Translation: from latin

country people

  • 1 pāgus

        pāgus ī, m    [PAC-], a district, canton, hundred, province, region: pagos et compita circum, the country, V.: si me toto laudet vicinia pago, Iu.—Among the Gauls and Germans, a district, canton, Cs., Ta.— Collect., the villagers, country people: Festus vacat pagus, H.: pagus agat festum, O.
    * * *
    country district/community, canton

    Latin-English dictionary > pāgus

  • 2 paganicus

    paganica, paganicum ADJ
    rustic; belonging to village/country people

    Latin-English dictionary > paganicus

  • 3 clavus

    clāvus, i, m. [root klu-, v. claudo; prop. that which shuts or fastens].
    A nail, usually of metal.

    offerumentas habebis pluris Quam ulla navis longa clavos,

    Plaut. Rud. 3, 4, 48:

    (leges) ad parietem fixae clavis ferreis,

    id. Trin. 4, 3, 32; so,

    clavi ferrei,

    Cato, R. R. 18 fin.; Caes. B. G. 3, 13; Vitr. 7, 3 al.—Sometimes of hard wood:

    clavis corneis occludere,

    Cato, R. R. 18 fin.:

    cornus... lignum utile, si quid cuneandum sit in ligno clavisve figendum ceu ferreis,

    Plin. 16, 40, 76, § 206:

    clavis religare tigna,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 10:

    clavos per modica intervalla figentes,

    Liv. 28, 20, 4.—

    Acc. to a Tuscan usage the ancient Romans designated the number of the year by nails, which the highest magistrate annually, at the Ides of September, drove into the wall of Jupiter's temple: clavo ab dictatore fixo,

    Liv. 7, 3, 3 sqq.; 8, 18, 12 sq.; 9, 28, 6: clavus annalis, Paul. ex Fest. p. 56, 10 Müll.; cf.

    O. Müll. Etrusk. 2, p. 329 sq., and Dict. of Antiq. p. 263. Also, in a later age, country people seem to have kept an account of the years in this way,

    Petr. 135, 8, 9.—Prov.: clavo clavum eicere, to drive out one nail by another (Gr. hêlôi ton hêlon, pattalôi ton pattalon, sc. dei exelaunein):

    novo quidam amore veterem amorem tamquam clavo clavum eiciendum putant,

    Cic. Tusc. 4, 35, 75: aliquid trabali clavo figere, to fasten with a large nail, to clinch a matter, id. Verr. 2, 5, 21, § 53; Arn. 2, p. 51.—
    As a symbol of immovable firmness:

    Necessitas Clavos trabales Gestans,

    Hor. C. 1, 35, 18:

    si figit adamantinos Necessitas Clavos,

    id. ib. 3, 24, 7; cf. O. Müll. as above cit., p. 331.—Hence,

    ex hoc die clavum anni movebis,

    i. e. reckon the beginning of the year, Cic. Att. 5, 15, 1:

    fixus animus clavo Cupidinis,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 4.—Prov.:

    beneficium trabali clavo figere (v. trabalis),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 21, § 53 Zumpt; cf. Arn. 2, p. 51.—
    Meton. of objects of like form.
    ( Lit. the handle of the rudder, the tiller; hence, pars pro toto.) The rudder, helm, in gen. (only sing.): ut clavum rectum teneam, Enn. ap. Isid. Orig. 19, 2, 12 (Ann. v. 472 Vahl.):

    clavum ad litora torquere,

    Verg. A. 5, 177 Serv.; 10, 218.—

    clavum tanti imperii tenere et gubernacula rei publicae tractare,

    Cic. Sest. 9, 20:


    to leave off the care of a thing, Arn. 3, 106: dum clavum rectum teneam, if I keep a steady helm, am not negligent (as in Gr. orthan tan naun), Quint. 2, 17, 24 Spald.; cf. the passage of Enn. supra. —
    In medic. lang., a painful tumor or excrescence, a wart, a corn; on the feet, Cels. 5, 28, 14. clavis in pedibus mederi, Plin. 20, 17, 71, § 184; 22, 23, 49, § 101 sq.; 26, 11, 66, § 106; 28, 16, 62, § 222;

    on the eye,

    Cels. 6, 7, 12;

    in the nose,

    Plin. 24, 14, 77, § 126;

    upon the neck of cattle,

    Col. 6, 14, 6;

    in sheep,

    id. 7, 5, 11.—Also a disease of the olive-tree, Plin. 17, 24, 37, § 223.—
    A kind of abortion of bees, Plin. 11, 16, 16, § 50.—
    A purple stripe on the tunica, which, for senators, was broad (latus, cf. laticlavius); for the equites, narrow (angustus; cf.

    angusticlavius). In the time of the emperors, however, the sons of the senators and equites also, who were preparing for civil office, wore the latus clavus,

    Liv. 9, 7, 9; Varr. L. L. 9, § 79 Müll.; Ov. Tr. 4, 10, 29 Jahn; cf. Hor. S. 1, 5, 36; 1, 6, 28; Quint. 11, 3, 138; Vell. 2, 88, 2; Suet. Aug. 94: tunicam ita consuere, ut altera plagula sit angustis clavis, altera latis, Varr L. L. 9, § 47 Müll.—Hence the phrase: latum clavum ab Caesare impetravi, i. e. I have become senator, Plin. Ep. 2, 9, 2; cf.:

    clavum alicui tribuere,

    Suet. Claud. 24:


    id. Vesp. 4:


    id. Tib. 35:


    id. Vesp. 2.—Rarely a purple stripe on bed or table cloths, Amm. 16, 8, 8.—
    Poet., a tunic, in gen., either wide or narrow striped:

    mutare in horas,

    Hor. S. 2, 7, 10:

    sumere depositum,

    id. ib. 1, 6, 25.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > clavus

  • 4 Nundina

    nundĭnus, a, um, adj. [novem-dies], of or belonging to nine days; hence, subst.
    Nundĭna, ae, f. (sc. dea), the goddess who presided over the purification and naming of infants, which took place in the case of boys on the ninth and in that of girls on the eighth day after birth, Macr. S. 1, 16, 36.—
    nundĭnae, ārum (sing. collat. form nundĭna, ae, Sid. Ep. 7, 5), f., the ninth day, i. e. the market-day, the weekly market; denoting the time, the place, and the business (on market-days the country people came into the city for the purpose of buying and selling, and of attending to public and religious affairs): nundinas feriatum diem esse voluerunt antiqui, ut rustici convenirent mercandi vendendique causā: eumque nefastum, ne, si liceret cum populo agi, interpellarentur nundinatores, Paul. ex Fest. p. 173 Müll.; cf.:

    Rutilius scribit, Romanos instituisse nundinas, ut octo quidem diebus in agris rustici opus facerent, nono autem die, intermisso rure, ad mercatum Legesque accipiendas Romam venirent,

    Macr. S. 1, 16, § 34:

    annum ita diviserunt, ut nonis modo diebus urbanas res usurparent, reliquis VII. ut rura colerent,

    Varr. R. R. 2 praef. § 1: erat in eo ipso loco nundinarum panêguris, Cic. Att. 1, 14, 1:

    illi Capuam nundinas rusticorum, horreum Campani agri esse voluerunt,

    id. Agr. 2, 33, 89; Plin. 28, 2, 5, § 28; 18, 3, 3, § 13:

    farris pretium in trinis nundinis ad assem redegit,

    id. 18, 3, 4, § 15.—
    Trop., trade, traffic, sale:

    totius rei publicae nundinae,

    Cic. Phil. 5, 4, 11; cf.:

    vectigalium flagitiosissimae nundinae,

    id. ib. 2, 14, 35.—
    nundĭnum, i, n., the markettime, for the most part only in the connection inter nundinum, the time between two nundinae, and trinum nundinum, the time of three nundinae, or at least seventeen days (reckoned from the first market-day to the third, inclusive; it was necessary that this period should expire before a bill could be put to the vote. Macr. S. 1, 16, § 34): si nihil gustat inter nundinum, Lucil. ap. Non. 214, 28:

    quoties priscus homo ac rusticus Romanus inter nundinum barbam radebat,

    Varr. ib. 214, 30; 32:

    postquam comitia decemviris creandis in trinum nundinum indicta sunt,

    on the third market-day, Liv. 3, 35:

    rogatio sive non trino forte nundino promulgata sive non idoneo die,

    Quint. 2, 4, 35:

    quod in ceteris legibus trinum nundinum esse oportet,

    Cic. Dom. 16, 41:

    primo nundino,

    Lampr. Alex. Sev. 28.—
    The duration of the consulship, under the emperors ( = two months), Vop. Tac. 9; Lampr. Alex. Sev. 43.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Nundina

