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lands and tenements

  • 81 κόσμος

    κόσμος, ου, ὁ (Hom.+)
    that which serves to beautify through decoration, adornment, adorning (Hom.+; Diod S 20, 4, 5 τῶν γυναικῶν τὸν κόσμον; OGI 531, 13; SIG 850, 10; IMaronIsis 41; PEleph 1, 4; PSI 240, 12 γυναικεῖον κόσμον; LXX; TestJud 12:1; JosAs 2:6 al.; Philo, Migr. Abr. 97 γυναικῶν κ.; Jos., Ant. 1, 250; 15, 5; Just., A II, 11, 4f) of women’s attire, etc. ὁ ἔξωθεν … κόσμος external adorning 1 Pt 3:3 (Vi. Hom. 4 of the inward adornment of a woman, beside σωφροσύνη; Crates, Ep. 9; Pythag., Ep. 11, 1; Plut., Mor. 141e; on the topic of external adornment cp. SIG 736, 15–26).
    condition of orderliness, orderly arrangement, order (Hom. et al.; s. HDiller, Die vorphilosophische Gebrauch von κ. und κοσμεῖν: BSnell Festschr., ’56, 47–60) μετὰ κόσμου in order Dg 12:9 (text uncertain; s. μετακόσμιος).
    the sum total of everything here and now, the world, the (orderly) universe, in philosophical usage (so, acc. to Plut., Mor. 886b, as early as Pythagoras; certainly Heraclitus, Fgm. 66; Pla., Gorg. 508a, Phdr. 246c; Chrysipp., Fgm. 527 v. Arnim κόσμος σύστημα ἐξ οὐρανοῦ καὶ γῆς καὶ τῶν ἐν τούτοις περιεχομένων φύσεων. Likew. Posidonius in Diog. L. 7, 138; Ps.-Aristot., De Mundo 2 p. 391b, 9ff; 2 and 4 Macc; Wsd; EpArist 254; Philo, Aet. M. 4; Jos., Ant. 1, 21; Test12Patr; SibOr 7, 123; AssMos Fgm. b Denis [=Tromp p. 272]; Just., A I, 20, 2 al.; Ath. 19, 2 al.; Orig., C. Cels. 4, 68, 14; Did., Gen. 36, 7; 137, 13.—The other philosoph. usage, in which κ. denotes the heaven in contrast to the earth, is prob. without mng. for our lit. [unless perh. Phil 2:15 κ.=‘sky’?]). ἡ ἀέναος τοῦ κ. σύστασις the everlasting constitution of the universe 1 Cl 60:1 (cp. OGI 56, 48 εἰς τὸν ἀέναον κ.). Sustained by four elements Hv 3, 13, 3. πρὸ τοῦ τὸν κ. εἶναι before the world existed J 17:5. ἀπὸ καταβολῆς [κόσμου] from the beginning of the world Mt 13:35; 25:34; Lk 11:50; Hb 4:3; 9:26; Rv 13:8; 17:8. Also ἀπʼ ἀρχῆς κ. Mt 24:21 or ἀπὸ κτίσεως κ. Ro 1:20.—B 5:5 ἀπὸ καταβ. κ. evidently means at the foundation of the world (s. Windisch, Hdb. ad loc.). πρὸ καταβολῆς κ. before the foundation of the world J 17:24; Eph 1:4; 1 Pt 1:20 (on the uses w. καταβολή s. that word, 1). οὐδὲν εἴδωλον ἐν κ. no idol has any real existence in the universe (Twentieth Century NT) 1 Cor 8:4. Of the creation in its entirety 3:22. ὁ κόσμος ὅλος = πᾶσα ἡ κτίσις (Sallust. 21 p. 36, 13; TestSol 5:7; TestJob 33:4) Hs 9, 2, 1; 9, 14, 5. φωστῆρες ἐν κόσμῳ stars in the universe Phil 2:15 (s. above). Esp. of the universe as created by God (Epict 4, 7, 6 ὁ θεὸς πάντα πεποίηκεν, τὰ ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ καὶ αὐτὸν τὸν κόσμον ὅλον; Wsd 9:9; 2 Macc 7:23 ὁ τοῦ κ. κτίστης; 4 Macc 5:25; Just., A I, 59, 1 al.; Ath. 8, 2 al.) ὁ ποιήσας τὸν κ. who has made the world Ac 17:24. ὁ κτίστης τοῦ σύμπαντος κ. 1 Cl 19:2; ὁ κτίσας τὸν κ. Hv 1, 3, 4; cp. m 12, 4, 2. ὁ τοῦ παντὸς κ. κυριεύων B 21:5. οὐδʼ εἶναι τὸν κόσμον θεοῦ ἀλλὰ ἀγγέλων AcPlCor 1:15. Christ is called παντὸς τοῦ κ. κύριος 5:5; and the κ. owes its origin to his agency J 1:10b. The world was created for the sake of the church Hv 2, 4, 1.—The universe, as the greatest space conceivable, is not able to contain someth. (Philo, Ebr. 32) J 21:25.
