Translation: from greek

called after

  • 161 Μελχισέδεκ

    Μελχισέδεκ, ὁ also-σεδέκ; indecl. (מַלְכִּי־צֶדֶק; Gen 14:18; Philo, Leg. All. 3, 79; Jos., Ant. 1, 180f.—FBurkitt, The Syriac Forms of NT Proper Names 1912, 82; Billerbeck IV 252f, 452ff) Melchizedek king of Salem and priest of God Most High in the time of Abraham (both after Gen 14:18). In the typology of Hb, a type of Christ as High Priest (Mel. is not called ἀρχιερεύς in LXX, Philo, or Joseph., but ὁ μέγας ἱερεύς Philo, Abr. 235) 5:6, 10; 6:20; 7:1, 10f, 15, 17 (nearly always Ps 109:4b has influenced these passages, if it is not quoted in full: σὺ εἶ ἱερεὺς εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα κατὰ τὴν τάξιν Μελχισέδεκ).—On Mel. in the NT: FrJJérome, D. gesch. M-Bild u. s. Bed. im Hb., diss. Freib. 1920; GWuttke, M., der Priesterkönig von Salem: E. Studie zur Gesch. der Exegese 1927; RGyllenberg, Kristusbilden i Hebréer brevet 1928; GBardy, M. dans la trad. patrist.: RB 35, 1926, 496–509; 36, 1927, 25–45; HStork, D. sog. Melchisedekianer 1928; HWindisch, Hdb., exc. on Hb 7:4 (2’31); EKäsemann, D. wandernde Gsvolk ’39; HdelMedico, ZAW 69, ’57, 160–70; JPetuchowski, HUCA 28, ’57, 127–36; JFitzmyer, CBQ 25, ’63, 305–21; MdeJonge and ASvd Woude, 11 Q Melch. and the NT, NTS 12, ’66, 301–26 (on this Qumran pass. s. also AAschim, TTK 66, ’95, 85–103); SLyonnet, Sin, Redemption and Sacrifice, ’70, 310–12 (lit.).—M-M. EDNT. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > Μελχισέδεκ

  • 162 νομή

    νομή, ῆς, ἡ (Hom. et al.; ins, pap, LXX; PsSol 17:40; TestSol 5:5; ApcEsdr 2:11 p. 26, 5 Tdf.; ApcEl [PSI I, 7 verso, 3] ‘flock’; ApcrEzk P1, verso 4; EpArist 112; Philo; Jos., Ant. 2, 18; 17, 249) gener. ‘pasturing-place’ or ‘grazing land’ (Soph., Hdt., X., Plut., pap), and freq. in ref. to the fodder or foraging-opportunity (Pla., Aristot.; 1 Ch 4:40) that such land provides.—In our lit. the word is used only in imagery
    pasturage of one who follows Jesus. ν. εὑρίσκειν find pasture (lit. of hungry flocks 1 Ch 4:40; fig. of leaders who are like rams who find no forage La 1:6) J 10:9. Of the spiritual sustenance provided by God as Shepherd of the people (i.e. the Christians); the latter are called πρόβατα τῆς νομῆς σου sheep of your pasture (Ps 73:1; 78:13; cp. 99:3) 1 Cl 59:4; likew. 16:5 in a quot. fr. an unknown document (perh. En 89:56, 66f), called γραφή.
    someth. rapaciously destructive, spreading (after the spreading out of a flock at pasturage; e.g. fire: Polyb. 1, 48, 5; τὸ πῦρ λαμβανει νομήν 11, 4 [5], 4; Philo, Aet. M. 127 [conjecture of Usener]) in medical simile spreading, as of an ulcer (since Hippocr.; Polyb. 1, 81, 6 νομὴν ποιεῖται ἕλκος; Memnon Hist. [I B.C./I A.D.]: 434 Fgm. 1, 2, 4 Jac. [ulcer]; cp. Jos., Bell. 6, 164 parts of the temple complex are compared to diseased body parts) ὁ λόγος αὐτῶν ὡς γάγγραινα νομὴν ἕξει their teaching will spread like a cancer 2 Ti 2:17.—DELG s.v. νέμω Ia. M-M.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > νομή

  • 163 οἶκος

    οἶκος, ου, ὁ (Hom.+)
    house
    lit.
    α. a dwelling Lk 11:17 (cp. πίπτω 1bβ); 12:39; 14:23 (unless οἶκ. means dining room here as Phryn. Com. [V B.C.] 66 Kock; X., Symp. 2, 18; Athen. 12, 54a); Ac 2:2; (w. ἀγροί, κτήματα) Hs 1:9. εἰς τὸν οἶκόν τινος into or to someone’s house (Judg 18:26) ἀπέρχεσθαι Mt 9:7; Mk 7:30; Lk 1:23; 5:25; εἰσέρχεσθαι Lk 1:40; 7:36; 8:41; Ac 11:12; 16:15b; ἔρχεσθαι Mk 5:38; καταβαίνειν Lk 18:14; πορεύεσθαι 5:24; ὑπάγειν Mt 9:6; Mk 2:11; 5:19; ὑποστρέφειν Lk 1:56; 8:39.—κατοικεῖν εἰς τὸν οἶκόν τινος live in someone’s house Hm 4, 4, 3; Hs 9, 1, 3. οἱ εἰς τὸν οἶκόν μου the members of my household Lk 9:61. εἰς τὸν … οἶκον ἐγένετο χαρά AcPl Ha 6, 2.—εἰς τὸν οἶκον into the house; home: ἀνάγειν Ac 16:34. ἀπέρχεσθαι Hs 9, 11, 2. ἔρχεσθαι Lk 15:6. ὑπάγειν Hs 9, 11, 6. ὑποστρέφειν Lk 7:10.—εἰς τὸν οἶκον (w. ὐποδέχεσθαι) Lk 10:38 v.l. (s. οἰκία 1a).—εἰς οἶκόν τινος to someone’s house/home Mk 8:3, 26. εἰς οἶκόν τινος τῶν ἀρχόντων Lk 14:1 (on the absence of the art. s. B-D-F §259, 1; Rob. 792).—εἰς οἶκον home (Aeschyl., Soph.; Diod S 4, 2, 1): εἰσέρχεσθαι Mk 7:17; 9:28. ἔρχεσθαι 3:20.—ἐκ τοῦ οἴκου ἐκείνου Ac 19:16.—ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ τινός in someone’s house Ac 7:20; 10:30; 11:13; Hs 6, 1, 1.—ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ in the house, at home J 11:20; Hv 5:1.—ἐν οἴκῳ at home (Strabo 13, 1, 38; UPZ 59, 5 [168 B.C.]; 74, 6; POxy 531, 3 [II A.D.]; 1 Km 19:9) Mk 2:1 (Goodsp., Probs. 52); 1 Cor 11:34; 14:35.—κατὰ τοὺς οἴκους εἰσπορεύεσθαι enter house after house Ac 8:3. κατʼ οἴκους (opp. δημοσίᾳ) from house to house i.e. in private 20:20. In the sing. κατʼ οἶκον (opp. ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ) in the various private homes (Jos., Ant. 4, 74; 163.—Diod S 17, 28, 4 κατʼ οἰκίαν ἀπολαύσαντες τῶν βρωτῶν=having enjoyed the food in their individual homes) 2:46; 5:42. ἡ κατʼ οἶκόν τινος ἐκκλησία the church in someone’s house Ro 16:5; 1 Cor 16:19; Col 4:15; Phlm 2 (s. ἐκκλησία 3bα; EJudge, The Social Pattern of Christian Groups in the First Century ’60; LWhite, House Churches: OEANE III 118–21 [lit.]). τὰ κατὰ τὸν οἶκον household affairs (Lucian, Abdic. 22) 1 Cl 1:3.
    β. house of any large building οἶκος τοῦ βασιλέως the king’s palace (Ael. Aristid. 32, 12 K.=12 p. 138 D.; 2 Km 11:8; 15:35; 3 Km 7:31; Jos., Ant. 9, 102) Mt 11:8. οἶκος ἐμπορίου (s. ἐμπόριον) J 2:16b. οἶκος προσευχῆς house of prayer Mt 21:13; Mk 11:17; Lk 19:46 (all three Is 56:7). οἶκ. φυλακῆς prison-house 14:7 (Is 42:7).—Esp. of God’s house (Herodas 1, 26 οἶκος τῆς θεοῦ [of Aphrodite]; IKosPH 8, 4 οἶκος τῶν θεῶν.—οἶκ. in ref. to temples as early as Eur., Phoen. 1372; Hdt. 8, 143; Pla., Phdr. 24e; ins [cp. SIG ind. IV οἶκος d; Thieme 31]; UPZ 79, 4 [II B.C.] ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ τῷ Ἄμμωνος; POxy 1380, 3 [II A.D.]; LXX; New Docs 1, 6f; 31; 139) οἶκος τοῦ θεοῦ (Jos., Bell. 4, 281) Mt 12:4; Mk 2:26; Lk 6:4. Of the temple in Jerusalem (3 Km 7:31 ὁ οἶκος κυρίου; Just., D. 86, 6 al.) ὁ οἶκός μου Mt 21:13; Mk 11:17; Lk 19:46 (all three Is 56:7). ὁ οἶκ. τοῦ πατρός μου J 2:16a; cp. Ac 7:47, 49 (Is 66:1). Specif. of the temple building (Eupolem.: 723 fgm 2, 12 Jac. [in Eus., PE 9, 34, 14]; EpArist 88; 101) μεταξὺ τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου καὶ τοῦ οἴκου between the altar and the temple building Lk 11:51. Of the heavenly sanctuary, in which Christ functions as high priest Hb 10:21 (sense bα is preferred by some here).
    γ. in a wider sense οἶκ. occasionally amounts to city (cp. the note on POxy 126, 4.—Jer 22:5; 12:7; TestLevi 10, 5 οἶκος … Ἰερους. κληθήσεται) Mt 23:38; Lk 13:35.
    fig. (Philo, Cher. 52 ὦ ψυχή, δέον ἐν οἴκῳ θεοῦ παρθενεύεσθαι al.)
    α. of the Christian community as the spiritual temple of God ὡς λίθοι ζῶντες οἰκοδομεῖσθε οἶκος πνευματικός as living stones let yourselves be built up into a spiritual house 1 Pt 2:5 (ESelwyn, 1 Pt ’46, 286–91; JHElliott (s. end) 200–208). The tower, which Hermas uses as a symbol of the Christian community, is also called ὁ οἶκ. τοῦ θεοῦ: ἀποβάλλεσθαι ἀπὸ τοῦ οἴκ. τοῦ θ. Hs 9, 13, 9. Opp. εἰσέρχεσθαι εἰς τὸν οἶκ. τοῦ θεοῦ Hs 9, 14, 1.—The foll. pass. are more difficult to classify; mng. 2 (the Christians as God’s family) is poss.: ὁ οἶκ. τοῦ θεοῦ 1 Pt 4:17; ἐν οἴκῳ θεοῦ ἀναστρέφεσθαι ἥτις ἐστὶν ἐκκλησία θεοῦ ζῶντος 1 Ti 3:15.
    β. dwelling, habitation, of the human body (Just., D. 40, 1 τὸ πλάσμα … οἶκ. ἐγένετο τοῦ ἐμφυσήματος; Mel., P. 55, 402 τοῦ σαρκίνου οἴκου; Lucian, Gall. 17) as a habitation of hostile spirits Mt 12:44; Lk 11:24. Corresp. the gentiles are called an οἶκ. δαιμονίων 16:7.
    household, family (Hom. et al.; Artem. 2, 68 p. 161, 11 μετὰ ὅλου τοῦ οἴκου; Ath. 3, 2 τὸν ὑμέτερον οἶκον) Lk 10:5; 19:9; Ac 10:2; 11:14; 16:31; 18:8. ὅλους οἴκους ἀνατρέπειν ruin whole families Tit 1:11 (cp. Gen 47:12 πᾶς ὁ οἶκος=‘the whole household’). ὁ Στεφανᾶ οἶκ. Stephanas and his family 1 Cor 1:16; ὁ Ὀνησιφόρου οἶκ. 2 Ti 1:16; 4:19. ὁ οἶκ. Ταουί̈ας ISm 13:2. Esp. freq. in Hermas: τὰ ἁμαρτήματα ὅλου τοῦ οἴκου σου the sins of your whole family Hv 1, 1, 9; cp. 1, 3, 1; 2, 3, 1; Hs 7:2. … σε καὶ τὸν οἶκ. σου v 1, 3, 2; cp. m 2:7; 5, 1, 7; Hs 7:5ff. W. τέκνα m 12, 3, 6; Hs 5, 3, 9. Cp. 1 Ti 3:4, 12 (on the subj. matter, Ocellus Luc. 47 τοὺς ἰδίους οἴκους κατὰ τρόπον οἰκονομήσουσι; Letter 58 of Apollonius of Tyana [Philostrat. I 362, 3]). ἡ τοῦ Ἐπιτρόπου σὺν ὅλῳ τῷ οἴκῳ αὐτῆς καὶ τῶν τέκνων the (widow) of Epitropus together with all her household and that of her children IPol 8:2 (Sb 7912 [ins 136 A.D.] σὺν τῷ παντὶ οἴκῳ). ἀσπάζομαι τοὺς οἴκους τῶν ἀδελφῶν μου σὺν γυναιξὶ καὶ τέκνοις I greet the households of my brothers (in the faith), including their wives and children ISm 13:1. In a passage showing the influence of Num 12:7, Hb 3:2–6 contrasts the οἶκος of which Moses was a member and the οἶκος over which Christ presides (cp. SIG 22, 16f οἶκος βασιλέως; Thu 1, 129, 3 Xerxes to one ἐν ἡμετέρῳ οἴκῳ; sim. οἶκος of Augustus IGR I, 1109 [4 B.C.], cp. IV, 39b, 26 [27 B.C.]; s. MFlory, TAPA 126, ’96, 292 n. 20). Hence the words of vs. 6 οὗ (i.e. Χριστοῦ) οἶκός ἐσμεν ἡμεῖς whose household we are.—On Christians as God’s family s. also 1bα above. τοῦ ἰδίου οἴκ. προστῆναι manage one’s own household 1 Ti 3:4f; cp. vs. 12 and 5:4.—On management of an οἶκος s. X., Oeconomicus. On the general topic of family MRaepsaet-Charlier, La femme, la famille, la parenté à Rome: L’Antiquité Classique 62, ’93, 247–53.
    a whole clan or tribe of people descended fr. a common ancestor, house=descendants, nation, transf. sense fr. that of a single family (Appian, Bell. Civ. 2, 127 §531 οἴκοι μεγάλοι=famous families [of Caesar’s assassins]; Dionys. Byz. 53 p. 23, 1; LXX; Jos., Ant. 2, 202; 8, 111; SibOr 3, 167) ὁ οἶκ. Δαυίδ (3 Km 12:19; 13:2) Lk 1:27, 69 (on the probability of Semitic inscriptional evidence for the phrase ‘house of David’ s. articles pro and con in Bar 20/2, ’94, 26–39; 20/3, ’94, 30–37; 20/4, ’94, 54f; 20/6, ’94, 47; 21/2, ’95, 78f). ἐξ οἴκου καὶ πατριᾶς Δ. 2:4.—οἶκ. Ἰσραήλ Mt 10:6; 15:24; Ac 2:36; 7:42 (Am 5:25); Hb 8:10 (Jer 38:33); 1 Cl 8:3 (quot. of unknown orig.). AcPlCor 2:10. πᾶς οἶκ. Ἰσραήλ GJs 7:3 (Jer 9:25). ὁ οἶκ. Ἰς. combined w. ὁ οἶκ. Ἰούδα Hb 8:8 (Jer 38:31). οἶκ. Ἰακώβ (Ex 19:3; Is 2:5; Just., A I, 53, 4;, D. 135, 6) Lk 1:33; Ac 7:46. οἶκ. τοῦ Ἀμαλήκ 12:9.
    a house and what is in it, property, possessions, estate (Hom. et al.; s. also Hdt. 3, 53; Isaeus 7, 42; Pla., Lach. 185a; X., Oec. 1, 5; Demetr.: 722 Fgm. 1, 15 Jac.; Jos., Bell. 6, 282; Just., D. 139, 4) ἐπʼ Αἴγυπτον καὶ ὅλον τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ over Egypt and over all his estate Ac 7:10 (cp. Gen 41:40; Artem. 4, 61 προέστη τοῦ παντὸς οἴκου).—S. the lit. on infant baptism, e.g. GDelling, Zur Taufe von ‘Häusern’ im Urchrist., NovT 7, ’65, 285–311=Studien zum NT ’70, 288–310.—JHElliott, A Home for the Homeless ’81. B. 133; 458. Schmidt, Syn. II 508–26. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > οἶκος