  • 5 nundinus

    nundĭnus, a, um, adj. [novem-dies], of or belonging to nine days; hence, subst.
    Nundĭna, ae, f. (sc. dea), the goddess who presided over the purification and naming of infants, which took place in the case of boys on the ninth and in that of girls on the eighth day after birth, Macr. S. 1, 16, 36.—
    nundĭnae, ārum (sing. collat. form nundĭna, ae, Sid. Ep. 7, 5), f., the ninth day, i. e. the market-day, the weekly market; denoting the time, the place, and the business (on market-days the country people came into the city for the purpose of buying and selling, and of attending to public and religious affairs): nundinas feriatum diem esse voluerunt antiqui, ut rustici convenirent mercandi vendendique causā: eumque nefastum, ne, si liceret cum populo agi, interpellarentur nundinatores, Paul. ex Fest. p. 173 Müll.; cf.:

    Rutilius scribit, Romanos instituisse nundinas, ut octo quidem diebus in agris rustici opus facerent, nono autem die, intermisso rure, ad mercatum Legesque accipiendas Romam venirent,

    Macr. S. 1, 16, § 34:

    annum ita diviserunt, ut nonis modo diebus urbanas res usurparent, reliquis VII. ut rura colerent,

    Varr. R. R. 2 praef. § 1: erat in eo ipso loco nundinarum panêguris, Cic. Att. 1, 14, 1:

    illi Capuam nundinas rusticorum, horreum Campani agri esse voluerunt,

    id. Agr. 2, 33, 89; Plin. 28, 2, 5, § 28; 18, 3, 3, § 13:

    farris pretium in trinis nundinis ad assem redegit,

    id. 18, 3, 4, § 15.—
    Trop., trade, traffic, sale:

    totius rei publicae nundinae,

    Cic. Phil. 5, 4, 11; cf.:

    vectigalium flagitiosissimae nundinae,

    id. ib. 2, 14, 35.—
    nundĭnum, i, n., the markettime, for the most part only in the connection inter nundinum, the time between two nundinae, and trinum nundinum, the time of three nundinae, or at least seventeen days (reckoned from the first market-day to the third, inclusive; it was necessary that this period should expire before a bill could be put to the vote. Macr. S. 1, 16, § 34): si nihil gustat inter nundinum, Lucil. ap. Non. 214, 28:

    quoties priscus homo ac rusticus Romanus inter nundinum barbam radebat,

    Varr. ib. 214, 30; 32:

    postquam comitia decemviris creandis in trinum nundinum indicta sunt,

    on the third market-day, Liv. 3, 35:

    rogatio sive non trino forte nundino promulgata sive non idoneo die,

    Quint. 2, 4, 35:

    quod in ceteris legibus trinum nundinum esse oportet,

    Cic. Dom. 16, 41:

    primo nundino,

    Lampr. Alex. Sev. 28.—
    The duration of the consulship, under the emperors ( = two months), Vop. Tac. 9; Lampr. Alex. Sev. 43.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > nundinus

  • 6 Ocrea

    ō̆crĕa, ae, f. [okris, a prominence], x greave or leggin (made of mixed metal, and used to protect the legs of foot-soldiers, and also of hunters and country people;

    it was sometimes worn only on one leg): ocrea, quod opponebatur ob crus,

    Varr. L. L. 5, § 118 Müll.: ocrem montem confragosum dicebant antiqui. Hinc ocreae dictae inaequaliter tuberatae, Paul. ex Fest. p. 180 Müll.:

    ocreas et cristas invenere Cares,

    Plin. 7, 56, 57, § 200:


    Verg. A. 7, 634. —The Samnites wore a greave only on the left leg:

    sinistrum crus ocreā tectum,

    Liv. 9, 4 (cf. Sil. 8, 419).—Worn by heavy-armed Romans on the right leg, Veg. Mil. 1, 20.— Worn by hunters;

    v. ocreatus.—By rustics,

    Verg. M. 121:

    ocreas vendente puellā,

    i. e. parting with the attire of a gladiator, Juv. 6, 258.
    Ocrĕa, ae, m., a Roman surname:

    C. Luscius Ocrea,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 14, 43.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Ocrea

  • 7 pagus

    pāgus, i (old gen. PAGEIEI, which prob. is an error for PAGEI, Inscr. Orell. 3793), m. [root pak-, pag-, to make fast or firm, whence pango, pax, pagina; Gr. pêgnumi, pagos, etc.; prop., a place with fixed boundaries; hence], a district, canton, province (opp. to the city), the country (cf. vicus):

    paganalia (feriae sunt eorum) qui sunt aliquoius pagi,

    Varr. L. L. 6, § 24; cf. id. ib. § 26 Müll.: Lemonia tribus a pago Lemonio appellata est, Paul. ex Fest. p. 15:

    pagos et compita circum,

    Verg. G. 2, 382:

    omissis pagis vicisque,

    Tac. A. 1, 56:


    a country magistrate, Inscr. Orell. 3793 sq.:

    si me toto laudet vicinia pago,

    Juv. 14, 154.—Of the districts, cantons, of the Gauls and Germans:

    in Galliā... in omnibus pagis partibusque,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 11; 1, 12; 4, 1; 22; 6, 23; 7, 64; Tac. G. 39:

    cum Alamannorum pagos aliquos esse reputaret hostiles,

    Amm. 18, 2, 1.—
    The country people:

    festus in pratis vacat otioso Cum bove pagus,

    Hor. C. 3, 18, 11:

    pagus agat festum,

    Ov. F. 1, 669.—
    Novem Pagi, a city in Belgic Gaul, now Dieuze, Amm. 16, 2, 9 (al. Decem Pagi).

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > pagus

  • 8 rusticitas

    rustĭcĭtas, ātis, f. [rusticus] (not anteAug.).
    Country life and occupations, i. e. tillage, husbandry, Pall. Insit. 11.—
    Concr., country people, Pall. 1, 31; Cod. Just. 1, 55, 3.—
    Transf., the manners of the country or of country people, rustic behavior, rusticity (opp. urbanitas);

    in a good and (more freq.) in a bad sense: patria est ei Brixia, ex illā nostrā Italiā, quae multum adhuc verecundiae, frugalitatis atque etiam rusticitatis antiquae retinet ac servat,

    Plin. Ep. 1, 14, 4; cf. Plin. 35, 4, 9, § 26; Calp. Ecl. 4, 4.—In a bad sense:

    cultus adest, nec nostros mansit in annos Rusticitas priscis illa superstes avis,

    Ov. A. A. 3, 128:

    rusticitas, non pudor ille fuit,

    id. ib. 1, 672:

    vultus sine rusticitate pudentes,

    id. H. 20, 59:

    (urbanitas) cui contraria sit rusticitas,

    Quint. 6, 3, 17; cf.:

    et imperitia, et rusticitas, et rigor,

    id. 6, 1, 37:

    in quo (ore) nulla neque rusticitas neque peregrinitas resonet,

    id. 11, 3, 30:

    verborum atque ipsius etiam soni,

    id. 11, 3, 10:

    aliquem rusticitatis arguere,

    Suet. Caes. 53:

    ignorare propter rusticitatem jus suum,

    Dig. 49, 14, 2 fin.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > rusticitas

  • 9 rusticus

    rustĭcus, a, um, adj. [rus], of or belonging to the country, rural, rustic, country- (very freq. and class.; syn. agrestis; opp. urbanus).


    Varr. R. R. 3, 1, 1; cf.:

    vita haec rustica, quam tu agrestem vocas,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 27, 75:

    duae vitae hominum, rustica et urbana,

    id. ib. 17, 48:

    Romani (opp. urbani),

    Varr. R. R. 2, praef. § 1; cf. plebes (opp. urbana), Col. praef. § 17;


    Cic. Rosc. Am. 15, 42:


    Plin. Ep. 2, 17, 15:


    Phaedr. 4, 4, 24:


    Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 90:


    Cic. de Or. 1, 16, 69; 1, 58, 249;

    Col. praef. § 19 sq.: homo (with agricola),

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 49, 143; id. N. D. 3, 5, 11:


    Ov. F. 2, 645; cf.