    the sum total of all beings above the level of the animals, the world, as θέατρον ἐγενήθημεν (i.e. οἱ ἀπόστολοι) τῷ κόσμῳ καὶ ἀγγέλοις καὶ ἀνθρώποις 1 Cor 4:9. Here the world is divided into angels and humans (cp. the Stoic definition of the κόσμος in Stob., Ecl. I p. 184, 8 τὸ ἐκ θεῶν καὶ ἀνθρώπων σύστημα; likew. Epict 1, 9, 4.—Acc. to Ocellus Luc. 37, end, the κ. consists of the sphere of the divine beyond the moon and the sphere of the earthly on this side of the moon).
    planet earth as a place of inhabitation, the world (SIG 814, 31 [67 A.D.] Nero, ὁ τοῦ παντὸς κόσμου κύριος; the meaning of the birthday of Augustus for the world OGI 458, 40 [=IPriene 105]; 2 Macc 3:12; Jos., Ant. 9, 241; 10, 205; Orig., C. Cels. 4, 68)
    gener. Mk 16:15. τὰς βασιλείας τοῦ κ. Mt 4:8; ἐν ὅλῳ τῷ κ. 26:13. Cp. 13:38 (cp. Hs 5, 5, 2); Mk 14:9; Hs 9, 25, 2. τὸ φῶς τοῦ κ. τούτου the light of this world (the sun) J 11:9. In rhetorical exaggeration ἡ πίστις ὑμῶν καταγγέλλεται ἐν ὅλῳ τ. κόσμῳ Ro 1:8 (cp. the Egypt. grave ins APF 5, 1913, 169 no. 24, 8 ὧν ἡ σωφροσύνη κατὰ τὸν κ. λελάληται). Abraham as κληρονόμος κόσμου heir of the world 4:13.—Cp. 1 Cor 14:10; Col 1:6. ἡ ἐν τῷ κ. ἀδελφότης the brotherhood in the (whole) world 1 Pt 5:9. ἐγένετο ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ κ. τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν our Lord has assumed the sovereignty of the world Rv 11:15. τὰ ἔθνη τοῦ κ. (not LXX, but prob. rabbinic אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם=humankind apart fr. Israel; Billerb. II 191; Dalman, Worte 144f) the unconverted in the world Lk 12:30. In this line of development, κόσμος alone serves to designate the polytheistic unconverted world Ro 11:12, 15.—Other worlds (lands) beyond the ocean 1 Cl 20:8.—Many of these pass. bear the connotation of
    the world as the habitation of humanity (as SibOr 1, 160). So also Hs 9, 17, 1f. εἰσέρχεσθαι εἰς τὸν κ. of entrance into the world by being born 1 Cl 38:3. ἐκ τοῦ κ. ἐξελθεῖν leave this present world (Philo, Leg. All. 3, 5 ἔξω τ. κόσμου φεύγειν; s. ἐξέρχομαι 5; cp. Hippol., Ref. 5, 16, 7) 1 Cor 5:10b; 2 Cl 8:3. γεννηθῆναι εἰς τὸν κ. be born into the world J 16:21. ἕως ἐσμὲν ἐν τούτῳ τῷ κ. 2 Cl 8:2. οὐδὲν εἰσφέρειν εἰς τὸν κ. (Philo, Spec. Leg. 1, 294 τὸν μηδὲν εἰς τὸν κόσμον εἰσενηνοχότα) 1 Ti 6:7 (Pol 4:1). πολλοὶ πλάνοι ἐξῆλθον εἰς τὸν κ. 2J 7.—ἐν τῷ κόσμω τούτῳ J 12:25 (κ. need not here be understood as an entity hostile to God, but the transition to the nuance in 7b, below, is signalled by the term that follows: ζωὴν αἰώνιον). ἵνα εἰς κόσμον προέλθῃ AcPlCor 2:6.
    earth, world in contrast to heaven (Dio Chrys. 19 [36], 59; Iren., 1, 4, 2 [Harv. I 35, 5]; Orig., C. Cels. 8, 15, 24) ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ τούτῳ 2 Cl 19:3.—Esp. when mention is made of the preexistent Christ, who came fr. another world into the κόσμος. So, above all, in John (Bultmann, index I κόσμος) ἔρχεσθαι εἰς τὸν κ. (τοῦτον) J 6:14; 9:39; 11:27; 16:28a; 18:37; specif. also come into the world as light 12:46; cp. 1:9; 3:19. Sending of Jesus into the world 3:17a; 10:36; 17:18; 1J 4:9. His εἶναι ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ J 1:10a; 9:5a; 17:12 v.l. Leaving the world and returning to the Father 13:1a; 16:28b. Cp. 14:19; 17:11a. His kingship is not ἐκ τοῦ κ. τούτου of this world i.e. not derived from the world or conditioned by its terms and evaluations 18:36ab.—Also Χρ. Ἰησοῦς ἦλθεν εἰς τ. κόσμον 1 Ti 1:15; cp. ἐπιστεύθη ἐν κόσμῳ (opp. ἀνελήμφθη ἐν δόξῃ) 3:16.—εἰσερχόμενος εἰς τὸν κ. Hb 10:5.
    the world outside in contrast to one’s home PtK 3 p. 15, 13; 19.