  • 164 παρά

    παρά (Hom.+. On elision s. B-D-F §17; Rob. 208) prep. w. three cases (Kühner-G. §440; Schwyzer II 491–98; B-D-F §236–38; Rob. 612–16. Further lit. s.v. ἀνά, beg.; also HRau, De praepositionis παρά usu: GCurtius, Studien etc. III 1870).
    A. W. gen., which nearly always as in Hom., Hdt., Pla., X. et al. denotes a pers., and indicates that someth. proceeds fr. this pers. (Hs 2:3 is an exception):
    marker of extension from the side of, from (the side of) w. local sense preserved, used w. verbs of coming, going, sending, originating, going out, etc. (TestAbr A 2 p. 78, 30 [Stone p. 4] παρὰ τοῦ μεγάλου βασιλέως ἀπεστάλην; Lucian, Demon. 13 ἀπιὼν παρʼ αὐτοῦ) ἐκπορεύεσθαι J 15:26b. ἐξέρχεσθαι 16:27; 17:8; Lk 2:1; 6:19. ἔρχεσθαι 8:49. παραγίνεσθαι Mk 14:43. πέμπειν τινὰ παρά τινος J 15:26a. πνεύματος ἁγίου … παρὰ τοῦ πατρὸς ἀποσταλέντος εἰς αὐτήν (=Μαρίαν) AcPlCor 2:5. εἶναι παρά τινος be from someone (cp. Job 21:2, 9) J 6:46; 7:29; 9:16, 33; 17:7.
    marker of one who originates or directs, from (Appian, Bell. Civ. 4, 100 §420 παρὰ τ. θεῶν; TestJob 38:8 παρὰ θεοῦ) παρὰ κυρίου ἐγένετο αὕτη this was the Lord’s doing Mt 21:42; Mk 12:11 (both Ps 117:23). W. a double negative: οὐκ ἀδυνατήσει παρὰ τ. θεοῦ πᾶν ῥῆμα (s. ἀδυνατέω) Lk 1:37. τὰ λελαλημένα αὐτῇ παρὰ κυρίου what was said to her (by the angel) at the Lord’s command vs. 45. ἀπεσταλμένος παρὰ θεοῦ John the Baptist was not, like Jesus, sent out fr. the very presence of God, but one whose coming was brought about by God J 1:6 (cp. 2 Macc 11:17). παρʼ ἑαυτῆς φέρει καρπὸν καὶ παρὰ τῆς πτελέας it (i.e. the vine) bears fruit which comes both from itself and from the elm Hs 2:3. On 2 Pt 2:11 s. κρίσις 1bβ.
    marker of the point fr. which an action originates, from
    after verbs
    α. of asking, demanding αἰτεῖν and αἰτεῖσθαι (cp. X., An. 1, 3, 16, Hell. 3, 1, 4; SIG 785, 9f; PFay 121, 12ff; Tob 4:19 BA al.; LXX; TestAbr A 9 p. 87, 2 [Stone p. 22]; TestJob 20:2; ParJer 7:14; Jos., Ant. 15, 92) Mt 20:20 v.l. (for ἀπʼ αὐτοῦ); J 4:9; Ac 3:2; 9:2; Js 1:5; 1J 5:15 v.l. (for ἀπʼ αὐτοῦ); 1 Cl 36:4 (Ps 2:8); Hm 9:2, 4; Dg 1. ζητεῖν (Tob 4:18; Sir 7:4; cp. 1 Macc 7:13) Mk 8:11; Lk 11:16; 12:48.
    β. of taking, accepting, receiving λαμβάνειν (class.; Appian, Mithrid. 88 §397; SIG 546 B, 23 [III B.C.]; Jdth 12:15; Sus 55 Theod.; 1 Macc 8:8; 11:34; 4 Macc 12:11; TestJob 11:5; JosAs 24:11; Just., A I, 39, 5 al.) Mk 12:2; Lk 6:34; J 5:34, 41, 44; 10:18; Ac 2:33; 3:5; 17:9; 20:24; 26:10 (Jos., Ant. 14, 167 λαβὼν ἐξουσίαν παρά σου [= τ. ἀρχιερέως]; 11, 169); Js 1:7; 2 Pt 1:17; 2J 4; Rv 2:28; Hs 1:8; 8, 3, 5; GJs 20, 2 codices. ἀπολαμβάνειν (SIG 150, 19f [restored text; IV B.C.]; 4 Macc 18:23) Hv 5:7. παραλαμβάνειν (Hdt. et al.; oft. ins; POxy 504, 14 al. in pap) Gal 1:12; 1 Th 2:13; 4:1; 2 Th 3:6. δέχεσθαι (Thu. 1, 20, 1 et al.; 1 Macc 15:20; TestJob 11:12; cp. διαδέχεσθαι Ath. 37, 1) Ac 22:5; Phil 4:18a. κομίζεσθαι (SIG 244 I, 5ff [IV B.C.]; Gen 38:20; 2 Macc 7:11; Ath. 12, 1) Eph 6:8. εὑρεῖν (SIG 537, 69; 1099, 28; cp. εὑρίσκω 3, end) 2 Ti 1:18. ἔχειν τι παρά τινος have received someth. fr. someone (1 Esdr 6:5) Ac 9:14; cp. Hv 3, 9, 8. γίνεταί μοί τι παρά τινος I receive someth. from someone (Att.) Mt 18:19. ἔσται μεθʼ ἡμῶν χάρις … παρὰ θεοῦ πατρὸς καὶ παρὰ Ἰησοῦ 2J 3 (cp. X., An. 7, 2, 25). οἱ πιστευθέντες παρὰ θεοῦ ἔργον those who were entrusted by God with a task 1 Cl 43:1 (cp. Polyb. 3, 69, 1; SIG 1207, 12f). παρὰ τοῦ κυρίου πλουτίζεσθαι receive one’s wealth fr. the Lord Hs 2:10.—Sim. in the case of a purchase the seller is introduced by παρά: buy fr. someone ἀγοράζειν (s. ἀγοράζω 1, end) Rv 3:18. ὠνεῖσθαι Ac 7:16. ἄρτον φαγεῖν παρά τινος receive support from someone 2 Th 3:8.
    γ. of learning, coming to know, hearing, asking ἀκούειν (s. ἀκούω 1bβ and 3) J 1:40; 6:45; 7:51; 8:26, 40; 15:15; Ac 10:22; 28:22; 2 Ti 1:13; 2:2; AcPlCor 1:6; ἀκριβοῦν Mt 2:7, 16. ἐξακριβάζεσθαι Hm 4, 2, 3. ἐπιγινώσκειν Ac 24:8. μανθάνειν (since Aeschyl., Ag. 858; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 176; Sir 8:8f; 2 Macc 7:2 v.l.; 3 Macc 1:1; Just., A I, 23, 1 and D. 78, 1 al.; Ath. 7, 2; 22, 8) 2 Ti 3:14. πυνθάνεσθαι (Hdt. 3, 68; X., Cyr. 1, 6, 23; Pla., Rep. 5, 476e; SIG 1169, 30; 2 Ch 32:31) Mt 2:4; J 4:52 (without παρά v.l.); B 13:2 (Gen 25:22).
    w. adjectival function ὁ, ἡ, τὸ παρά τινος made, given, etc., by someone
    α. w. a noun (funct. as a gen.: Pla., Symp. 197e ὁ παρά τινος λόγος ‘the expression made by someone’; X., Hell. 3, 1, 6 δῶρον παρὰ βασιλέως, Mem. 2, 2, 12 ἡ παρά τινος εὔνοια, Cyr. 5, 5, 13 τὸ παρʼ ἐμοῦ ἀδίκημα ‘the crime committed by me’; Polyb. 3, 69, 3 ἡ παρʼ αὐτοῦ σωτηρία; Polyaenus 3, 9, 28 ἡ παρὰ στρατηγοῦ ἀρετή; SIG 543, 27; Ex 4:20; 14:13; Philo, Plant. 14; Jos., Ant. 12, 400; Just., A I, 32, 8 and D. 92, 1 al.; Ath. 7, 1) ἡ παρʼ ἐμοῦ διαθήκη Ro 11:27 (Is 59:21).—Ac 26:12 v.l.; 22 v.l.
    β. w. subst. function
    א. τὰ παρά τινος what someone gives, someone’s gifts (X., Mem. 3, 11, 13; Jos., Bell. 2, 124, Ant. 8, 175; Tat. 32, 1 τὰ παρὰ θεοῦ) Lk 10:7; Phil 4:18b. τὰ παρʼ αὐτῆς her property, what she had Mk 5:26 (cp. IPriene 111, 177). τὰ παρὰ ζώσης καὶ μενούσης (the help that I received) from a living, contemporary voice Papias (2:4).
    ב. οἱ παρά τινος someone’s envoys (οἱ παρὰ βασιλέω πρέσβει X., Hell. 1, 3, 9; oft. in ins.: see, e.g., OGI 5, 50 from Ptolemy; the full expression οἱ παρʼ ὑμῶν πρεσβείς OGI 8 VI, 108–9; Schwyzer II 498; B-D-F §237, 2) οἱ παρὰ τοῦ βασιλέως (1 Macc 2:15; 1 Esdr 1:15) 1 Cl 12:4.—The Koine also uses this expr. to denote others who are intimately connected w. someone, e.g. family, relatives (PGrenf II, 36, 9 [II B.C.]; POxy 805 [I B.C.]; 298, 37 [I A.D.]; CPR I, 179, 16; 187, 7; Sb 5238, 19 [I A.D.]; Sus 33; 1 Macc 13:52; Jos., Ant. 1, 193. Further exx. fr. pap in Mlt. 106f; Rossberg [s. ἀνά, beg.] 52) Mk 3:21 (s. CBruston/PFarel: RTQR 18, 1909, 82–93; AWabnitz, ibid. 221–25; SMonteil, ibid. 19, 1910, 317–25; JMoulton, Mk 3:21: ET 20, 1909, 476; GHartmann, Mk 3:20f: BZ 11, 1913, 248–79; FZorell, Zu Mk 3:20, 21: ZKT 37, 1913, 695–7; JBelser, Zu Mk 3:20f: TQ 98, 1916, 401–18; Rdm.2 141; 227.—S. also at ἐξίστημι 2a).
    B. w. dat., the case that exhibits close association
    marker of nearness in space, at/by (the side of), beside, near, with, acc. to the standpoint fr. which the relationship is viewed
    near, beside
    α. w. things (Synes., Ep. 126 p. 262a; Kaibel 703, 1; POxy 120, 23; 2 Km 10:8; 11:9; Jos., Ant. 1, 196) εἱστήκεισαν παρὰ τῷ σταυρῷ J 19:25. κεῖσθαι παρὰ τῷ πύργῳ Hv 3, 5, 5.
    β. w. persons ἔστησεν αὐτὸ παρʼ ἑαυτῷ he had him (i.e. the child) stand by his side Lk 9:47.
    in (someone’s) house, city, company, etc. (Demetr.: 722 Fgm. 1, 5 al. παρὰ Λάβαν)
    α. house: ἀριστᾶν Lk 11:37. καταλύειν 19:7 (Pla., Gorg. 447b; Demosth. 18, 82). μένειν (JosAs 20:8; Jos., Ant. 1, 298; 299) J 1:39; Ac 9:43; 18:3; 21:8. ξενίζεσθαι 10:6; 21:16 (ξενίζω 1). So prob. also ἕκαστος παρʼ ἑαυτῷ each one at home 1 Cor 16:2 (cp. Philo, Cher. 48 παρʼ ἑαυτοῖς, Leg. ad Gai. 271). ὸ̔ν ἀπέλιπον ἐν Τρῳάδι παρὰ Κάρπῳ 2 Ti 4:13.
    β. city: Rv 2:13. So prob. also ἦσαν παρʼ ἡμῖν ἑπτὰ ἀδελφοί Mt 22:25.—J 4:40; Col 4:16 (where the congregation at Laodicea is contrasted w. the one at Col.).
    γ. other uses: παρὰ Ἰουδαίοις among Judeans Mt 28:15. παρʼ αὐτοῖς ἐπιμεῖναι remain with them Ac 28:14; cp. 21:7. οἱ παρʼ ὑμῖν πρεσβύτεροι the elders among you 1 Cl 1:3.—παρὰ τῷ πατρί with (of spatial proximity) the Father Mt 6:1; J 8:38a; cp. 17:5 (Synes., Kingship 29 p. 31d: philosophy has her abode παρὰ τῷ θεῷ and if the world refuses to receive her when she descends to earth, μένει παρὰ τῷ πατρί). Of Jesus: παρʼ ὑμῖν μένων while I was with you (on earth) J 14:25. Of the Spirit: παρʼ ὑμῖν μένει vs. 17. Of the Father and Son in their relation to the faithful Christian: μονὴν παρʼ αὐτῷ ποιησόμεθα we will take up our abode with him vs. 23.
    δ. fig. παρά τινι before someone’s judgment seat (Demosth. 18, 13 εἰς κρίσιν καθιστάναι παρά τινι; Appian, Maced. 11 §8 παρʼ ὑμῖν ἐς κρίσιν) 2 Pt 2:11 v.l. Closely related is
    marker of one whose viewpoint is relevant, in the sight or judgment of someone (Soph., Hdt.; PSI 435, 19 [258 B.C.] παρὰ τῷ βασιλεῖ) παρὰ τῷ θεῷ: δίκαιος παρὰ τῷ θεῷ righteous in the sight of God Ro 2:13 (cp. Job 9:2; Jos., Ant. 6, 205; Ath. 31, 2 εὐδοξοῦμεν … παρὰ τῷ θεῷ).—Cp. 1 Cor 3:19; Gal 3:11; 2 Th 1:6; Js 1:27; 1 Pt 2:4; 2 Pt 3:8. θυσία δεκτὴ παρὰ τῷ θεῷ Hs 5, 3, 8. ἔνδοξος παρὰ τῷ θεῷ m 2:6; Hs 5, 3, 3; 8, 10, 1; 9, 27, 3; 9, 28, 3; 9, 29, 3.—9, 7, 6.—Acc. to the judgment of humans (Jos., Ant. 7, 84; Just., A I, 20, 3) 8, 9, 1. τί ἄπιστον κρίνεται παρʼ ὑμῖν; Ac 26:8. ἵνα μὴ ἦτε παρʼ ἑαυτοῖς φρόνιμοι Ro 11:25; cp. 12:16 (s. Pr 3:7 μὴ ἴσθι φρόνιμος παρὰ σεαυτῷ).—‘In the judgment’ passes over into a simpler with (PsSol 9:5 παρὰ κυρίῳ; Jos. Himerius, Or. 8 [=23], 10 παρὰ θεοῖς=with the gods) εὑρεῖν χάριν παρά τινι find favor with someone (Ex 33:16; cp. Num 11:15) Lk 1:30; Hs 5, 2, 10. τοῦτο χάρις παρὰ θεῷ 1 Pt 2:20. χάριν ἔχειν (Ex 33:12) m 5, 1, 5. προέκοπτεν ἐν τῇ χάριτι παρὰ θεῷ καὶ ἀνθρώποις Lk 2:52. τί ταπεινοφροσύνη παρὰ θεῷ ἰσχύει, τί ἀγάπη ἁγνὴ παρά θεῷ δύναται how strong humility is before God, what pure love before God can do 1 Cl 21:8.
    marker of personal reference, at the side of, with almost equivalent to the dat. as such (Ps 75:13): δυνατόν or ἀδύνατον παρά τινι possible or impossible for someone (Gen 18:14; Just., A I, 33, 2; Ath., R. 9 p. 58, 6) Mt 19:26ab; Mk 10:27abc; Lk 1:37 v.l.; 18:27ab; 1 Cl 27:2.—AFridrichsen, SymbOsl 14, ’35, 44–46. Closely related in mng. is
    marker of connection of a quality or characteristic w. a pers., with (οὐκ) ἔστιν τι παρά τινι someth. is (not) with or in someone, someone has someth. (nothing) to do w. someth. (Demosth. 18, 277 εἰ ἔστι καὶ παρʼ ἐμοί τις ἐμπειρία; Gen 24:25; Job 12:13; Ps 129:4 παρὰ σοι ὁ ἱλασμός ἐστιν; Just., D. 82, 1 παρὰ … ἡμῖν … χαρίσματα) οὐκ ἔστιν προσωπολημψία παρὰ τ. θεῷ Ro 2:11 (TestJob 43, 13). Cp. 9:14; Eph 6:9; Js 1:17. Sim. Mt 8:10; 2 Cor 1:17.
    marker of a relationship w. a narrow focus, among, before παρʼ ἑαυτοῖς among themselves (Philo, Cher. 48) διαλογίζεσθαι Mt 21:25 v.l. (cp. Demosth. 10, 17 γιγνώσκειν παρʼ αὑτῷ; Epict., Ench. 48, 2).—In ἐν τούτῳ μενέτω παρὰ θεῷ 1 Cor 7:24, the mng. of παρὰ θεῷ is not certain: let the pers. remain in that position (the same one in which he was when called to salvation) before God; it is prob. meant to remind Christians of the One before whom they cannot even have the appearance of inferiority (ins: Mitt-Wilck, I/2, 4, 4 [13 B.C.] παρὰ τῷ κυρίῳ Ἑρμῇ=‘before, in the sight of’; Sb 7616 [II A.D.] τὸ προσκύνημά σου ποιῶ παρὰ τῷ κυρίῳ Σαράπι=‘before the Lord’ S.; 7661, 3 [c. 100 A.D.]; 7932, 7992, 6 [letter II/III A.D.]). Or perh. it simply means that no matter what the situation may be, one is to be focused on God.
    C. w. acc. of pers. or thing
    marker of a position viewed as extended (w. no difference whether παρά answers the question ‘where?’ or ‘whither?’ See B-D-F §236, 1; Rob. 615).
    by, along περιπατεῖν παρὰ τὴν θάλασσαν (Pla., Gorg. 511e. Cp. SIG 1182; Jos., Ant. 2, 81) Mt 4:18; cp. Mk 1:16.
    α. παρὰ (τὴν) θάλασσαν by the sea (or lake) , at the shore Mt 13:1; Mk 4:1; 5:21; Ac 10:6, 32; cp. Lk 5:1, 2. παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν by the side of the road (X., An. 1, 2, 13; Plut., Lysander 450 [29, 4] a tomb παρὰ τ. ὁδόν=beside the road) Mt 20:30; Mk 10:46; Lk 18:35 (but on the road is also poss. in these three places; s. d below).
    β. παρὰ τὴν θάλασσαν to (the side of) the sea (lake) Mt 15:29; Mk 2:13. παρὰ ποταμόν to the river Ac 16:13.
    gener. near, at παρὰ τοὺς πόδας τινός at someone’s feet (sit, fall, place etc.; TestAbr A 17 p. 98, 16 [Stone p. 44]) Mt 15:30; Lk 7:38; 8:35, 41; 10:39 v.l.; 17:16; Ac 4:35, 37 v.l.; 5:2; 7:58; 22:3 (s. ET 30, 1919, 39f). παρὰ τὸν πὺργον beside the tower Hs 9, 4, 8; 9, 6, 5; 8; 9, 7, 1; 9, 11, 6.—παρὰ τὴν ἰτέαν 8, 1, 2 (cp. TestAbr A 6 p. 83, 10 [Stone p. 14] παρὰ τὴν δρῦν τὴν Μαμβρῆ).
    on παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν on the road (w. motion implied; Aesop, Fab. 226 P.=420 H.: πεσὼν παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν; Phot., Bibl. 94 p. 74b on Iambl. Erot. [Hercher I p. 222, 22] πίπτουσι παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν) Mt 13:4, 19; Mk 4:4; Lk 8:5; on the road (w. no motion implied; Theophr., HP 6, 6, 10: the crocus likes to be trodden under foot, διὸ καὶ παρὰ τὰς ὁδοὺς κάλλιστος; Phot. p. 222, 29 H. [s. above]) Mk 4:15; Lk 8:12. Perh. also Mt 20:30; Mk 10:46; Lk 18:35 (s. bα above).—παρὰ τὸ χεῖλος τῆς θαλάσσης on the seashore Hb 11:12 (TestAbr A 1 p. 78, 1 [Stone p. 4]; ApcEsdr 3:10; ApcSed 8:9).
    marker of extension in time, during, from … to (Lucian, Catapl. 24 παρὰ τ. βίον=during his life; POxy 472, 10; TestAbr A 20 p. 102, 26 [Stone p. 52] παρὰ μίαν ὥραν; Tat. 14, 2 παρʼ ὸ̔ν ἔζων χρόνον) παρʼ ἐνιαυτόν from year to year (Plut., Cleom. 15, 1; cp. ἐνιαυτός 1) B 10:7.
    marker of comparative advantage, in comparison to, more than, beyond ἁμαρτωλοί, ὀφειλέται π. πάντας Lk 13:2, 4 (PSI 317, 6 [95 A.D.] παρὰ πάντας; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 234 παρὰ τ. ἄλλους ἅπαντας; JosAs 10:6 παρὰ πάσας τὰς παρθένους; Just., A I, 20, 3 παρὰ πάντας ἀδίκως μισούμεθα). κρίνειν ἡμέραν παρʼ ἡμέραν (s. κρίνω 1) Ro 14:5. π. πᾶσαν τὴν γῆν B 11:9 (prophetic quot. of unknown orig.). π. πάντα τὰ πνεύματα more than all other spirits Hm 10, 1, 2. ἐλαττοῦν τινα π. τινα make someone inferior to someone Hb 2:7, 9 (s. ἐλαττόω 1 and cp. PGrenf I, 42, 12 [II B.C.] ἐλαττουμένων ἡμῶν παρὰ τοὺς δεῖνα). εἶδος ἐκλεῖπον π. τὸ εἶδος τῶν ἀνθρώπων (s. ἐκλείπω 4) 1 Cl 16:3.—After a comp. (Thu. 1, 23, 3; ApcEsdr 1:22; Tat. 2, 2) Lk 3:13; Hb 1:4; 3:3; 9:23; 11:4; 12:24; B 4:5 (cp. Da 7:7); Hv 3, 12, 1; Hs 9, 18, 2.—When a comparison is made, one member of it may receive so little attention as to pass fr. consideration entirely, so that ‘more than’ becomes instead of, rather than, to the exclusion of (Plut., Mor. 984c; PsSol 9:9; EpArist 134; Just., A I, 22, 2) λατρεύειν τῇ κτίσει παρὰ τὸν κτίσαντα serve the creation rather than the Creator Ro 1:25 (cp. EpArist 139: the Jews worship τὸν μόνον θεὸν παρʼ ὅλην τὴν κτίσιν). δεδικαιωμένος παρʼ ἐκεῖνον justified rather than the other Lk 18:14. ἔχρισέν σε … παρὰ τοὺς μετόχους (God) has anointed you and not your comrades Hb 1:9 (Ps 44:8). ὑπερφρονεῖν παρʼ ὸ̔ δεῖ φρονεῖν Ro 12:3 (Plut., Mor. 83f παρʼ ὸ̔ δεῖ). παρὰ καιρὸν ἡλικίας Hb 11:11 (Plut., Rom. 25, 6 παρʼ ἡλικίαν; cp. ἡλικία 2a).—παρὰ δύναμιν beyond their means (s. δύναμις 2) 2 Cor 8:3.—After ἄλλος (Pla., Lach. 178b, Leg. 3, 693b; X., Hell. 1, 5, 5; Demosth. 18, 235) another than 1 Cor 3:11.
    marker of degree that falls slightly short in comparison, except for, almost παρὰ μικρόν except for a little, almost (s. μικρός 1eγ) Hs 8, 1, 14. Likew. παρά τι (cp. Vett. Val. 228, 6) Lk 5:7 D; Hs 9, 19, 3.
    marker of causality, because of (cp. Pind., O. 2, 65 κενεὰν παρὰ δίαιταν ‘in the interest of’ or ‘for the sake of a scanty livelihood’, the scantiness here contrasting with the immense labor involved; Demosth. 4, 11; 9, 2; PRyl 243, 6; POxy 1420, 7) παρὰ τό w. acc. foll. because (SIG 495, 130; UPZ 7, 13 [163 B.C.] παρὰ τὸ Ἕλληνά με εἶναι.—Mayser II/1, 1926, 331; Gen 29:20; Ex 14:11) 1 Cl 39:5f (Job 4:20f). π. τοῦτο because of this (Kühner-G. I 513, 3; Synes., Ep. 44 p. 185a; 57 p. 192d) ITr 5:2; IRo 5:1 (quot. fr. 1 Cor 4:4, where Paul has ἐν τούτῳ). οὐ παρὰ τοῦτο οὐ (double neg. as a strengthened affirmative) not for that reason any the less 1 Cor 12:15f.
    marker of that which does not correspond to what is expected, against, contrary to (Hom., Alc. et al.; ins, pap, LXX; Just., Tat., Ath.—Schwyzer II 497) π. τὴν διδαχήν Ro 16:17. παρʼ ἐλπίδα against hope (s. ἐλπίς 1a) in wordplay w. ἐπʼ ἐλπίδι 4:18. παρὰ φύσιν (Thu. 6, 17, 1; Pla., Rep. 5, 466d; Tat. 22, 2; Ath. 26, 2, R. 6 p. 54, 13) 1:26; 11:24. παρὰ τὸν νόμον (Just., A II, 2, 4; Ath. 1, 3; cp. X., Mem. 1, 1, 18 παρὰ τοὺς νόμους; PMagd 16, 5 [222 B.C.] παρὰ τοὺς νόμους; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 233; Just., A I, 68, 10) Ac 18:13. παρʼ ὅ contrary to that which Gal 1:8f (Just., A I, 43, 8).
    marker of something that is less, less (Hdt. 9, 33; Plut., Caesar 722 [30, 5]; Jos., Ant. 4, 176; POxy 264, 4 [I A.D.]) τεσσεράκοντα παρὰ μίαν forty less one=thirty-nine (i.e. lashes) 2 Cor 11:24 (cp. Makkoth 3, 10 [tr. HDanby, The Mishnah ’33, 407]).—On παρʼ αὐτά ITr 11:1 s. παραυτά.—DELG. M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > παρά

  • 165 παρθένος

    παρθένος, ου, ἡ (s. prec. entry; Hom.+, gener. of a young woman of marriageable age, w. or without focus on virginity; s. esp. PKöln VI, 245, 12 and ASP 31, ’91 p. 39) and (s. reff. in b) in our lit. one who has never engaged in sexual intercourse, virgin, chaste person
    female of marriageable age w. focus on virginity ἡ παρθένος Mt 25:1, 7, 11; 1 Cor 7:25 (FStrobel, NovT 2, ’58, 199–227), 28, 34; Pol 5:3; Hv 4, 2, 1; Hs 9, 1, 2; 9, 2, 3; 5; 9, 3, 2; 4f; 9, 4, 3; 5f; 8 al.; AcPl Ox 6, 16 (cp. Aa I 241, 15); GJs 13:1. After Is 7:14 (הָעַלְמָה הָרָה; on this ASchulz, BZ 23, ’35, 229–41; WBrownlee, The Mng. of Qumran for the Bible, esp. Is, ’64, 274–81) Mt 1:23 (cp. Menand., Sicyonius 372f παρθένος γʼ ἔτι, ἄπειρος ἀνδρός). Of Mary also Lk 1:27ab; GJs 9:1; 10:1; 15:2; 16:1; 19:3; ISm 1:1 and prob. Dg 12:8 (the idea that the spirit of a god could father a child by a woman, specifically a virgin, was not foreign to Egyptian religion: Plut. Numa 62 [4, 6], Mor. 718ab; Philo, Cher. 43–50 [on this ENorden, D. Geburt des Kindes 78–90; ELeach, Genesis as Myth, and Other Essays ’69, 85–112; RBrown, The Virginal Conception and Bodily Resurrection of Jesus ’73, 62, esp. n. 104; idem, The Birth of the Messiah ’77, 522f, esp. n. 17]. S. further the lit. on Ἰωσήφ 4 and OBardenhewer, Mariä Verkündigung 1905; EPetersen, Die wunderbare Geburt des Heilandes 1909; HUsener, Das Weihnachtsfest2 1911; ASteinmann, D. jungfräul. Geburt des Herrn3 1926, D. Jungfrauengeburt u. die vergl. Religionsgeschichte 1919; GBox, The Virgin Birth of Jesus 1916; OCrain, The Credibility of the Virgin Birth 1925; JMachen, The Virgin Birth of Christ2 ’32 [on this FKattenbusch, StKr 102, 1930, 454–74]; EWorcester, Studies in the Birth of Our Lord ’32; KSchmidt, D. jungfrl. Geb. J. Chr.: ThBl 14, ’35, 289–97; FSteinmetzer, Empfangen v. Hl. Geist ’38; RBratcher, Bible Translator 9, ’58, 98–125 [Heb., LXX, Mt]; TBoslooper, The Virg. Birth ’62; HvCampenhausen, D. Jungfrauengeburt in d. Theol. d. alten Kirche ’62; JMeier, A Marginal Jew I, ’91, 205–52 [lit.].—RCooke, Did Paul Know the Virg. Birth? 1927; PBotz, D. Jungfrausch. Mariens im NT u. in der nachap. Zeit, diss. Tüb. ’34; DEdwards, The Virg. Birth in History and Faith ’43.—Clemen2 114–21; ENorden, D. Geburt des Kindes2 ’31; MDibelius, Jungfrauensohn u. Krippenkind ’32; HMerklein, Studien zu Jesus und Paulus [WUNT 105] ’98; in gener., RBrown, The Birth of the Messiah ’77, 133–63, esp. 147–49. As a contrast to Dibelius’ Hellenistic emphasis s. OMichel and OBetz, Beih., ZNW 26, ’60, 3–23, on Qumran parallels.). Of the daughters of Philip παρθένοι προφητεύουσαι Ac 21:9. Of virgins who were admitted to the church office of ‘widows’ ISm 13:1 (s. AJülicher, PM 22, 1918, 111f. Differently LZscharnack, Der Dienst der Frau 1902, 105 ff).—On 1 Cor 7:36–38 s. γαμίζω 1 and s. also PKetter, Trierer Theol. Ztschr. 56, ’47, 175–82 (παρθ. often means [virgin] daughter: Apollon. Rhod. 3, 86 παρθ. Αἰήτεω and the scholion on this has the following note: παρθένον ἀντὶ τοῦ θυγατέρα; Lycophron vss. 1141, 1175; Diod S 8, 6, 2; 16, 55, 3; 20, 84, 3 [pl. beside υἱοί]. Likewise Theod. Prodr. 1, 293 H. τὴν σὴν παρθένον=‘your virgin daughter’; in 3, 332 τ. ἑαυτοῦ παρθένον refers to one’s ‘sweetheart’; likew. 6, 466, as well as the fact that παρθ. can mean simply ‘girl’ [e.g. Paus. 8, 20, 4]). On Jewish gravestones ‘of age, but not yet married’ CIJ I, 117. RSeeboldt, Spiritual Marriage in the Early Church, CTM 30, ’59, 103–19; 176–86.—In imagery: the Corinthian congregation as παρθένος ἁγνή (ἁγνός a) 2 Cor 11:2 (on this subj. s. FConybeare, Die jungfräul. Kirche u. die jungfräul. Mutter: ARW 8, 1905, 373ff; 9, 1906, 73ff; Cumont3 283, 33).—ἡ τοιαύτη παρθένος AcPl Ox 6, 15f (of Thecla; cp. Aa I 241, 15 ἡ τοιαύτη αἰδὼς τῆς παρθένου).
    male virgin ὁ παρθένος virgin, chaste man (CIG IV, 8784b; JosAs 8:1 uses π. of Joseph; Pel.-Leg. 27, 1 uses it of Abel; Suda of Abel and Melchizedek; Nonnus of the apostle John, who is also called ‘virgo’ in the Monarchian Prologues [Kl. T. 12 1908, p. 13, 13]) Rv 14:4 (on topical relation to 1 En 15:2–7 al., s. DOlson, CBQ 59, ’97, 492–510).—JFord, The Mng. of ‘Virgin’, NTS 12, ’66, 293–99.—B. 90. New Docs 4, 224–27. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW. Spicq. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > παρθένος