    Hor. C. 3, 23, 2:

    mus (opp. urbanus),

    id. S. 2, 6, 80; 115:


    heathcocks, Varr. R. R. 3, 9, 16; Col. 8, 2, 1 sq. (cf. infra, B. 2. b.):


    Ov. M. 1, 192:


    id. ib. 8, 191:


    id. F. 6, 534:


    id. H. 4, 132:

    opprobria versibus alternis,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 146:


    Juv. 14, 24.—
    ru-stĭcus, i, m., a countryman, rustic, peasant; in plur.: rustici, country people, rustics:

    urbani fiunt rustici, etc.,

    Plaut. Mere. 4, 3, 15 sq.:

    omnes urbani, rustici,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 23, 77; cf. id. Or. 24, 81;

    semper occant prius quam sarriunt rustici,

    Plaut. Capt. 3, 5, 5; id. Most. 5, 1, 28; Col. 2, 4, 8; 9, 10 et saep.—In sing., Ov. M. 2, 699; Hor. Epod. 2, 68; id. Ep. 1, 7, 83; 2, 2, 39; Vulg. Sap. 17, 16.—
    rustĭca, ae, f.
    A country girl, Ov. M. 5, 583.—
    (Sc. gallina.) A heath-cock, Mart. 13, 76 (cf. supra, A., and rusticulus, II. B.).—
    Transf., countrylike, rustic, simple, in a good or (more freq.) in a bad sense, i. e. plain, simple, provincial, rough, coarse, gross, awkward, clownish, etc. (in this sense not freq. till after the Aug. period;

    previously, as in Cic., agrestis was more used): rustica vox et agrestis quosdam delectat, etc.... neque solum rusticam asperitatem, sed etiam peregrinam insolentiam fugere discamus,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 11, 42; 12, 44:

    pro bardā et pro rusticā haberi,

    Plaut. Pers. 2, 1, 2:

    rusticus inlitteratusque litigator,

    Quint. 2, 21, 16:

    manus (with indoctae),

    id. 1, 11, 16; cf.

    with indoctus,

    id. 12, 10, 53;

    with barbarus,

    id. 2, 20, 6;

    (opp. disertus) 7, 1, 43: id vitium sermonis non barbarum esse, sed rusticum,

    Gell. 13, 6, 2:

    Germana illuvies, rusticus, hircus, hara suis, etc.,

    a lout, clown, Plaut. Most. 1, 1, 39 Lorenz ad loc.:

    rusticus es, Corydon,

    Verg. E. 2, 56:

    quid coeptum, rustice, rumpis iter?

    Ov. Am. 3, 6, 88:

    addidit obscenis convicia rustica dictis,

    id. M. 14, 522: sive procax aliqua est;

    capior, quia rustica non est,

    very prudish, id. Am. 2, 4, 13; cf. id. A. A. 1, 607:

    nec tamen est, quamvis agros amet illa feraces, Rustica,

    id. Am. 3, 10, 18.—In a good sense:


    Cic. Rosc. Am. 27, 75:


    Mart. 10, 72, 11. — Comp.:

    simus hoc titulo rusticiore contenti,

    Sen. Ep. 88, 33.—Hence, adv.: ru-stĭcē (acc. to II.), in a countrified manner, clownishly, boorishly, awkwardly:

    loquinon aspere, non vaste, non rustice,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 12, 45:


    id. Off. 3, 9, 39:

    facere aliquid,

    id. Att. 12, 36, 2:

    cum eo vitio loquentes rustice loqui dictitabant,

    Gell. 13, 6, 2.— Comp.:

    rusticius toga defluit,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 31.— Sup. does not occur.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > rusticus

  • 10 sitio

    sĭtĭo, īvi or ĭi, 4, v. n. and a. [sitis].
    Neutr., to thirst, be thirsty (class.).

    ego esurio et sitio,

    Plaut. Cas. 3, 6, 6; 4, 3, 4:

    sitit haec anus,

    id. Curc. 1, 2, 14:

    in medio sitit flumine potans,

    Lucr. 4, 1100:

    ne homines sitirent,

    Suet. Aug. 42.—With gen.:

    cochleae cum sitiunt aëris,

    Symm. Ep. 1, 27.—Prov.:

    sitire mediis in undis,

    i. e. to be poor in the midst of wealth, Ov. M. 9, 760.—
    Transf. (esp. in the lang. of country people), of things (the earth, plants, etc.), to be dried up or parched, to want moisture:

    siquidem est eorum (rusticorum) gemmare vites, sitire agros, laetas esse segetes, etc.,

    Cic. Or. 24, 81; cf.:

    sitire segetes,

    Quint. 8, 6, 6: tosta sitit tellus, Ov. [p. 1713] F. 4, 940:


    Front. Aquaed. 87; cf. infra, P. a.: aret ager;

    vitio moriens sitit aëris herba,

    Verg. E. 7, 57:

    cum sitiunt herbae,

    id. G. 4, 402:


    Plin. 17, 26, 40, § 249:

    cacumina oleae,

    id. 17, 14, 24, § 103 et saep.:

    ipsi fontes jam sitiunt,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 4, § 11:

    nec pati sitire salgama,

    to be dry, Col. 12, 9, 2.—
    Act., to thirst after a thing (rare, but in the trop. signif. class.; cf.: cupio, desidero).

    auriferum Tagum sitiam patriumque Salonem,

    Mart. 10, 96, 3.— Pass.:

    quo plus sunt potae, plus sitiuntur aquae,

    are thirsted for, Ov. F. 1, 216:

    umor quomodo sititur destillans,

    Plin. 17, 2, 2, § 15.—
    Trop., as in all langg., to long for, thirst for, desire eagerly, covet:

    sanguinem nostrum sitiebat,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 7, 20; cf. Plin. 14, 22, 28, § 148:


    Just. 1, 8 fin. (opp. satiare); Sen. Thyest. 103: cruorem, Poët. ap. Suet. Tib. 59; cf.:

    sitit hasta cruores,

    Stat. Th. 12, 595:


    Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 5, 3:

    populus libertatem sitiens,

    id. Rep. 1, 43, 66:


    Val. Max. 7, 3 ext. 6; Vulg. Psa. 41, 3.—With gen.:

    non quidem fallacis undae sitit, sed verae beatitudinis esurit et sitit,

    App. de Deo Socr. 54, 27.—Hence, sĭtĭens, entis, P. a., thirsting, thirsty, athirst.

    ut ipse ad portam sitiens pervenerim,

    Cic. Pis. 25, 61:

    quae (pocula) arenti sitientes hausimus ore,

    Ov. M. 14, 277:


    Hor. S. 1, 1, 68:


    Ov. Am. 3, 6, 97:

    saecla ferarum,

    Lucr. 5, 947:

    sitienti aqua datur,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 23.—
    Transf. (acc. to I. B.), of places, plants, etc., dry, parched, arid, without moisture (syn. aridus):


    Ov. P. 1, 8, 60.—By metonymy also, Afri, Verg. E. 1, 65:


    Plin. 15, 3, 3, § 9:


    i. e. cloudless, bright, id. 17, 9, 8, § 57; 17, 14, 24, § 112:


    arid, parching, Ov. A. A. 2, 231.— Neutr. plur. absol.:

    lonchitis nascitur in sitientibus,

    in dry, arid places, Plin. 25, 11, 88, § 137; so,

    in sitientibus aut siccis asperis,

    id. 12, 28, 61, § 132.—With gen.:

    sitientia Africae,

    Plin. 10, 73, 94, § 201.—
    Trop., thirsting for, desiring eagerly, greedy:

    gravius ardentiusque sitiens,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 6, 16:

    (amator) avidus sitiensque,

    Ov. R. Am. 247:

    regna Ditis, Petr. poët. 121, 116: aures,

    Cic. Att. 2, 14, 1.— Poet.:

    modice sitiens lagena,

    of moderate capacity, Pers. 3, 92.—With gen.:


    Cic. Planc. 5, 13:


    Sil. 3, 578:

    pecuniae (with avarus et avidus),

    Gell. 12, 2, 13:


    Claud. Cons. Mall. Theod. 251.—Hence, adv.: sĭtĭenter, thirstily, eagerly, greedily (acc. to B.):

    sitienter quid expetens,

    Cic. Tusc. 4, 17, 37; so,

    incumbere hauriendis voluptatibus,

    Lact. 2, 1, 3:

    haurire salutares illas aquas,

    App. M. 9, p. 218 fin.; 3, p. 135, 35.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > sitio

  • 11 barbaria

        barbaria ae (nom. also -iēs, acc. iem), f    [barbarus], a strange land, foreign country (opp. Greece and Italy): barbariae bellum inferre: Quid tibi barbariem... numerem? O.: Graecia barbariae conlisa, i. e. Phrygia, H.: quae barbaria Indiā vastior. — Rudeness, savageness, barbarism: ista quanta barbaria est, savage state of society: inveterata: domestica, corrupting influence.—An uncivilized people: quale bellum nulla barbaria gessit.
    * * *
    strange/foreign land; uncivilized races, barbarity; brutality; barbarism

    Latin-English dictionary > barbaria

  • 12 campus

        campus ī, m    [SCAP-], a plain, field, open country, level place: campi patentes: virentes, H.: aequor campi, V.: in aequo campi, L.: campos peragrantes: redeunt iam gramina campis, H.: campi frumenti opulenti, L.: pigri, H.: planus lateque patens, O.: in campo sui facere potestatem, in the open field, N.: ut ignes in campo obstare queratur, in the open plain, H.: agros cum suis opimis campis: tantum campi, so vast a plain, V.: Aëris in campis latis, i. e. the Elysian fields, V.: campis atque Neptuno super, on land and sea, H.—Esp., a grassy plain in Rome, along the Tiber (dedicated to Mars; hence called Campus Martius), the place of assemblage for the people at the comitia centuriata, L.: quorum audaciam reieci in Campo: Descendat in Campum petitor, H.: consularibus comitiis consecratus; it was used for games, exercise, and military drills; hence, campus noster: ludere in campo, H.: uti Et ludis et post decisa negotia Campo, H.: Quantos virūm Campus aget gemitūs (at the funeral of Marcellus), V. — A level surface (of a sea, a rock, etc., poet.): campi liquentes, V.: campus aquae, O.: inmotā attollitur undā Campus (i. e. saxum), V.— Fig., a place of action, field, theatre, arena: aequitatis: magnus in re p.: campus Per quem magnus equos Auruncae flexit alumnus, i. e. the kind of composition practised by Lucilius ( satire), Iu.— The comitia held in the Campus Martius: fors domina Campi.
    * * *
    plain; level field/surface; open space for battle/games; sea; scope; campus