    humanity in general, the world (TestAbr B 8 p. 113, 11 [Stone p. 74]; ApcEsdr 3:6 p. 27, 14; SibOr 1, 189; Just., A I, 39, 3 al.)
    gener. οὐαὶ τῷ κ. ἀπὸ τῶν σκανδάλων woe to humankind because of the things that cause people to sin Mt 18:7; τὸ φῶς τοῦ κ. the light for humanity 5:14; cp. J 8:12; 9:5. ὁ σωτὴρ τοῦ κ. 4:42; 1J 4:14 (this designation is found in inscriptions, esp. oft. of Hadrian [WWeber, Untersuchungen z. Geschichte des Kaisers Hadrianus 1907, 225; 226; 229]).—J 1:29; 3:17b; 17:6.—κρίνειν τὸν κ. (SibOr 4, 184; TestAbr A 13 p. 92, 11 [Stone p. 32]; ApcMos 37) of God, Christ J 12:47a; Ro 3:6; B 4:12; cp. Ro 3:19. Of believers 1 Cor 6:2ab (cp. Sallust. 21 p. 36, 13 the souls of the virtuous, together w. the gods, will rule the whole κόσμος). Of Noah διʼ ἧς (sc. πίστεως) κατέκρινεν τὸν κ. Hb 11:7. ἡ ἁμαρτία εἰς τὸν κ. εἰσῆλθεν Ro 5:12; likew. θάνατος εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸν κ. 1 Cl 3:4 (Wsd 2:24; 14:14). Cp. Ro 5:13; 1 Cor 1:27f. περικαθάρματα τοῦ κ. the refuse of humanity 4:13. Of persons before conversion ἄθεοι ἐν τῷ κ. Eph 2:12.—2 Cor 1:12; 5:19; Js 2:5; 1J 2:2; 4:1, 3. ἀρχαῖος κόσμος the people of the ancient world 2 Pt 2:5a; cp. vs. 5b; 3:6. Of pers. of exceptional merit: ὧν οὐκ ἦν ἄξιος ὁ κ. of whom the world was not worthy Hb 11:38.—ὅλος ὁ κ. all the world, everybody Ac 2:47 D; 1 Cl 5:7; cp. ἐν ὅλῳ τῷ κ. 59:2; εἰς ὅλον τὸν κ. Hs 8, 3, 2. Likew. ὁ κόσμος (cp. Philo, De Prov. in Eus., PE 8, 14, 58) ὁ κ. ὀπίσω αὐτοῦ ἀπῆλθεν J 12:19. ταῦτα λαλῶ εἰς τὸν κ. 8:26; ἐν τῷ κ. 17:13; ἐγὼ παρρησίᾳ λελάληκα τῷ κ. 18:20; cp. 7:4; 14:22. ἵνα γνῷ ὁ κ. 14:31; cp. 17:23; ἵνα ὁ κ. πιστεύῃ 17:21.
    of all humanity, but especially of believers, as the object of God’s love J 3:16, 17c; 6:33, 51; 12:47b.
    the system of human existence in its many aspects, the world
    as scene of earthly joys, possessions, cares, sufferings (cp. 4 Macc 8:23) τὸν κ. ὅλον κερδῆσαι gain the whole world Mt 16:26; Mk 8:36; Lk 9:25; 2 Cl 6:2 (cp. Procop. Soph., Ep. 137 the whole οἰκουμένη is an unimportant possession compared to ἀρετή). τὰ τερπνὰ τοῦ κ. the delightful things in the world IRo 6:1. οἱ χρώμενοι τὸν κ. ὡς μὴ καταχρώμενοι those who use the world as though they had no use of it or those who deal with the world as having made no deals with it 1 Cor 7:31a. ἔχειν τὸν βίον τοῦ κ. possess worldly goods 1J 3:17. τὰ τοῦ κόσμου the affairs of the world 1 Cor 7:33f; cp. 1J 2:15f. The latter pass. forms an easy transition to the large number of exprs. (esp. in Paul and John) in which
    the world, and everything that belongs to it, appears as that which is hostile to God, i.e. lost in sin, wholly at odds w. anything divine, ruined and depraved (Herm. Wr. 6, 4 [the κόσμος is τὸ πλήρωμα τῆς κακίας]; 13, 1 [ἡ τοῦ κ. ἀπάτη], in Stob. p. 428, 24 Sc.; En 48:7; TestIss 4:6; AscIs 3:25; Hdb., exc. on J 1:10; Bultmann ad loc.—cp. Sotades Maronita [III B.C.] 11 Diehl: the κόσμος is unjust and hostile to great men) IMg 5:2; IRo 2:2. ὁ κόσμος οὗτος this world (in contrast to the heavenly realm) J 8:23; 12:25, 31a; 13:1; 16:11; 18:36; 1J 4:17; 1 Cor 3:19; 5:10a; 7:31b; Hv 4, 3, 2ff; D 10:6; 2 Cl 5:1, 5; (opp. ὁ ἅγιος αἰών) B 10:11. ‘This world’ is ruled by the ἄρχων τοῦ κ. τούτου the prince of this world, the devil J 12:31b; 16:11; without τούτου 14:30. Cp. ὁ κ. ὅλος ἐν τῷ πονηρῷ κεῖται the whole world lies in the power of the evil one 1J 5:19; cp. 4:4; also ὁ αἰὼν τοῦ κ. τούτου Eph 2:2 (s. αἰών 4).