  • 166 πατήρ

    πατήρ, πατρός, ὁ (Hom.+) acc. somet. πατέραν (ApcEsdr 2:6 p. 25, 26 Tdf.); voc. πάτερ; for this the nom. w. the art. ὁ πατήρ Mt 11:26; Mk 14:36; Lk 10:21b; Ro 8:15; Gal 4:6.—The vv.ll. πατήρ without the art. for the voc., in J 17:11, 21, 24, and 25 is regarded by B-D-F §147, 3 as a scribal error (but as early as II A.D. BGU 423, 11 has κύριέ μου πατήρ. Perh. even PPar 51, 36 [159 B.C.]). S. also W-S. §29, 4b and Mlt-H. 136; ‘father’.
    the immediate biological ancestor, parent
    male, father (of Noah Did., Gen. 165, 6) Mt 2:22; 4:21f; 8:21; 10:21; Mk 5:40; 15:21; Lk 1:17 (after Mal 3:23); J 4:53; Ac 7:14; 1 Cor 5:1; B 13:5 al. οἱ τῆς σαρκὸς ἡμῶν πατέρες our physical fathers Hb 12:9a.
    male and female together as parents οἱ πατέρες parents (Pla., Leg. 6, 772b; Dionys. Hal. 2, 26; Diod S 21, 17, 2; X. Eph. 1, 11; 3, 3; Kaibel 227) Hb 11:23.—Eph 6:4; Col 3:21 (Apollon. Rhod. 4, 1089 of parents who are inclined to become λίην δύσζηλοι toward their children).
    one from whom one is descended and generally at least several generations removed, forefather, ancestor, progenitor, forebear: of Abraham (Jos., Ant. 14, 255 Ἀ., πάντων Ἑβραίων πατήρ; Just., D. 100, 3) Mt 3:9; Lk 1:73; 16:24; J 8:39, 53, 56; Ac 7:2b. Of Isaac Ro 9:10. Jacob J 4:12 (JosAs 22:5). David Mk 11:10; Lk 1:32. Pl. οἱ πατέρες the forefathers, ancestors (Hom. et al.; oft. LXX; En 99:14; PsSol 9:10; ParJer 4:10; Jos., Ant. 13, 297; Just., D. 57, 2 and 136, 3; Mel., P. 87, 654) Mt 23:30, 32; Lk 1:55; 6:23, 26; 11:47f; J 4:20; 6:31; Ac 3:13, 25; Hb 1:1; 8:9 (Jer 38:32); B 2:7 (Jer 7:22); 5:7; 14:1; PtK 2 p. 15, 6 (Jer 38:32).
    one who provides moral and intellectual upbringing, father
    in a positive sense (Epict. 3, 22, 81f: the Cynic superintends the upbringing of all pers. as their πατήρ; Procop. Soph., Ep. 13; Ael. Aristid. 47 p. 425 D.: Pla. as τῶν ῥητόρων π. καὶ διδάσκαλος; Aristoxenus, Fgm. 18: Epaminondas is the ἀκροατής of the Pythagorean Lysis and calls him πατήρ; Philostrat., Vi. Soph. 1, 8 p. 10, 4 the διδάσκαλος as πατήρ) ἐὰν μυρίους παιδαγωγοὺς ἔχητε ἐν Χριστῷ, ἀλλʼ οὐ πολλοὺς πατέρας 1 Cor 4:15 (cp. GrBar 13:4 εἰς πνευματικοὺς πατέρας; on the subject matter ADieterich, Mithraslit. 1903, 52; 146f; 151; Rtzst., Mysterienrel.3 40: ‘he [the “mystes”] by these teachings becomes the parent of the novice. We find undoubted examples of πατήρ as a title in the Isis cult in Delos, in the Phrygian mystery communities, in the Mithras cult, in the worshipers of the θεὸς ὕψιστος and elsewh.’). Of Jesus ὡς πατὴρ υἱοὺς ἡμᾶς προσηγόρευσεν as a father he called us (his) sons 2 Cl 1:4 (cp. Ps.-Clem., Hom. 3, 19; ὁ Χριστὸς π. τῶν πιστευόντων ὑπάρχει Did., Gen. 106, 6.—ὁ Ἰησοῦς, ὁ π. [=founder] τῆς τοιαύτης διδασκαλίας Orig., C. Cels. 2, 44, 32).
    in a neg. sense of the devil (for patristic trad. s. Lampe s.v. πατήρ D)
    α. as father of a group of Judeans J 8:44ab, as verdict on the sin of the opposition to God’s purpose in Jesus, not on the person (cp. descriptions of dissidents at Qumran, esp. 1QS and 1QH, w. focus on aspect of deception).
    β. as father of lies (Celsus 2, 47 as π. τῆς κακίας) vs. 44c (on πατήρ in the sense of ‘originator’ cp. Caecil. Calact., Fgm. 127 ὁ π. τοῦ λόγου=the author of the book). On the view that in 44a and c there might be a statement about the father of the devil s. Hdb.3 ad loc. (NDahl, EHaenchen Festschr. ’64, 70–84 [Cain]).—LDürr, Geistige Vaterrschaft in: Herwegen Festschr. ’38, 1–30.
    a title of respectful address, father
    as an honorary title (Diod S 21, 12, 2; 5; Ps.-Callisth. 1, 14, 2 πάτερ; 4 Km 2:12; 6:21; 13:14; Test Abr B 2 p. 106, 3 [Stone p. 60] καλὲ πάτερ; Jos., Ant. 12, 148; 13, 127; Just., D. 3, 7. Also PGen 52, 1; 5 κυρίῳ καὶ πατρὶ Ἀμινναίῳ Ἀλύπιος; UPZ 65, 3 [154 B.C.]; 70, 2; BGU 164, 2; POxy 1296, 15; 18; 1592, 3; 5; 1665, 2) Mt 23:9a; specif. in addressing the members of the High Council Ac 7:2a; cp. 22:1 (of Job in TestJob 53:3 ὁ πατὴρ τῶν ὀρφανῶν).
    as a designation of the older male members of a church (as respectful address by younger people to their elders Hom. et al. S. also a.) 1J 2:13, 14b.
    revered deceased persons with whom one shares beliefs or traditions, fathers, ancestors
    generation(s) of deceased Christians 2 Pt 3:4; 1 Cl 23:3=2 Cl 11:2 (an apocryphal saying, at any rate interpreted in this way by the Christian writers). Christians of an earlier generation could also be meant in 1 Cl 30:7; 60:4; 62:2; 2 Cl 19:4. Yet it is poss. that these refer to
    the illustrious religious heroes of the OT, who are ‘ancestors’ even to gentile Christians, who are validated as Israelites (Just., D. 101, 1). In 1 Cor 10:1 Paul calls the desert generation of Israelites οἱ πατέρες ἡμῶν (the ‘philosophers’ of earlier times are so called in Cleopatra 114f). Likew. Ro 4:12b Abraham ὁ πατὴρ ἡμῶν (on this s. c below). The latter is also so referred to Js 2:21; 1 Cl 31:2; likew. the patriarch Jacob 4:8.
    the ‘fatherhood’ can also consist in the fact that the one who is called ‘father’ is the prototype of a group or the founder of a class of persons (cp. Pla., Menex. 240e οὐ μόνον τῶν σωμάτων τῶν ἡμετέρων πατέρας ἀλλὰ καὶ τῆς ἐλευθερίας; 1 Macc 2:54). Abraham who, when he was still uncircumcised, received the promise because of his faith, and then received circumcision to seal it, became thereby πατὴρ πάντων τῶν πιστευόντων διʼ ἀκροβυστίας father of all those who believe, though they are uncircumcised Ro 4:11 and likew. πατὴρ περιτομῆς father of those who are circumcised vs. 12a, insofar as they are not only circumcised physically, but are like the patriarch in faith as well. Cp. 4:16, 17 (Gen 17:5).
    the supreme deity, who is responsible for the origin and care of all that exists, Father, Parent (Just., A II, 6, 2 τὸ δὲ πατὴρ καὶ θεὸς καὶ κτίστης καὶ κύριος καὶ δεσπότης οὐκ ὀνόματά ἐστιν, ἀλλʼ … προσφήσεις ‘the terms, father, god, founder, lord, and master are not names but … modes of address [in recognition of benefits and deeds])
    as the originator and ruler (Pind., O. 2, 17 Χρόνος ὁ πάντων π.; Pla., Tim. 28c; 37c; Stoa: Epict. 1, 3, 1; Diog. L. 7, 147; Maximus Tyr. 2, 10a; Galen XIX p. 179 K. ὁ τῶν ὅλων πατὴρ ἐν θεοῖς; Job 38:28; Mal 2:10; Philo, Spec. Leg. 1, 96 τῷ τοῦ κόσμου πατρί; 2, 6 τὸν ποιητὴν καὶ πατέρα τῶν ὅλων, Ebr. 30; 81, Virt. 34; 64; 179; 214; Jos., Ant. 1, 20 πάντων πατήρ; 230; 2, 152; 7, 380 πατέρα τε καὶ γένεσιν τῶν ὅλων; Herm. Wr. 1, 21 ὁ πατὴρ ὅλων … ὁ θεὸς κ. πατήρ; 30 al., also p. 476, 23 Sc. δεσπότης καὶ πατὴρ καὶ ποιητής; PGM 4, 1170; 1182; Just., A I, 45, 1 ὁ π. τῶν πάντων θεός; D. 95, 2 ὁ πατὴρ τῶν ὅλων; Ath. 27, 2; Iren.; Orig., C. Cels. 1, 46, 34; Hippolyt.; π. δὲ δὶα τὸ εἶναι πρὸ τῶν ὅλων Theoph. Ant. 1, 4 [p. 64, 8]) ὁ πατὴρ τῶν φώτων the father of the heavenly bodies Js 1:17 (cp. ApcMos 36 v.l. [MCeriani, Monumenta Sacra et Profana V/1, 1868] ἐνώπιον τοῦ φωτὸς τῶν ὅλων, τοῦ πατρὸς τῶν φώτων; 38).
    as ὁ πατὴρ τῶν πνευμάτων Hb 12:9b (cp. Num 16:22; 27:16 and in En the fixed phrase ‘Lord of the spirits’).—SeePKatz, Philo’s Bible ’50, p. 33, 1.
    as father of humankind (since Hom. Ζεύς is called πατήρ or πατὴρ ἀνδρῶν τε θεῶν τε; Diod S 5, 72, 2 πατέρα δὲ [αὐτὸν προσαγορευθῆναι] διὰ τὴν φροντίδα καὶ τὴν εὔνοιαν τὴν εἰς ἅπαντας, ἔτι δὲ καὶ τὸ δοκεῖν ὥσπερ ἀρχηγὸν εἶναι τοῦ γένους τῶν ἀνθρώπων=‘[Zeus is called] father because of his thoughtfulness and goodwill toward all humanity, and because, moreover, he is thought of as originator of the human race’, cp. 3, 61, 4; 5, 56, 4; Dio Chrys. 36 [53], 12 Zeus as π. τῶν ἀνθρώπων, not only because of his position as ruler, but also because of his love and care [ἀγαπῶν κ. προνοῶν]. Cp. Plut., Mor. 167d; Jos., Ant. 4, 262 πατὴρ τοῦ παντὸς ἀνθρώπων γένους. In the OT God is called ‘Father’ in the first place to indicate a caring relationship to the Israelite nation as a whole, or to the king as the embodiment of the nation. Only in late writers is God called the Father of the pious Israelite as an individual: Sir 23:1, 4; Tob 13:4; Wsd 2:16; 14:3; 3 Macc 5:7.—Bousset, Rel.3 377ff; EBurton, ICC Gal 1921, 384–92; RGyllenberg, Gott d. Vater im AT u. in d. Predigt Jesu: Studia Orient. I 1925, 51–60; JLeipoldt, D. Gotteserlebnis Jesu 1927; AWilliams, ‘My Father’ in Jewish Thought of the First Century: JTS 31, 1930, 42–47; TManson, The Teaching of Jesus, ’55, 89–115; HMontefiore, NTS 3, ’56/57, 31–46 [synoptics]; BIersel, ‘D. Sohn’ in den synopt. Ev., ’61, 92–116).
    α. as a saying of Jesus ὁ πατήρ σου Mt 6:4, 6b, 18b. ὁ πατὴρ ὑμῶν Mt 6:15; 10:20, 29; 23:9b; Lk 6:36; 12:30, 32; J 20:17c. ὁ πατὴρ αὐτῶν (=τῶν δικαίων) Mt 13:43. ὁ πατὴρ ὑμῶν ὁ ἐν (τοῖς) οὐρανοῖς (the synagogue also spoke of God as ‘Father in Heaven’; Bousset, Rel.3 378) Mt 5:16, 45; 6:1; 7:11; Mk 11:25. ὁ πατὴρ ὑμῶν ὁ οὐράνιος Mt 5:48; 6:14, 26, 32. Cp. 23:9b. ὁ πατὴρ ὁ ἐξ οὐρανοῦ Lk 11:13. ὁ πατήρ σου ὁ ἐν τῷ κρυπτῷ (or κρυφαίῳ) Mt 6:6a, 18a.—For the evangelist the words πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς Mt 6:9 refer only to the relation betw. God and humans, though Jesus perh. included himself in this part of the prayer. The same is true of πάτερ ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου Lk 11:2 (for invocation in prayer cp. Simonides, Fgm. 13, 20 Ζεῦ πάτερ).—ELohmeyer, D. Vaterunser erkl. ’46 (Eng. tr. JBowden, ’65); TManson, The Sayings of Jesus, ’54, 165–71; EGraesser, Das Problem der Parusieverzögerung in den synopt. Ev. usw., Beih. ZNW 22, ’57, 95–113; AHamman, La Prière I, Le NT, ’59, 94–134; JJeremias, Das Vaterunser im Lichte der neueren Forschung, ’62 (Eng. tr., The Lord’s Prayer, JReumann, ’64); WMarchel, Abba, Père! La Prière ’63; also bibl. in JCharlesworth, ed., The Lord’s Prayer and Other Prayer Texts fr. the Greco-Roman Era ’94, 186–201.
    β. as said by Christians (Sextus 59=222; 225 God as π. of the pious. The servant of Sarapis addresses God in this way: Sb 1046; 3731, 7) in introductions of letters ἀπὸ θεοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν: Ro 1:7; 1 Cor 1:3; 2 Cor 1:2; Gal 1:3, cp. vs. 4; Eph 1:2; Phil 1:2; Col 1:2; Phlm 3; 2 Th 1:2 (v.l. without ἡμῶν); without ἡμῶν 1 Ti 1:2 (v.l. with ἡμῶν); 2 Ti 1:2; Tit 1:4; 2J 3a (here vs 3b shows plainly that it is not ‘our’ father, but the Father of Jesus Christ who is meant).—πατὴρ ἡμῶν also Phil 4:20; 1 Th 1:3; 3:11, 13; 2 Th 2:16; D 8:2; 9:2f. τὸν ἐπιεικῆ καὶ εὔσπλαγχνον πατέρα ἡμῶν 1 Cl 29:1. Likew. we have the Father of the believers Ro 8:15 (w. αββα, s. JBarr, Abba Isn’t Daddy: JTS 39, ’88, 28–47; s. also JFitzmyer, Ro [AB] ad loc.); 2 Cor 1:3b (ὁ πατὴρ τῶν οἰκτιρμῶν; s. οἰκτιρμός); 6:18 (cp. 2 Km 7:14); Gal 4:6; Eph 4:6 (πατὴρ πάντων, as Herm. Wr. 5, 10); 1 Pt 1:17. ὁ οἰκτίρμων καὶ εὐεργετικὸς πατήρ 1 Cl 23:1. Cp. 8:3 (perh. fr. an unknown apocryphal book). πάτερ ἅγιε D 10:2 (cp. 8:2; 9:2f).
    γ. as said by Judeans ἕνα πατέρα ἔχομεν τὸν θεόν J 8:41b. Cp. vs. 42.
    as Father of Jesus Christ
    α. in Jesus’ witness concerning himself ὁ πατήρ μου Mt 11:27a; 20:23; 25:34; 26:29, 39, 42, 53; Lk 2:49 (see ὁ 2g and Goodsp., Probs. 81–83); 10:22a; 22:29; 24:49; J 2:16; 5:17, 43; 6:40 and oft. in J; Rv 2:28; 3:5, 21. ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ πατρός μου 2 Cl 12:6 in an apocryphal saying of Jesus. ὁ πατήρ μου ὁ ἐν (τοῖς) οὐρανοῖς Mt 7:21; 10:32, 33; 12:50; 16:17; 18:10, 19. ὁ πατήρ μου ὁ οὐράνιος 15:13; 18:35 (Just., A I, 15, 8). Jesus calls himself the Human One (Son of Man), who will come ἐν τῇ δόξῃ τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ 16:27; Mk 8:38. Abs. ὁ πατήρ, πάτερ Mt 11:25, 26; Mk 14:36 (s. GSchelbert, FZPhT 40, ’93, 259–81; response ERuckstuhl, ibid. 41, ’94, 515–25; response Schelbert, ibid. 526–31); Lk 10:21ab; 22:42; 23:34, 46 (all voc.); J 4:21, 23ab; 5:36ab, 37, 45; 6:27, 37, 45, 46a, 65 and oft. in J. Father and Son stand side by side or in contrast Mt 11:27bc; 24:36; 28:19; Mk 13:32; Lk 10:22bc; J 5:19–23, 26; 1J 1:3; 2:22–24; 2J 9; B 12:8. WLofthouse, Vater u. Sohn im J: ThBl 11, ’32, 290–300.
    β. in the confession of the Christians π. τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ Ro 15:6; 2 Cor 1:3a; Eph 1:3; Col 1:3; 1 Pt 1:3. π. τοῦ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ 2 Cor 11:31. Cp. 1 Cor 15:24; Hb 1:5 (2 Km 7:14); Rv 1:6; 1 Cl 7:4; IEph 2:1; ITr ins 12:2; MPol 14:1; AcPl Ha 2, 33; 6, 34; AcPlCor 2:7 (cp. Just., D. 30, 3; 129, 1 al.).
    Oft. God is simply called (ὁ) πατήρ (the) Father (e.g. TestJob 33:9, s. DRahnenführer, ZNW 62, ’71, 77; ApcMos 35 τοῦ ἀοράτου πατρός; Just., D. 76, 3 al. On the presence or absence of the art. s. B-D-F §257, 3; Rob. 795) Eph 2:18; 3:14; 5:20; 6:23; 1J 1:2; 2:1, 15; 3:1; B 14:6; Hv 3, 9, 10; IEph 3:2; 4:2; IMg 13:2; ITr 12:2; 13:3; IRo 2:2; 3:3; 7:2; 8:2; IPhld 9:1; ISm 3:3; 7:1; 8:1; D 1:5; Dg 12:9; 13:1; AcPlCor 2:5, 19; MPol 22:3; EpilMosq 5. θεὸς π. Gal 1:1 (for the formulation Ἰ. Χρ. καὶ θεὸς πατήρ cp. Diod S 4, 11, 1: Heracles must obey τῷ Διὶ καὶ πατρί; Oenomaus in Eus., PE 5, 35, 3 Λοξίας [=Apollo] καὶ Ζεὺς πατήρ); Phil 2:11; Col 3:17; 1 Th 1:1, 2 v.l.; 2 Pt 1:17; Jd 1; IEph ins a; ISm ins; IPol ins; MPol ins. ὁ θεὸς καὶ π. Js 1:27; Col 3:17 v.l.; MPol 22:1; ὁ κύριος καὶ π. Js 3:9.—Attributes are also ascribed to the πατήρ (Zoroaster acc. to Philo Bybl.: 790 Fgm. 4, 52 Jac. [in Eus., PE 1, 10, 52] God is π. εὐνομίας κ. δικαιοσύνης) ὁ πατὴρ τῆς δόξης Eph 1:17. πατὴρ ὕψιστος IRo ins. ὁ θεὸς καὶ πατὴρ παντοκράτωρ MPol 19:2.—B. 103. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > πατήρ

  • 167 πειράζω

    πειράζω impf. ἐπείραζον; fut. πειράσω; 1 aor. ἐπείρασα, mid. 2 sg. ἐπειράσω. Pass.: 1 aor. ἐπειράσθην; pf. ptc. πεπειρασνένος (fr. πεῖρα; Hom., then Apollon. Rhod. 1, 495; 3, 10. In prose since Philo Mech. 50, 34; 51, 9; also Polyb.; Plut., Cleom. 808 [7, 3], Mor. 230a; Vett. Val. 17, 6; schol. on Aristoph., Pl. 575; PSI 927, 25 [II A.D.]; LXX; TestJos 16:3 v.l.; ApcSed 8:5 p. 133, 5 Ja.; Joseph.; Just., D. 103, 6; 125, 4.—B-D-F §101 p. 54; Mlt-H. 387 n. 1; 404).
    to make an effort to do someth., try, attempt at times in a context indicating futility (ὁ θεὸς τῷ πειράζοντι δοὺς ἐξουσίαν τὴν τοῦ διωκειν ἡμᾶς Orig., C. Cels. 8, 70, 11) w. inf. foll. (Polyb. 2, 6, 9; Dt 4:34.—B-D-F §392, 1a) Ac 9:26; 16:7; 24:6; Hs 8, 2, 7. Foll. by acc. w. inf. IMg 7:1. Abs. Hs 8, 2, 7.
    to endeavor to discover the nature or character of someth. by testing, try, make trial of, put to the test
    gener. τινά someone (Epict. 1, 9, 29; Ps 25:2) ἑαυτοὺς πειράζετε εἰ ἐστὲ ἐν τῇ πίστει 2 Cor 13:5 (π. εἰ as Jos., Bell. 4, 340). ἐπείρασας τοὺς λέγοντας ἑαυτοὺς ἀποστόλους Rv 2:2. προφήτην οὐ πειράσετε οὐδὲ διακρινεῖτε D 11:7.
    of God or Christ, who put people to the test, in a favorable sense (Ps.-Apollod. 3, 7; 7, 4 Zeus puts τὴν ἀσέβειαν of certain people to the test), so that they may prove themselves true J 6:6; Hb 11:17 (Abraham, as Gen 22:1). Also of painful trials sent by God (Ex 20:20; Dt 8:2 v.l.; Judg 2:22; Wsd 3:5; 11:9; Jdth 8:25f) 1 Cor 10:13; Hb 2:18ab; 4:15 (s. πειράω); 11:37 v.l.; Rv 3:10 (SBrown, JBL 85, ’66, 308–14 π.= afflict). Likew. of the measures taken by the angel of repentance Hs 7:1.
    The Bible (but s. the Pythia in Hdt. 6, 86, 3 τὸ πειρηθῆναι τοῦ θεοῦ κ. τὸ ποιῆσαι ἴσον δύνασθαι ‘to have tempted the deity was as bad as doing the deed’; cp. 1, 159) also speaks of a trial of God by humans. Their intent is to put God to the test, to discover whether God really can do a certain thing, esp. whether God notices sin and is able to punish it (Ex 17:2, 7; Num 14:22; Is 7:12; Ps 77:41, 56; Wsd 1:2 al.) 1 Cor 10:9; Hb 3:9 (Ps 94:9). τὸ πνεῦμα κυρίου Ac 5:9. In Ac 15:10 the πειράζειν τὸν θεόν consists in the fact that after God’s will has been clearly made known through granting of the Spirit to the Gentiles (vs. 8), some doubt and make trial to see whether God’s will really becomes operative. τὸν διά σου θεὸν πειράσαι θέλων, εἰ since I want to put the god (you proclaim) to a test, whether AcPt Ox 849, 20–22 followed by οὐ πειράζεται ὁ θεός God refuses to be put to a test.—ASommer, D. Begriff d. Versuchung im AT u. Judentum, diss. Breslau ’35. S. πειράω.
    to attempt to entrap through a process of inquiry, test. Jesus was so treated by his opponents, who planned to use their findings against him Mt 16:1; 19:3; 22:18, 35; Mk 8:11; 10:2; 12:15; Lk 11:16; 20:23 v.l.; J 8:6.
    to entice to improper behavior, tempt Gal 6:1; Js 1:13a (s. ἀπό 5eβ) and b, 14 (Aeschin. 1, 190 the gods do not lead people to sin). Above all the devil works in this way; hence he is directly called ὁ πειράζων the tempter Mt 4:3; 1 Th 3:5b. He tempts humans Ac 5:3 v.l.; 1 Cor 7:5; 1 Th 3:5a; Rv 2:10. But he also makes bold to tempt Jesus (Just.. D. 103, 6; Orig., C. Cels. 6, 43, 28) Mt 4:1; Mk 1:13; Lk 4:2 (cp. use of the pass. without ref. to the devil: ἐν τῷ πειράζεσθαι … καὶ σταυροῦσθαι Iren. 3, 19, 3 [Harv. II 104, 3].—Did., Gen. 225, 2). On the temptation of Jesus (s. also Hb 2:18a; 4:15; 2b above) s. HWillrich, ZNW 4, 1903, 349f; KBornhäuser, Die Versuchungen Jesu nach d. Hb: MKähler Festschr. 1905, 69–86; on this Windisch, Hb2 ’31, 38 exc. on Hb 4:15; AHarnack, Sprüche u. Reden Jesu 1907, 32–37; FSpitta, Zur Gesch. u. Lit. des Urchristentums III 2, 1907, 1–108; AMeyer, Die evangel. Berichte üb. d. Vers. Christi: HBlümner Festschr. 1914, 434–68; DVölter, NThT 6, 1917, 348–65; EBöklen, ZNW 18, 1918, 244–48; PKetter, D. Versuchg. Jesu 1918; BViolet, D. Aufbau d. Versuchungsgeschichte Jesu: Harnack Festschr. 1921, 14–21; NFreese, D. Versuchg. Jesu nach den Synopt., diss. Halle 1922, D. Versuchlichkeit Jesu: StKr 96/97, 1925, 313–18; SEitrem/AFridrichsen, D. Versuchg. Christi 1924; Clemen2 1924, 214–18; HVogels, D. Versuchungen Jesu: BZ 17, 1926, 238–55; SelmaHirsch [s. on βαπτίζω 2a]; HThielicke, Jes. Chr. am Scheideweg ’38; PSeidelin, DTh 6, ’39, 127–39; HHoughton, On the Temptations of Christ and Zarathustra: ATR 26, ’44, 166–75; EFascher, Jesus u. d. Satan ’49; RSchnackenburg, TQ 132, ’52, 297–326; K-PKöppen, Die Auslegung der Versuchungsgeschichte usw.’61; EBest, The Temptation and the Passion (Mk), ’65; JDupont, RB 73, ’66, 30–76.—B. 652f. DELG s.v. πεῖρα. M-M. EDNT. DLNT 1166–70. TW. Spicq. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > πειράζω

  • 168 Πέτρος

    Πέτρος, ου, ὁ (ὁ πέτρος=‘stone’ Hom.+; Jos., Bell. 3, 240, Ant. 7, 142.—Π. as a name can scarcely be pre-Christian, as AMerx, D. vier kanon. Ev. II/1, 1902, 160ff, referring to Jos., Ant. 18, 156 [Niese did not accept the v.l. Πέτρος for Πρῶτος], would have it. But s. ADell [πέτρα 1b] esp. 14–17. Fr. the beginning it was prob. thought of as the Gk. equivalent of the Aram. כֵּיפָא= Κηφᾶς: J 1:42; cp. Mt 16:18 and JWackernagel, Syntax II2 1928, 14f, perh. formed on the analogy of the Gk. male proper name Πέτρων: UPZ 149, 8 [III B.C.]; 135 [78 B.C.]; Plut., Mor. 422d.—A gentile named Πέτρος in Damasc., Vi. Isid. 170. S. also the Praeses Arabiae of 278/79 A.D. Aurelius P.: Publ. Princeton Univ. Arch. Expedition to Syria III A, 1913, 4 no. 546) Peter, surname of the head of the circle of Twelve Disciples, whose name was orig. Simon. His father was a certain John (s. Ἰωάννης 4) or Jonah (s. Ἰωνᾶς 2). Acc. to J 1:44 he himself was from Bethsaida, but, at any rate, when he met Jesus he lived in Capernaum (Mk 1:21, 29). Fr. that city he and his brother Andrew made their living as fishers (Mk 1:16). He was married (Mk 1:30; cp. 1 Cor 9:5), but left his home and occupation, when Jesus called, to follow him (Mk 1:18; 10:28). He belonged to the three or four most intimate of the Master’s companions (Mk 5:37; 9:2; 13:3; 14:33). He stands at the head of the lists of the apostles (Mt 10:2; Mk 3:16; Lk 6:14; Ac 1:13). Not all the problems connected w. the conferring of the name Cephas-Peter upon Simon (s. Σίμων 1) have yet been solved (the giving of a new name and the reason for it: Plato [s. ὀνομάζω 1] and Theophrastus [Vi. Platonis 2 ln. 21 in Biog. p. 388 W.= Prolegom. 1 in CHermann, Pla. VI 196 Θεόφραστος, Τύρταμος καλούμενος πάλαι, διὰ τὸ θεῖον τῆς φράσεως Θ. μετεκλήθη]; CRoth, Simon-Peter HTR 54, ’61, 91–97). He was at least not always a model of rock-like (πέτρος is a symbol of imperturbability Soph., Oed. Rex 334; Eur., Med. 28 al.) firmness (note Gethsemane, the denial, the unsuccessful attempt at walking on water; his conduct at Antioch Gal 2:11ff which, though, is fr. time to time referred to another Cephas; s. KLake, HTR 14, 1921, 95ff; AVöllmecke, Jahrbuch d. Missionshauses St. Gabriel 2, 1925, 69–104; 3, 1926, 31–75; DRiddle, JBL 59, ’40, 169–80; NHuffman, ibid. 64, ’45, 205f; PGaechter, ZKT 72, ’50, 177–212; but s. HBetz, Gal [Hermeneia] p. 105f w. n. 442). Despite all this he was the leader of Jesus’ disciples, was spokesman for the Twelve (e.g. Mt 18:21; 19:27; Mk 8:27ff; Lk 12:41; 18:28) and for the three who were closest to Jesus (Mk 9:5); he was recognized as leader even by those on the outside (Mt 17:24). He is especially prominent in the pronouncement made Mt 16:18. Only in the Fourth Gospel does Peter have a place less prominent than another, in this case the ‘disciple whom Jesus loved’ (s. Hdb. exc. on J 13:23). In connection w. the miraculous events after Jesus’ death (on this ELohmeyer, Galiläa u. Jerusalem ’36; WMichaelis, D. Erscheinungen d. Auferstanden-en ’44; MWerner, D. ntl. Berichte üb. d. Erscheinungen d. Auferstandenen: Schweiz. Theol. Umschau ’44) Pt. played a unique role: 1 Cor 15:5; Lk 24:34; Mk 16:7. He was one of the pillars of the early church (Gal 2:9 [Κηφᾶς]). Three years after Paul was converted, on his first journey to Jerusalem as a Christian, he established a significant contact w. Peter: Gal 1:18. At least until the time described in Gal 2:1–10 (cp. Ac 15:7) he was prob. the head of the early Christian community/church. He was also active as a missionary to Israel Gal 2:8; cp. 1 Cor 9:5 (Κηφᾶς).—MGoguel, L’apôtre Pierre a-t-il joué un role personnel dans les crises de Grèce et de Galatie?: RHPR 14, ’34, 461–500.—In 1 Pt 1:1 and 2 Pt 1:1 he appears as author of an epistle. On Paul’s journey to Rome: Ἀρτέμων ὁ κυβερνήτης τοῦ πλοίου ἦν λελουμένος ὑπὸ Πέτρου Artemon, the ship’s captain, was baptized by Peter AcPl Ha 7, 20. It is probable that he died at Rome under Nero, about 64 A.D..—In the NT he is somet. called Σίμων (q.v. 1; in Ac 15:14 and 2 Pt 1:1 more exactly Συμεών=שִׁמְעוֹן); except for Gal 2:7f Paul always calls him Κηφᾶς (q.v.). Both names Σίμων Π. Mt 16:16; Lk 5:8; J 1:40; 6:8, 68; 13:6, 9, 24, 36; 18:10, 15, 25; 20:2, 6; 21:2f, 7b, 11, 15. Σίμων ὁ λεγόμενος Π. Mt 4:18; 10:2. Σίμων ὁ ἐπικαλούμενος Π. Ac 10:18; 11:13. Σίμων ὸ̔ς ἐπικαλεῖται Π. 10:5, 32.—Outside the NT it is found in our lit. GEb 34, 59; GPt 14:60 (Σίμων Πέτρος); ApcPt Rainer; GMary 463 (2 times); AcPt Ox 849 (4 times); 1 Cl 5:4 (Paul follows in 5:5); 2 Cl 5:3f (a piece fr. an apocr. gosp.); IRo 4:3 (Πέτρος καὶ Παῦλος); ISm 3:2=GHb 356, 39; Papias (2:4, w. other disciples; 15, w. Mark as his ἑρμηνευτής).—Zahn, Einl. II §38–44; KErbes, Petrus nicht in Rom, sondern in Jerusalem gestorben: ZKG 22, 1901, 1ff; 161ff (against him AKneller, ZKT 26, 1902, 33ff; 225ff; 351ff); PSchmiedel, War der Ap. Petrus in Rom?: PM 13, 1909, 59–81; HLietzmann, Petrus u. Pls in Rom2 1927; GEsser, Der hl. Ap. Petrus 1902; CGuignebert, La primauté de St. Pierre et la venue de Pierre à Rome 1909; FFoakes-Jackson, Peter, Prince of Apostles 1927; HDannenbauer, D. röm. Pt-Legende: Hist. Ztschr. 146, ’32, 239–62; 159, ’38, 81–88; KHeussi, War Pt. in Rom? ’36, War Pt. wirklich röm. Märtyrer? ’37, Neues z. Pt.-frage ’39, TLZ 77, ’52, 67–72; HLietzmann, Pt. röm. Märt.: SBBerlAk ’36, XXIX; DRobinson, JBL 64, ’45, 255–67; HSchmutz, Pt. war dennoch in Rom: Benedikt. Monatsschr. 22, ’46, 128–41.—On Mt 16:17–19 s., in addition to the lit. on κλείς 1 and πέτρα 1b: JSchnitzer, Hat Jesus das Papsttum gestiftet? 1910, Das Papsttum eine Stiftung Jesu? 1910; FTillmann, Jesus u. das Papsttum 1910; AKneller, ZKT 44, 1920, 147–69; OLinton, D. Problem der Urkirche ’32, 157–83; KPieper, Jes. u. d. Kirche ’32; AEhrhard, Urkirche u. Frühkatholizismus I 1, ’36.—JMunck, Pt. u. Pls in der Offenb. Joh. ’50 (Rv 11:3–13).—OCullmann, Petrus2, ’60 (Eng. tr. Peter, FFilson2, ’62), L’apôtre Pierre: NT Essays (TManson memorial vol.), ’59, 94–105; OKarrer, Peter and the Church: an examination of the Cullmann thesis, ’63; RO’Callaghan, Vatican Excavations and the Tomb of Peter: BA 16, ’53, 70–87; AvGerkan, D. Forschung nach dem Grab Petri, ZNW 44, ’52/53, 196–205, Zu den Problemen des Petrusgrabes: JAC ’58, 79–93; GSnyder, BA 32, ’69, 2–24; JGwynGriffiths, Hibbert Journal 55, ’56/57, 140–49; TBarnes, JTS 21, ’70, 175–79; GSchulze-Kadelbach, D. Stellung des P. in der Urchristenheit: TLZ 81, ’56, 1–18 (lit.); PGaechter, Petrus u. seine Zeit, ’58; EKirschbaum, The Tombs of St. Peter and St. Paul (transl. JMurray) ’59; EHaenchen, Petrus-Probleme, NTS 7, ’60/61, 187–97; SAgourides, Πέτρος καὶ Ἰωάννης ἐν τῷ τετάρτῳ Εὐαγγελίῳ, Thessalonike, ’66; DGewalt, Petrus, diss. Hdlbg, ’66; RBrown, KDonfried, JReumann edd., Peter in the NT, ’73; CCaragounis, Peter and the Rock (BZNW 58) ’89.—Pauly-W. XIX ’38, 1335–61; Kl. Pauly IV 674–76; BHHW III 1430f. LGPN I. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > Πέτρος