    Latin-English dictionary > campus

  • 13 gēns

        gēns gentis, f    [GEN-], a race, clan, house (of families having a name and certain religious rites in common): Minucia: clarissima Corneliorum, S.: patres maiorum gentium: minorum gentium patres, L.: gentis enuptio, the right of marrying out of her gens, L.: periurus, sine gente, i. e. of no family, H.: maiorum gentium di, of the highest rank: dii minorum gentium, of the inferior orders: maiorum gentium Stoicus, i. e. eminent.—A descendant, offspring, representative: deūm gens, Aenea, V.; cf. heroës, deūm gens, Ct.: (equos) in spem submittere gentis, V.— A tribe, brood, crew: ista Clodiana.— A race, species, breed: human<*>, C., H.: haec (i. e. volpes), O.— A race, tribe, people: eiusdem gentis (esse): Suebi, quorum non una gens, Ta.: exterae gentes: exercitus compositus ex variis gentibus, S.: Nerviorum, Cs.: oppidum Thessaliae, quae gens miserat, etc., community, Cs.: omnes eius gentis cives, N.: ius gentium: ubicumque terrarum et gentium, in the world: ubinam gentium sumus? on earth: nusquam gentium, T.: tu autem longe gentium, far away in the world: minime gentium, by no means, T.— Plur, foreign nations, foreigners: duretque gentibus amor nostri, Ta.— A region, country: qui Cataoniam tenebat: quae gens iacet, etc.
    * * *
    tribe, clan; nation, people; Gentiles

    Latin-English dictionary > gēns

  • 14 ōra

        ōra ae, f    [1 AS-], an extremity, border, brim, edge, rim, margin, end, boundary, limit: omnes spectant ad carceris oras, at the barriers, Enn. ap. C.: (clipei), V.: summa (vestis), O.: regiones, quarum nulla esset ora: subiecti Orientis orae Serae, the extreme East, H.—The coast, sea-coast: Asiae, N.: maritima, Cs.: ora maritima Pompeium requisivit, the people of the coast.—A region, clime, country: terrarum latior: gelida, H.: Troiae qui primus ab oris Italiam venit, V.: quae se tollunt in luminis oras, the world of life, V.: o Calliope... mecum oras evolvite belli, the scenes of the war, V.— A zone: globus terrae duabus oris distantibus habitabilis.
    * * *
    shore, coast

    Latin-English dictionary > ōra

  • 15 populāris

        populāris e, adj. with comp.    [1 populus], of the people, proceeding from the people, popular, general, common: leges, instituted by the people: munus, to the people: verba: dictio ad popularem sensum accommodata: oratio: laudes, by the people: ventus, popular favor: aura, H.— Of the same people, of the country, native, indigenous: queri puellis de popularibus, H.: flumina, of the same district, O.: oliva, native, O.: virgo tibi, of thy nation, O.—As subst m., a fellow-countryman, compatriot, associate, fellow, comrade, accomplice: suus: quae res indicabat popularīs esse, his own army, S.: non popularīs modo concitat, L.: populares coniurationis, accomplices, S.— Of the people, devoted to the people, attached to the commons, popular, democratic: genus (rei p.): animus: ingenium, L.: sacerdos, i. e. Clodius.—Acceptable to the people, agreeable to the multitude, popular: consul: quo nihil popularius est, L.— Plur m. as subst, the popular party, democrats.
    * * *
    compatriot, fellow citizen/from same community; partner/associate; inhabitant; member of "Popular" party, promoter of "Popular" policies, "Men of the People"
    popularis, populare ADJ
    of the people; popular

    Latin-English dictionary > populāris

  • 16 regiō

        regiō ōnis, f    [REG-], a direction, line: de rectā regione deflectere, from the direct path: ab planitie rectā regione abesse, in a straight line, Cs.: non rectā regione iter instituit, sed ad laevam flexit, L.: notā excedo regione viarum, i. e. the frequented streets, V.: Nec sidus regione viae fefellit, direction, V.: superare regionem castrorum, line, Cs.: haec eadem est nostrae rationis regio et via, I follow the same direction and path.—In the phrase, e regione, in a straight line, directly: e regione moveri: ferri, petere.— In the opposite direction, over against, exactly opposite: (luna) cum est e regione solis: e regione turris: e regione castris castra ponere, Cs.— A line of sight, visual line, boundary-line, boundary, limit: quae regione orbem terrarum definiunt: caeli regionibus terminare: si res eae orbis terrae regionibus definiuntur.—Esp., in augury: nempe eo (lituo) Romulus regiones direxit, drew (in the air): lituus quo regiones vineae terminavit.—Fig.: quibus regionibus vitae spatium circumscriptum est: vix facile sese regionibus offici continere.—Of the sky, a quarter, region: regio (lunae mutatur), quae tum est aquilonia tum australis: Atque eadem regio Vesper et Ortus erit, O.: Vespertina, H.: caeli serena, V.: occidentis, L.— A region, neighborhood, quarter, situation: eam esse naturam et regionem provinciae tuae, ut, etc., i. e. the geographical situation: agri fertilissima, Cs.: regione castrorum, in the vicinity of the camp, L.: deserta siti regio, V.: acie regione instructā non apertissimā, N.: Quor in his te conspicor regionibus? T.— A portion of country, territory, province, district, region: regio, quae ad Aduaticos adiacet, Cs.: regio, quae mari cincta esset: Pedana, H.: Cantium, quae regio est maritima omnis, Cs.: terrae maximae regiones inhabitabiles: in quattuor regiones dividi Macedoniam, L.: ut quam latissimas regiones praesidiis teneret, Cs.— A district with its people, country, nation: aspera et fidelis et fautrix suorum: quae regio si fida Samnitibus esset, L.—Fig., a province, department, sphere: ‘benedicere’ non habet definitam aliquam regionem, has no determinate province.
    * * *
    area, region; neighborhood; district, country; direction

    Latin-English dictionary > regiō

  • 17 Sabīnus

        Sabīnus adj.,    of the Sabini, Sabine, C., L., H.: herba, a kind of juniper, savin (used for incense), O.—As subst n.: vile (sc. vinum), Sabine wine, H. — Plur: Satis beatus unicis Sabinis (sc. praediis), with my Sabine country-seat, H.
    * * *
    Sabina, Sabinum ADJ
    Sabine, of the Sabines/their country/that area; the shrub savin/its oil
    Sabines (pl.), people living NE of Rome; their territory; an estate there

    Latin-English dictionary > Sabīnus

  • 18 tribus

        tribus ūs (dat. and abl plur., tribūbus, C., L.), f    [cf. tres], a third part of the people (as orig. divided into Ramnes, Tities, and Luceres); hence, in pen., an hereditary division of the people, tribe (under the constitution of Servius Tullius, four for the city and twenty-six for the country districts; at a later date there were thirty-one country tribes): illum quinque et triginta tribūs patronum adoptaverunt: a Romuliā tribu initium facere: fieri se pro tribu aedilem, received the vote of the tribe for the aedileship, L.: vocatis tribubus, L.: Africanus censor tribu movebat eum centurionem, expelled from the tribe: Grammaticas ambire tribūs, to canvass the Grammaman tribes, H.
    * * *
    third part of the people; tribe, hereditary division (Ramnes, Tities, Luceres)

    Latin-English dictionary > tribus

  • 19 ab

    ăb, ā, abs, prep. with abl. This IndoEuropean particle (Sanscr. apa or ava, Etr. av, Gr. upo, Goth. af, Old Germ. aba, New Germ. ab, Engl. of, off) has in Latin the following forms: ap, af, ab (av), au-, a, a; aps, abs, as-. The existence of the oldest form, ap, is proved by the oldest and best MSS. analogous to the prep. apud, the Sanscr. api, and Gr. epi, and by the weakened form af, which, by the rule of historical grammar and the nature of the Latin letter f, can be derived only from ap, not from ab. The form af, weakened from ap, also very soon became obsolete. There are but five examples of it in inscriptions, at the end of the sixth and in the course of the seventh century B. C., viz.:


    Inscr. Orell. 3114;

    AF MVRO,

    ib. 6601;


    ib. 3308;

    AF SOLO,

    ib. 589;