—Christians must have nothing to do with this world of sin and separation fr. God: instead of desiring it IRo 7:1, one is to ἄσπιλον ἑαυτὸν τηρεῖν ἀπὸ τοῦ κ. keep oneself untainted by the world Js 1:27. ἀποφεύγειν τὰ μιάσματα τοῦ κ. 2 Pt 2:20; cp. 1:4 (s. ἀποφεύγω 1).—Pol 5:3. ἡ φιλία τοῦ κ. ἔχθρα τ. θεοῦ ἐστιν Js 4:4a; cp. vs. 4b. When such an attitude is taken Christians are naturally hated by the world IRo 3:3; J 15:18, 19ad; 17:14a; 1J 3:13, as their Lord was hated J 7:7; 15:18; cp. 1:10c; 14:17; 16:20.—Also in Paul: God and world in opposition τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ κ. and τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἐκ θεοῦ the spirit of the world and the spirit that comes fr. God 1 Cor 2:12; σοφία τοῦ κ. and σοφία τοῦ θεοῦ 1:20f. ἡ κατὰ θεὸν λύπη and ἡ τοῦ κ. λύπη godly grief and worldly grief 2 Cor 7:10. The world is condemned by God 1 Cor 11:32; yet also the object of the divine plan of salvation 2 Cor 5:19; cp. 1 Cl 7:4; 9:4. A Christian is dead as far as this world is concerned: διʼ οὗ (i.e. Ἰ. Χρ.) ἐμοὶ κ. ἐσταύρωται κἀγὼ κόσμῳ through Christ the world has been crucified for me, and I have been (crucified) to the world Gal 6:14; cp. the question τί ὡς ζῶντες ἐν κ. δογματίζεσθε; Col 2:20b. For στοιχεῖα τοῦ κ. Gal 4:3; Col 2:8, 20a s. στοιχεῖον.—The use of κ. in this sense is even further developed in John. The κ. stands in opposition to God 1J 2:15f and hence is incapable of knowing God J 17:25; cp. 1J 4:5, and excluded fr. Christ’s intercession J 17:9; its views refuted by the Paraclete 16:8. Neither Christ himself 17:14c, 16b; 14:27, nor his own 15:19b; 17:14b, 16a; 1J 3:1 belong in any way to the ‘world’. Rather Christ has chosen them ‘out of the world’ J 15:19c, even though for the present they must still live ‘in the world’ 17:11b; cp. 13:1b; 17:15, 18b. All the trouble that they must undergo because of this, 16:33a, means nothing compared w. the victorious conviction that Christ (and the believers w. him) has overcome ‘the world’ vs. 33b; 1J 5:4f, and that it is doomed to pass away 2:17 (TestJob 33:4; Kephal. I 154, 21: the κόσμος τῆς σαρκός will pass away).
    collective aspect of an entity, totality, sum total (SIG 850, 10 τὸν κόσμον τῶν ἔργων (but s. 1 above); Pr 17:6a) ὁ κ. τῆς ἀδικίας ἡ γλῶσσα καθίσταται the tongue becomes (or proves to be) the sum total of iniquity Js 3:6 (so, approx., Meinertz; FHauck.—MDibelius, Windisch and ASchlatter find mng. 7b here, whereas ACarr, Exp. 7th ser., 8, 1909, 318ff thinks of mng. 1). Χρ. τὸν ὑπὲρ τῆς τοῦ παντὸς κόσμου τῶν σῳζομένων σωτηρίας παθόντα Christ, who suffered or died (s. πάσχω 3aα) for the salvation of the sum total of those who are saved MPol 17:2.—FBytomski, D. genet. Entwicklung des Begriffes κόσμος in d. Hl. Schrift: Jahrb. für Philos. und spekul. Theol. 25, 1911, 180–201; 389–413 (only the OT); CSchneider, Pls u. d. Welt: Αγγελος IV ’32, 11–47; EvSchrenck, Der Kosmos-Begriff bei Joh.: Mitteilungen u. Nachrichten f. d. evang. Kirche in Russland 51, 1895, 1–29; RLöwe, Kosmos u. Aion ’35; RBultmann, D. Verständnis v. Welt u. Mensch im NT u. im Griechentum: ThBl 19, ’40, 1–14; GBornkamm, Christus u. die Welt in der urchr. Botschaft: ZTK 47, ’50, 212–26; ALesky, Kosmos ’63; RVölkl, Christ u. Welt nach dem NT ’61; GJohnston, οἰκουμένη and κ. in the NT: NTS 10, ’64, 352–60; NCassem, ibid. 19, ’72/73, 81–91; RBratcher, BT 31, ’80, 430–34.—B. 13; 440. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW.