  • 169 πηλός

    πηλός, οῦ, ὁ (Aeschyl., Hdt.+; OGI 483, 61; CPR 232, 17; POxy 1450, 4; LXX, pseudepigr., Philo, Joseph.; Mel., P. 36, 247; Ath.)
    clay
    used in making pottery (Trag. et al.; Polyb. 15, 35, 2: the potter deals with ὁ τροχός [=potter’s wheel] and ὁ πηλός; Is 29:16; 41:25; Jer 18:6; Sir 33:13) Ro 9:21 (cp. esp. Wsd 15:7).—In a comparison that has allegorical traits humankind is called πηλὸς εἰς τὴν χεῖρα τοῦ τεχνίτου 2 Cl 8:2 (= ἐν τῇ χειρί, s. εἰς 1aδ).
    Like the pliable material which the artist uses (TestNapht 2:2; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 252; Mel.), clay is also the material fr. which humankind is made (cp. Aristoph., Av. 686 πηλοῦ πλάσματα of humans; Callim. Fgm. 493; Herodas 2, 28f; Epict. 4, 11, 27; Lucian, Prom. 13; Themist., Or. 32 after Aesop; Job 10:9) 1 Cl 39:5 (Job 4:19).
    mud, mire (Pla., Parm. 130c π. καὶ ῥύπος; Plut., Marius 414 [16, 7], Mor. 993e; 1059f οἱ πηλὸν ἢ κονιορτὸν ἐπὶ τοῦ σώματος ἔχοντες), esp. of the soft mass produced when the ground is wet, e.g. on the roads (Aeneas Tact. 1421; Herodas 1, 14; Arrian, Anab. 5, 15, 2; 2 Km 22:43; Zech 9:3; 10:5; Jos., Ant. 1, 244; cp. JosAs 13:6). Jesus ἔπτυσεν χαμαὶ καὶ ἐποίησεν πηλὸν ἐκ τοῦ πτύσματος J 9:6a (π. ποιεῖν like Chariton 1, 3, 2); cp. vss. 6b, 11, 14, 15. For the use of πηλός in the healing art of ancient times, even on the part of benevolent divinities s. Hdb. ad loc. and KRengstorf, Die Anfänge der Auseinandersetzung zw. Christusglaube u. Asklepiosfrömmigkeit ’53, 39f, n. 61.—B. 20. Schmidt, Syn. II 191–99, s. βόρβορος. DELG. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > πηλός

  • 170 πίστις

    πίστις, εως, ἡ (Hes., Hdt.+; ranging in meaning from subjective confidence to objective basis for confidence).
    the state of being someone in whom confidence can be placed, faithfulness, reliability, fidelity, commitment (X., An. 1, 6, 3; 3, 3, 4; Aristot., Eth. Eud, 7, 2, 1237b, 12; Polyb. 7, 12, 9; 38, 1, 8 al.; Herodian 2, 14, 4 al.; SIG 675, 22; OGI 557, 16; PTebt 27, 6; 51 [II B.C.]; POxy 494, 9; 705, 32; other pap M-M. s.v.; Ps 32:4; Pr 12:22; Jos., Ant. 2, 61; TestAsh 7:7) w. κρίσις and ἔλεος Mt 23:23. (Opp. ἀπιστία as Hes., Op. 370) τὴν πίστιν τοῦ θεοῦ καταργεῖν nullify the faithfulness/commitment of God (cp. Ps 32:4; Hos 2:22) Ro 3:3. πᾶσαν π. ἐνδείκνυσθαι ἀγαθήν show all good faith(fulness) Tit 2:10 (cp. BGU 314, 19 μετὰ πίστεως ἀγαθῆς). W. other virtues Gal 5:22 (on πίστις, πραΰτης cp. Sir 45:4; 1:27). W. ὑπομονή 2 Th 1:4. τὴν πίστιν τετήρηκα I have remained faithful or loyal (πίστιν τηρεῖν as Polyb. 6, 56, 13; 10, 37, 5; Jos., Bell. 2, 121; 6, 345; OGI 339, 46f; IBM III, 587b, 5f [Dssm., LO 262=LAE 309, esp. note 3]) 2 Ti 4:7, though this would be classified by some under 3 below. S. also 1c below.
    a solemn promise to be faithful and loyal, assurance, oath, troth (X., Cyr. 7, 1, 44; 8, 8, 3, Hell. 1, 3, 12; Diod S 14, 9, 7; Appian, Bell. Civ. 4, 86 §362 μεγάλας πίστεις ἔδωκεν=solemn assurances; 3 Macc 3:10; Jos., Ant. 12, 382) τὴν πρώτην πίστιν ἠθέτησαν 1 Ti 5:12 (s. also ἀθετέω 1 and cp. CIA app. [Wünsch, Praef. p. xv] of a woman who πρώτη ἠθέτησεν τὴν πίστιν to her husband). Cp. Rv 2:3.
    a token offered as a guarantee of someth. promised, proof, pledge (Pla., Phd. 70b; Isocr. 3, 8; Aristot., Rhet. 1, 1; 3, 13; Epicurus in Diog. L. 10, 63; 85: πίστις βεβαία=dependable proof; Polyb. 3, 100, 3; Περὶ ὕψους 39, 3=p. 74, 20 V.; Epict. 1, 28, 3; Appian, Bell. Civ. 4, 119 §500; Jos., Ant. 15, 69) πίστιν παρασχὼν πᾶσιν ἀναστήσας αὐτόν (God has appointed a man [Jesus] to be judge of the world, and) he has furnished proof (of his fitness for this office) to all people by raising him (on πίστιν παρέχειν cp. Jos., Ant. 2, 218 πίστιν παρεῖχε; 15, 260; Polyb. 2, 52, 4 πίστιν παρέσχετο=gave a pledge, security; Vett. Val. 277, 29f) Ac 17:31. JBarton, Biblica 40, ’59, 878–84: π. in 2 Ti 4:7= bond deposited by an athlete. But see 3 below.—WSchmitz, ῾Η Πίστις in den Papyri, diss. Cologne, ’64.
    state of believing on the basis of the reliability of the one trusted, trust, confidence, faith in the active sense=‘believing’, in ref. to deity (Soph. Oed. R. 1445 νῦν γʼ ἂν τῷ θεῷ πίστιν φέροις; Pla., Leg. 12, 966de; Plut. Mor. 402e; 756b; Dio Chrys. 3, 51 παρὰ θεῶν τιμὴ κ. πίστις; Ael. Aristid. 13 p. 226 D.: πίστιν ἐν τ. θεοῖς ἔχειν; Appian, Liby. 57 §248 ἐς θεοὺς πίστις; Ep. 33 of Apollonius of Tyana [Philostrat. I 352, 14]; Herm. Wr. 9, 10 ἐπίστευσε καὶ ἐν τῇ καλῇ πίστει ἐπανεπαύσατο; Porphyr., Ad Marcellam 21 τῆς βεβαίας πίστεως, τὸ μεμαθηκέναι, ὅτι ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ προνοεῖται πάντα. The divinity Πίστις in Plut., Num. 70 [16, 1] and in magic [exx. in Rtzst., Mysterienrel.3 234f, among them Aberciusins. 12; PGM 4, 1014 ἀλήθεια καὶ πίστις; 12, 228]; Wsd 3:14; 4 Macc 15:24; 16:22; 17:2; Philo, Abr. 270; 271; 273, Mut. Nom. 182, Migr. Abr. 43f, Conf. Lingu. 31, Poster. Cai. 13 [on faith in Philo s. the lit. given under πιστεύω 2aα]; Jos, C. Ap. 2, 163; 169; Just., A I, 52, 1 πίστιν ἔχειν; 53, 11 πειθὼ καὶ πίστιν … ἐμφορῆσαι), in our lit. directed toward God and Christ, their revelations, teachings, promises, their power and readiness to aid.
    God: πίστις θεοῦ (cp. Jos., Ant. 17, 179.—Cp. π. καὶ φόβος ὁ τοῦ θεοῦ Theoph. Ant. 1, 7 [p. 72, 26]) faith, trust, confidence in God Mk 11:22; cp. Ac 19:20 D; 1 Cl 3:4; 27:3. π. θείου πνεύμαπος faith in the divine spirit Hm 11:9. ἡ π. τοῦ κυρίου Hs 6, 3, 6. π. (καὶ ἐλπὶς) εἰς θεόν 1 Pt 1:21. π. ἐπὶ θεόν Hb 6:1. ἡ πίστις ἡ πρὸς τὸν θεόν 1 Th 1:8 (on the constr. w. πρὸς τ. θ. cp. Philo, Abr. 268; 271; 273; Just., D. 121, 2 διὰ τὴν πρὸς τὸν ἥλιον π.).—πίστις can also be characterized as faith in God by the context, without the addition of specific words; so in connection w. OT personalities: Abraham Ro 4:5, 9, 11–13, 16, 19f (s. also 2dα below); 1 Cl 10:7; 31:2; of Rahab 12:1, 8; of Esther 55:6 (ἡ τελεία κατὰ πίστιν). The OT heroes of faith Hb 11:4–33, 39 (w. this catalogue of heroes cp. Il. 4, 457–538; 2 Km 23:8–39; 1 Ch 11:10–12:18; CGordon, Homer, and the Bible: HUCA 26, ’55, 83).—But in Hb it is also true that God is specifically the object of the Christian’s faith, and Christ 12:2 is ὁ τῆς πίστεως ἀρχηγὸς καὶ τελειώτης. Cp. 10:38; 11:3; 13:7. (On faith in Hb s. Schlatter, Der Glaube im NT4 1927, 520ff; BHeigl, Verfasser u. Adresse des Hb 1905, 109–18; GHoennicke, Die sittl. Anschauungen des Hb: ZWT 45, 1902, 26ff; Windisch, Hdb. exc. on Hb 11; Riggenbach and Michel on Hb 11; Strathmann on 10:38. S. ὑπόστασις end.)—ἐὰν ἔχητε πίστιν Mt 17:20. Opp. doubt 21:21. αἰτεῖν ἐν πίστει μηδὲν διακρινόμενος Js 1:6. ἡ εὐχὴ τῆς πίστεως 5:15 (εὐχή 1). ἡ πίστις τῆς ἐνεργείας τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦ ἐγείραντος αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν faith in the working of God, who raised him from the dead Col 2:12.
    Christ
    α. of belief and trust in the Lord’s help in physical and spiritual distress; oft. in the synopt. gospels: Mt 8:10; 9:2, 22, 29 (κατὰ τὴν πίστιν ὑμῶν); 15:28; Mk 2:5; 4:40; 5:34; 10:52; Lk 5:20; 7:9, 50; 8:25, 48; 17:19; 18:42.—Cp. ἔχει πίστιν τοῦ σωθῆναι (the lame man) had faith that he would be cured Ac 14:9.
    β. of faith in Christ, designated by the addition of certain words. By the obj. gen. (s. Just., D. 52, 4 διὰ τῆς πίστεως τῆς τοῦ χριστοῦ) πίστις Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ faith in Jesus Christ (and sim. exprs. On interp. as obj. gen. s. AHultgren, NovT 22, ’80, 248–63 [lit.]; response SWilliams, CBQ 49, ’87, 431–47.) Ro 3:22, 26; Gal 2:16ab, 20; 3:22; Eph 3:12; Phil 3:9a; Js 2:1; Rv 14:12; cp. 2:13 (ἡ πίστις μου=faith in me, the Human One [Son of Man]); IMg 1:1. (The πίστις Χριστοῦ in Paul is taken as a subj. gen. by JHaussleiter, Der Glaube Jesu Christi 1891, Was versteht Paulus unter christlichem Glauben?: Greifswalder Studien für HCremer 1895, 161–82 and GKittel, StKr 79, 1906, 419ff. See also Schläger, ZNW 7, 1906, 356–58; BLongenecker, NTS 39, ’93, 478–80 [lit. since ’81]; DCampbell, JBL 113, ’94, 265–85; response BDodd, 114, ’95, 470–73.—ADeissmann, Paulus2 1925, 125f [Paul, tr. WWilson, 1926, 162ff], speaks of the mystical gen., ‘faith in Christ’. Likew. HWeber, Die Formel ‘in Christo Jesu’: NKZ 31, 1920, 213ff, esp. 231, 3; WWeber, Christusmystik 1924, 82. S. also LAlbrecht, Der Glaube Jesu Christi 1921; OSchmitz, Die Christusgemeinschaft des Pls im Lichte seines Genetivgebr. 1924, 91–134; OHoltzmann, D. Glaube an Jes.: Stromata 1930, 11–25; GTaylor, JBL 85, ’66, 58–76: the passages in Gal=Christ’s reliability as a trustee. Cp. GHoward, HTR 60, ’67, 459–65; MHooker, NTS 35, ’89, 321–42.)—By prepositional phrases: πίστις εἰς Χριστόν (and sim. exprs.) faith in Christ Ac 20:21; 24:24; 26:18; Col 2:5 (Just., D. 40, 1).—Also πίστις ἐν Χριστῷ (and sim.) Gal 3:26; Eph 1:15; Col 1:4; 1 Ti 3:13; 2 Ti 3:15; 1 Cl 22:1. In ἱλαστήριον διὰ πίστεως ἐν τῷ αὐτοῦ αἵματι Ro 3:25, ἐν κτλ. prob. goes not w. πίστις, but w. ἱλαστήριον (s. Ltzm., Hdb. ad loc.; W-S. §20, 5d).—πίστις, ἣν ἔχεις πρὸς τ. κύριον Ἰησοῦν Phlm 5.—πίστις διὰ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰ. Χριστοῦ Ac 20:21 D; sim. ἡ πίστις ἡ διʼ αὐτοῦ 3:16b (cp. 1 Pt 1:21).—Jesus Christ is called ἡ τελεία πίστις ISm 10:2.
    πίστις can also be characterized by an objective gen. of the thing: ἡ πίστις τοῦ ὀνόματος αὐτοῦ faith in his (Jesus’) name Ac 3:16a. ἡ πίστις τοῦ εὐαγγελίου Phil 1:27. εὐαγγελίων πίστις Dg 11:6. πίστις ἀληθείας 2 Th 2:13.
    πίστις is found mostly without an obj., faith, firm commitment
    α. as true piety, genuine devotion (Sextus 7a and 7; ParJer 6:7), which for our lit. means being a Christian (τὸ ἀληθινὸν πάσχα … πίστει νονούμενον Hippol., Ref. 8, 18, 1; Did., Gen. 54, 11) Lk 18:8 (s. Jülicher, Gleichn. 288); 22:32; Ac 6:5=vs. 8 v.l.; cp. 11:24.—6:7; 13:8; 14:22; 15:9; 16:5; Ro 1:5, 8, 12, 17ab (ἐκ πίστεως εἰς πίστιν does not mean a gradation [as, in a way, Appian, Mithrid. 40 §154: Sulla came upon ἕτερον ὅμοιον ἐξ ἑτέρου=one wall, i.e. fortification, after another similar one] or a transition from one kind to another [Himerius, Or.=Ecl. 10, 6 ἐκ ᾠδῆς εἰς ᾠδὴν ἄλλην μετέβαλον=they changed from one kind of song to another], but merely expresses in a rhetorical way that πίστις is the beginning and the end; s. Ltzm., Hdb. ad loc., and a grave-ins [ANock, Sallust. p. xxxiii, 94] ἐκ γῆς εἰς γῆν ὁ βίος οὗτοσ=‘dust is the beginning and the end of human life’.—AFridrichsen, ConNeot 12, ’48, 54); 17c (here and in Gal 3:11 the LXX of Hab 2:4 [DCampbell, JBL 116, ’97, 713–19] is not followed literally, since it has ἐκ πίστεώς μου=‘as a result of my faithfulness’; even in Hb 10:38, where μου does occur, it goes w. δίκαιος, not w. πίστεως); Ro 3:27f (Luther’s addition of the word ‘alone’ in vs. 28 is hard to contest linguistically. Cp., e.g., Diog. L. 9, 6: Heraclitus wrote his work in very obscure language ὅπως οἱ δυνάμενοι προσίοιεν αὐτῷ=in order that only the capable might approach it. S. also Fitzmyer, ABComm. 360–64), 30f; 4:5–20 (s. also 2a above); 5:1f; 9:30, 32; 10:6, 17; 11:20 (opp. ἀπιστία); 12:3, 6 (s. ἀναλογία; for a difft. view 3 below); 14:1, 22 (s. ἐνώπιον 2b; others would place in 2dε), 23ab (but s. ε below); 16:26; 1 Cor 2:5; 15:14, 17; 16:13; 2 Cor 1:24ab; 4:13; 10:15; 13:5; Gal 3:7–26; 5:5, 6 (s. ἐνεργέω 1b); 6:10 (οἱ οἰκεῖοι τῆς πίστεως, s. οἰκεῖος b); Eph 2:8; 3:17; 4:5, 13; 6:16; Phil 1:25 (χαρὰ τῆς πίστεως); 2:17; 3:9b; Col 1:23; 2:7; 1 Th 3:2, 5, 7, 10; 2 Th 1:3, 11; 3:2; 1 Ti 1:2, 4, 5 (π. ἀνυπόκριτος), 19ab; 4:1; 5:8; 6:10, 12, 21 (but s. 3 below); 2 Ti 1:5 (ἀνυπόκριτος π.); 2:18; 3:8; Tit 1:1, 4, 13; 3:15; Phlm 6 (s. κοινωνία 4); Hb 6:12; 10:22, 39 (opp. ὑποστολή); Js 1:3; 2:5; 1 Pt 1:5, 7, 9; 5:9; 2 Pt 1:1; 1J 5:4; 1 Cl 1:2 (ἡ πανάρετος κ. βεβαία π.); ISm 1:1 (ἀκίνητος π.); Hm 5, 2, 1; 12, 5, 4 (both πλήρης ἐν τῇ πίστει full of faith); 5, 2, 3 (π. ὁλόκληρος); 9:6 (ὁλοτελὴς ἐν τ. π.), 7 (opp. διψυχία), 12 (π. ἡ ἔχουσα δύναμιν); 12, 6, 1; Hs 9, 19, 2 (ἀπὸ τῆς π. κενοί); 9, 26, 8 (κολοβοὶ ἀπὸ τῆς π. αὐτῶν).—τὸ ῥῆμα τ. πίστεως Ro 10:8. οἱ λόγοι τῆς π. 1 Ti 4:6. τὸ μυστήριον τῆς π. 3:9. ὁ θεὸς ἤνοιξεν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν θύραν πίστεως God has opened the door of faith to the Gentiles, i.e. opened the way for them to participate in a new relationship w. God Ac 14:27 (s. also θύρα 1bγ). ἀκοὴ πίστεως Gal 3:2, 5 (s. ἀκοή 2 and 4b). (τὸ) ἔργον (τῆς) π. 1 Th 1:3; 2 Th 1:11 (s. ἔργον 1b). οἱ ἐκ πίστεως the people of faith (s. ἐκ 3b) Gal 3:7, 9. πῶς οὐν [πίστιν εὑρ]ίσκομεν; Ox 1081, 25f (but here [ταῦτα γιγν]ώ̣σκομεν is the preferable restoration w. Till after the Coptic SJCh 90, 2); 32. Of gnostics τοῦ ὄφεως πίστιν ἔχουσιν AcPlCor 2:20.—If the principal component of Christianity is faith, then π. can be understood as the Gospel in terms of the commitment it evokes (cp. SIG 932, 7 [II/I B.C.]) νῦν εὐαγγελίζεται τὴν πίστιν ἥν ποτε ἐπόρθει Gal 1:23 (s. 3 below). Perh. also Ro 1:5.
    β. Hb 11:1 defines πίστις as ἐλπιζομένων ὑπόστασις, πραγμάτων ἔλεγχος οὐ βλεπομένων. There is here no qu. about the mng. of π. as confidence or assurance (s. 2a above), but on its relation to ὑπόστασις as its predication s. under that word.—(Ps.-Aristot., De Mundo 6, 18 interprets πιστεύειν in someth. as incapability to see someth. that is apparent only to God.) Paul contrasts walking διὰ εἴδους (εἶδος 3) as the lower degree, with διὰ πίστεως περιπατεῖν 2 Cor 5:7 (s. KDeissner, Pls. u. die Mystik seiner Zeit2 1921, 101ff). On the other hand πίστις is on a higher level than merely listening to Christian preaching Hb 4:2.
    γ. πίστις abs., as a Christian virtue, is often coupled w. others of the same kind, esp. oft. w. ἀγάπη: 1 Th 3:6; 5:8; 1 Ti 1:14; 2 Ti 1:13; Phlm 5; B 11:8; IEph 1:1; 9:1; 14:1; 20:1; IMg 1:2; 13:1; IRo ins; ISm ins; 6:1; 13:2; AcPl Ha 8, 35. W. ἀγάπη and other abstracts 2 Cor 8:7; Gal 5:22; Eph 6:23; 1 Ti 2:15; 4:12; 6:11: 2 Ti 2:22; 3:10; Tit 2:2; Rv 2:19; IPhld 11:2; Pol 4:2; Hm 8:9; cp. v 3, 8, 2–5. The triad πίστις, ἐλπίς, ἀγάπη 1 Cor 13:13; cp. also Col 1:4f; 1 Th 1:3; 5:8; B 1:4 (on this triad see s.v. ἀγάπη 1aα). W. ἐλπίς only (cp. 1 Pt 1:21) 1 Cl 58:2. The ζωῆς ἐλπίς is called ἀρχὴ καὶ τέλος πίστεως ἡμῶν B 1:6.—W. ἀλήθεια (TestLevi 8:2) 1 Ti 2:7 (cp. the combination POxy 70, 4f [III A.D.]); 1 Cl 60:4. W. δικαιοσύνη Pol 9:2. W. ὑπομονή Rv 13:10; w. ὑπομ. and other abstracts 2 Pt 1:5f; Pol 13:2 (cp. also the following passages already referred to in this section: 1 Ti 6:11; 2 Ti 3:10; Tit 2:2 and Js 1:3 [α above]). W. γνῶσις (Just., D. 69, 1) et al. 2 Pt 1:5f [s. above]; D 10:2. ἵνα μετὰ τῆς πίστεως ὑμῶν τελείαν ἔχητε τὴν γνῶσιν B 1:5. W. φόβος and ἐγκράτεια Hm 6, 1, 1.—(Distinguished from θεία σοφία: Orig., C. Cels. 6, 13, 23.)
    δ. faith as fidelity to Christian teaching. This point of view calls for ἔργα as well as the kind of πίστις that represents only one side of true piety: Js 2:14ab, 17, 18abc, 20, 22ab, 24, 26 (ἔργον 1a); Hv 3, 6, 5; Hs 8, 9, 1ab.
    ε. Ro 14:22 and 23 π. as freedom or strength in faith, conviction (s. Ltzm., Hdb. ad loc.; but s. α above).
    ζ. In addition to the πίστις that every Christian possesses (s. 2dα above) Paul speaks of a special gift of faith that belongs to a select few 1 Cor 12:9. Here he understands π. as an unquestioning belief in God’s power to aid people with miracles, the faith that ‘moves mountains’ 13:2 (cp. Mt 17:20.—21:21; s. 2a above). This special kind of faith may be what the disciples had in mind when they asked πρόσθες ἡμῖν πίστιν Lk 17:5; cp. vs. 6. τῇ πίστει φερόμενος ὁ Παυλος AcPl Ha 5, 1.
    that which is believed, body of faith/belief/teaching (Diod S 1, 23, 8 ἰσχυρὰν πίστιν καὶ ἀμετάθετον=an article of faith that was firm and unshakable [concerning Orpheus and Dionysus]; Mel., HE 4, 26, 13; Ath. 8, 1; Iren., 1, 10, 2 [Harv. I, 92, 1]; Orig., C. Cels., 1, 42, 26; Did., Gen. 156, 23). So clearly Jd 3 (τῇ ἅπαξ παραδοθείσῃ τοῖς ἁγίοις πίστει), 20 (τῇ ἁγιωτάτῃ ὑμῶν πίστει.—ἅγιος 1aα). πίστις θεοῦ=that which, acc. to God’s will, is to be believed IEph 16:2.—This objectivizing of the term πίστις is found as early as Paul: Ro 1:5; Gal 1:23 (s. 2dα end) and perh. Gal 3:23–25 (s. Ltzm., Hdb. ad loc.). ASeeberg, D. Katechismus der Urchristenheit 1903, 110f, understands 1 Ti 1:19; 4:1, 6; 6:10, cp. 21; 2 Ti 2:18 in this manner. Ro 12:6 (but s. ἀναλογία) and 2 Ti 4:7 are also interpreted in this way by many.—EBurton, ICC Gal 1921, 475–86; ASchlatter, D. Glaube im NT4 1927; APott, Das Hoffen im NT in seiner Beziehung zum Glauben1915; ANairne, The Faith of the NT 1920; RGyllenberg, Pistis 1922; WKümmel, D. Glaube im NT: ThBl 16, ’38, 209–21; Dodd 65–68; TTorrance, ET 68, ’57, 111–14; CMoule, ibid. 157.—Synoptics: TShearer, ET 69, ’57, 3–6.—Esp. for Paul: BBartmann, Pls, die Grundzüge seiner Lehre u. die moderne Religionsgeschichte 1914; WMorgan, The Religion and Theology of Paul 1917; WHatch, The Pauline Idea of Faith in Its Relation to Jewish and Hellenistic Religion 1917; Ltzm., Hdb. exc. after Ro 4:25; FKnoke, Der christl. Glaube nach Pls 1922; ERohde, Gottesglaube u. Kyriosglaube bei Pls: ZNW 22, 1923, 43–57; EWissmann, Das Verh. v. πίστις und Christusfrömmigkeit bei Pls 1926; MDibelius, Glaube u. Mystik b. Pls: Neue Jahrb. f. Wissensch. u. Jugendbildg. 7, ’31, 683–99; WMundle, D. Glaubensbegriff des Pls ’32 (p. xi–xvi extensive bibliog.); RGyllenberg, Glaube b. Pls: ZWT 13, ’37, 612–30; MHansen, Om Trosbegrebet hos Pls ’37; LMarshall, Challenge of NT Ethics, ’47, 270–77; 298–300; RBultmann, Theologie des NT ’48, 310–26 (Engl. tr. KGrobel I ’51, 314–30; for the Johannines II, 70–92, ’55); MMassinger, BiblSacra 107, ’50, 181–94 et al. S. also δικαιοσύνη 3a.—For the Fourth Gosp.: JBuswell, The Ethics of ‘Believe’ in the Fourth Gospel: BiblSacra 80, 1923, 28–37; JHuby, De la connaissance de foi chez S. Jean: RSR 21, ’31, 385–421; RSchnackenburg, D. Glaube im 4. Ev., diss. Breslau ’37; WHatch, The Idea of Faith in Christ. Lit. fr. the Death of St. Paul to the Close of the Second Century 1926.—EGraesser, D. Glaube im Hebräerbrief, ’65.—ABaumeister, D. Ethik des Pastor Hermae, 1912, 61–140.—ESeidl, π. in d. griech. Lit. (to Peripatetics), diss. Innsbruck, ’53; HLjungman, Pistis, ’64; DLührmann, Pistis im Judent., ZNW 64, ’73, 19–38. On faith in late Judaism s. Bousset, Rel.3 534a (index); also DHay, JBL 108, ’89, 4611–76; DLindsay, Josephus and Faith ’93. On the Hellenistic concept πίστις Rtzst., Mysterienrel.3 234–36.—DELG s.v. πείθομαι. M-M. EDNT. TW. Spicq. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > πίστις