    AF LYCO,

    ib. 3036 ( afuolunt =avolant, Paul. ex Fest. p. 26 Mull., is only a conjecture). In the time of Cicero this form was regarded as archaic, and only here and there used in account-books; v. Cic. Or. 47, 158 (where the correct reading is af, not abs or ab), and cf. Ritschl, Monum. Epigr. p. 7 sq.—The second form of this preposition, changed from ap, was ab, which has become the principal form and the one most generally used through all periods—and indeed the only oue used before all vowels and h; here and there also before some consonants, particularly l, n, r, and s; rarely before c, j, d, t; and almost never before the labials p, b, f, v, or before m, such examples as ab Massiliensibus, Caes. B. C. 1, 35, being of the most rare occurrence.—By changing the b of ab through v into u, the form au originated, which was in use only in the two compounds aufero and aufugio for abfero, ab-fugio; aufuisse for afuisse, in Cod. Medic. of Tac. A. 12, 17, is altogether unusual. Finally, by dropping the b of ab, and lengthening the a, ab was changed into a, which form, together with ab, predominated through all periods of the Latin language, and took its place before all consonants in the later years of Cicero, and after him almoet exclusively.—By dropping the b without lengthening the a, ab occurs in the form a- in the two compounds a-bio and a-perio, q. v.—On the other hand, instead of reducing ap to a and a, a strengthened collateral form, aps, was made by adding to ap the letter s (also used in particles, as in ex, mox, vix). From the first, aps was used only before the letters c, q, t, and was very soon changed into abs (as ap into ab):

    abs chorago,

    Plaut. Pers. 1, 3, 79 (159 Ritschl):

    abs quivis,

    Ter. Ad. 2, 3, 1:

    abs terra,

    Cato, R. R. 51;

    and in compounds: aps-cessero,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 1, 24 (625 R.); id. ib. 3, 2, 84 (710 R): abs-condo, abs-que, abs-tineo, etc. The use of abs was confined almost exclusively to the combination abs te during the whole ante-classic period, and with Cicero till about the year 700 A. U. C. (=B. C. 54). After that time Cicero evidently hesitates between abs te and a te, but during the last five or six years of his life a te became predominant in all his writings, even in his letters; consequently abs te appears but rarely in later authors, as in Liv. 10, 19, 8; 26, 15, 12;

    and who, perhaps, also used abs conscendentibus,

    id. 28, 37, 2; v. Drakenb. ad. h. l. (Weissenb. ab).—Finally abs, in consequence of the following p, lost its b, and became ds- in the three compounds aspello, as-porto, and as-pernor (for asspernor); v. these words.—The late Lat. verb abbrevio may stand for adbrevio, the d of ad being assimilated to the following b.The fundamental signification of ab is departure from some fixed point (opp. to ad. which denotes motion to a point).
    In space, and,
    Fig., in time and other relations, in which the idea of departure from some point, as from source and origin, is included; Engl. from, away from, out of; down from; since, after; by, at, in, on, etc.
    Lit., in space: ab classe ad urbem tendunt, Att. ap. Non. 495, 22 (Trag. Rel. p. 177 Rib.):

    Caesar maturat ab urbe proficisci,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 7:

    fuga ab urbe turpissima,

    Cic. Att. 7, 21:

    ducite ab urbe domum, ducite Daphnim,

    Verg. E. 8, 68. Cicero himself gives the difference between ab and ex thus: si qui mihi praesto fuerit cum armatis hominibus extra meum fundum et me introire prohibuerit, non ex eo, sed ab ( from, away from) eo loco me dejecerit....Unde dejecti Galli? A Capitolio. Unde, qui cum Graccho fucrunt? Ex Capitolio, etc., Cic. Caecin. 30, 87; cf. Diom. p. 408 P., and a similar distinction between ad and in under ad.—Ellipt.: Diogenes Alexandro roganti, ut diceret, si quid opus esset: Nunc quidem paululum, inquit, a sole, a little out of the sun, Cic. Tusc. 5, 32, 92. —Often joined with usque:

    illam (mulierem) usque a mari supero Romam proficisci,

    all the way from, Cic. Clu. 68, 192; v. usque, I.—And with ad, to denote the space passed over: siderum genus ab ortu ad occasum commeant, from... to, Cic. N. D. 2, 19 init.; cf. ab... in:

    venti a laevo latere in dextrum, ut sol, ambiunt,

    Plin. 2, 47, 48, § 128.
    Sometimes with names of cities and small islands, or with domus (instead of the usual abl.), partie., in militnry and nautieal language, to denote the marching of soldiers, the setting out of a flcet, or the departure of the inhabitants from some place:

    oppidum ab Aenea fugiente a Troja conditum,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 33:

    quemadmodum (Caesar) a Gergovia discederet,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 43 fin.; so id. ib. 7, 80 fin.; Sall. J. 61; 82; 91; Liv. 2, 33, 6 al.; cf.:

    ab Arimino M. Antonium cum cohortibus quinque Arretium mittit,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 11 fin.; and:

    protinus a Corfinio in Siciliam miserat,

    id. ib. 1, 25, 2:

    profecti a domo,

    Liv. 40, 33, 2;

    of setting sail: cum exercitus vestri numquam a Brundisio nisi hieme summa transmiserint,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 12, 32; so id. Fam. 15, 3, 2; Caes. B. C. 3, 23; 3, 24 fin.:

    classe qua advecti ab domo fuerant,

    Liv. 8, 22, 6;

    of citizens: interim ab Roma legatos venisse nuntiatum est,

    Liv. 21, 9, 3; cf.:

    legati ab Orico ad M. Valerium praetorem venerunt,

    id. 24, 40, 2.
    Sometimes with names of persons or with pronouns: pestem abige a me, Enn. ap. Cic. Ac. 2, 28, 89 (Trag. v. 50 Vahl.):

    Quasi ad adulescentem a patre ex Seleucia veniat,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 3, 41; cf.:

    libertus a Fuflis cum litteris ad Hermippum venit,

    Cic. Fl. 20, 47:

    Nigidium a Domitio Capuam venisse,

    id. Att. 7, 24:

    cum a vobis discessero,

    id. Sen. 22:

    multa merces tibi defluat ab Jove Neptunoque,

    Hor. C. 1, 28, 29 al. So often of a person instead of his house, lodging, etc.: videat forte hic te a patre aliquis exiens, from the father, i. e. from his house, Ter. Heaut. 2, 2, 6:

    so a fratre,

    id. Phorm. 5, 1, 5:

    a Pontio,

    Cic. Att. 5, 3 fin.:

    ab ea,

    Ter. And. 1, 3, 21; and so often: a me, a nobis, a se, etc., from my, our, his house, etc., Plaut. Stich. 5, 1, 7; Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 50; Cic. Att. 4, 9, 1 al.
    Transf., without the idea of motion. To designate separation or distance, with the verbs abesse, distare, etc., and with the particles longe, procul, prope, etc.
    Of separation:

    ego te afuisse tam diu a nobis dolui,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 1, 2:

    abesse a domo paulisper maluit,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 18, § 39:

    tum Brutus ab Roma aberat,

    Sall. C. 40, 5:

    absint lacerti ab stabulis,

    Verg. G. 4, 14.—
    Of distance:

    quot milia fundus suus abesset ab urbe,

    Cic. Caecin. 10, 28; cf.:

    nos in castra properabamus, quae aberant bidui,

    id. Att. 5, 16 fin.; and:

    hic locus aequo fere spatio ab castris Ariovisti et Caesaris aberat,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 43, 1:

    terrae ab hujusce terrae, quam nos incolimus, continuatione distantes,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 66, 164:

    non amplius pedum milibus duobus ab castris castra distabant,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 82, 3; cf. id. lb. 1, 3, 103.—With adverbs: annos multos longinque ab domo bellum gerentes, Enn. ap. Non. 402, 3 (Trag. v. 103 Vahl.):

    cum domus patris a foro longe abesset,

    Cic. Cael. 7, 18 fin.; cf.:

    qui fontes a quibusdam praesidiis aberant longius,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 49, 5:

    quae procul erant a conspectu imperii,

    Cic. Agr. 2, 32, 87; cf.:

    procul a castris hostes in collibus constiterunt,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 17, 1; and:

    tu procul a patria Alpinas nives vides,

    Verg. E. 10, 46 (procul often also with simple abl.;

    v. procul): cum esset in Italia bellum tam prope a Sicilia, tamen in Sicilia non fuit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 6; cf.:

    tu apud socrum tuam prope a meis aedibus sedebas,

    id. Pis. 11, 26; and:

    tam prope ab domo detineri,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 3, § 6.—So in Caesar and Livy, with numerals to designate the measure of the distance:

    onerariae naves, quae ex eo loco ab milibus passuum octo vento tenebatur,

    eight miles distant, Caes. B. G. 4, 22, 4; and without mentioning the terminus a quo: ad castra contenderunt, et ab milibus passunm minus duobus castra posuerunt, less than two miles off or distant, id. ib. 2, 7, 3; so id. ib. 2, 5, 32; 6, 7, 3; id. B. C. 1, 65; Liv. 38, 20, 2 (for which:

    duo milia fere et quingentos passus ab hoste posuerunt castra,

    id. 37, 38, 5). —
    To denote the side or direction from which an object is viewed in its local relations,=a parte, at, on, in: utrum hacin feriam an ab laeva latus? Enn. ap. Plaut. Cist. 3, 10 (Trag. v. 38 Vahl.); cf.:

    picus et cornix ab laeva, corvos, parra ab dextera consuadent,

    Plaut. As. 2, 1, 12: clamore ab ea parte audito. on this side, Caes. B. G. 3, 26, 4: Gallia Celtica attingit ab Sequanis et Helvetiis flumen Rhenum, on the side of the Sequani, i. e. their country, id. ib. 1, 1, 5:

    pleraque Alpium ab Italia sicut breviora ita arrectiora sunt,

    on the Italian side, Liv. 21, 35, 11:

    non eadem diligentia ab decumuna porta castra munita,

    at the main entrance, Caes. B. G. 3, 25 fin.:

    erat a septentrionibus collis,

    on the north, id. ib. 7, 83, 2; so, ab oriente, a meridie, ab occasu; a fronte, a latere, a tergo, etc. (v. these words).
    In time.
    From a [p. 3] point of time, without reference to the period subsequently elapsed. After:

    Exul ab octava Marius bibit,

    Juv. 1,40:

    mulieres jam ab re divin[adot ] adparebunt domi,

    immediately after the sucrifice, Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 4:

    Caesar ab decimae legionis cohortatione ad dextrum cornu profectus,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 25, 1:

    ab hac contione legati missi sunt,

    immediately after, Liv. 24, 22, 6; cf. id. 28, 33, 1; 40, 47, 8; 40, 49, 1 al.:

    ab eo magistratu,

    after this office, Sall. J. 63, 5:

    a summa spe novissima exspectabat,

    after the greatest hope, Tac. A. 6, 50 fin. —Strengthened by the adverbs primum, confestim, statim, protinus, or the adj. recens, immediately after, soon after:

    ut primum a tuo digressu Romam veni,

    Cic. Att. 1, 5, 4; so Suet. Tib. 68:

    confestim a proelio expugnatis hostium castris,

    Liv. 30, 36, 1:

    statim a funere,

    Suet. Caes. 85;

    and followed by statim: ab itinere statim,

    id. ib. 60:

    protinus ab adoptione,

    Vell. 2, 104, 3:

    Homerus qui recens ab illorum actate fuit,

    soon after their time, Cic. N. D. 3, 5; so Varr. R. R. 2, 8, 2; Verg. A. 6, 450 al. (v. also primum, confestim, etc.).—

    Sometimes with the name of a person or place, instead of an action: ibi mihi tuae litterae binae redditae sunt tertio abs te die,

    i. e. after their departure from you, Cic. Att. 5, 3, 1: in Italiam perventum est quinto mense a Carthagine Nov[adot ], i. e. after leaving (=postquam a Carthagine profecti sunt), Liv. 21, 38, 1:

    secundo Punico (bello) Scipionis classis XL. die a securi navigavit,

    i. e. after its having been built, Plin. 16, 39, 74, § 192. —Hence the poct. expression: ab his, after this (cf. ek toutôn), i. e. after these words, hereupon, Ov. M. 3, 273; 4, 329; 8, 612; 9, 764.
    With reference to a subsequent period. From, since, after:

    ab hora tertia bibebatur,

    from the third hour, Cic. Phil. 2, 41:

    infinito ex tempore, non ut antea, ab Sulla et Pompeio consulibus,

    since the consulship of, id. Agr. 2, 21, 56:

    vixit ab omni aeternitate,

    from all eternity, id. Div. 1, 51, 115:

    cum quo a condiscipulatu vivebat conjunctissime,

    Nep. Att. 5, 3:

    in Lycia semper a terrae motu XL. dies serenos esse,

    after an earthquake, Plin. 2, 96, 98, § 211 al.:

    centesima lux est haec ab interitu P. Clodii,

    since the death of, Cic. Mil. 35, 98; cf.:

    cujus a morte quintus hic et tricesimus annus est,

    id. Sen. 6, 19; and:

    ab incenso Capitolio illum esse vigesumiun annum,

    since, Sall. C. 47, 2:

    diebus triginta, a qua die materia caesa est,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 36.—Sometimes joined with usque and inde:

    quod augures omnes usque ab Romulo decreverunt,

    since the time of, Cic. Vat. 8, 20:

    jam inde ab infelici pugna ceciderant animi,

    from the very beginning of, Liv. 2, 65 fin. —Hence the adverbial expressions ab initio, a principio, a primo, at, in, or from the beginning, at first; v. initium, principium, primus. Likewise ab integro, anew, afresh; v. integer.—Ab... ad, from (a time)... to:

    ab hora octava ad vesperum secreto collocuti sumus,

    Cic. Att. 7, 8, 4; cf.:

    cum ab hora septima ad vesperum pugnatum sit,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 26, 2; and:

    a quo tempore ad vos consules anni sunt septingenti octoginta unus,

    Vell. 1, 8, 4; and so in Plautus strengthened by usque:

    pugnata pugnast usque a mane ad vesperum,

    from morning to evening, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 97; id. Most. 3, 1, 3; 3, 2, 80.—Rarely ab... in: Romani ab sole orto in multum diei stetere in acie, from... till late in the day, Liv. 27, 2, 9; so Col. 2, 10, 17; Plin. 2, 31, 31, § 99; 2, 103, 106, § 229; 4, 12, 26, § 89.
    Particularly with nouns denoting a time of life:

    qui homo cum animo inde ab ineunte aetate depugnat suo,

    from an early age, from early youth, Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 24; so Cic. Off. 2, 13, 44 al.:

    mihi magna cum co jam inde a pueritia fuit semper famillaritas,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 2, 9; so,

    a pueritia,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 11, 27 fin.; id. Fam. 5, 8, 4:

    jam inde ab adulescentia,

    Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 16:

    ab adulescentia,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 1:

    jam a prima adulescentia,

    id. Fam. 1, 9, 23:

    ab ineunte adulescentia,

    id. ib. 13, 21, 1; cf.

    followed by ad: usque ad hanc aetatem ab incunte adulescentia,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 20:

    a primis temporibus aetatis,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 3, 3:

    a teneris unguiculis,

    from childhood, id. ib. 1, 6, 2:

    usque a toga pura,

    id. Att. 7, 8, 5:

    jam inde ab incunabulis,

    Liv. 4, 36, 5:

    a prima lanugine,

    Suet. Oth. 12:

    viridi ab aevo,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 10, 17 al.;

    rarely of animals: ab infantia,

    Plin. 10, 63, 83, § 182.—Instead of the nom. abstr. very often (like the Greek ek paioôn, etc.) with concrete substantives: a pucro, ab adulescente, a parvis, etc., from childhood, etc.:

    qui olim a puero parvulo mihi paedagogus fuerat,

    Plaut. Merc. 1, 1, 90; so,

    a pausillo puero,

    id. Stich. 1, 3, 21:

    a puero,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 36, 115; id. Fam. 13, 16, 4 (twice) al.:

    a pueris,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 24, 57; id. de Or. 1, 1, 2 al.:

    ab adulescente,

    id. Quint. 3, 12:

    ab infante,

    Col. 1, 8, 2:

    a parva virgine,

    Cat. 66, 26 al. —Likewise and in the same sense with adject.: a parvo, from a little child, or childhood, Liv. 1, 39, 6 fin.; cf.:

    a parvis,

    Ter. And. 3, 3, 7; Cic. Leg. 2, 4, 9:

    a parvulo,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 8; id. Ad. 1, 1, 23; cf.:

    ab parvulis,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 21, 3:

    ab tenero,

    Col. 5, 6, 20;

    and rarely of animals: (vacca) a bima aut trima fructum ferre incipit,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 13.
    In other relations in which the idea of going forth, proceeding, from something is included.
    In gen. to denote departure, separation, deterring, avoiding, intermitting, etc., or distance, difference, etc., of inanimate or abstract things. From: jus atque aecum se a malis spernit procul, Enn. ap. Non. 399, 10 (Trag. v. 224 Vahl.):

    suspitionem et culpam ut ab se segregent,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 42:

    qui discessum animi a corpore putent esse mortem,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 9, 18:

    hic ab artificio suo non recessit,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 20 al.:

    quod si exquiratur usque ab stirpe auctoritas,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 180:

    condicionem quam ab te peto,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 87; cf.:

    mercedem gloriae flagitas ab iis, quorum, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 15, 34:

    si quid ab illo acceperis,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 90:

    quae (i. e. antiquitas) quo propius aberat ab ortu et divina progenie,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 12, 26:

    ab defensione desistere,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 12, 4:

    ne quod tempus ab opere intermitteretur,

    id. B. G. 7, 24, 2:

    ut homines adulescentis a dicendi studio deterream,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 25, 117, etc.—Of distance (in order, rank, mind, or feeling):

    qui quartus ab Arcesila fuit,

    the fourth in succession from, Cic. Ac. 1, 12, 46:

    tu nunc eris alter ab illo,

    next after him, Verg. E. 5, 49; cf.:

    Aiax, heros ab Achille secundus,

    next in rank to, Hor. S. 2, 3, 193:

    quid hoc ab illo differt,

    from, Cic. Caecin. 14, 39; cf.:

    hominum vita tantum distat a victu et cultu bestiarum,

    id. Off. 2, 4, 15; and:

    discrepare ab aequitate sapientiam,

    id. Rep. 3, 9 fin. (v. the verbs differo, disto, discrepo, dissideo, dissentio, etc.):

    quae non aliena esse ducerem a dignitate,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7:

    alieno a te animo fuit,

    id. Deiot. 9, 24 (v. alienus). —So the expression ab re (qs. aside from the matter, profit; cf. the opposite, in rem), contrary to one's profit, to a loss, disadvantageous (so in the affirmative very rare and only ante-class.):

    subdole ab re consulit,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 1, 12; cf. id. Capt. 2, 2, 88; more frequently and class. (but not with Cicero) in the negative, non, haud, ab re, not without advantage or profit, not useless or unprofitable, adcantageous:

    haut est ab re aucupis,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 71:

    non ab re esse Quinctii visum est,

    Liv. 35, 32, 6; so Plin. 27, 8, 35; 31, 3, 26; Suet. Aug. 94; id. Dom. 11; Gell. 18, 14 fin.; App. Dogm. Plat. 3, p. 31, 22 al. (but in Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 44, ab re means with respect to the money matter).
    In partic.
    To denote an agent from whom an action proceeds, or by whom a thing is done or takes place. By, and in archaic and solemn style, of. So most frequently with pass. or intrans. verbs with pass. signif., when the active object is or is considered as a living being: Laudari me abs te, a laudato viro, Naev. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 31, 67: injuria abs te afficior, Enn. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 24, 38:

    a patre deductus ad Scaevolam,

    Cic. Lael. 1, 1:

    ut tamquam a praesentibus coram haberi sermo videretur,

    id. ib. 1, 3:

    disputata ab eo,

    id. ib. 1, 4 al.:

    illa (i. e. numerorum ac vocum vis) maxime a Graecia vetere celebrata,

    id. de Or. 3, 51, 197:

    ita generati a natura sumus,

    id. Off. 1, 29, 103; cf.:

    pars mundi damnata a rerum natura,

    Plin. 4, 12, 26, § 88:

    niagna adhibita cura est a providentia deorum,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 51 al. —With intrans. verbs:

    quae (i. e. anima) calescit ab eo spiritu,

    is warmed by this breath, Cic. N. D. 2, 55, 138; cf. Ov. M. 1, 417: (mare) qua a sole collucet, Cic. Ac. 2, 105:

    salvebis a meo Cicerone,

    i. e. young Cicero sends his compliments to you, id. Att. 6, 2 fin.:

    a quibus (Atheniensibus) erat profectus,

    i. e. by whose command, Nep. Milt. 2, 3:

    ne vir ab hoste cadat,

    Ov. H. 9, 36 al. —A substantive or adjective often takes the place of the verb (so with de, q. v.):

    levior est plaga ab amico quam a debitore,

    Cic. Fam. 9, 16, 7; cf.:

    a bestiis ictus, morsus, impetus,

    id. Off. 2, 6, 19:

    si calor est a sole,

    id. N. D. 2, 52:

    ex iis a te verbis (for a te scriptis),

    id. Att. 16, 7, 5:

    metu poenae a Romanis,

    Liv. 32, 23, 9:

    bellum ingens a Volscis et Aequis,

    id. 3, 22, 2:

    ad exsolvendam fldem a consule,

    id. 27, 5, 6.—With an adj.:

    lassus ab equo indomito,

    Hor. S. 2, 2, 10:

    Murus ab ingenic notior ille tuo,

    Prop. 5, 1, 126:

    tempus a nostris triste malis,

    time made sad by our misfortunes, Ov. Tr. 4, 3, 36.—Different from per:

    vulgo occidebantur: per quos et a quibus?

    by whom and upon whose orders? Cic. Rosc. Am. 29, 80 (cf. id. ib. 34, 97: cujus consilio occisus sit, invenio; cujus manu sit percussus, non laboro); so,

    ab hoc destitutus per Thrasybulum (i. e. Thrasybulo auctore),

    Nep. Alc. 5, 4.—Ambiguity sometimes arises from the fact that the verb in the pass. would require ab if used in the active:

    si postulatur a populo,

    if the people demand it, Cic. Off. 2, 17, 58, might also mean, if it is required of the people; on the contrary: quod ab eo (Lucullo) laus imperatoria non admodum exspectabatur, not since he did not expect military renown, but since they did not expect military renown from him, Cic. Ac. 2, 1, 2, and so often; cf. Rudd. II. p. 213. (The use of the active dative, or dative of the agent, instead of ab with the pass., is well known, Zumpt, § 419. It is very seldom found in prose writers of the golden age of Roman liter.; with Cic. sometimes joined with the participles auditus, cognitus, constitutus, perspectus, provisus, susceptus; cf. Halm ad Cic. Imp. Pomp. 24, 71, and ad ejusdem, Cat. 1, 7 fin.; but freq. at a later period; e. g. in Pliny, in Books 2-4 of H. N., more than twenty times; and likewise in Tacitus seventeen times. Vid. the passages in Nipperd. ad Tac. A. 2, 49.) Far more unusual is the simple abl. in the designation of persons:

    deseror conjuge,

    Ov. H. 12, 161; so id. ib. 5, 75; id. M. 1, 747; Verg. A. 1, 274; Hor. C. 2, 4, 9; 1, 6, 2;

    and in prose,

    Quint. 3, 4, 2; Sen. Contr. 2, 1; Curt. 6, 7, 8; cf. Rudd. II. p. 212; Zumpt ad Quint. V. p. 122 Spalding.—Hence the adverbial phrase a se=uph heautou, sua sponte, of one's own uccord, spontaneously:

    ipsum a se oritur et sua sponte nascitur,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 24, 78:

    (urna) ab se cantat quoja sit,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 5, 21 (al. eapse; cf. id. Men. 1, 2, 66); so Col. 11, 1, 5; Liv. 44, 33, 6.
    With names of towns to denote origin, extraction, instead of gentile adjectives. From, of:

    pastores a Pergamide,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 1:

    Turnus ab Aricia,

    Liv. 1, 50, 3 (for which Aricinus, id. 1, 51, 1):

    obsides dant trecentos principum a Cora atque Pometia liberos,

    Liv. 2, 22, 2; and poet.: O longa mundi servator ab Alba, Auguste, thou who art descended from the old Alban race of kings (=oriundus, or ortus regibus Albanis), Prop. 5, 6, 37.
    In giving the etymology of a name: eam rem (sc. legem, Gr. nomon) illi Graeco putant nomine a suum cuique tribuendo appellatam, ego nostro a legendo, Cic. Leg. 1, 6, 19: annum intervallum regni fuit: id ab re... interregnum appellatum, Liv. 1, 17, 6:

    (sinus maris) ab nomine propinquae urbis Ambracius appellatus,

    id. 38, 4, 3; and so Varro in his Ling. Lat., and Pliny, in Books 1-5 of H. N., on almost every page. (Cf. also the arts. ex and de.)
    With verbs of beginning and repeating: a summo bibere, in Plaut. to drink in succession from the one at the head of the table:

    da, puere, ab summo,

    Plaut. As. 5, 2, 41; so,

    da ab Delphio cantharum circum, id Most. 1, 4, 33: ab eo nobis causa ordienda est potissimum,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 7, 21:

    coepere a fame mala,

    Liv. 4, 12, 7:

    cornicem a cauda de ovo exire,

    tail-foremost, Plin. 10, 16, 18:

    a capite repetis, quod quaerimus,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 6, 18 al.
    With verbs of freeing from, defending, or protecting against any thing:

    a foliis et stercore purgato,

    Cato, R. R. 65 (66), 1:

    tantumne ab re tuast oti tibi?