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  • 82 κτήτωρ

    κτήτωρ, ορος, ὁ (Diod S 34 + 35, 2, 31; POxy 237 VIII, 31; 718, 13; PTebt 378, 24; et al. [New Docs 2, 89] Jo 1:11 Sym.) owner of houses and lands χωρίων ἢ οἰκιῶν Ac 4:34 (cp. 1QS 1:11f).—DELG s.v. κτάομαι 7. M-M.

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  • 83 πέρας

    πέρας, ατος, τό (cp. πεῖραρ ‘end, limit’; Aeschyl.+) ‘limit, end’.
    a set point as farthest end of a space, end, limit, boundary. Pl. τὰ πέρατα end, limit, boundary, the ends, limits τῆς γῆς of the earth (Alcaeus [c. 600 B.C.] 50, 1 Diehl2; Thu. 1, 69, 5; X., Ages. 9, 4; IPontEux I, 39, 26f (μέχρι) περάτων γῆς; Ps 2:8; 21:28; Da 4:21; En 1:5; 31:2; Philo; Jos., Bell. 4, 262; TestNapht 6:7) Mt 12:42; Lk 11:31 (on both these passages cp. Apollon. Rhod. 2, 165 ἐκ περάτων; 573–76); Ac 13:33 D (Ps 2:8); 1 Cl 36:4 (Ps 2:8); IRo 6:1; Hs 8, 3, 2; D 9:4. τὰ πέρατα τῆς οἰκουμένης (Diod S 3, 53, 1 τὰ πέρατα τῆς οἰκουμένης; 1, 19, 6 τὸ πέρας τῆς οἰκ.; Jos., Ant. 8, 116; cp. ApcEsdr 3:6 p. 27, 12 Tdf.) Ro 10:18 (Ps 18:5). Also τὰ πέρατα abs. in the same sense (Vett. Val. 226, 18; Philo, Leg. ad Gai. 18; 173; Ps 64:9) οἱ ἐπίσκοποι, οἱ κατὰ τὰ πέρατα ὁρισθέντες the overseers/bishops who are appointed in the most distant lands IEph 3:2.—JGeyer, VetusT 20, ’70, 87–90, replying to MTreves, ibid. 19, ’69, 235.
    the end point of a process, end, conclusion (Aeschyl., Pers. 632 τῶν κακῶν; Demosth. 18, 97 πέρας τοῦ βίου ὁ θάνατος; Polyb. 5, 31, 2; 7, 5, 5; Epict. 3, 26, 37; 4, 1, 106; OGI 669, 40; PGiss 25, 7; BGU 1019, 7; POxy 237 VIII, 16; 1 Esdr 9:17; 2 Macc 5:8; 3 Macc 5:5; TestAbr A 1 p. 77, 11 [Stone p. 2] τοῦ βίου πέρας; Philo, Op. M. 150 al.; Jos., Bell. 7, 157, Ant. 7, 374; Just., D. 137, 4 π. ποιεῖσθαι; Tat. 12, 4 π. λαβών) πάσης ἀντιλογίας πέρας (as) an end to all disputing Hb 6:16.
    as adv., πέρας marker of someth. that is additional in a series, finally, in conclusion, further(more) (since Aeschin. 1, 61; Polyb. 2, 55, 6; Alciphron 4, 17, 3; Manetho: 609 Fgm. 8 [77] Jac. [in Jos., C. Ap. 1, 77]; Jos., Bell. 7, 393, Ant. 16, 352) π. γέ τοι B 5:8; B 10:2; B 12:6; B 15:6, B 8; B 16:3; π. γοῦν MPol 16:1.—DELG s.v. πεῖραρ. M-M. Sv.