  • 171 πνεῦμα

    πνεῦμα, ατος, τό (πνέω; Aeschyl., Pre-Socr., Hdt.+. On the history of the word s. Rtzst., Mysterienrel.3 308ff).
    air in movement, blowing, breathing (even the glowing exhalations of a volcanic crater: Diod S 5, 7, 3)
    wind (Aeschyl. et al.; LXX, EpArist, Philo; Jos., Ant. 2, 343; 349; SibOr 8, 297) in wordplay τὸ πνεῦμα πνεῖ the wind blows J 3:8a (EpJer 60 πνεῦμα ἐν πάσῃ χώρᾳ πνεῖ. But s. TDonn, ET 66, ’54f, 32; JThomas, Restoration Qtrly 24, ’81, 219–24). ὀθόνη πλοίου ὑπὸ πνεύματος πληρουμένη MPol 15:2. Of God ὁ ποιῶν τοὺς ἀγγέλους αὐτοῦ πνεύματα who makes his angels winds Hb 1:7; 1 Cl 36:3 (both Ps 103:4).
    the breathing out of air, blowing, breath (Aeschyl. et al.; Pla., Tim. 79b; LXX) ὁ ἄνομος, ὅν ὁ κύριος Ἰησοῦς ἀνελεῖ τῷ πνεύματι τοῦ στόματος αὐτοῦ 2 Th 2:8 (cp. Is 11:4; Ps 32:6).
    that which animates or gives life to the body, breath, (life-)spirit (Aeschyl. et al.; Phoenix of Colophon 1, 16 [Coll. Alex. p. 231] πν.=a breathing entity [in contrast to becoming earth in death]; Polyb. 31, 10, 4; Ps.-Aristot., De Mundo 4 p. 394b, 8ff; PHib 5, 54 [III B.C.]; PGM 4, 538; 658; 2499; LXX; TestAbr A 17 p. 98, 19 [Stone p. 44] al.; JosAs 19:3; SibOr 4, 46; Tat. 4:2) ἀφιέναι τὸ πνεῦμα give up one’s spirit, breathe one’s last (Eur., Hec. 571; Porphyr., Vi. Plotini 2) Mt 27:50. J says for this παραδιδόναι τὸ πν. 19:3 (cp. ApcMos 31 ἀποδῶ τὸ πν.; Just., D. 105, 5). Of the return of the (life-)spirit of a deceased person into her dead body ἐπέστρεψεν τὸ πν. αὐτῆς Lk 8:55 (cp. Jdg 15:19). εἰς χεῖράς σου παρατίθεμαι τὸ πν. μου into your hands I entrust my spirit 23:46 (Ps 30:6; for alleged focus on ἐλπίζειν s. EBons, BZ 38, ’94, 93–101). κύριε Ἰησοῦ, δέξαι τὸ πνεῦμά μου Ac 7:59; composite of both passages AcPl Ha 10, 23 (cp. ApcMos 42). τὸ πν. μου ὁ δεσπότης δέξεται GJs 23:3 (on the pneuma flying upward after death cp. Epicharm. in Vorsokrat. 23 [=13, 4th ed.], B 9 and 22; Eur., Suppl. 533 πνεῦμα μὲν πρὸς αἰθέρα, τὸ σῶμα δʼ ἐς γῆν; PGM 1, 177ff τελευτήσαντός σου τὸ σῶμα περιστελεῖ, σοῦ δὲ τὸ πνεῦμα … εἰς ἀέρα ἄξει σὺν αὑτῷ ‘when you are dead [the angel] will wrap your body … and take your spirit with him into the sky’). τὸ σῶμα χωρὶς πν. νεκρόν ἐστιν Js 2:26. πν. ζωῆς ἐκ τ. θεοῦ εἰσῆλθεν ἐν αὐτοῖς (i.e. the prophet-witnesses who have been martyred) Rv 11:11 (cp. Ezk 37:10 v.l. εἰσῆλθεν εἰς αὐτοὺς πνεῦμα ζωῆς; vs. 5). Of the spirit that animated the image of a beast, and enabled it to speak and to have Christians put to death 13:15.—After a person’s death, the πν. lives on as an independent being, in heaven πνεύματα δικαὶων τετελειωμένων Hb 12:23 (cp. Da 3:86 εὐλογεῖτε, πνεύματα καὶ ψυχαὶ δικαίων, τὸν κύριον). According to non-biblical sources, the πν. are in the netherworld (cp. En 22:3–13; Sib Or 7, 127) or in the air (PGM 1, 178), where evil spirits can prevent them from ascending higher (s. ἀήρ2b). τοῖς ἐν φυλακῇ πνεύμασιν πορευθεὶς ἐκήρυξεν 1 Pt 3:19 belongs here if it refers to Jesus’ preaching to the spirits of the dead confined in Hades (so Usteri et al.; s. also JMcCulloch, The Harrowing of Hell, 1930), whether it be when he descended into Hades, or when he returned to heaven (so RBultmann, Bekenntnis u. Liedfragmente im 1 Pt: ConNeot11, ’47, 1–14).—CClemen, Niedergefahren zu den Toten 1900; JTurmel, La Descente du Christ aux enfers 1905; JMonnier, La Descente aux enfers 1906; HHoltzmann, ARW 11, 1908, 285–97; KGschwind, Die Niederfahrt Christi in die Unterwelt 1911; DPlooij, De Descensus in 1 Pt 3:19 en 4:6: TT 47, 1913, 145–62; JBernard, The Descent into Hades a Christian Baptism (on 1 Pt 3:19ff): Exp. 8th ser., 11, 1916, 241–74; CSchmidt, Gespräche Jesu mit seinen Jüngern: TU 43, 1919, 452ff; JFrings, BZ 17, 1926, 75–88; JKroll, Gott u. Hölle ’32; RGanschinietz, Katabasis: Pauly-W. X/2, 1919, 2359–449; Clemen2 89–96; WBieder, Die Vorstellung v. d. Höllenfahrt Jesu Chr. ’49; SJohnson, JBL 79, ’60, 48–51; WDalton, Christ’s Proclamation to the Spirits ’65. S. also the lit. in Windisch, Hdb.2 1930, exc. on 1 Pt 3:20; ESelwyn, The First Ep. of St. Peter ’46 and 4c below.—This is prob. also the place for θανατωθεὶς μὲν σαρκὶ ζωοποιηθεὶς δὲ πνεύματι• ἐν ᾧ καὶ … 1 Pt 3:18f (some mss. read πνεύματι instead of πνεύμασιν in vs. 19, evidently in ref. to the manner of Jesus’ movement; πνεῦμα is that part of Christ which, in contrast to σάρξ, did not pass away in death, but survived as an individual entity after death; s. ἐν 7). Likew. the contrast κατὰ σάρκα … κατὰ πνεῦμα Ro 1:3f. Cp. 1 Ti 3:16.
    a part of human personality, spirit
    when used with σάρξ, the flesh, it denotes the immaterial part 2 Cor 7:1; Col 2:5. Flesh and spirit=the whole personality, in its outer and inner aspects, oft. in Ign.: IMg 1:2; 13:1a; ITr ins; 12:1; IRo ins; ISm 1:1; IPol 5:1; AcPl Ant 13, 18 (=Aa I 237, 3).—In the same sense beside σῶμα, the body (Simplicius, In Epict. p. 50, 1; Ps.-Phoc. 106f; PGM 1, 178) 1 Cor 5:3–5; 7:34.—The inner life of humans is divided into ψυχὴ καὶ πνεῦμα (cp. Ps.-Pla., Axioch. 10 p. 370c τὶ θεῖον ὄντως ἐνῆν πνεῦμα τῇ ψυχῇ=a divine spirit was actually in the soul; Wsd 15:11; Jos., Ant. 1, 34; Tat. 13, 2; 15, 1 et al.; Ath. 27, 1. S. also Herm. Wr. 10, 13; 16f; PGM 4, 627; 630. ἐκ τριῶν συνεστάναι λέγουσι τὸν ἄνθρωπον ἐκ ψυχῆς καὶ σώματος καὶ πνεύματος Did., Gen. 55, 14) Hb 4:12. Cp. Phil 1:27. τὸ πνεῦμα καὶ ἡ ψυχὴ καὶ τὸ σῶμα 1 Th 5:23 (s. GMilligan, Thess. 1908, 78f; EvDobschütz in Meyer X7 1909, 230ff; EBurton, Spirit, Soul, and Flesh 1918; AFestugière, La Trichotomie des 1 Th 5:23 et la Philos. gr.: RSR 20, 1930, 385–415; CMasson, RTP 33, ’45, 97–102; FGrant, An Introd. to NT Thought ’50, 161–66). σαρκί, ψυχῇ, πνεύματι IPhld 11:2.
    as the source and seat of insight, feeling, and will, gener. as the representative part of human inner life (cp. PGM 4, 627; 3 Km 20:5; Sir 9:9 al.; Just., D. 30, 1; Did., Gen. 232, 5) ἐπιγνοὺς ὁ Ἰησοῦς τῷ πν. αὐτοῦ Mk 2:8. ἀναστενάξας τῷ πν. αὐτοῦ λέγει 8:12 (s. ἀναστενάζω). ἠγαλλίασεν τὸ πν. μου Lk 1:47 (in parallelism w. ψυχή vs. 46, as Sir 9:9). ἠγαλλιάσατο τῷ πν. 10:21 v.l., Ἰησοῦς ἐνεβριμήσατο τῷ πν. J 11:33 (s. ἐμβριμάομαι 3); Ἰης. ἐταράχθη τῷ πν. 13:21. παρωξύνετο τὸ πν. αὐτοῦ ἐν αὐτῷ Ac 17:16; ζέων τῷ πν. with spirit-fervor 18:25 (s. ζέω). τὸ παιδίον ἐκραταιοῦτο πνεύματι Lk 1:80; 2:40 v.l.; ἔθετο ὁ Παῦλος ἐν τῷ πν. Paul made up his mind Ac 19:21 (some would put this pass. in 6c, but cp. Lk 1:66 and analogous formulations Hom. et al. in L-S-J-M s.v. τίθημι A6). προσκυνήσουσιν τῷ πατρὶ ἐν πνεύματι of the spiritual, i.e. the pure, inner worship of God, that has nothing to do w. holy times, places, appurtenances, or ceremonies J 4:23; cp. vs. 24b. πν. συντετριμμένον (Ps 50:19) 1 Cl 18:17; 52:4.—2 Cl 20:4; Hv 3, 12, 2; 3, 13, 2.—This usage is also found in Paul. His conviction (s. 5 below) that the Christian possesses the (divine) πνεῦμα and thus is different fr. all other people, leads him to choose this word in preference to others, in order to characterize a believer’s inner being gener. ᾧ λατρεύω ἐν τῷ πν. μου Ro 1:9. οὐκ ἔσχηκα ἄνεσιν τῷ πν. μου 2 Cor 2:13. Cp. 7:13. As a matter of fact, it can mean simply a person’s very self or ego: τὸ πνεῦμα συμμαρτυρεῖ τῷ πνεύματι ἡμῶν the Spirit (of God) bears witness to our very self Ro 8:16 (cp. PGM 12, 327 ἠκούσθη μου τὸ πνεῦμα ὑπὸ πνεύματος οὐρανοῦ). ἀνέπαυσαν τὸ ἐμὸν πν. καὶ τὸ ὑμῶν they have refreshed both me and you 1 Cor 16:18. ἡ χάρις τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰ. Χρ. μετά τοῦ πν. (ὑμῶν) Gal 6:18; Phil 4:23; Phlm 25. Cp. 2 Ti 4:22. Likew. in Ign. τὸ ἐμὸν πν. my (unworthy) self IEph 18:1; IRo 9:3; cp. 1 Cor 2:11a—On the relation of the divine Spirit to the believer’s spiritual self, s. SWollenweider, Der Geist Gottes als Selbst der Glaubenden: ZTK 93, ’96, 163–92.—Only a part of the inner life, i.e. that which concerns the will, is meant in τὸ μὲν πνεῦμα πρόθυμον, ἡ δὲ σὰρξ ἀσθενής Mt 26:41; Mk 14:38; Pol 7:2. That which is inferior, anxiety, fear of suffering, etc. is attributed to the σάρξ.—The mng. of the expr. οἱ πτωχοὶ τῷ πνεύματι Mt 5:3 is difficult to determine w. certainty (cp. Pla., Ep. 7, 335a πένης ἀνὴρ τὴν ψυχήν. The dat. as τῇ ψυχῇ M. Ant. 6, 52; 8, 51). The sense is prob. those who are poor in their inner life, because they do not have a misdirected pride in their own spiritual riches (s. AKlöpper, Über den Sinn u. die ursprgl. Form der ersten Seligpreisung der Bergpredigt bei Mt: ZWT 37, 1894, 175–91; RKabisch, Die erste Seligpreisung: StKr 69, 1896, 195–215; KKöhler, Die ursprgl. Form der Seligpreisungen: StKr 91, 1918, 157–92; JBoehmer, De Schatkamer 17, 1923, 11–16, TT [Copenhagen] 4, 1924, 195–207, JBL 45, 1926, 298–304; WMacgregor, ET 39, 1928, 293–97; VMacchioro, JR 12, ’32, 40–49; EEvans, Theology 47, ’44, 55–60; HLeisegang, Pneuma Hagion 1922, 134ff; Betz, SM 116 n. 178 for Qumran reff.).
    spiritual state, state of mind, disposition ἐν ἀγάπῃ πνεύματί τε πραΰτητος with love and a gentle spirit 1 Cor 4:21; cp. Gal 6:1. τὸ πν. τοῦ νοὸς ὑμῶν Eph 4:23 (s. νοῦς 2a). ἐν τῷ ἀφθάρτῳ τοῦ ἡσυχίου πνεύματος with the imperishable (gift) of a quiet disposition 1 Pt 3:4.
    an independent noncorporeal being, in contrast to a being that can be perceived by the physical senses, spirit (ELangton, Good and Evil Spirits ’42).
    God personally: πνεῦμα ὁ θεός J 4:24a (Ath. 16, 2; on God as a spirit, esp. in the Stoa, s. MPohlenz, D. Stoa ’48/49. Hdb. ad loc. Also Celsus 6, 71 [Stoic]; Herm. Wr. 18, 3 ἀκάματον μέν ἐστι πνεῦμα ὁ θεός).
    good, or at least not expressly evil spirits or spirit-beings (cp. CIG III, 5858b δαίμονες καὶ πνεύματα; Proclus on Pla., Cratyl. p. 69, 6; 12 Pasqu.; En 15:4; 6; 8; 10; TestAbr A 4 p. 81, 15f [Stone p. 10, 15f] πάντα τὰ ἐπουράνια πνεύματα; TestAbr B 13 p. 117, 26 [Stone p. 82] ὑψηλὸν πν.; PGM 3, 8 ἐπικαλοῦμαί σε, ἱερὸν πνεῦμα; 4, 1448; 3080; 12, 249) πνεῦμα w. ἄγγελος (cp. Jos., Ant. 4, 108; Ps.-Clem., Hom. 3, 33; 8, 12) Ac 23:8f. God is ὁ παντὸς πνεύματος κτίστης καὶ ἐπίσκοπος 1 Cl 59:3b.—Pl., God the μόνος εὐεργέτης πνεύματων 1 Cl 59:3a. Cp. 64 (s. on this Num 16:22; 27:16. Prayers for vengeance fr. Rheneia [Dssm., LO 351–55=LAE 423ff=SIG 1181, 2] τὸν θεὸν τὸν κύριον τῶν πνευμάτων; PGM 5, 467 θεὸς θεῶν, ὁ κύριος τῶν πν.; sim. the magic pap PWarr 21, 24; 26 [III A.D.]); the πατὴρ τῶν πνευμάτων Hb 12:9. Intermediary beings (in polytheistic terminology: δαίμονες) that serve God are called λειτουργικὰ πνεύματα Hb 1:14. In Rv we read of the ἑπτὰ πνεύματα (τοῦ θεοῦ) 1:4; 3:1; 4:5; 5:6; s. ASkrinjar, Biblica 16, ’35, 1–24; 113–40.— Ghost Lk 24:37, 39.
    evil spirits (PGM 13, 798; 36, 160; TestJob 27, 2; ApcSed [both Satan]; AscIs 3:28; Just., D. 39, 6 al.; Ath. 25, 3), esp. in accounts of healing in the Synoptics: (τὸ) πνεῦμα (τὸ) ἀκάθαρτον (Just., D. 82, 3) Mt 12:43; Mk 1:23, 26; 3:30; 5:2, 8; 7:25; 9:25a; Lk 8:29; 9:42; 11:24; Rv 18:2. Pl. (TestBenj 5:2) Mt 10:1; Mk 1:27; 3:11; 5:13; 6:7; Lk 4:36; 6:18; Ac 5:16; 8:7; Rv 16:13; ending of Mk in the Freer ms.—τὸ πν. τὸ πονηρόν Ac 19:15f. Pl. (En 99:7; TestSim 4:9; 6:6, TestJud 16:1; Just., D. 76, 6) Lk 7:21; 8:2; Ac 19:12f.—πν. ἄλαλον Mk 9:17; cp. vs. 25b (s. ἄλαλος). πν. πύθων Ac 16:16 (s. πύθων). πν. ἀσθενείας Lk 13:11. Cp. 1 Ti 4:1b. πνεῦμα δαιμονίου ἀκαθάρτου (s. δαιμόνιον 2) Lk 4:33. πνεύματα δαιμονίων Rv 16:14 (in effect = personified ‘exhalations’ of evil powers; for the combination of πν. and δαιμ. cp. the love spell Sb 4324, 16f τὰ πνεύματα τῶν δαιμόνων τούτων).—Abs. of a harmful spirit Mk 9:20; Lk 9:39; Ac 16:18. Pl. Mt 8:16; 12:45; Lk 10:20; 11:26.—1 Pt 3:19 (s. 2 above) belongs here if the πνεύματα refer to hostile spirit-powers, evil spirits, fallen angels (so FSpitta, Christi Predigt an die Geister 1890; HGunkel, Zum religionsgesch. Verständnis des NT 1903, 72f; WBousset, ZNW 19, 1920, 50–66; Rtzst., Herr der Grösse 1919, 25ff; Knopf, Windisch, FHauck ad loc.; BReicke, The Disobedient Spirits and Christian Baptism ’46, esp. 54–56, 69).—Hermas also has the concept of evil spirits that lead an independent existence, and live and reign within the inner life of a pers.; the Holy Spirit, who also lives or would like to live there, is forced out by them (cp. TestDan 4) Hm 5, 1, 2–4; 5, 2, 5–8; 10, 1, 2. τὸ πν. τὸ ἅγιον … ἕτερον πονηρὸν πν. 5, 1, 2. These πνεύματα are ὀξυχολία 5, 1, 3; 5, 2, 8 (τὸ πονηρότατον πν.); 10, 1, 2; διψυχία 9:11 (ἐπίγειον πν. ἐστι παρὰ τοῦ διαβόλου); 10, 1, 2; λύπη 10, 1, 2 (πάντων τῶν πνευμάτων πονηροτέρα) and other vices. On the complicated pneuma-concept of the Mandates of Hermas s. MDibelius, Hdb. exc. on Hm 5, 2, 7; cp. Leutzsch, Hermas 453f n. 133.
    God’s being as controlling influence, with focus on association with humans, Spirit, spirit as that which differentiates God fr. everything that is not God, as the divine power that produces all divine existence, as the divine element in which all divine life is carried on, as the bearer of every application of the divine will. All those who belong to God possess or receive this spirit and hence have a share in God’s life. This spirit also serves to distinguish Christians fr. all unbelievers (cp. PGM 4, 1121ff, where the spirit is greeted as one who enters devotees and, in accordance w. God’s will, separates them fr. themselves, i.e. fr. the purely human part of their nature); for this latter aspect s. esp. 6 below.
    the Spirit of God, of the Lord (=God) etc. (LXX; TestSim 4:4; JosAs 8:11; ApcSed 14:6; 15:6; ApcMos 43; SibOr 3, 701; Ps.-Phoc. 106; Philo; Joseph. [s. c below]; apolog. Cp. Plut., Numa 4, 6 πνεῦμα θεοῦ, capable of begetting children; s. παρθένος a) τὸ πν. τοῦ θεοῦ 1 Cor 2:11b, 14; 3:16; 6:11; 1J 4:2a (Just., D. 49, 3; Tat. 13, 3; Ath. 22, 3). τὸ τοῦ θεοῦ πν. 1 Pt 4:14 (Just., A I, 60, 6). τὸ πν. τὸ ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ 1 Cor 2:12b. τὸ πν. κυρίου Ac 5:9; B 6:14; B 9:2 (cp. Mel., P. 32, 222). τὸ πνεῦμά μου or αὐτοῦ: Mt 12:18 (Is 42:1); Ac 2:17f (Jo 3:1f.—Cp. 1QS 4:21); 1 Cor 2:10a v.l.; Eph 3:16; 1 Th 4:8 (where τὸ ἅγιον is added); 1J 4:13.—τὸ πν. τοῦ πατρὸς ὑμῶν Mt 10:20. τὸ πν. τοῦ ἐγείραντος τὸν Ἰησοῦν Ro 8:11a.—Without the art. πν. θεοῦ (JosAs 4:9; Tat. 15:3; Theoph. Ant. 1, 5 [p. 66, 18]) the Spirit of God Mt 3:16; 12:28; Ro 8:9b, 14, 19; 1 Cor 7:40; 12:3a; 2 Cor 3:3 (πν. θεοῦ ζῶντος); Phil 3:3. πν. κυρίου Lk 4:18 (Is 61:1); Ac 8:39 (like J 3:8; 20:22; Ac 2:4, this pass. belongs on the borderline betw. the mngs. ‘wind’ and ‘spirit’; cp. Diod S 3, 60, 3 Ἕσπερον ἐξαίφνης ὑπὸ πνευμάτων συναρπαγέντα μεγάλων ἄφαντον γενέσθαι ‘Hesperus [a son of Atlas] was suddenly snatched by strong winds and vanished fr. sight’. S. HLeisegang, Der Hl. Geist I 1, 1919, 19ff; OCullmann, TZ. 4, ’48, 364); 1 Cl 21:2.
    the Spirit of Christ, of the Lord (=Christ) etc. τὸ πν. Ἰησοῦ Ac 16:7. τὸ πν. Χριστοῦ AcPlCor 2:32. τὸ ἐν αὐτοῖς πν. Χριστοῦ 1 Pt 1:11. πν. Χριστοῦ Ro 8:9c. πν. τοῦ Χριστοῦ AcPl Ha 8, 18. ἀπὸ τοῦ πν. τοῦ χριστοῦ AcPlCor 2:10. τὸ πν. Ἰης. Χριστοῦ Phil 1:19. τὸ πν. κυρίου 2 Cor 3:17b (JHermann, Kyrios und Pneuma, ’61). τὸ πν. τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ (=θεοῦ) Gal 4:6. As possessor of the divine Spirit, and at the same time controlling its distribution among humans, Christ is called κύριος πνεύματος Lord of the Spirit 2 Cor 3:18 (s. Windisch ad loc.); but many prefer to transl. from the Lord who is the Spirit.—CMoule, OCullmann Festschr., ’72, 231–37.
    Because of its heavenly origin and nature this Spirit is called (the) Holy Spirit (cp. PGM 4, 510 ἵνα πνεύσῃ ἐν ἐμοὶ τὸ ἱερὸν πνεῦμα.—Neither Philo nor Josephus called the Spirit πν. ἅγιον; the former used θεῖον or θεοῦ πν., the latter πν. θεῖον: Ant. 4, 118; 8, 408; 10, 239; but ἅγιον πνεῦμα Orig. C. Cels 1, 40, 16).
    α. w. the art. τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον (Is 63:10f; Ps 50:13; 142:10 v.l.; cp. Sus 45 Theod.; TestAbr A 4 p. 81, 10 [Stone p. 10]; JosAs 8:11 [codd. ADE]; AscIs 3, 15, 26; Just., D. 36, 6 al.) Mt 12:32 = Mk 3:29 = Lk 12:10 (τὸ ἅγιον πνεῦμα; on the ‘sin against the Holy Spirit’ s. HLeisegang, Pneuma Hagion 1922, 96–112; AFridrichsen, Le péché contre le Saint-Esprit: RHPR 3, 1923, 367–72). Mk 12:36; 13:11; Lk 2:26; 3:22; 10:21; J 14:26; Ac 1:16; 2:33; 5:3, 32; 7:51; 8:18 v.l.; 10:44, 47; 11:15; 13:2; 15:8, 28; 19:6; 20:23, 28; 21:11; 28:25; Eph 1:13 (τὸ πν. τῆς ἐπαγγελίας τὸ ἅγιον); 4:30 (τὸ πν. τὸ ἅγιον τοῦ θεοῦ); Hb 3:7; 9:8; 10:15; 1 Cl 13:1; 16:2; 18:11 (Ps 50:13); 22:1; IEph 9:1; Hs 5, 5, 2; 5, 6, 5–7 (on the relationship of the Holy Spirit to the Son in Hermas s. ALink, Christi Person u. Werk im Hirten des Hermas 1886; JvWalter, ZNW 14, 1913, 133–44; MDibelius, Hdb. exc. following Hs 5, 6, 8 p. 572–76).—τὸ ἅγιον πνεῦμα (Wsd 9:17; OdeSol 11:2; TestJob 51:2; ApcEsdr 7:16; Just. D. 25, 1 al.) Mt 28:19; Lk 12:10 (s. above), 12; Ac 1:8; 2:38 (epexegetic gen.); 4:31; 9:31; 10:45; 13:4; 16:6; 1 Cor 6:19; 2 Cor 13:13; 1J 5:7 v.l. (on the Comma Johanneum s. λόγο 3); GJs 24:4 (s. χρηματίζω 1bα). As the mother of Jesus GHb 20, 61 (HLeisegang, Pneuma Hagion 1922, 64ff; SHirsch, D. Vorstellg. v. e. weibl. πνεῦμα ἅγ. im NT u. in d. ältesten christl. Lit. 1927. Also WBousset, Hauptprobleme der Gnosis 1907, 9ff).
    β. without the art. (s. B-D-F §257, 2; Rob. 761; 795) πνεῦμα ἅγιον (PGM 3, 289; Da 5:12 LXX; PsSol 17:37; AssMos Fgm. b; Just., D. 4, 1 al.; Ath. 24, 1. S. also Da Theod. 4:8, 9, 18 θεοῦ πνεῦμα ἅγιον or πνεῦμα θεοῦ ἅγιον) Mk 1:8; Lk 1:15, 35, 41, 67; 2:25; 4:1; 11:13; J 20:22 (Cassien, La pentecôte johannique [J 20:19–23] ’39.—See also 1QS 4:20f); Ac 2:4a; 4:8; 7:55; 8:15, 17, 19; 9:17; 10:38; 11:24; 13:9; 19:2ab; Hb 2:4; 6:4; 1 Pt 1:12 v.l.; 1 Cl 2:2; AcPl 6:18; 9:4 (restored after Aa I 110, 11); AcPlCor 2:5.—So oft. in combination w. a prep.: διὰ πνεύματος ἁγίου Ac 1:2; 4:25; Ro 5:5; 2 Ti 1:14; 1 Cl 8:1 (cp. διὰ πν. αἰωνίου Hb 9:14). διὰ φωνῆς πν. ἁγίου AcPl Ha 11, 6. ἐκ πνεύματος ἁγίου (Eus., PE 3, 12, 3 of the Egyptians: ἐκ τ. πνεύματος οἴονται συλλαμβάνειν τὸν γῦπα. Here πνεῦμα= ‘wind’; s. Horapollo 1, 11 p. 14f. The same of other birds since Aristot.—On the neut. πνεῦμα as a masc. principle cp. Aristoxenus, Fgm. 13 of the two original principles: πατέρα μὲν φῶς, μητέρα δὲ σκότος) Mt 1:18, 20; IEph 18:2; GJs 14:2; 19:1 (pap). ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ (PsSol 17:37; ApcZeph; Ar. 15, 1) Mt 3:11; Mk 1:8 v.l.; Lk 3:16; J 1:33b; Ac 1:5 (cp. 1QS 3:7f); 11:16; Ro 9:1; 14:17; 15:16; 1 Cor 12:3b; 2 Cor 6:6; 1 Th 1:5; 1 Pt 1:12 (without ἐν v.l.); Jd 20. ὑπὸ πνεύματος ἁγίου 2 Pt 1:21. Cp. ἐν δυνάμει πνεύματος ἁγίου Ro 15:13, 19 v.l. (for πνεύματος θεοῦ). μετὰ χαρᾶς πνεύματος ἁγίου 1 Th 1:6. διὰ ἀνακαινώσεως πνεύματος ἁγίου Tit 3:5.
    abs.
    α. w. the art. τὸ πνεῦμα. In this connection the art. is perh. used anaphorically at times, w. the second mention of a word (s. B-D-F §252; Rob. 762); perh. Mt 12:31 (looking back to vs. 28 πν. θεοῦ); Mk 1:10, 12 (cp. vs. 8 πν. ἅγιον); Lk 4:1b, 14 (cp. vs. 1a); Ac 2:4b (cp. vs. 4a).—As a rule it is not possible to assume that anaphora is present: Mt 4:1; J 1:32, 33a; 3:6a, 8b (in wordplay), 34; 7:39a; Ac 8:29; 10:19; 11:12, 28; 19:1 D; 20:3 D, 22; 21:4; Ro 8:23 (ἀπαρχή 1bβ; 2), 26a, 27; 12:11; 15:30; 2 Cor 1:22 and 5:5 (KErlemann, ZNW 83, ’92, 202–23, and s. ἀρραβών); 12:18 (τῷ αὐτῷ πν.); Gal 3:2, 5, 14 (ἐπαγγελία 1bβ); Eph 4:3 (gen. of the author); 6:17 (perh. epexegetic gen.); 1 Ti 4:1a; Js 4:5; 1J 3:24; 5:6ab (some mss. add καὶ πνεύματος to the words διʼ ὕδατος κ. αἵματος at the beg. of the verse; this is approved by HvSoden, Moffatt, Vogels, Merk, and w. reservations by CDodd, The Joh. Epistles ’46, TManson, JTS 48, ’47, 25–33), vs. 8; Rv 2:7, 11, 17, 29; 3:6, 13, 22; 14:13; 22:17; B 19:2, B 7= D 4:10 (s. ἐτοιμάζω b). ἐν τῷ πνεύματι (led) by the Spirit Lk 2:27.—Paul links this Spirit of God, known to every Christian, with Christ as liberating agent in contrast to legal constraint ὁ κύριος τὸ πνεῦμα ἐστιν the Lord means Spirit 2 Cor 3:17a (UHolzmeister, 2 Cor 3:17 Dominus autem Spiritus est 1908; JNisius, Zur Erklärung v. 2 Cor 3:16ff: ZKT 40, 1916, 617–75; JKögel, Ὁ κύριος τὸ πνεῦμά ἐστιν: ASchlatter Festschr. 1922, 35–46; C Guignebert, Congr. d’Hist. du Christ. II 1928, 7–22; EFuchs, Christus u. d. Geist b. Pls ’32; HHughes, ET 45, ’34, 235f; CLattey, Verb. Dom. 20, ’40, 187–89; DGriffiths ET 55, ’43, 81–83; HIngo, Kyrios und Pneuma, ’61 [Paul]; JDunn, JTS 21, ’70, 309–20).
    β. without the art. πνεῦμα B 1:3. κοινωνία πνεύματος Phil 2:1 (κοινωνία 1 and 2). πνεύματι in the Spirit or through the Spirit Gal 3:3; 5:5, 16, 18; 1 Pt 4:6. εἰ ζῶμεν πνεύματι, πνεύματι καὶ στοιχῶμεν if we live by the Spirit, let us also walk by the Spirit Gal 5:25. Freq. used w. a prep.: διὰ πνεύματος 1 Pt 1:22 v.l. ἐξ (ὕδατος καὶ) πνεύματος J 3:5. ἐν πνεύματι in, by, through the Spirit Mt 22:43; Eph 2:22; 3:5; 5:18; 6:18; Col 1:8 (ἀγάπη ἐν πνεύματι love called forth by the Spirit); B 9:7. κατὰ πνεῦμα Ro 8:4f; Gal 4:29. ἐν ἁγιασμῷ πνεύματος 2 Th 2:13; 1 Pt 1:2 (s. ἁγιασμός).—In neg. expressions: οὔπω ἧν πνεῦμα the Spirit had not yet come J 7:39b. ψυχικοὶ πνεῦμα μὴ ἔχοντες worldly people, who do not have the Spirit Jd 19.—ἓν πνεῦμα one and the same Spirit 1 Cor 12:13; Eph 2:18; 4:4; one (in) Spirit 1 Cor 6:17.
    The Spirit is more closely defined by a gen. of thing: τὸ πν. τῆς ἀληθείας (TestJud 20:5) J 14:17; 15:26; 16:13 (in these three places the Spirit of Truth is the Paraclete promised by Jesus upon his departure); 1J 4:6 (opp. τὸ πνεῦμα τῆς πλάνης, as TestJud 20:1; PsSol 8:14 πλ. πλανήσεως; Just., D. 7, 3 πλάνου καὶ ἀκαθάρτου πνεύματος; cp. 1QS 4:23); τὸ τῆς δόξης πν. 1 Pt 4:14. τὸ πν. τῆς ζωῆς the Spirit of life Ro 8:2. το πν. τῆς πίστεως 2 Cor 4:13. πν. σοφίας καὶ ἀποκαλύψεως Eph 1:17 (cp. Just., D. 87, 4). πν. υἱοθεσίας Ro 8:15b (opp. πν. δουλείας vs. 15a). πν. δυνάμεως AcPl Ha 8, 25. πν. δυνάμεως καὶ ἀγάπης καὶ σωφρονισμοῦ 2 Ti 1:7 (opp. πν. δειλίας). τὸ πν. τῆς χάριτος (s. TestJud 24:2) Hb 10:29 (Zech 12:10); cp. 1 Cl 46:6.
    Of Christ ‘it is written’ in Scripture: (ἐγένετο) ὁ ἔσχατος Ἀδὰμ εἰς πνεῦμα ζῳοποιοῦν 1 Cor 15:45. The scripture pass. upon which the first part of this verse is based is Gen 2:7, where Wsd 15:11 also substitutes the words πνεῦμα ζωτικόν for πνοὴν ζωῆς (cp. Just., D. 6, 2). On the other hand, s. Philo, Leg. All. 1, 42 and s. the lit. s.v. Ἀδάμ ad loc.
    The (divine) Pneuma stands in contrast to everything that characterizes this age or the finite world gener.: οὐ τὸ πν. τοῦ κόσμου ἀλλὰ τὸ πν. τὸ ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ 1 Cor 2:12; cp. Eph 2:2 and 1 Ti 4:1ab.
    α. in contrast to σάρξ, which is more closely connected w. sin than any other earthly material (Just., D. 135, 6): J 3:6; Ro 8:4–6, 9a, 13; Gal 3:3; 5:17ab; 6:8. Cp. B 10:9. πᾶσα ἐπιθυμία κατὰ τοῦ πνεύματος στρατεύεται Pol 5:3.
    β. in contrast to σῶμα (=σάρξ) Ro 8:10 and to σάρξ (=σῶμα, as many hold) J 6:63a (for τὸ πν. ἐστιν τὸ ζῳοποιοῦν cp. Philo, Op. Mund. 30; Herm. Wr. in Cyrill., C. Jul. I 556c=542, 24 Sc. the pneuma τὰ πάντα ζῳοποιεῖ καὶ τρέφει. S. also f above). Cp. Ro 8:11b.
    γ. in contrast to γράμμα, which is the characteristic quality of God’s older declaration of the divine will in the law: Ro 2:29; 7:6; 2 Cor 3:6ab, 8 (cp. vs. 7).
    δ. in contrast to the wisdom of humans 1 Cor 2:13.
    the Spirit of God as exhibited in the character or activity of God’s people or selected agents, Spirit, spirit (s. HPreisker, Geist u. Leben ’33).
    πνεῦμα is accompanied by another noun, which characterizes the working of the Spirit more definitely: πνεῦμα καὶ δύναμις spirit and power Lk 1:17; 1 Cor 2:4. Cp. Ac 10:38; 1 Th 1:5. πνεῦμα καὶ ζωή J 6:63b. πνεῦμα κ. σοφία Ac 6:3; cp. vs. 10 (cp. TestReub 2:6 πνεῦμα λαλίας). πίστις κ. πνεῦμα ἅγιον 6:5 (cp. Just., D. 135, 6). χαρὰ καὶ πνεῦμα ἅγ. 13:52.
    Unless frustrated by humans in their natural condition, the Spirit of God produces a spiritual type of conduct Gal 5:16, 25 and produces the καρπὸς τοῦ πνεύματος vs. 22 (s. Vögtle under πλεονεξία).
    The Spirit inspires certain people of God B 12:2; B 13:5, above all, in their capacity as proclaimers of a divine revelation (Strabo 9, 3, 5 the πνεῦμα ἐνθουσιαστικόν, that inspired the Pythia; Περὶ ὕψους 13, 2; 33, 5 of the divine πν. that impels prophets and poets to express themselves; schol. on Pla. 856e of a μάντις: ἄνωθεν λαμβάνειν τὸ πνεῦμα καὶ πληροῦσθαι τοῦ θεοῦ; Aristobulus in Eus., PE 8, 10, 4 [=Fgm. 2, 4 p. 136 Holladay] τὸ θεῖον πν., καθʼ ὸ̔ καὶ προφήτης ἀνακεκήρυκται ‘[Moses possessed] the Divine Spirit with the result that he was proclaimed a prophet’; AscIs 1:7 τὸ πν. τὸ λαλοῦν ἐν ἐμοί; AssMos Fgm. f εἶδεν πνεύματι ἐπαρθείς; Just., A I, 38, 1 al.; Ath. 10, 3 τὸ προφητικὸν πν. Cp. Marinus, Vi. Procli 23 of Proclus: οὐ γὰρ ἄνευ θείας ἐπινοίας … διαλέγεσθαι; Orig., C. Cels. 3, 28, 23). προφητεία came into being only as ὑπὸ πνεύματος ἁγίου φερόμενοι ἐλάλησαν ἀπὸ θεοῦ ἄνθρωποι 2 Pt 1:21; cp. Ac 15:29 v.l.; cp. 1 Cl 8:1. David Mt 22:43; Mk 12:36; cp. Ac 1:16; 4:25. Isaiah Ac 28:25. Moses B 10:2, B 9; the Spirit was also active in giving the tables of the law to Moses 14:2. Christ himself spoke in the OT διὰ τοῦ πνεύματος τοῦ ἁγίου 1 Cl 22:1. The ἱεραὶ γραφαί are called αἱ διὰ τοῦ πν. τοῦ ἁγίου 45:2.—The Christian prophet Agabus also ἐσήμαινεν διὰ τοῦ πν. Ac 11:28; cp. Ac 21:11. Likew. Ign. IPhld 7:2. In general the Spirit reveals the most profound secrets to those who believe 1 Cor 2:10ab.—1 Cl claims to be written διὰ τοῦ ἁγ. πν. 63:2. On Ac 19:21 s. 3b.
    The Spirit of God, being one, shows the variety and richness of its life in the different kinds of spiritual gifts which are granted to certain Christians 1 Cor 12:4, 7, 11; cp. vs. 13ab.—Vss. 8–10 enumerate the individual gifts of the Spirit, using various prepositions: διὰ τοὺ πν. vs. 8a; κατὰ τὸ πν. vs. 8b; ἐν τῷ πν. vs. 9ab. τὸ πν. μὴ σβέννυτε do not quench the Spirit 1 Th 5:19 refers to the gift of prophecy, acc. to vs. 20.—The use of the pl. πνεύματα is explained in 1 Cor 14:12 by the varied nature of the Spirit’s working; in vs. 32 by the number of persons who possess the prophetic spirit; on the latter s. Rv 22:6 and 19:10.
    One special type of spiritual gift is represented by ecstatic speaking. Of those who ‘speak in tongues’ that no earthly person can understand: πνεύματι λαλεῖ μυστήρια expresses secret things in a spiritual way 1 Cor 14:2. Cp. vss. 14–16 and s. νοῦς 1b. τὸ πνεῦμα ὑπερεντυγχάνει στεναγμοῖς ἀλαλήτοις the Spirit pleads in our behalf with groans beyond words Ro 8:26b. Of speech that is ecstatic, but expressed in words that can be understood λαλεῖν ἐν πνεύματι D 11:7, 8; cp. vs. 9 (on the subject-matter 1 Cor 12:3; Jos., Ant. 4, 118f; TestJob 43:2 ἀναλαβὼν Ἐλιφᾶς πν. εἶπεν ὕμνον). Of the state of mind of the seer of the Apocalypse: ἐν πνεύματι Rv 17:3; 21:10; γενέσθαι ἐν πν. 1:10; 4:2 (s. γίνομαι 5c, ἐν 4c and EMoering, StKr 92, 1920, 148–54; RJeske, NTS 31, ’85, 452–66); AcPl Ha 6, 27. On the Spirit at Pentecost Ac 2:4 s. KLake: Beginn. I 5, ’33, 111–21. κατασταλέντος τοῦ πν. τοῦ ἐν Μύρτῃ when the Spirit (of prophecy) that was in Myrta ceased speaking AcPl Ha 7, 9.
    The Spirit leads and directs Christian missionaries in their journeys (Aelian, NA 11, 16 the young women are led blindfolded to the cave of the holy serpent; they are guided by a πνεῦμα θεῖον) Ac 16:6, 7 (by dreams, among other methods; cp. vs. 9f and s. Marinus, Vi. Procli 27: Proclus ἔφασκεν προθυμηθῆναι μὲν πολλάκις γράψαι, κωλυθῆναι δὲ ἐναργῶς ἔκ τινων ἐνυπνίων). In Ac 16:6–7 τὸ ἅγιον πν. and τὸ πν. Ἰησοῦ are distinguished.
    an activating spirit that is not fr. God, spirit: πν. ἔτερον a different (kind of) spirit 2 Cor 11:4. Cp. 2 Th 2:2; 1J 4:1–3. Because there are persons activated by such spirits, it is necessary to test the var. kinds of spirits (the same problem Artem. 3, 20 περὶ διαφορᾶς μάντεων, οἷς δεῖ προσέχειν καὶ οἷς μή) 1 Cor 12:10; 1J 4:1b. ὁ διάβολος πληροῖ αὐτὸν αὐτοῦ πν. Hm 11:3. Also οὐκ οἴδατε ποίου πνεύματός ἐστε Lk 9:55 v.l. distinguishes betw. the spirit shown by Jesus’ disciples, and another kind of spirit.—Even more rarely a spirit divinely given that is not God’s own; so (in a quot. fr. Is 29:10) a πνεῦμα κατανύξεως Ro 11:8.
    an independent transcendent personality, the Spirit, which appears in formulas that became more and more fixed and distinct (cp. Ath. 12, 2; Hippol., Ref. 7, 26, 2.—Ps.-Lucian, Philopatr. 12 θεόν, υἱόν πατρός, πνεῦμα ἐκ πατρὸς ἐκπορευόμενον ἓν ἐκ τριῶν καὶ ἐξ ἑνὸς τρία, ταῦτα νόμιζε Ζῆνα, τόνδʼ ἡγοῦ θεόν=‘God, son of the father, spirit proceeding from the father, one from three and three from one, consider these as Zeus, think of this one as God’. The entire context bears a Christian impress.—As Aion in gnostic speculation Iren. 1, 2, 5 [Harv. I 21, 2]): βαπτίζοντες αὐτοὺς εἰς τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ πατρὸς καὶ τοῦ υἱοῦ καὶ τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος Mt 28:19 (on the text s. βαπτίζω 2c; on the subject-matter GWalther, Die Entstehung des Taufsymbols aus dem Taufritus: StKr 95, 1924, 256ff); D 7:1, 3. Cp. 2 Cor 13:13; 1 Cl 58:2; IEph 9:1; IMg 13:1b, 2; MPol 14:3; 22:1, 3; Epil Mosq 5. On this s. HUsener, Dreiheit: RhM 58, 1903, 1ff; 161ff; 321ff; esp. 36ff; EvDobschütz, Zwei-u. dreigliedrige Formeln: JBL 50, ’31, 116–47 (also Heinrici Festschr. 1914, 92–100); Norden, Agn. Th. 228ff; JMainz, Die Bed. der Dreizahl im Judentum 1922; Clemen2 125–28; NSöderblom, Vater, Sohn u. Geist 1909; DNielsen, Der dreieinige Gott I 1922; GKrüger, Das Dogma v. der Dreieinigkeit 1905, 46ff; AHarnack, Entstehung u. Entwicklung der Kirchenverfassung 1910, 187ff; JHaussleiter, Trinitarischer Glaube u. Christusbekenntnis in der alten Kirche: BFCT XXV 4, 1920; JLebreton, Histoire du dogme de la Trinité I: Les origines6 1927; RBlümel, Pls u. d. dreieinige Gott 1929.—On the whole word FRüsche, D. Seelenpneuma ’33; HLeisegang, Der Hl. Geist I 1, 1919; EBurton, ICC Gal 1921, 486–95; PVolz, Der Geist Gottes u. d. verwandten Erscheinungen im AT 1910; JHehn, Zum Problem des Geistes im alten Orient u. im AT: ZAW n.s. 2, 1925, 210–25; SLinder, Studier till Gamla Testamentets föreställningar om anden 1926; AMarmorstein, Der Hl. Geist in der rabb. Legende: ARW 28, 1930, 286–303; NSnaith, The Distinctive Ideas of the OT ’46, 229–37; FDillistone, Bibl. Doctrine of the Holy Spirit: Theology Today 3, ’46/47, 486–97; TNicklin, Gospel Gleanings ’50, 341–46; ESchweizer, CDodd Festschr., ’56, 482–508; DLys, Rûach, Le Souffle dans l’AT, ’62; DHill, Gk. Words and Hebr. Mngs. ’67, 202–93.—HGunkel, Die Wirkungen des Hl. Geistes2 1899; HWeinel, Die Wirkungen des Geistes u. der Geister im nachap. Zeitalter 1899; EWinstanley, The Spirit in the NT 1908; HSwete, The Holy Spirit in the NT 1909, The Holy Spirit in the Ancient Church 1912; EScott, The Spirit in the NT 1923; FBüchsel, Der Geist Gottes im NT 1926; EvDobschütz, Der Geistbesitz des Christen im Urchristentum: Monatsschr. für Pastoral-theol. 20, 1924, 228ff; FBadcock, ‘The Spirit’ and Spirit in the NT: ET 45, ’34, 218–21; RBultmann, Theologie des NT ’48, 151–62 (Eng. tr. KGrobel, ’51, I 153–64); ESchweizer, Geist u. Gemeinde im NT ’52, Int 6, ’52, 259–78.—WTosetti, Der Hl. Geist als göttliche Pers. in den Evangelien 1918; HLeisegang, Pneuma Hagion. Der Ursprung des Geistbegriffs der Syn. Ev. aus der griech. Mystik 1922; AFrövig, Das Sendungsbewusstsein Jesu u. der Geist 1924; HWindisch, Jes. u. d. Geist nach Syn. Überl.: Studies in Early Christianity, presented to FCPorter and BWBacon 1928, 209–36; FSynge, The Holy Spirit in the Gospels and Acts: CQR 120, ’35, 205–17; CBarrett, The Holy Spirit and the Gospel Trad. ’47.—ESokolowski, Die Begriffe Geist u. Leben bei Pls 1903; KDeissner, Auferstehungshoffnung u. Pneumagedanke bei Pls 1912; GVos, The Eschatological Aspect of the Pauline Conception of the Spirit: Bibl. and Theol. Studies by the Faculty of Princeton Theol. Sem. 1912, 209–59; HBertrams, Das Wesen des Geistes nach d. Anschauung des Ap. Pls 1913; WReinhard, Das Wirken des Hl. Geistes im Menschen nach den Briefen des Ap. Pls 1918; HHoyle, The Holy Spirit in St. Paul 1928; PGächter, Z. Pneumabegriff des hl. Pls: ZKT 53, 1929, 345–408; ASchweitzer, D. Mystik des Ap. Pls 1930, 159–74 al. [Mysticism of Paul the Apostle, tr. WMontgomery ’31, 160–76 al.]; E-BAllo, RB 43, ’34, 321–46 [1 Cor]; Ltzm., Hdb. exc. after Ro 8:11; Synge [s. above], CQR 119, ’35, 79–93 [Pauline epp.]; NWaaning, Onderzoek naar het gebruik van πνεῦμα bij Pls, diss. Amsterd. ’39; RJewett, Paul’s Anthropological Terms, ’71, 167–200.—HvBaer, Der Hl. Geist in den Lukasschriften 1926; MGoguel, La Notion joh. de l’Esprit 1902; JSimpson, The Holy Spirit in the Fourth Gospel: Exp., 9th ser., 4, 1925, 292–99; HWindisch, Jes. u. d. Geist im J.: Amicitiae Corolla (RHarris Festschr.) ’33, 303–18; WLofthouse, The Holy Spirit in Ac and J: ET 52, ’40/41, 334–36; CBarrett, The Holy Spirit in the Fourth Gospel: JTS 1 n.s., ’50, 1–15; FCrump, Pneuma in the Gospels, diss. Catholic Univ. of America, ’54; GLampe, Studies in the Gospels (RHLightfoot memorial vol.) ’55, 159–200; NHamilton, The Holy Spirit and Eschatology in Paul, ’57; WDavies, Paul and the Dead Sea Scrolls, Flesh and Spirit: The Scrolls and the NT, ed. KStendahl, ’57, 157–82.—GJohnston, ‘Spirit’ and ‘Holy Spirit’ in the Qumran Lit.: NT Sidelights (ACPurdy Festschr.) ’60, 27–42; JPryke, ‘Spirit’ and ‘Flesh’ in Qumran and NT, RevQ 5, ’65, 346–60; HBraun, Qumran und d. NT II, ’66, 150–64; DHill, Greek Words and Hebrew Meanings, ’67, 202–93; WBieder, Pneumatolog. Aspekte im Hb, OCullmann Festschr. ’72, 251–59; KEasley, The Pauline Usage of πνεύματι as a Reference to the Spirit of God: JETS 27, ’84, 299–313 (statistics).—B. 260; 1087. Pauly-W. XIV 387–412. BHHW I 534–37. Schmidt, Syn. II 218–50. New Docs 4, 38f. DELG s.v. πνέω. M-M. Dict. de la Bible XI 126–398. EDNT. TW. Sv.

