic mng. is not certain in either of these places, and the sense is prob. bring before God = bring close to God (cp. Rtzst., ZNW 13, 1912, 19f).
    prove, demonstrate (Lysias 12, 51; X., Oec. 13, 1; Epict. 2, 23, 47; 2, 26, 4; Jos., Ant. 4, 47, Vi. 27; PLips 64, 34) οὐδὲ παραστῆσαι δύνανταί σοι περὶ ὧν νυνὶ κατηγοροῦσίν μου nor can they prove to you the accusations they are now making against me Ac 24:13.—On the 1 aor. pass. Hs 8, 4, 1 s. 2aγ end.
    intr. (mid. and perf., plpf., 2 aor. act., but s. also aγ end) to be present in any way, be present
    pres., fut., aor. (TestJos 2:6; 20:6; TestSol 6:1 and C 12:1; TestAbr A 20 p. 103, 19 [Stone p. 54]; ApcMos 35; Mel., P. 62, 450).
    α. approach, come τινί (to) someone (Philo, De Jos. 94) Ac 9:39; 27:23 (Plut., Lysander 444 [20, 7] αὐτῷ κατὰ τοὺς ὕπνους παραστῆναι τὸν Ἄμμωνα).—Also as a t.t. of legal usage appear before, come before (s. 1e above.—Chariton 6, 6, 4 παρέστην δικαστηρίῳ) Καίσαρί σε δεῖ παραστῆναι you must appear before the Emperor (as judge) Ac 27:24; cp. 2 Ti subscr. πάντες παραστησόμεθα τῷ βήματι τοῦ θεοῦ (v.l. Χριστοῦ) Ro 14:10. πάντας δεῖ παραστῆναι τῷ βήματι τοῦ Χριστοῦ Pol 6:2.
    β. of appearing with hostile intent (Appian, Illyr. 17 §51) abs. παρέστησαν οἱ βασιλεῖς τῆς γῆς Ac 4:26 (Ps 2:2).
    γ. come to the aid of, help, stand by τινί someone (Hom. et al.; X., Cyr. 5, 3, 19 al.; PKöln VI, 245, 22 σὺ δὲ θεὰ παρίστασο ‘and you, Goddess, be at my side’, w. suggestion of a relationship between Athena and Odysseus [for parallels and lit. s. ‘Ptocheia’ or ‘Odysseus in Disguise at Troy’ (=ASP 31), ed. MParca ’91, 59]; Mitt-Wilck. II/2, 372 VI, 7; 12; Jos., Bell. 2, 245; SibOr 8, 407) Ro 16:2. ὁ κύριός μοι παρέστη 2 Ti 4:17 (cp. PHerm 125b, 8 [III A.D.] θεὸς παρίσταταί σοι; Jos., Ant. 1, 341; SibOr 3, 705).—The 1 aor. pass. παρεστάθην αὐτῷ Hs 8, 4, 1 is prob. used in act. sense I took a position beside him (so as to be ready for service).
    perf. and plpf. (En 14:22; PsSol 2:36; TestSol 14:2 al.; TestAbr A 7 p. 84, 29 [Stone p. 16]; Just., D. 9, 1)
    α. of personal beings stand ( near or by), be present τινί (with) someone (LXX; TestJob 24:10; Jos., Bell. 2, 281) Ac 1:10; 1 Cl 34:6 (Da 7:10 Theod.). ἐνώπιόν τινος stand before someone (1 Km 16:21; TestAbr A 7 p. 84, 29f [Stone p. 16]) οὗτος παρέστηκεν ἐνώπιον ὑμῶν ὑγιής Ac 4:10.—Mostly in the ptc.: modifying a noun and followed by an indication of place: ὁ κεντυρίων ὁ παρεστηκὼς ἐξ ἐναντίας αὐτοῦ Mk 15:39 (cp. 1 Macc 11:68 S). Γαβριὴλ ὁ παρεστηκὼς ἐνώπιον τοῦ θεοῦ Lk 1:19 (cp. Jdth 4:14; Tob 12:15 S). Without indication of place (Diod S 17, 66, 7 παρεστὼς Φιλώτας=Philotas, who stood nearby; Diog. L. 2, 102; Aberciusins. 17; EpArist 19) εἷς παρεστηκὼς τῶν ὑπηρετῶν one of the servants who was standing by J 18:22. ἰδὼν τὸν μαθητὴν παρεστῶτα when he saw the disciple standing near 19:26. (ἄγγελοι) λειτουργοῦσιν παρεστῶτες 1 Cl 34:5. παρεστὼς ὁ κύριος MPol 2:2. οἱ παρεστῶτες αὐτῷ those standing near him Ac 23:2.—Subst. οἱ παρεστηκότες (PPetr II, 4, 6, 13 [III B.C.]) or οἱ παρεστῶτες (Diog. L. 9, 27) the bystanders, the spectators, those present Mk 14:47, 69f; 15:35 (vv.ll. παρεστώτων, ἑστηκότων); Lk 19:24; Ac 23:4; in vs. 2 the widely attested rdg. adds a dat.: τοῖς παρεστῶσιν αὐτῷ (cp. POxy 1204, 13 ὁ παρεστώς σοι).
    β. of a point of time be here, have come (Il. 16, 853; Demosth. 18, 90; 21, 101) παρέστηκεν ὁ θερισμός the time for the harvest is here Mk 4:29.
    γ. as an agricultural t.t. (cp. OGI 56, 68 ὅταν ὁ πρώϊμος σπόρος παραστῇ; PLille 8, 5) someth. like be fully grown σταφυλὴ παρεστηκυῖα a ripe grape (in contrast to ὄμφαξ) 1 Cl 23:4=2 Cl 11:3 (quot. of unknown orig.).—M-M. DELG s.v. ἵημι. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > παρίστημι