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  • 84 Συρία

    Συρία, ας, ἡ (Aeschyl., Hdt. et al.; ins, LXX; EpArist 22; SibOr 12, 102 [elsewh. Συρίη, s. index of names]; Philo, Joseph.; Ar. 12, 2; Just., A I, 1; s. B-D-F §261, 6) Syria, the part of Western Asia bounded on the north by the Taurus Mts., on the east by the lands of the Euphrates, on the south by Palestine, on the west by the Mediterranean Sea. In 64 B.C. it became a Roman province; its capital was Antioch. Mt 4:24; Ac 18:18; 20:3; 21:3; IEph 1:2; IRo 5:1; 10:2; ISm 11:2; IPol 7:2; 8:2; Pol 13:1. Mentioned beside Cilicia, its neighboring province in Asia Minor (X., An. 1, 4, 4; Diod S 16, 42, 1; 9 of the two neighboring satrapies of Persian times) Ac 15:23, 41; Gal 1:21; IPhld 11:1. Ἀντιόχεια τῆς Σ. (s. Ἀντιόχεια 1) ISm 11:1; IPol 7:1; IPhld 10:1. The province was governed by an imperial legate (s. ἡγεμονεύω and Κυρήνιος) Lk 2:2. ἡ ἐκκλησία ἡ ἐν Συρίᾳ the church in Syria IEph 21:2; IMg 14; ITr 13:1; IRo 9:1. Ignatius is ὁ ἐπίσκοπος Συρίας IRo 2:2.—GBeer, RE XIX 1907, 281–95 (lit.); RDussaud, Mission dans les régions désertiques de la Syrie moyenne 1903, Topographie historique de la Syrie antique et médiévale 1926; BMaisler, Untersuchungen z. alten Gesch. u. Ethnographie Syriens u. Palätinas I 1929; KBaedeker, Palästina u. Syrien7 1910, Syrie-Palestine, Irâq, Transjordanie ’32; LHaefeli, Syrien u. sein Libanon 1926; UKahrstedt, Syr. Territorien in hellenist. Zeit 1926. On the relig. situation s. Schürer III 13f; Dussaud, Notes de Mythologie Syrienne 1903–5; FCumont, Études Syriennes 1917, Religionen3 ’31, 94–123; 253–77 (lit.); HPreisker, Ntl. Zeitgesch. ’37, 146–57; Prümm 264–68; 651–54. S. also CClermont-Ganneau, Recueil d’archéol. orientale, eight vols. 1888–1924; PHitti, History of S., Lebanon, and Palestine ’51; GTchalenko, Villages antiques de la S. du Nord I–III ’55–58; AVööbus, History of Asceticism in the Syrian Orient ’58–61; GDowney, A History of Antioch in S. fr. Seleucus to the Arab Conquest ’61; HGese, Die Religionen Altsyriens ’70; EWirth, S., eine geogr. Landeskunde ’71. Pauly-W. VII 2157–63; 2d ser. IV 1574–82, 1602–1728; Kl. Pauly V 469–73; RAC I 854–60; DACL XV 1855–1942; BHHW III 1919–22.—M-M.