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  • 172 ποιμήν

    ποιμήν, ένος, ὁ (s. prec. two entries; Hom.+; pap, LXX; JosAs; ApcEl [PSI I, 7 verso, 1]; AscIs, ApcrEzk, Philo; Jos., Ant. 8, 404 al.)
    one who herds sheep, shepherd, sheep-herder (Demetr.: 722 Fgm. 1, 13 Jac. nomads; Theoph. Ant. 2, 35 [p. 190, 8]. In imagery or parable: Orig., C. Cels. 4, 17, 21) Mt 9:36=Mk 6:34 (Num 27:17); Mt 25:32; GJs 4:3; 18:3 (codd.). Of the shepherds at Jesus’ birth Lk 2:8, 15, 18, 20 (s. HGressmann, Das Weihnachtsevangelium 1914 [on this CClemen, StKr 89, 1916, 237–52]; JGeffcken, D. Hirten auf dem Felde: Her 49, 1914, 321–51 [against him JKroll, Her 50, 1915, 137ff]; Clemen2 1924, 195; 203ff; IHarrie, Die Anbetung der Hirten: ARW 23, 1925, 369–82; RBultmann, Gesch. d. Syn. Trad.2 ’31, 323–6; GErdmann, D. Vorgesch. d. Lk u. Mt ’32; ADeissmann, D. Anbetung d. Hirten u. d. Anbetung d. Weisen: Lutherring 16, ’35, 377–82).—In imagery, w. detail predominating: πατάξω τὸν ποιμένα, καὶ διασκορπισθήσονται (v.l. and also more grammatically correct:-θήσεται) τὰ πρόβατα τῆς ποίμνης (cp. Zech 13:7) Mt 26:31; Mk 14:27; B 5:12. Of Christ in extended imagery J 10:2, 7 v.l., 16; (opp. ὁ μισθωτός) vs. 12; ὁ ποιμὴν ὁ καλός vs. 11ab, 14 (Maximus Tyr. 6, 7d Cyrus is called ποιμὴν ἀγαθός, because he protects the Persian ‘flock’ fr. the barbarian ‘wolves’).
    one who serves as guardian or leader, shepherd, fig. ext. of 1 (Diog. L. 9, 40 Democritus is called ποιμὴν [=guardian] μύθων)
    esp. freq. in Hermas (Leutzsch, Hermas 439f n. 546)
    α. as the angel of repentance and bearer of a revelation (MDibelius, Der Offenbarungsträger im ‘Hirten’ des H.: Harnack-Ehrung 1921, 105–18; Rtzst., Erlösungsmyst. 1921, 149) Hv 5:3, 7; Hs 2:1; 5, 1, 1; 8, 1, 4; 18; 8, 2, 5f; 8; 8, 4, 1; 8, 5, 1; 6; 8, 6, 1; 9, 1, 1; 9, 2, 6; 9, 5, 1; 7; 9, 7, 1; 3f; 9, 8, 1; 9, 9, 5–7; 9, 10, 1; 4; 6; 9, 11, 1; 8; 10, 3, 4f [=POxy 404 recto C, 15; 20 restored].
    β. in the vision of the shepherds Hs 6, 1, 5f; 6, 2, 1; 5f; 6, 3, 2; 7:1.
    of those who lead Christian communities/congregations/ churches
    α. God (Philo, Agr. 51; Aberciusins. 3 π. ἁγνός) IRo 9:1.
    β. Christ τὸν ποιμένα τῶν προβάτων τὸν μέγαν Hb 13:20 (RGyllenberg, D. Christol. des Hb: ZST 11, ’34, 662–90). τὸν ποιμένα καὶ ἐπίσκοπον τῶν ψυχῶν ὑμῶν 1 Pt 2:25 (cp. Philo, Mut. Nom. 116 of the θεῖος λόγος; Ezk 34:23). ποιμ. τῆς ἐκκλησίας MPol 19:2. S. above 1, end, and Hdb. exc. after J 10:21; Bultmann 276–93; JQuasten, Hlg. Überliefg. (edited by OCasel) ’38, 51–58 (Hellenistic and early Christian); WJost, Poimen. D. Bild v. Hirten in d. bibl. Überl. u. s. christol. Bed., diss. Giessen ’39; TKempf, Christus der Hirt ’42; VMuller, Prehistory of the Good Shepherd: JNES 3, ’44, 87–90.
    γ. human leaders (on ‘shepherds’ as the founders and temporary thiasarchs [leaders] of Gk. religious guilds s. EMaass, Orpheus 1895, 181; Himerius, Or. 54 [=Or. 15] when greeting his newly arrived students, compares the teachers to shepherds [ἀγελάρχαι] and the pupils to the flock [ἀγέλη alternating with ποίμνιον §2]. S. also Jer 2:8; 3:15; Ezk 34:2) pastor Eph 4:11 (w. other church leaders). ὅπου ὁ ποιμήν (i.e. the superintendent/supervisor) ἐστιν, ἐκεῖ ὡς πρόβατα ἀκολουθεῖτε IPhld 2:1. S. also IRo 9:1 (Ign. as ‘shepherd’ of the Syrian church).—EHatch/AHarnack, D. Gesellschaftsverf. der christl. Kirchen im Altertum 1883, 230; HBruders, D. Verfassung der Kirche bis zum Jahr 175 n. Chr. 1904, 190f; 371f; Harnack, D. Mission4 I 1923, 350f; NCavatassi, De Munere Pastoris in NT: Verb. Domini 29, ’51, 215–27; 275–85.—B. 149. DELG. EDNT. RAC XV 577–607. M-M. TW.