  • 120 προσάγω

    προσάγω 2 aor. προσήγαγον, impv. προσάγαγε, inf. προσαγαγεῖν; pf. 3 pl. προσαγειόχασιν Lev 10:19. Pass.: impf. προσηγόμην; 1 fut. 3 sg. προσαχθήσεται Lev 14:2; 1 aor. προσήχθην (Hom.+; ins, pap, LXX, EpArist, Philo, Joseph., Test12Patr, apolog.).
    trans. bring into someone’s presence, bring (forward)
    lit. τινά someone Ac 12:6 v.l.; B 13:5a. Pass. MPol 9:1f. προσάγαγε ὧδε τὸν υἱόν Lk 9:41. W. acc. to be supplied Ἰωσὴφ προσήγαγεν (αὐτόν) εἰς … B 13:5b (πρ. τινὰ εἴς τι Herodian 1, 5, 1). τινά τινι bring someone to someone Ac 16:20; B 13:4 (Gen 48:9); pass. Mt 18:24 v.l.
    fig.
    α. of Christ, who brings people to God (X., Cyr. 1, 3, 8 of admission to an audience with the Great King) ἵνα ὑμᾶς προσαγάγῃ τῷ θεῷ 1 Pt 3:18 (Just., D. 2, 1 al.; Jos., Ant. 14, 272 the mid. conveys the sense ‘negotiate peace’, ‘reconcile’).
    β. as a t.t. of sacrificial procedure (Hdt. 3, 24 et al.; LXX; EpArist 45 π. θυσίας) bring, present, of Isaac προσήγετο θυσία 1 Cl 31:3. προσάξω αὐτὸ δῶρον κυρίῳ I will present it (the child, Mary) to the Lord as a gift GJs 4:1. τὴν θρησκείαν πρ. αὐτῷ (=τῷ θεῷ) offer (cultic) worship to God Dg 3:2 (cp. Tob 12:12; Ath. 13, 2). Abs. ὀφείλομεν πλουσιώτερον καὶ ὑψηλότερον προσάγειν τῷ φόβῳ αὐτοῦ we ought to sacrifice all the more bountifully and richly out of fear of (God) B 1:7; but s. 2b.
    intr. to move toward a reference point, come near, approach (Theocr. et al.; Plut., Mor. 800a, Pomp. 643 [46, 1]; SIG 1042, 3; PTebt 47, 15; Josh 3:9; 1 Km 9:18; 3 Km 18:30ab; Sir 12:13; 2 Macc 6:19; EpArist 59; Jos., Ant. 6, 52.—Anz 335).
    lit. ὑπενόουν προσάγειν τινὰ αὐτοῖς χώραν they suspected that land was near (lit. ‘approaching them’) Ac 27:27 (vv.ll. προσανέχειν, προσεγγίζειν, προσαχεῖν).
    fig., of pers. approaching God B 2:9. προσάγειν τῷ φόβῳ αὐτοῦ (= τοῦ θεοῦ) approach (the fear of) God 1:7, unless πρ. here means bring an offering (so Lghtf. et al.; s. 1bβ).—M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > προσάγω

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  • Offer — Of fer, v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Offered}; p. pr. & vb. n. {Offering}.] [OE. offren, {AS}. offrian to sacrifice, fr. L. offerre; ob (see {OB }) + ferre to bear, bring. The English word was influenced by F. offrir to offer, of the same origin. See 1st …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

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