    Ter. Heaut. 1, [p. 4] 1, 23; cf.:

    Saguntini ut a proeliis quietem habuerant,

    Liv. 21, 11, 5:

    expiandum forum ab illis nefarii sceleris vestigiis,

    Cic. Rab. Perd. 4, 11:

    haec provincia non modo a calamitate, sed etiam a metu calamitatis est defendenda,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 6, 14 (v. defendo):

    ab incendio urbem vigiliis munitam intellegebat,

    Sall. C. 32:

    ut neque sustinere se a lapsu possent,

    Liv. 21, 35, 12:

    ut meam domum metueret atque a me ipso caveret,

    Cic. Sest. 64, 133.
    With verbs of expecting, fearing, hoping, and the like, ab =a parte, as, Cic. Att. 9, 7, 4: cum eadem metuam ab hac parte, since I fear the same from this side; hence, timere, metuere ab aliquo, not, to be afraid of any one, but, to fear something (proceeding from) from him:

    el metul a Chryside,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 79; cf.:

    ab Hannibale metuens,

    Liv. 23, 36; and:

    metus a praetore,

    id. 23, 15, 7;

    v. Weissenb. ad h. l.: a quo quidem genere, judices, ego numquam timui,

    Cic. Sull. 20, 59:

    postquam nec ab Romanis robis ulla est spes,

    you can expect nothing from the Romans, Liv. 21, 13, 4.
    With verbs of fastening and holding:

    funiculus a puppi religatus,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 51, 154:

    cum sinistra capillum ejus a vertice teneret,

    Q. Cic. Pet. Cons. 3.
    Ulcisci se ab aliquo, to take vengeance on one:

    a ferro sanguis humanus se ulciscitur,

    Plin. 34, 14, 41 fin.
    Cognoscere ab aliqua re to knoio or learn by means of something (different from ab aliquo, to learn from some one):

    id se a Gallicis armis atque insignibus cognovisse,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 22.
    Dolere, laborare, valere ab, instead of the simple abl.:

    doleo ab animo, doleo ab oculis, doleo ab aegritudine,

    Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 62:

    a morbo valui, ab animo aeger fui,

    id. Ep. 1, 2, 26; cf. id. Aul. 2, 2, 9:

    a frigore et aestu ne quid laborent,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 17; so,

    a frigore laborantibus,

    Plin. 32, 10, 46, § 133; cf.:

    laborare ab re frumentaria,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 10, 1; id. B. C. 3, 9; v. laboro.
    Where verbs and adjectives are joined with ab, instead of the simple abl., ab defines more exactly the respect in which that which is expressed by the verb or adj. is to be understood, in relation to, with regard to, in respect to, on the part of:

    ab ingenio improbus,

    Plaut. Truc. 4, 3, 59:

    a me pudica'st,

    id. Curc. 1, 1, 51:

    orba ab optimatibus contio,

    Cic. Fl. 23, 54; ro Ov. H. 6,156: securos vos ab hac parte reddemus, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 24 fin. (v. securus):

    locus copiosus a frumento,

    Cic. Att. 5, 18, 2; cf.:

    sumus imparati cum a militibas tum a pecunia,

    id. ib. 7, 15 fin.:

    ille Graecus ab omni laude felicior,

    id. Brut. 16, 63:

    ab una parte haud satis prosperuin,

    Liv. 1, 32, 2 al.;

    so often in poets ab arte=arte,

    artfully, Tib. 1, 5, 4; 1, 9, 66; Ov. Am. 2, 4, 30.
    In the statement of the motive instead of ex, propter, or the simple abl. causae, from, out of, on account of, in consequence of: ab singulari amore scribo, Balb. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 7, B fin.:

    linguam ab irrisu exserentem,

    thrusting out the tongue in derision, Liv. 7, 10, 5:

    ab honore,

    id. 1, 8; so, ab ira, a spe, ab odio, v. Drak. ad Liv. 24, 30, 1: 26, 1, 3; cf. also Kritz and Fabri ad Sall. J. 31, 3, and Fabri ad Liv. 21, 36, 7.
    Especially in the poets instead of the gen.:

    ab illo injuria,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 129:

    fulgor ab auro,

    Lucr. 2, 5:

    dulces a fontibus undae,

    Verg. G. 2, 243.
    In indicating a part of the whole, for the more usual ex, of, out of:

    scuto ab novissimis uni militi detracto,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 25, 1:

    nonnuill ab novissimis,

    id. ib.; Cic. Sest. 65, 137; cf. id. ib. 59 fin.: a quibus (captivis) ad Senatum missus (Regulus).
    In marking that from which any thing proceeds, and to which it belongs:

    qui sunt ab ea disciplina,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 3, 7:

    ab eo qui sunt,

    id. Fin. 4, 3, 7:

    nostri illi a Platone et Aristotele aiunt,

    id. Mur. 30, 63 (in imitation of oi upo tinos).
    To designate an office or dignity (with or without servus; so not freq. till after the Aug. period;

    in Cic. only once): Pollex, servus a pedibus meus,

    one of my couriers, Cic. Att. 8, 5, 1; so,

    a manu servus,

    a secretary, Suet. Caes. 74: Narcissum ab eplstulis ( secretary) et Pallantem a rationibus ( accountant), id. Claud. 28; and so, ab actis, ab admissione, ab aegris, ab apotheca, ab argento, a balneis, a bibliotheca, a codicillis, a jumentis, a potione, etc. (v. these words and Inscr. Orell. vol. 3, Ind. xi. p. 181 sq.).
    The use of ab before adverbs is for the most part peculiar to later Latinity:

    a peregre,

    Vitr. 5, 7 (6), 8:

    a foris,

    Plin. 17, 24, 37; Vulg. Gen, 7, 16; ib. Matt. 23, 27:

    ab intus,

    ib. ib. 7, 15:

    ab invicem,

    App. Herb. 112; Vulg. Matt. 25, 32; Cypr. Ep. 63, 9: Hier. Ep. 18:

    a longe,

    Hyg. Fab. 257; Vulg. Gen. 22, 4; ib. Matt. 26, 58:

    a modo,

    ib. ib. 23, 39;

    Hier. Vit. Hilar.: a nune,

    Vulg. Luc. 1, 48:

    a sursum,

    ib. Marc. 15, 38.
    Ab is not repeated like most other prepositions (v. ad, ex, in, etc.) with pron. interrog. or relat. after subst. and pron. demonstr. with ab:

    Arsinoen, Stratum, Naupactum...fateris ab hostibus esse captas. Quibus autem hostibus? Nempe iis, quos, etc.,

    Cic. Pis. 37, 91:

    a rebus gerendis senectus abstrahit. Quibus? An iis, quae in juventute geruntur et viribus?

    id. Sen. 6:

    a Jove incipiendum putat. Quo Jove?

    id. Rep. 1, 36, 56:

    res publica, quascumque vires habebit, ab iis ipsis, quibus tenetur, de te propediem impetrabit,

    id. Fam. 4, 13, 5.—
    Ab in Plantus is once put after the word which it governs: quo ab, As. 1, 1, 106.—
    It is in various ways separated from the word which it governs:

    a vitae periculo,

    Cic. Brut. 91, 313:

    a nullius umquam me tempore aut commodo,

    id. Arch. 6, 12:

    a minus bono,

    Sall. C. 2, 6:

    a satis miti principio,

    Liv. 1, 6, 4:

    damnis dives ab ipsa suis,

    Ov. H. 9, 96; so id. ib. 12, 18; 13, 116.—
    The poets join a and que, making aque; but in good prose que is annexed to the following abl. (a meque, abs teque, etc.):

    aque Chao,

    Verg. G. 4, 347:

    aque mero,

    Ov. M. 3, 631:

    aque viro,

    id. H. 6, 156:

    aque suis,

    id. Tr. 5, 2, 74 al. But:

    a meque,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 16, 1:

    abs teque,

    id. Att. 3, 15, 4:

    a teque,

    id. ib. 8, 11, §

    7: a primaque adulescentia,

    id. Brut. 91, 315 al. —
    A Greek noun joined with ab stands in the dat.: a parte negotiati, hoc est pragmatikê, removisse, Quint. 3, 7, 1.
    In composition ab,
    Retains its original signif.: abducere, to take or carry away from some place: abstrahere, to draw auay; also, downward: abicere, to throw down; and denoting a departure from the idea of the simple word, it has an effect apparently privative: absimilis, departing from the similar, unlike: abnormis, departing from the rule, unusual (different from dissimilis, enormis); and so also in amens=a mente remotus, alienus ( out of one's senses, without self-control, insane): absurdus, missounding, then incongruous, irrational: abutor (in one of its senses), to misuse: aborior, abortus, to miscarry: abludo; for the privative force the Latin regularly employs in-, v. 2. in.—
    It more rarely designates completeness, as in absorbere, abutor ( to use up). (The designation of the fourth generation in the ascending or descending line by ab belongs here only in appearance; as abavus for quartus pater, great-great-grandfather, although the Greeks introduced upopappos; for the immutability of the syllable ab in abpatrnus and abmatertera, as well as the signif. Of the word abavus, grandfather's grandfather, imitated in abnepos, grandchild's grandchild, seems to point to a derivation from avi avus, as Festus, p. 13 Mull., explains atavus, by atta avi, or, rather, attae avus.)

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > ab

  • 20 Atramitae

    Ā̆tramītae, ārum, m., = Adramitai, a people in the eastern part of Arabia Felix, now Hadramaut, Plin. 6, 28, 32, § 154; 12, 14, 30, § 52; cf. Mann. Arab. 79.— Hence, Ā̆tramītĭcus, a, um, adj., of or from the country of the Atramitœ, Atramitic:


    Plin. 12, 16, 35, § 69.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Atramitae

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