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  • 173 πρεσβύτερος

    πρεσβύτερος, α, ον (Hom.+; comp. of πρέσβυς)
    pert. to being relatively advanced in age, older, old
    of an individual person older of two ὁ υἱὸς ὁ πρ. (cp. Aelian, VH 9, 42; TestJob 15:2 τῷ ἀδελφῷ τῷ πρεσβυτέρῳ; JosAs; Just., A II, 6, 1) Lk 15:25; of Manasseh (w. Ephraim) B 13:5. In contrast to the younger generation οἱ πρεσβύτεροι the older ones J 8:9. Opp. οἱ νεανίσκοι Ac 2:17 (Jo 3:1). Opp. νεώτεροι (s. νεός 3aβ) 1 Ti 5:1 (similar advice, containing a contrast betw. πρ. and νεώτ., from ins and lit. in MDibelius, Hdb. ad loc.); 1 Pt 5:5 (though here the πρεσβύτεροι are not only the older people, but at the same time, the ‘elders’; s. 2bβ). The same double mng. is found for πρεσβύτεροι in 1 Cl 1:3 beside νέοι, while in 3:3; 21:6, beside the same word, the concept of being old is the dominant one (as Jos., C. Ap. 2, 206). On the disputed pass. Hv 3, 1, 8 (οἱ νεανίσκοι … οἱ πρεσβύτεροι) cp. MDibelius, Hdb. ad loc.—Fem. πρεσβυτέρα old(er) woman (opp. νεωτέρα, as Gen 19:31) 1 Ti 5:2.—With no ref. to younger persons, w. complete disappearance of the comparative aspect: πρεσβύτερος an old man (Jos., Ant. 13, 226; 292 [as a witness of events in the past, as Ps.-Pla., Virt. 3, 377b; 4, 377c]) Hv 3, 12, 2; cp. 3, 11, 3. The personified church is called λίαν πρεσβυτέρα very old 3, 10, 3; cp. 3, 11, 2. She appears as ἡ πρ. the elderly woman 2, 1, 3; 3, 1, 2; 3, 10, 6; 9 and has τὰς τρίχας πρεσβυτέρας the hair of an old woman 3, 10, 4; 5; 3, 12, 1.
    of a period of time (Petosiris, Fgm. 3 and 4 mention οἱ πρεσβύτεροι and οἱ νεώτεροι. In both instances the context shows that the reference is to astrologers from earlier and more recent times) οἱ πρεσβύτεροι the men of old, our ancestors Hb 11:2. ἡ παράδοσις τῶν πρεσβυτέρων the tradition of the ancients (cp. Iambl., Vi. Pyth. 35, 253 τῶν π. συγγράμματα) Mt 15:2; Mk 7:3, 5 (ELohse, D. Ordination im Spätjudentum u. NT, ’51, 50–56: scholars).
    an official (cp. Lat. senator), elder, presbyter
    among the Jews (the congregation of a synagogue in Jerusalem used πρεσβύτεροι to denote its officers before 70 A.D.: SEG VIII, 170, 9; cp. Dssm., LO 378–80 [LAE 439–41]).
    α. for members of local councils in individual cities (cp. Josh 20:4; Ruth 4:2; 2 Esdr 10:14; Jdth 8:10; 10:6) Lk 7:3; 1 Cl 55:4.—Schürer II, 185.
    β. for members of a group in the Sanhedrin (Schürer II, 206–8; JJeremias, Jerusalem z. Zt. Jesu II B 1: Die gesellschaftl. Oberschicht 1929, 88ff). They are mentioned together w. (the) other groups: ἀρχιερεῖς (Ac 4:5 has ἄρχοντες for this), γραμματεῖς, πρεσβύτεροι (the order is not always the same) Mt 16:21; 26:3 v.l.; 27:41; Mk 8:31; 11:27; 14:43, 53; 15:1; Lk 9:22; 20:1.—Only ἀρχιερεῖς (Ac 4:8 has for this ἄρχοντες τοῦ λαοῦ) and πρεσβύτεροι (τοῦ λαοῦ: cp. Ex 19:7; Num 11:16b, 24; 1 Macc 7:33; 12:35; Just., D. 40, 4 al.) Mt 21:23; 26:3, 47, 59 v.l.; 27:1, 3, 12, 20; 28:(11), 12; Lk 22:52 (here, as an exception, οἱ στρατηγοὶ τοῦ ἱεροῦ); Ac 4:23; 23:14; 25:15; cp. 24:1. Also οἱ πρεσβύτεροι καὶ οἱ ἱερεῖς GPt 7:25 (for this combination cp. Jos., Ant. 11, 83; 12, 406).—Only πρεσβύτεροι and γραμματεῖς Mt 26:57; Ac 6:12.—The use of πρεσβύτερος as a title among the Jews of the Diaspora appears quite late, except for the allusions in the LXX (cp. Schürer III/1, 102; MAMA III [Cilicia], 344; 448 [cp. ZNW 31, ’32, 313f]. Whether πρεσβύτερος is to be understood in the older Roman inscriptions [CIJ 378] as a title [so CIJ p. lxxxvi], remains doubtful).
    among the Christians (for their use of the word as a title one must bear in mind not only the Jewish custom, but also its use as a t.t. among the ἔθνη, in connection w. associations of the ‘old ones’ [FPoland, Geschichte des griech. Vereinswesens 1909, 98ff] and to designate civic as well as religious officials [Dssm., B 153ff=BS 154–57, NB 60ff=BS 233–35, also LO 315, 5; HHausschildt, ZNW 4, 1903, 235ff; MStrack, ibid. 213ff; HLietzmann, ZWT 55, 1914, 116–32 [=Kl. Schr. I ’58, 156–69]; MDibelius, exc. on 1 Ti 5:17ff; RAlastair-Campbell, The Elders, Seniority within Earliest Christianity ’94.].—BGU 16, 6 [159 A.D.] πρεσβύτεροι ἱερεῖς θεοῦ Σοκνοπαίου; 347, 6; PVindBosw 1, 31 [87 A.D.].—As honorary title: Iren. 4, 26, 5 [Harv. II 238, 3]. The Engl. word ‘priest’ comes fr. πρεσβύτερος via Lat. presbyter; later Christian usage is largely, if not entirely, responsible for this development; s. OED s.v. ‘priest’ B).
    α. Ac 11:30; 14:23; 15:2, 4, 6, 22f; 16:4 (in all the places in Ac 15 and 16 mention is made of οἱ ἀπόστολοι καὶ οἱ πρεσβύτεροι in the Jerusalem church); 20:17; 21:18; 1 Ti 5:17, 19 (Nicol. Dam.: 90 Fgm. 103a Jac. νεωτέρῳ πρεσβυτέρου καταμαρτυρεῖν οὐκ ἔξεστι); Tit 1:5; Js 5:14; 1 Pt 5:1, 5 (s. 1a above); 1 Cl 44:5; 47:6; 54:2; 57:1. WWrede, Untersuchungen zum 1 Cl 1891, 8ff.—Acc. to 2 Cl 17:3, 5 exhortation and preaching in the church services were among their duties.—In Ign. the πρεσβύτεροι come after the bishop, to whom they are subordinate IMg 2; 3:1; 6:1, or betw. the bishop and the deacons IPhld inscr.; 10:2; IPol 6:1, or the higher rank of the bishop in comparison to them is made plain in some other way ITr 3:1; 12:2 (s. πρεσβυτέριον b; cp. Hippol., Ref. 9, 12, 22).—Polycarp—an ἐπίσκοπος, accord. to the title of the Ep. bearing his name—groups himself w. πρεσβύτεροι in Pol inscr., and further takes the presence of presbyters in Philippi for granted (beside deacons, though no ἐπίσκοπος is mentioned; cp. Hdb. on Pol inscr.) Pol 5:3.
    β. Just how we are to understand the words ὁ πρεσβύτερος, applied to himself by the author of the two smallest Johannine letters 2J 1; 3J 1, remains in doubt. But in any case it is meant to indicate a position of great dignity the elder.—HWindisch, exc. on 3J, end; ESchwartz, Über den Tod der Söhne Zebedaei 1904, 47; 51; HWendt, ZNW 23, 1924, 19; EKäsemann, ZTK 48, ’51, 292–311; DWatson, NTS 35, ’89, 104–30, rhetorical analysis of 2J.—ὁ πρ. and οἱ πρ. are mentioned by Papias in these much-discussed passages: 2:3, 4, 5, 7, 14, 15. For some of the lit. s. the note on JKleist’s transl. ’48, p. 207 n. 18.
    γ. In Rv there are 24 elders sitting on thrones about the throne of God; they form a heavenly council of elders (cp. Is 24:23) 4:4, 10; 5:5–14; 7:11, 13; 11:16; 14:3; 19:4. The elders have been understood as glorified human beings of some kind or astral deities (or angels) (for the var. views s. RCharles, ICC Rv I 128–33; JMichl, D. 24 Ältesten in d. Apk. d. hl. J. ’38); the number 24 has been referred to the following: the 24 priestly classes of the Jews (1 Ch 24:7–18; Jos., Ant. 7, 365–67) whose heads were called ‘elders’ (Yoma 1, 5; Tamid 1, 1; Middoth 1, 8); the 24 stars which, according to Babylonian belief, stood half on the north and half on the south of the zodiac (Diod S 2, 31, 4; POsl 4, 19: HGunkel, Z. religionsgesch. Verständnis des NT 1903, 42f; Boll 35f); the 24 hours of the day, represented as old men w. shining garments and w. crowns (acc. to the Test. of Adam [ed. CBezold, TNöldeke Festschr. 1906, 893–912]: JWellhausen, Analyse der Offb. Joh. 1907, p. 9, 1; NMorosof, Offb. Joh. 1912, 32); the 24 Yazatas in the state of the gods in heaven, acc. to Persian thought (Bousset). It is certainly an open question whether, or how far, the writer of Rv had any of these things in mind.—On the presbyters, and esp. on the question how ἐπίσκοπος and πρεσβύτερος were originally related to each other (a question which is raised particularly in the pastorals; cp. MDibelius, Hdb. exc. after 1 Ti 3:7 section 2 [w. lit.] and before 5:17), s. the lit. s.v. ἐπίσκοπος.—BEaston, Pastoral Epistles ’47, 188–97; WMichaelis, Das Ältestenamt ’53; GBornkamm, πρεσβύτερος; RCampbell, The Elders ’94.—B. 1472. DELG s.v. πρέσβυς. M-M. EDNT. TW.

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  • 174 πρόβατον

    πρόβατον, ου, τό (Hom.+; on the dat. pl. πρόβασι Hs 6, 1, 6 s. Herodian, Gramm. 1414, 10. πρόβασι βοσνήμασι Hesych p. 275 MSchmidt, as Schwyzer I 499)
    sheep (on this mng. s. O. Wilck I 286; B-D-F §126, 1aα; L-S-J-M s.v. I. The more general senses ‘cattle’ or ‘small cattle’ scarcely merit serious attention for our lit., though they are barely poss. in certain passages.) Mt 12:11f; 18:12; Lk 15:4, 6 (on this parable: GNordberg, SEÅ 1, ’37, 55–63); Rv 18:13; B 16:5 (En 89:54ff); GJs 18:3 (codd.). As a sacrificial animal 1 Cl 4:1 (Gen 4:4); J 2:14f. πρόβατα σφαγῆς sheep to be slaughtered Ro 8:36 (Ps 43:23). Defenseless in the midst of wolves Mt 10:16. In danger without a shepherd Mt 9:36; Mk 6:34 (both Num 27:17; cp. Ezk 34:5 and Jdth 11:19); Mt 26:31; Mk 14:27; B 5:12 (the three last Zech 13:7); 1 Cl 16:6f (Is 53:6f). ἐν ἐνδύμασι προβάτων (cp. ἔνδυμα 2; Proverbia Aesopi 123 P. κρύπτειν τὸν λύκον προβάτου δορᾷ) Mt 7:15. The first fruits of the sheep belong to the prophets D 13:3. Jesus ὡς πρόβατον ἐπὶ σφαγὴν ἤχθη … ἄφωνος (after Is 53:7) Ac 8:32 (cp. Vi. Aesopi G 48 P. a dispute over the question: διὰ τί τὸ πρόβατον ἐπὶ θυσίαν ἀγόμενον οὐ κέκραγεν;); B 5:2 (Is 53:7); 1 Cl 16:7.
    people of God, sheep. The lit. usage passes over to the nonliteral, or the sheep appear for the most part as symbols of certain people (En 89:42ff; Did., Gen 215:24): in the extended allegory of the Good Shepherd and the sheep J 10:1–16, 26f (in vs. 3 P66 reads προβάτια). Jesus is ὁ ποιμὴν τῶν προβάτων ὁ μέγας Hb 13:20. Cp. 1 Pt 2:25. The bishop is the shepherd, the church members the sheep IPhld 2:1. Cp. J 21:16, 17 (Porphyr., Adv. Chr. Fgm. 26: the ἀρνία are the catechumens, but the προβάτα are οἱ πιστοὶ εἰς τὸ τῆς τελετώσεως προβάντες μυστήριον). The Christians are called πρόβατα τῆς νομῆς σου (=God’s) 1 Cl 59:4 (cp. Ps 78:13; 94:7; 99:3). In the last times under the influence of lying prophets τὰ πρόβατα will be turned εἰς λύκους D 16:3. At the last judgment people will be divided as the shepherd separates τὰ πρόβατα from οἱ ἔριφοι Mt 25:32f (s. ἔριφος; PAmh 73, 6 [129/30 A.D.] differentiates πρόβ. and αἶγες), and the πρόβατα, representing those blessed by the Father, will stand at the right hand of the Human One (Son of Man) vs. 33 (HGraffmann, D. Gericht nach d. Werken im Mt: KBarth Festschr. ’36, 124–36). Jesus knows that he is (divinely) sent 15:24, and sends his disciples 10:6 πρὸς τὰ πρόβατα τὰ ἀπολωλότα οἴκου Ἰσραήλ.—In Hermas sheep appear (w. shepherds) as symbolic of all kinds of persons Hs 6, 1, 5f; 6, 2, 3f; 6f; 6, 3, 2; 9, 1, 9; 9, 27, 1.—B. 144. DELG s.v. πρόβατα. M-M. EDNT. TW.

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  • 175 σατάν

    σατάν, ὁ indecl. and σατανᾶς, ᾶ, ὁ (the former=Hebr. שָׂטָן 3 Km 11:14; Just., D. 103, 5; the latter Sir 21:27, also TestSol 1:1 D al.; TestJob; Test12Patr; ApcMos 17; Just.=Aram. סָטָנָא; for σατανος Lk 11:18 P75 read σατανας) literally ‘adversary’, in our lit. only as title or name: (the) Satan, in a very special sense, the enemy of God and all of those who belong to God, simply Satan, the Enemy (on the concept of Satan s. the lit. s.v. διάβολος 2), almost always w. the art. (B-D-F §254, 1), without it only in Mk 3:23; Lk 22:3; 2 Cor 12:7 and in personal address.—Mt 4:10 (here, as well as in the two passages from Mt and Mk near the end of this entry, without the art. and in the voc.); Mk 1:13; 3:26; Lk 11:18; 22:31. W. διάβολος of the same being Rv 20:2; cp. 2:9f; Pol 7:1 (Just., A I, 28, 1 al.). The Lawless One (Antichrist) appears κατʼ ἐνέργειαν τοῦ σατανᾶ 2 Th 2:9. He incites people to evil (cp. Homeric usage LfgrE s.v. δαιμόνι[ος] col. 198; TestJob 41:5 Ἐλίους ἐμπνευσθεὶς ἐν τῷ Σ. ; 23:11 ὁ Σ. … ἐπλαγίαζεν αὐτῆς τὴν καρδίαν; cp. 26:6) Mk 4:15; Ac 5:3; 1 Cor 7:5; 2 Cor 2:11; Rv 12:9. Esp. guilty of instigating Judas’ evil deed by entering into this disciple Lk 22:3; J 13:27. Causing sickness Lk 13:16 (s. δέω 1b, end). Hence driven out in healings Mt 12:26; Mk 3:23. Hindering the apostle in his work 1 Th 2:18 (cp. Julian., Ep. 40 [68] p. 46, 19 Bidez-Cumont εἰ μή τι δαιμόνιον γένοιτο κώλυμα). Causing false beliefs to arise 1 Ti 5:15; hence the one who denies the resurrection and judgment is called πρωτότοκος τοῦ ς. Pol 7:1; Polycarp uses the same expr. in speaking of Marcion, Epil Mosq 3. Persecutions of Christians are also inspired by Satan Rv 2:13ab (on the θρόνος τοῦ ς. s. θρόνος 1bε); hence certain Judeans who were hostile to Christians are called συναγωγὴ τοῦ ς. Rv 2:9; 3:9. God will crush him Ro 16:20. Jesus saw Satan falling (or fallen) fr. heaven Lk 10:18 (Burton, Moods and Tenses §146 [deZwaan §148]; FSpitta, ZNW 9, 1908, 160–63; CWebster, ET 57, ’45/46, 52f: πες. is timeless and means ‘I watched him fall’). Imprisoned, but freed again after a thousand years Rv 20:7. ὁ ς. μετασχηματίζεται εἰς ἄγγελον φωτός Satan disguises himself as an angel of light 2 Cor 11:14 (TestJob 6:4 μετασχηματισθεὶς εἰς ἐπαίτην a beggar; ApcMos 17 ἐγένετο ἐν εἴδει ἀγγέλου; s. μετασχηματίζω; on the subject s. Windisch ad loc.). ἄγγελος σατανᾶ 2 Cor 12:7 (UHeckel, ZNW 84, ’93, 69–75); ἄγγελοι τοῦ ς. B 18:1 (ἄγγελος 2c). αἱ δυνάμεις τοῦ ς. IEph 13:1 (δύναμις 5). τὰ βαθέα τοῦ ς. Rv 2:24 (s. βαθύς 2). ἡ ἐξουσία τοῦ ς. the power of Satan Ac 26:18; ending of Mk in the Freer ms. ln. 6 (ἐξουσία 2); ibid. ln. 2 ὁ αἴων οὗτος … ὑπὸ τὸν ς. ἐστιν.—παραδοῦναί τινα τῷ ς. 1 Cor 5:5 (s. ὄλεθρος; cp. the Christ. ins New Docs 3, 83); 1 Ti 1:20 (s. on both passages παραδίδωμι 1b).—In Mt 16:23; Mk 8:33 Peter is called Satan by Jesus, because his attempt to turn Jesus aside fr. his divine assignment to accept the consequences of his involvement with humanity has made him a tempter of a diabolical sort, who might thwart the divine plan of salvation. This metaph. usage relates to the striking verdict Rv 2:9; 3:9 above (cp. διάβολος J 6:70; 8:44).—BNoack, Satanás u. Sotería ’48. 1369–80 (lit.). DBS XII 1–47. DNP III 269. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TRE III 608f. TW.

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  • 176 σωτήρ

    σωτήρ, ῆρος, ὁ (σῴζω) one who rescues, savior, deliverer, preserver, as a title of divinities Pind., Aeschyl.+; ins, pap; TestSol 17:4. This was the epithet esp. of Asclepius, the god of healing (Ael. Aristid. 42, 4 K. ς. τῶν ὅλων; OGI 332, 9 [138–133 B.C.], s. note 8; SIG 1112, 2; 1148); Celsus compares the cult of Ascl. w. the Christian worship of the Savior (Origen, C. Cels. 3, 3). Likew. divinities in the mystery religions, like Sarapis and Isis (Σαράπιδι Ἴσιδι Σωτῆρσι: OGI 87; Sb 597 [both III B.C.]; Sb 169 [Ptolemaic times]; 596; CIG 4930b [I B.C.]), as well as Heracles (τῆς γῆς κ. τῶν ἀνθρώπων ς.: Dio Chrys. 1, 84) or Zeus (Ael. Aristid. 52 p. 608 D.: Ζεὺς ὁ ς.).—GAnrich, Das antike Mysterienwesen 1894, 47ff; GWobbermin, Religionsgesch. Studien 1896, 105ff.—In gnostic speculation: ὁ ς. = ὁ παράκλητος Iren. 1, 4, 5 (Harv. I, 38, 9). The LXX has σωτήρ as a term for God; so also ApcSed 13:6 p. 135, 29 Ja.; and so do Philo (s. MDibelius, Hdb., exc. on 2 Ti 1:10) and SibOr 1, 73; 3, 35; but ς. is not so found in EpArist, Test12Patr, or Josephus (s. ASchlatter, Wie sprach Jos. von Gott? 1910, 66).—At an early date σωτήρ was used as a title of honor for deserving pers. (s. X., Hell. 4, 4, 6, Ages. 11, 13; Plut., Arat. 53, 4; Herodian 3, 12, 2.—Ps.-Lucian, Ocyp. 78 in an address to a physician [s. θεός 4a]; JosAs 25:6 [of Joseph]; the same phrase IXanthos p. 45 no. 23, 3f, of Marcus Agrippa [I B.C.]; Jos., Vi. 244; 259 Josephus as εὐεργέτης καὶ σωτήρ of Galilee), and in ins and pap we find it predicated of high-ranking officials and of persons in private life. This is never done in our lit. But outside our lit. it is applied to personalities who are active in the world’s affairs, in order to remove them fr. the ranks of ordinary humankind and place them in a significantly higher position. For example, Epicurus is called σωτήρ by his followers (Philod.: pap, Herc. 346, 4, 19 ὑμνεῖν τὸν σωτῆρα τὸν ἡμέτερον.—ARW 18, 1930, 392–95; CJensen, Ein neuer Brief Epikurs: GGAbh. III/5, ’33, 80f). Of much greater import is the designation of the (deified) ruler as ς. (Ptolemy I Soter [323–285 B.C.] Πτολεμαῖος καὶ Βερενίκη θεοὶ Σωτῆρες: APF 5, 1913, 156, 1; see Sb 306 and oft. in later times, of Roman emperors as well [Philo, In Flacc. 74; 126, Leg. ad Gai. 22; cp. Jos., Bell. 3, 459]).—PWendland, Σωτήρ: ZNW 5, 1904, 335ff; Magie 67f; HLietzmann, Der Weltheiland 1909; WOtto, Augustus Soter: Her 45, 1910, 448–60; FDölger, Ichthys 1910, 406–22; Dssm., LO 311f (LAE 368f); ELohmeyer, Christuskult u. Kaiserkult 1919; Bousset, Kyrios Christos2 1921, 241ff; EMeyer III 392ff; E-BAllo, Les dieux sauveurs du paganisme gréco-romain: RSPT 15, 1926, 5–34; KBornhausen, Der Erlöser 1927; HLinssen, Θεος Σωτηρ, diss. Bonn 1929=Jahrb. f. Liturgiewiss. 8, 1928, 1–75; AOxé, Σωτήρ b. den Römern: WienerStud 48, 1930, 38–61; WStaerk, Soter, I ’33; II ’38. S. also GHerzog-Hauser, Soter … im altgriech. Epos ’31; ANock, s.v. εὐεργέτης.—CColpe, Die Religionsgeschichtliche Schule ’61 (critique of some of the lit. cited above); FDanker, Benefactor ’82.
    of God ὁ θεὸς ὁ σωτήρ μου (Ps 24:5; 26:9; Mi 7:7 al.) Lk 1:47. θεὸς ς. ἡμῶν 1 Ti 1:1; Jd 25. ὁ ς. ἡμῶν θεός 1 Ti 2:3; Tit 1:3; 2:10; 3:4. ς. πάντων ἀνθρώπων μάλιστα πιστῶν 1 Ti 4:10 (cp. PPetr III, 20 I, 15 [246 B.C.] πάντων σωτῆρα and s. above Heracles as τῶν ἀνθρώπων ς. and in b below Sarapis). ὁ τῶν ἀπηλπισμένων σωτήρ the Savior of those in despair 1 Cl 59:3.
    of Christ (Just., A I, 33, 7 τὸ … Ἰησοῦς … σωτὴρ τῇ Ἑλληνίδι διαλέκτῳ δηλοῖ) Lk 2:11; Ac 13:23; Phil 3:20; Dg 9:6; Ox 840, 12; 21 (restored); 30; GMary 463, lines 4, 8, 18, 22, 31; Ox 1081, 27 (SJCh 90, 4); Qua. W. ἀρχηγός Ac 5:31; 2 Cl 20:5 (ἀρχηγὸς τῆς ἀφθαρσίας). σωτὴρ τοῦ σώματος Savior of the body (i.e. of his body, the Christian community) Eph 5:23. ὁ σωτὴρ τοῦ κόσμου (ins; cp. WWeber, Untersuchungen zur Gesch. des Kaisers Hadrianus 1907, 225f; 222) J 4:42; 1J 4:14. ς. τῶν ἀνθρώπων (Ael. Aristid. 45, 20 K.=8 p. 90 D. calls Sarapis κηδεμόνα καὶ σωτῆρα πάντων ἀνθρώπων αὐτάρκη θεόν) GPt 4:13. ὁ ς. ἡμῶν Χρ. Ἰ. 2 Ti 1:10; ISm 7:1; w. Χρ. Ἰ. or Ἰ. Χρ. preceding Tit 1:4; 3:6; IEph 1:1; IMg ins; Pol ins. ὁ μέγας θεὸς καὶ ς. ἡμῶν Χρ. Ἱ. our great God and Savior Christ Jesus Tit 2:13 (cp. PLond III, 604b, 118 p. 80 [47 A.D.] τῷ μεγάλῳ θεῷ σωτῆρι; but the presence of καί Tit 2:13 suggests a difft. semantic aspect and may justify the rendering in NRSV mg). S. MDibelius, exc. after Tit 2:14; HWindisch, Z. Christologie der Past.: ZNW 34, ’35, 213–38.—ὁ σωτὴρ κύριος ἡμῶν Ἰ. Χρ. IPhld 9:2. ὁ ς. τῶν ψυχῶν MPol 19:2. ὁ θεὸς ἡμῶν καὶ ς. Ἰ. Χρ. 2 Pt 1:1. ὁ κύριος (ἡμῶν) καὶ ς. Ἰ. Χρ. vs. 11; 2:20; 3:18; without any name (so ὁ σωτήρ [meaning Asclep.] Ael. Aristid. 47, 1 K.=23 p. 445 D.; 66 K.=p. 462 D.; 48, 7 K.=24 p. 466 D.—Orig., C. Cels. 6, 64, 16; Hippol., Ref. 5, 8, 27) 2 Pt 3:2; AcPl Ha 8, 29 (restored: καὶ σωτῆρα). S. Loewe s.v. σωτηρία end.—Pauly-W. 2, VI 1211–21; Kl. Pauly V 289; RAC VI 54–219; DLNT 1082–84; BHHW I 430–32.—M-M. EDNT. TW. Spicq. Sv.