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  • 85 ἀλλότριος

    ἀλλότριος, ία, ον (ἄλλος; Hom.+; DELG I 64 s.v. ἄλλος)
    pert. to what belongs to another, not one’s own, strange (opp. ἴδιος; Περὶ ὕψους 4, 1; Epict. 2, 4, 10; 3, 24, 3f; Proverb. Aesopi 114 P.; SIG 982, 5f; pap since III B.C., e.g. BGU 1121, 22 [5 B.C.] μήτε ἴδια μήτʼ ἀλλότρια; 15, 15; Jos., Ant. 18, 46; 19, 305).
    adj. ἀ. οἰκέτης another’s slave (Dio Chrys. 14 [31], 34 ἀλλ. οἰκ.; Jos., Ant. 18, 47.—ἀ. δοῦλος as early as Pla., Leg. 9, 9, 868a; cp. Diod S 36, 2, 2) Ro 14:4; γυνὴ ἀ. (Chariton 6, 3, 7; POxy 1067, 6ff) Hm 4, 1, 1; 12, 2, 1. καυχᾶσθαι ἐν ἀ. κόποις boast about work done by others 2 Cor 10:15 (cp. Epict. 1, 28, 23 ἀλλότριον ἔργον=another’s deed; Tat. 26, 1 λόγους ἀ. ‘words of others’); κοινωνεῖν ἁμαρτίαις ἀ. participate in other people’s sins 1 Ti 5:22. ἐν ἀ. κανόνι καυχᾶσθαι boast (of work already done) in another’s field 2 Cor 10:16. πάντα ἀ. εἰσι (w. ὑπʼ ἐξουσίαν ἑτέρου) Hs 1:3. ἀ. αἷμα Hb 9:25. θεμέλιον Ro 15:20. ἀλλοτρίας σάρκας καταφαγεῖν B 10:4b. τὰς ἀ. ἐντολὰς (opp. παρὰ τοῦ κυρίου δεδομένας) Papias (2:3). Of lands (Isis aretalogy SEG VIII, 548, 31 [I B.C.]) strange, foreign πάροικον ἐν γῇ ἀ. Ac 7:6 (Ex 2:22; ParJer 7:34). παροικεῖν εἰς γῆν … ὡς ἀ. sojourn in a land as if it were foreign Hb 11:9. ἀ. τοῦ θεοῦ ὄντες aliens to God 1 Cl 7:7 (cp. PsSol 17:13 ἀπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ; Herm. Wr. 2, 16; Just., D. 8, 2 ἀλλοτρίῳ τοῦ πράγματος; B-D-F §182, 3); so τὰ κοσμικὰ ὡς ἀ. ἡγεῖσθαι, i.e. to look on them as someth. that does not concern Christians 2 Cl 5:6.
    subst.
    α. τὸ ἀ. other people’s property (Epict. 2, 6, 8; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 216) B 10:4a. ἐν τῷ ἀ. πιστοί faithful w. what belongs to another Lk 16:12 (the wealth of this world is foreign to the Christian, cp. Epict. 4, 5, 15 of temporal goods: οὐδὲν ἴδιον τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ ἐστίν, ἀλλὰ πάντα ἀλλότρια; also 2, 6, 8; 24.—S. ἡμέτερος). ἀλλοτρίοις ἐπίσκοπος 1 Pt 4:15 P72, ‘meddling in other people’s affairs’=Lat. ‘alienis custos’, but s. prec. entry τοῦ ἀ. ἅψασθαι Hs 1:11; ἀλλοτρίων ἐπιθυμεῖν ibid. (cp. Ar. 15, 4 οὐκ ἐπιθυμοῦσι … τὰ ἀ.).
    β. ὁ ἀ. the stranger (=‘one who is unknown’ cp. Sir 8:18) J 10:5a. οἱ ἀλλότριοι strange people vs. 5b; specif. aliens (LXX; Jos., Bell. 7, 266) Mt 17:25f (opp. οἱ υἱοί).
    pert. to being outside one’s customary experience or practice, alien, unsuitable (cp. UPZ 113, 11 [II B.C.]; POxy 282, 9) στάσις ἀ., explained by ξένη τοῖς ἐκλεκτοῖς τοῦ θεοῦ 1 Cl 1:1. ἀ. γνώμη strange=false (cp. θεὸς ἀλλότριος Ps 80:10; ParJer 7:30) viewpoint IPhld 3:3; ἀ. βοτάνη ITr 6:1; χρῶμα IRo ins.
    pert. to being different and therefore in opposition, hostile, as subst. enemy (Hom. et al.; Polyb. 27, 15, 13; Diod S 11, 27 et al.; 1 Macc 1:38; 2:7; cp. OGI 90, 91) παρεμβολὰς κλίνειν ἀλλοτρίων Hb 11:34.—M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἀλλότριος

  • 86 ἀνατολικός

    ἀνατολικός, ή, όν (s. ἀνατολή; Epicurus, Fgm. 346b; Strabo 2, 3, 2; Plut., Mor. 888a; Herodian 3, 2, 2; 3, 4, 3; TestSol 10:15 C; Philo, Leg. ad Gai. 289; Jos., Ant. 20, 220; PFlor 278 V, 1; Job 1:3 Sym. al.) eastern Ac 19:1 v.l. ἐν τοῖς ἀ. τόποις in the eastern lands 1 Cl 25:1.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἀνατολικός

  • 87 ὁρίζω

    ὁρίζω (ὅρος) fut. 3 sg. ὁριεῖ LXX; 1 aor. ὥρισα, pf. 3 pl. ὁρίκασιν (Tat. 17, 3). Pass.: 1 aor. 3 sg. ὡρίσθη (Just., A I, 44, 12); ptc. ὁρισθείς; pf. ptc. ὡρισμένος (Aeschyl., Hdt.+)
    from the basic mng., ‘to separate entities and so establish a boundary’, derives the sense ‘to define ideas or concepts’: set limits to, define, explain (X. et al. [as Ath. 6, 1] in act. and mid.) περί τινος give an explanation concerning someth. 12:1. τὸ ὕδωρ καὶ τὸν σταυρὸν ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ ὥρισεν he defined the water and the cross together (i.e. in the section on the tree by the streams of water Ps 1:3) 11:8. Sim.
    to make a determination about an entity, determine, appoint, fix, set
    of things
    α. expressed by the acc. προφήτης ὁρίζων τράπεζαν a prophet who orders a meal (s. τράπεζα 2) D 11:9 (w. double acc.: Πυθαγόρας … ἔσχατον ὁρίζει φύσιν Theoph. Ant. 3, 7 [p. 216, 12]).—Of time (Pla., Leg. 9 p. 864e; Demosth. 36, 26 ὁ νόμος τὸν χρόνον ὥρισεν; Epict., Ench. 51, 1; PFlor 61, 45 [85 A.D.]; Jos., C. Ap. 1, 230; Just., D. 102, 4 χρόνους; more freq. pass., s. below) ἡμέραν Hb 4:7. ὁρ. προστεταγμένους καιρούς set appointed times Ac 17:26.—μηδὲν ὁρίζοντες μηδὲ νομοθετοῦντες without making rules or ordinances GMary 463, 29.—Pass. (SIG 495, 171; PFay 11, 16 [c. 115 B.C.]; PAmh 50, 15; PTebt 327, 12 al.) ὡρισμένοι καιροί (Diod S 1, 41, 7; cp. 16, 29, 2; Jos., Ant. 6, 78) appointed times 1 Cl 40:2. ὡρισμένης τῆς ἡμέρας ταύτης after this day has been fixed Hv 2, 2, 5 (Diod S 2, 59, 5; 20, 110, 1 ὡρισμένη ἡμέρα; Herodian 1, 10, 5 ὡρισμένης ἡμέρας; Pollux 1, 67).—ὁ ὡρισμένος τόπος the appointed place 19:1 (cp. Iren. 5, 31, 2 [Harv. II 412, 1]). οἱ ὡρισμένοι νόμοι the established laws Dg 5:10. ὁ ὡρισμένος τῆς λειτουργίας κανών the established limits of (one’s) ministry 1 Cl 41:1. ἡ ὡρισμένη βουλή the definite plan Ac 2:23.—Subst. (cp. SIG 905, 14 τῶν ὁρισθέντων ἄγνοια) κατὰ τὸ ὡρισμένον in accordance with the (divine) decree Lk 22:22.
    β. by an inf. (Appian, Bell. Civ. 5, 3 §12 ἀντιδοῦναι=to give as recompense; ApcMos 28 φυλάττειν; B-D-F §392, 1a) ὥρισαν … πέμψαι they determined (perh. set apart; so Field, Notes 119f and TGillieson, ET 56, ’44/45, 110) … to send Ac 11:29; by an indirect quest. 1 Cl 40:3.
    of persons appoint, designate, declare: God judges the world ἐν ἀνδρὶ ᾧ ὥρισεν through a man whom he has appointed Ac 17:31. Pass. ὁ ὡρισμένος ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ κριτής the one appointed by God as judge 10:42. Of eccl. superintendents or overseers οἱ κατὰ τὰ πέρατα ὁρισθέντες those who are appointed in distant lands IEph 3:2. W. double acc. declare someone to be someth. (Meleag. in Anth. Pal. 12, 158, 7 σὲ γὰρ θεὸν ὥρισε δαίμων) pass. τοῦ ὁρισθέντος υἱοῦ θεοῦ ἐν δυνάμει who has been declared to be the powerful son of God Ro 1:4.—DELG s.v. ὅρος. M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ὁρίζω

  • 88 ὑπερέκεινα

    ὑπερέκεινα adv. (= ὑπέρ + ἐκεῖνα, cp. ἐπέκεινα. Thomas Mag. 155, 7 ἐπέκεινα ῥήτορες λέγουσιν … ὑπερέκεινα δὲ μόνοι οἱ σύρφακες [rabble].—B-D-F §116, 3; Rob. 171; 297) beyond used w. gen. τὰ ὑπερέκεινα ὑμῶν (sc. μέρη) the lands that lie beyond you 2 Cor 10:16 (B-D-F §184; Rob. 647).—DELG s.v. ἐκεῖ. M-M.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ὑπερέκεινα

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