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  • 177 τέκνον

    τέκνον, ου, τό (τίκτω ‘engender, bear’; Hom.+ ‘child’)
    an offspring of human parents, child
    without ref. to sex Mt 10:21a (on the complete dissolution of family ties s. Lucian, Cal. 1; GrBar 4:17; ApcEsdr 3:14 p. 27, 23 Tdf.; Just., A I, 27, 3f; Orig., C. Cels. 6, 43, 25 [Job’s children]); Mk 13:12a; Lk 1:7; Ac 7:5; Rv 12:4. Pl. Mt 7:11; 10:21b; 18:25; 19:29; 22:24 (=σπέρμα, cp. Dt 25:5f, but σπ. and τ. are contrasted Ro 9:7); Mk 13:12b; Lk 1:17; 14:26; 1 Cor 7:14 (on the baptism of children s. HWood, EncRelEth II 392ff; JLeipoldt, D. urchr. Taufe 1928, 73–78; AOepke, LIhmels Festschr. 1928, 84–100, ZNW 29, 1930, 81–111 [against him HWindisch, ZNW 28, 1929, 118–42]; JJeremias, Hat d. Urkirche d. Kindertaufe geübt? ’38; 2d ed. ’49; Die Kindert. in d. ersten 4 Jhdtn. ’58; revisited D. Anfänge d. Kindert. ’62; s. also ZNW 40, ’42, 243–45. KAl-and, D. Saülingst. im NT u. in d. alten Kirche ’62, 2d ed. ’63; Die Stellung d. Kinder in d. frühe christl. Gemeinden, und ihre Taufe ’67. KBarth, Z. kirchl. Lehre v. d. Taufe2 ’43; D. Taufe als Begründung d. christlichen Lebens in Kirchliche Dogmatik IV, 4, ’67; for discussion of Barth’s views, s. EJüngel, K. Barths Lehre v. d. Taufe ’68; KViering (ed.), Zu K. Barth’s Lehre v. d. Taufe ’71; K. Aland, Taufe u. Kindertaufe ’71; HHubert, D. Streit um d. Kindertaufe, ’72. FFr̓vig, TTK 11, ’40, 124–31; EMolland, NorTT 43, ’42, 1–23; F-JLeenhardt, Le Baptème chrétien ’46; OCullmann, D. Tauflehre d. NT ’48; P-HMenoud, Verbum Caro 2, ’48, 15–26; HSchlier, TLZ 72, ’47, 321–26; GFleming, Baptism in the NT ’49; GBeasley-Murray, Baptism in the New Testament ’62; WKümmel, TRu 18, ’50, 32–47; GDelling, D. Taufe im NT ’63; EDinkler, Die Taufaussagen d. NT ’71 [in: KViering, s. above, 60–153]; JDidier, Le baptême des enfants ’59; HKraft, Texte z. Gesch. d. Taufe bes. d. Kindert. i. d. alten Kirche, Kl. T. no. 174, 2d ed. ’69); 2 Cor 12:14ab (simile); 1 Th 2:7 (simile), 11 (simile); 1 Ti 3:4, 12; 5:4 al. In the table of household duties (s. MDibelius Hdb. exc. after Col 4:1; KWeidinger, Die Haustafeln 1928) Eph 6:1 (τὰ τέκνα voc.), 4; Col 3:20 (τὰ τ. voc.), 21. In the case of φονεῖς τέκνων B 20:2; D 5:2, what follows shows that murders of their own children are meant.—The unborn fetus is also called τέκνον B 19:5; D 2:2 (like παιδίον: Hippocr., π. σαρκ. 6 vol. VIII 592 L. On Jesus’ attitude toward children, cp. JKalogerakos, Aristoteles’ Bild von der Frau: ΠΛΑΤΩΝ 46, ’94, 159–83, esp. p. 174 and notes [cp. Aristot., EN 1161b].).
    The sex of the child can be made clear by the context, son (Herodian 7, 10, 7; PGen 74, 1ff; PAmh 136, 1f; POxy 930, 18; Jos., Ant. 14, 196; Just., D. 56, 5; 134, 4) Mt 21:28a; Phil 2:22 (simile); Rv 12:5; GJs 22;3. The voc. τέκνον as an affectionate address to a son Mt 21:28b; Lk 2:48; 15:31. In a more general sense the pl. is used for
    descendants from a common ancestor, descendants, posterity Ῥαχὴλ κλαίουσα τὰ τέκνα αὐτῆς Mt 2:18 (Jer 38:15).—27:25; Ac 2:39; 13:33. A rich man is addressed by his ancestor Abraham as τέκνον Lk 16:25. τὰ τέκνα τῆς σαρκός the physical descendants Ro 9:8a.
    one who is dear to another but without genetic relationship and without distinction in age, child
    in the voc. gener. as a form of familiar address my child, my son (Herodian 1, 6, 4; ParJer 5:30; Achilles Tat. 8, 4, 3. Directed to fully grown persons, Vi. Aesopi G 60 P., where a peasant addresses Aesop in this way) Mt 9:2; Mk 2:5.
    of a spiritual child in relation to master, apostle, or teacher (PGM 4, 475.—Eunap. p. 70 the sophist applies this term to his students) 2 Ti 1:2; Phlm 10. τέκνον ἐν κυρίῳ 1 Cor 4:17. τέκ. ἐν πίστει 1 Ti 1:2. τέκ. κατὰ κοινὴν πίστιν Tit 1:4. Pl. 1 Cor 4:14; 2 Cor 6:13; 3J 4. In direct address (voc.): sing. (on dir. address in the sing. cp. Sir 2:1 and oft.; Herm. Wr. 13, 2ab; PGM 13, 226; 233; 742; 755.—S. also Norden, Agn. Th. 290f; Boll 138f): 1 Ti 1:18; 2 Ti 2:1; D 3:1, 3–6; 4:1. Pl.: Mk 10:24; B 15:4.—1 Cl 22:1 understands the τέκνα of Ps 33:12 as a word of Christ to Christians. Cp. B 9:3. The address in Gal 4:19 is intended metaphorically for children for whom Paul is once more undergoing the pains of childbirth.—The adherents of false teachers are also called their τέκνα Rv 2:23.
    of the members of a congregation 2J 1; 4; 13. In Hermas the venerable lady, who embodies the Christian communities, addresses the believers as τέκνα Hv 3, 9, 1. In Gal 4:31 οὐκ ἐσμὲν παιδίσκης τέκνα ἀλλὰ τῆς ἐλευθέρας posts a dramatic image = ‘we belong not to a community dependent on the rules of Sinai, but to one that adheres to the promises made to Abraham’.
    one who has the characteristics of another being, child
    of those who exhibit virtues of ancient worthies: children of Abraham Mt 3:9; Lk 3:8; J 8:39; Ro 9:7. True Christian women are children of Sarah 1 Pt 3:6.
    of those who exhibit characteristics of transcendent entities: the believers are (τὰ) τέκνα (τοῦ) θεοῦ (cp. Is 63:8; Wsd 16:21; SibOr 5, 202; Just., D. 123, 9; 124, 1. On the subj. matter s. HHoltzmann, Ntl. Theologie I2 1911, 54; Bousset, Rel.3 377f; ADieterich, Mithrasliturgie 1903, 141ff; Hdb. on J 1:12; WGrundmann, Die Gotteskindschaft in d. Gesch. Jesu u. ihre relgesch. Voraussetzungen ’38; WTwisselmann, D. Gotteskindsch. der Christen nach dem NT ’39; SLegasse, Jésus et L’enfant [synopt.], ’69), in Paul as those adopted by God Ro 8:16f, 21; 9:7, 8b (opp. σπέρμα); Phil 2:15, s. also Eph 5:1; in John as those begotten by God J 1:12; 11:52; 1J 3:1f, 10a; 5:2. Corresp. τὰ τέκνα τοῦ διαβόλου 1J 3:10b (on this subj. s. Hdb. on J 8:44).—Cp. Ac 17:28, where the idea of kinship w. deity is complex because of semantic components not shared by polytheists and those within Israelite tradition.—Cp. 6 below.
    inhabitants of a city, children, an Hebraistic expression (Rdm.2 p. 28; Mlt-H. 441; s. Jo 2:23; Zech 9:13; Bar 4:19, 21, 25 al.; 1 Macc 1:38; PsSol 11:2) Mt 23:37; Lk 13:34; 19:44; Gal 4:25.
    a class of persons with a specific characteristic, children of. τ. is used w. abstract terms (for this Hebraism s. prec.; ἀνάγκης, ἀγνοίας Just., A I, 61, 10) τέκνα ἀγάπης B 9:7; ἀγ. καὶ εἰρήνης 21:9 (ἀγάπη 1bα). εὐφροσύνης 7:1 (s. εὐφροσύνη). δικαιοσύνης AcPlCor 2:19. κατάρας 2 Pt 2:14 (s. κατάρα). ὀργῆς Eph 2:3; AcPlCor 2:19. ὑπακοῆς 1 Pt 1:14. φωτός Eph 5:8; cp. IPhld 2:1. On the ‘children of wisdom’, i.e. those who attach themselves to her and let themselves be led by her Mt 11:19 v.l.; Lk 7:35 s. δικαιόω 2bα. Cp. 4b above.—Billerbeck I 219f, 371–74; BHHW II 947–49; III 1935–37.—DELG s.v. τίκτω. Frisk. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

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  • 178 υἱός

    υἱός, οῦ, ὁ (Hom.+; loanw. in rabb.) prim. ‘son’
    a male who is in a kinship relationship either biologically or by legal action, son, offspring, descendant
    the direct male issue of a person, son τέξεται υἱόν Mt 1:21; GJs 14:2 (cp. Mel., P. 8, 53 ὡς γὰρ υἱὸς τεχθείς). Cp. Mt 1:23 (Is 7:14) and 25; 10:37 (w. θυγάτηρ); Mk 12:6a; Lk 1:13, 31, 57; 11:11; 15:11 (on this JEngel, Die Parabel v. Verlorenen Sohn: ThGl 18, 1926, 54–64; MFrost, The Prodigal Son: Exp. 9th ser., 2, 1924, 56–60; EBuonaiuti, Religio 11, ’35, 398–402); Ac 7:29; Ro 9:9 (cp. Gen 18:10); Gal 4:22 al. W. gen. Mt 7:9; 20:20f; 21:37ab; Mk 6:3; 9:17; Lk 3:2; 4:22; 15:19; J 9:19f; Ac 13:21; 16:1; 23:16; Gal 4:30abc (Gen 21:10abc); Js 2:21; AcPlCor 2:29. Also ἐγὼ Φαρισαῖός εἰμι υἱὸς Φαρισαίων Ac 23:6 is prob. a ref. to direct descent. μονογενὴς υἱός (s. μονογενής 1) Lk 7:12. ὁ υἱὸς ὁ πρωτότοκος (πρωτότοκος 1) 2:7.
    the immediate male offspring of an animal (Ps 28:1 υἱοὺς κριῶν; Sir 38:25. So Lat. filius: Columella 6, 37, 4) in our lit. only as foal ἐπὶ πῶλον υἱὸν ὑποζυγίου Mt 21:5 (cp. Zech 9:9 πῶλον νέον).
    human offspring in an extended line of descent, descendant, son Ἰωσὴφ υἱὸς Δαυίδ Mt 1:20 (cp. Jos., Ant. 11, 73); s. 2dα below. υἱοὶ Ἰσραήλ (Ἰσραήλ 1) Mt 27:9; Lk 1:16; Ac 5:21; 7:23, 37; 9:15; 10:36; Ro 9:27; 2 Cor 3:7, 13; Hb 11:22 al.; AcPlCor 2:32. οἱ υἱοὶ Λευί (Num 26:57) Hb 7:5. υἱὸς Ἀβραάμ Lk 19:9. υἱοὶ Ἀδάμ 1 Cl 29:2 (Dt 32:8). υἱοι Ῥουβήλ GJs 6:3.
    one who is accepted or legally adopted as a son (Herodian 5, 7, 1; 4; 5; Jos, Ant. 2, 263; 20, 150) Ac 7:21 (cp. Ex 2:10).—J 19:26.
    a pers. related or closely associated as if by ties of sonship, son, transf. sense of 1
    of a pupil, follower, or one who is otherw. a spiritual son (SIG 1169, 12 οἱ υἱοὶ τοῦ θεοῦ=the pupils and helpers [40] of Asclepius; sim. Maximus Tyr. 4, 2c; Just., D. 86, 6 οἱ υἱοὶ τῶν προφητῶν.—Some combination w. παῖδες is the favorite designation for those who are heirs of guild-secrets or who are to perpetuate a skill of some kind: Pla., Rep. 3, 407e, Leg. 6, 769b; Dionys. Hal., Comp. Verbi 22 p. 102, 4 Us./Rdm. ῥητόρων παῖδες; Lucian, Anach. 19, Dial. Mort. 11, 1 Χαλδαίων π.=dream-interpreters, Dips. 5 ἱατρῶν π., Amor. 49; Himerius, Or. 48 [=Or. 14], 13 σοφῶν π.): the ‘sons’ of the Pharisees Mt 12:27; Lk 11:19. Peter says Μᾶρκος ὁ υἱός μου 1 Pt 5:13 (perh. w. a component of endearment; s. Μᾶρκος). As a familiar form of address by a cherished mentor Hb 12:5 (Pr 3:11; ParJer 5:28; 7:24). υἱοὶ καὶ θυγατέρες B 1:1.
    of the individual members of a large and coherent group (cp. the υἷες Ἀχαιῶν in Homer; also PsSol 2:3 οἱ υἱοὶ Ἰερουσαλήμ; Dio Chrys. 71 [21], 15; LXX) οἱ υἱοὶ τοῦ λαοῦ μου 1 Cl 8:3 (scripture quot. of unknown origin). υἱοὶ γένους Ἀβραάμ Ac 13:26. οἱ υἱοὶ τῶν ἀνθρώπων (Gen 11:5; Ps 11:2, 9; 44:3; TestLevi 3:10; TestZeb 9:7; GrBar 2:4) the sons of men=humans (cp. dγ below) Mk 3:28; Eph 3:5; 1 Cl 61:2 (of the earthly rulers in contrast to the heavenly king).
    of one whose identity is defined in terms of a relationship with a person or thing
    α. of those who are bound to a personality by close, non-material ties; it is this personality that has promoted the relationship and given it its character: son(s) of: those who believe are υἱοὶ Ἀβραάμ, because Abr. was the first whose relationship to God was based on faith Gal 3:7. In a special sense the devout, believers, are sons of God, i.e., in the light of the social context, people of special status and privilege (cp. PsSol 17:27; Just., D, 124, 1; Dio Chrys. 58 [75], 8 ὁ τοῦ Διὸς ὄντως υἱός; Epict. 1, 9, 6; 1, 3, 2; 1, 19, 9; Sextus 58; 60; 135; 376a; Dt 14:1; Ps 28:1; 72:15; Is 43:6 [w. θυγατέρες μου]; 45:11; Wsd 2:18; 5:5; 12:21 al.; Jdth 9:4, 13; Esth 8:12q; 3 Macc 6:28; SibOr 3, 702) Mt 5:45; Lk 6:35; Ro 8:14, 19 (‘Redeemer figures’ EFuchs, Die Freiheit des Glaubens, ’49, 108; against him EHommel in ThViat 4, ’52, 118, n. 26); 9:26 (Hos 2:1); 2 Cor 6:18 (w. θυγατέρες, s. Is 43:6 cited above); Gal 3:26 (cp. PsSol 17:27); 4:6a, 7ab (here the υἱός is the κληρονόμος and his opposite is the δοῦλος); Hb 2:10 (JKögel, Der Sohn u. die Söhne: Eine exeget. Studie zu Hb 2:5–18, 1904); 12:5–8 (in vs. 8 opp. νόθος, q.v.); Rv 21:7; 2 Cl 1:4; B 4:9. Corresp. there are sons of the devil (on this subj. cp. Hdb. on J 8:44) υἱὲ διαβόλου Ac 13:10. οἱ υἱοὶ τοῦ πονηροῦ (masc.) Mt 13:38b. τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ ἐν Ἅιδου ApcPt Rainer. In υἱοί ἐστε τῶν φονευσάντων τοὺς προφήτας Mt 23:31 this mng. is prob. to be combined w. sense 1c. The expr. υἱοὶ θεοῦ Mt 5:9 looks to the future (s. Betz, SM ad loc.; cp. KKöhler, StKr 91, 1918, 189f). Lk 20:36a signifies a status akin to that of angels (Ps 88:7; θεῶν παῖδες as heavenly beings: Maximus Tyr. 11, 5a; 12a; 13, 6a.—Hierocles 3, 424 the ἄγγελοι are called θεῶν παῖδες; HWindisch, Friedensbringer-Gottessöhne: ZNW 24, 1925, 240–60, discounts connection w. angels and contends for the elevation of the ordinary followers of Jesus to the status of Alexander the Great in his role as an εἰρηνηποιός [cp. Plut., Mor. 329c]; for measured critique of this view s. Betz, SM 137–42.).
    β. υἱός w. gen. of thing, to denote one who shares in it or who is worthy of it, or who stands in some other close relation to it, oft. made clear by the context; this constr. is prob. a Hebraism in the main, but would not appear barbaric (B-D-F §162, 6; Mlt-H. 441; Dssm., B p. 162–66 [BS 161–66]; PASA II 1884, no. 2 υἱὸς πόλεως [time of Nero; on this type of formulation SEG XXXIX, 1864]; IMagnMai 167, 5; 156, 12) οἱ υἱοὶ τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου (αἰών 2a) Lk 16:8a (opp. οἱ υἱοί τοῦ φωτός vs. 8b); 20:34. τῆς ἀναστάσεως υἱοί (to Mediterranean publics the functional equivalent of ἀθάνατοι ‘immortals’; cp. ἀνάστασις 2b) 20:36b. υἱοὶ τῆς ἀνομίας (ἀνομία 1; cp. CD 6:15) Hv 3, 6, 1; ApcPt 1:3; τῆς ἀπειθείας (s. ἀπείθεια) Eph 2:2; 5:6; Col 3:6; τῆς ἀπωλείας ApcPt 1:2. ὁ υἱὸς τῆς ἀπωλείας of Judas the informer J 17:12 (cp. similar expressions in Eur., Hec. 425; Menand., Dyscolus 88f: s. FDanker, NTS 7, ’60/61, 94), of the end-time adversary 2 Th 2:3. υἱοὶ τῆς βασιλείας (βασιλεία 1bη; s. SEG XXXIX, 1864 for related expressions) Mt 8:12; 13:38a. υἱοὶ βροντῆς Mk 3:17 (s. Βοανηργές). υἱὸς γεέννης (s. γέεννα) Mt 23:15; τ. διαθήκης (PsSol 17:15) Ac 3:25; εἰρήνης Lk 10:6. υἱοὶ τοῦ νυμφῶνος (s. νυμφών) Mt 9:15; Mk 2:19; Lk 5:34. υἱὸς παρακλήσεως Ac 4:36 (s. Βαρναβᾶς). υἱοὶ (τοῦ) φωτός (Hippol., Ref. 6, 47, 4 in gnostic speculation) Lk 16:8b (opp. υἱοὶ τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου); J 12:36. υἱοὶ φωτός ἐστε καὶ υἱοὶ ἡμέρας 1 Th 5:5 (EBuonaiuti, ‘Figli del giorno e della luce’ [1 Th 5:5]: Rivista storico-critica delle Scienze teol. 6, 1910, 89–93).
    in various combinations as a designation of the Messiah and a self-designation of Jesus
    α. υἱὸς Δαυίδ son of David of the Messiah (PsSol 17:21) Mt 22:42–45; Mk 12:35–37; Lk 20:41–44; B 12:10c. Specif. of Jesus as Messiah Mt 1:1a; 9:27; 12:23; 15:22; 20:30f; 21:9, 15; Mk 10:47f; Lk 18:38f.—WWrede, Jesus als Davidssohn: Vorträge u. Studien 1907, 147–77; WBousset, Kyrios Christos2 1921, 4, Rel.3 226f; ELohmeyer, Gottesknecht u. Davidssohn ’45, esp. 68; 72; 77; 84; TNicklin, Gospel Gleanings ’50, 251–56; WMichaelis, Die Davidsohnschaft Jesu usw., in D. histor. Jesus u. d. kerygm. Christus, ed. Ristow and Matthiae, ’61, 317–30; LFisher, ECColwell Festschr. ’68, 82–97.
    β. ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ, υἱὸς θεοῦ (the) Son of God (for the phrase s. JosAs 6:2 al. Ἰωσὴφ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ; there is no undisputed evidence of usage as messianic title in pre-Christian Judaism [s. Dalman, Worte 219–24, Eng. tr. 268–89; Bousset, Kyrios Christos2 53f; EHuntress, ‘Son of God’ in Jewish Writings Prior to the Christian Era: JBL 54, ’35, 117–23]; cp. 4Q 246 col. 2, 1 [JFitzmyer, A Wandering Aramean ’79, 90–93; JCollins, BRev IX/3, ’93, 34–38, 57]. Among polytheists on the other hand, sons of the gods in a special sense [s. Just., A I, 21, 1f] are not only known to myth and legend, but definite historical personalities are also designated as such. Among them are famous wise men such as Pythagoras and Plato [HUsener, Das Weihnachtsfest2 1911, 71ff], and deified rulers, above all the Roman emperors since the time of Augustus [oft. in ins and pap: Dssm., B 166f=BS 166f, LO 294f=LAE 346f; Thieme 33]. According to Memnon [I B.C./ I A.D.]: 434 Fgm. 1, 1, 1 Jac., Clearchus [IV B.C.] carried his boasting so far as Διὸς υἱὸν ἑαυτὸν ἀνειπεῖν. Also, persons who were active at that time as prophets and wonder-workers laid claim to the title υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ, e.g. the Samaritan Dositheus in Origen, C. Cels. 6, 11; sim. an Indian wise man who calls himself Διὸς υἱός Arrian, Anab. 7, 2, 3; cp. Did., Gen. 213, 18 ὁ Ἀβρὰμ υἱὸς θεοῦ διὰ δικαιοσύνην. S. GWetter, ‘Der Sohn Gottes’ 1916; Hdb. exc. on J 1:34; s. also Clemen2 76ff; ENorden, Die Geburt des Kindes 1924, 75; 91f; 132; 156f; EKlostermann, Hdb. exc. on Mk 1:11 [4th ed. ’50]; M-JLagrange, Les origines du dogme paulinien de la divinité de Christ: RB 45, ’36, 5–33; HPreisker, Ntl. Zeitgesch. ’37, 187–208; HBraun, ZTK 54, ’57, 353–64; ANock, ‘Son of God’ in Paul. and Hellen. Thought: Gnomon 33, ’61, 581–90 [=Essays on Religion and the Anc. World II, ’72, 928–39]—originality in Paul’s thought): Ps 2:7 is applied to Jesus υἱός μου εἶ σύ, ἐγὼ σήμερον γεγέννηκά σε Lk 3:22 D; GEb 18, 37.—Ac 13:33; Hb 1:5a; 5:5; 1 Cl 36:4. Likew. Hos 11:1 (w. significant changes): Mt 2:15, and 2 Km 7:14: Hb 1:5b. The voice of God calls him ὁ υἱός μου ὁ ἀγαπητός (s. ἀγαπητός 1) at his baptism Mt 3:17; Mk 1:11; Lk 3:22; GEb 18, 37 and 39 and at the Transfiguration Mt 17:5; Mk 9:7; Lk 9:35 (here ἐκλελεγμένος instead of ἀγαπ.); 2 Pt 1:17. Cp. J 1:34. The angel at the Annunciation uses these expressions in referring to him: υἱὸς ὑψίστου Lk 1:32; GJs 11:3 and υἱὸς θεοῦ Lk 1:35 (Ar. 15, 1 ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦ ὑψίστου. Cp. Just., A I, 23, 2 μόνος ἰδίως υἱὸς τῷ θεῷ γεγέννηται). The centurion refers to him at the crucifixion as υἱὸς θεοῦ Mt 27:54; Mk 15:39; GPt 11:45; cp. vs. 46 (CMann, ET 20, 1909, 563f; JPobee, The Cry of the Centurion, A Cry of Defeat: CFDMoule Festschr. ’70, 91–102; EJohnson, JSNT 31, ’87, 3–22 [an indefinite affirmation of Jesus]). The high priest asks εἰ σὺ εἶ ὁ Χριστὸς ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ Mt 26:63 (DCatchpole, NTS 17, ’71, 213–26). Passers-by ask him to show that he is God’s Son 27:40; sim. the devil 4:3, 6; Lk 4:3, 9. On the other hand, evil spirits address him as the Son of God Mt 8:29; Mk 3:11; 5:7; Lk 4:41; 8:28; and disciples testify that he is Mt 14:33; 16:16. S. also Mk 1:1 (s. SLegg, Ev. Sec. Marc. ’35).—Jesus also refers to himself as Son of God, though rarely apart fr. the Fourth Gosp.: Mt 28:19 (the Risen Lord in the trinitarian baptismal formula); Mt 21:37f=Mk 12:6 (an allusion in the parable of the vinedressers).—Mt 27:43; Mk 13:32; Rv 2:18. The main pass. is the so-called Johannine verse in the synoptics Mt 11:27=Lk 10:22 (s. PSchmiedel, PM 4, 1900,1–22; FBurkitt, JTS 12, 1911, 296f; HSchumacher, Die Selbstoffenbarung Jesu bei Mt 11:27 [Lk 10:22] 1912 [lit.]; Norden, Agn. Th. 277–308; JWeiss, Heinrici Festschr. 1914, 120–29, Urchristentum 1917, 87ff; Bousset, Kyrios Christos2 1921, 45ff; EMeyer I 280ff; RBultmann, Gesch. d. synopt. Trad.2 ’31, 171f; MDibelius, Die Formgeschichte des Evangeliums2 ’33, 259; MRist, Is Mt 11:25–30 a Primitive Baptismal Hymn? JR 15, ’35, 63–77; TArvedson, D. Mysterium Christi: E. Studie zu Mt 11:25–30, ’37; WDavies, ‘Knowledge’ in the Dead Sea Scrolls and Mt 11:25–30, HTR 45, ’53, 113–39; WGrundmann, Sohn Gottes, ZNW 47, ’56, 113–33; JBieneck, Sohn Gottes als Christusbez. der Synopt. ’51; PWinter, Mt 11:27 and Lk 10:22: NovT 1, ’56, 112–48; JJocz, Judaica 13, ’57, 129–42; OMichel/OBetz, Von Gott Gezeugt, Beih. ZNW [Jeremias Festschr.] 26, ’60, 3–23 [Qumran]).—Apart fr. the synoptics, testimony to Jesus as the Son of God is found in many parts of our lit. Oft. in Paul: Ro 1:3, 4, 9; 5:10; 8:3, 29, 32; 1 Cor 1:9; 15:28; 2 Cor 1:19; Gal 1:16; 2:20; 4:4; Eph 4:13; Col 1:13; 1 Th 1:10. Cp. Ac 9:20. In Hb: 1:2, 8; 4:14; 5:8; 6:6; 7:3, 28; 10:29. In greatest frequency in John (cp. Herm. Wr. 1, 6 the Λόγος as υἱὸς θεοῦ. Likew. Philo, Agr. 51 πρωτόγονος υἱός, Conf. Lingu. 146 υἱὸς θεοῦ.—Theoph. Ant. 2, 1 [p. 154, 12] ὁ λόγος ὁ τοῦ θεοῦ, ὅς ἐστιν καὶ υἱὸς αὐτοῦ; Iren. 3, 12, 2 [Harv. II 55, 2]): J 1:49; 3:16–18 (s. μονογενής 2), 35f; 5:19–26; 6:40; 8:35f; 10:36; 11:4, 27; 14:13; 17:1; 19:7; 20:31; 1J 1:3, 7; 2:22–24; 3:8, 23; 4:9f, 14f; 5:5, 9–13, 20; 2J 3, 9.—B 5:9, 11; 7:2, 9; 12:8; 15:5; Dg 7:4; 9:2, 4; 10:2 (τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ τὸν μονογενῆ; also ApcEsdr 6:16 p. 31, 22 Tdf.; ApcSed 9:1f); IMg 8:2; ISm 1:1; MPol 17:3; Hv 2, 2, 8; Hs 5, 2, 6 (ὁ υἱὸς αὐτοῦ ὁ ἀγαπητός); 8; 11; 5, 4, 1; 5, 5, 2; 3; 5; 5, 6, 1; 2; 4; 7 (on the Christology of the Shepherd s. Dibelius, Hdb. on Hs 5, also ALink and JvWalter [πνεῦμα 5cα]); Hs 8, 3, 2; 8, 11, 1. Cp. 9, 1, 1; 9, 12, 1ff.—In trinitarian formulas, in addition to Mt 28:19, also IMg 13:1; EpilMosq 5; D 7:1, 3.—The deceiver of the world appears w. signs and wonders ὡς υἱὸς θεοῦ D 16:4 (ApcEsdr 4:27 p. 28, 32 Tdf. ὁ λέγων• Ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ [of Antichrist]).—EKühl, Das Selbstbewusstsein Jesu 1907, 16–44; GVos, The Self-disclosure of Jesus 1926.—EBurton, ICC Gal 1921, 404–17; TNicklin, Gospel Gleanings ’50, 211–36; MHengel, The Son of God (tr. JBowden) ’76; DJones, The Title υἱὸς θεοῦ in Acts: SBLSP 24, ’85, 451–63.
    γ. ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου lit. ‘the son of the man’ (the pl. form οἱ υἱοὶ τῶν ἀνθρώπων appears freq. in the LXX to render בְּנֵי אָדָם = mortals, e.g. Gen 11:5; Ps 10:4; 11:2; cp. ὁ υἱὸς τῆς ἀπολείας J 17:12 [s. 2cβ]) ‘the human being, the human one, the man’ in our lit. only as a byname in ref. to Jesus and in an exclusive sense the Human One, the Human Being, one intimately linked with humanity in its primary aspect of fragility yet transcending it, traditionally rendered ‘the Son of Man.’ The term is found predom. in the gospels, where it occurs in the synoptics about 70 times (about half as oft. if parallels are excluded), and in J 12 times (s. EKlostermann, Hdb. exc. on Mk 8:31). In every case the title is applied by Jesus to himself. Nowhere within a saying or narrative about him is it found in an address to him: Mt 8:20; 9:6; 10:23; 11:19; 12:8, 32, 40; 13:37, 41; 16:13, 27f; 17:9, 12, 22; 18:10 [11] v.l.; 19:28; 20:18, 28; 24:27, 30, 37, 39, 44; 25:13 v.l., 31; 26:2, 24ab, 45, 64; Mk 2:10, 28; 8:31, 38; 9:9, 12, 31; 10:33, 45; 13:26; 14:21ab, 41, 62; Lk 5:24; 6:5, 22; 7:34; 9:22, 26, 44, 56 v.l., 58; 11:30; 12:8, 10, 40; 17:22, 24, 26, 30; 18:8, 31; 19:10; 21:27, 36; 22:22, 48, 69; 24:7.—John (FGrosheide, Υἱὸς τ. ἀνθρ. in het Evang. naar Joh.: TSt 35, 1917, 242–48; HDieckmann, D. Sohn des Menschen im J: Scholastik 2, 1927, 229–47; HWindisch, ZNW 30, ’31, 215–33; 31, ’32, 199–204; WMichaelis, TLZ 85, ’60, 561–78 [Jesus’ earthly presence]) 1:51; 3:13, 14; 5:27 (BVawter, Ezekiel and John, CBQ 26, ’64, 450–58); 6:27, 53, 62; 8:28; 9:35; 12:23, 34; 13:31. Whether the component of fragility (suggested by OT usage in ref. to the brief span of human life and the ills to which it falls heir) or high status (suggested by traditions that appear dependent on Da 7:13, which refers to one ‘like a human being’), or a blend of the two dominates a specific occurrence can be determined only by careful exegesis that in addition to extra-biblical traditions takes account of the total literary structure of the document in which it occurs. Much neglected in the discussion is the probability of prophetic association suggested by the form of address Ezk 2:1 al. (like the OT prophet [Ezk 3:4–11] Jesus encounters resistance).—On Israelite thought contemporary w. Jesus and alleged knowledge of a heavenly being looked upon as a ‘Son of Man’ or ‘Man’, who exercises Messianic functions such as judging the world (metaph., pictorial passages in En 46–48; 4 Esdr 13:3, 51f) s. Bousset, Rel.3 352–55; NMessel, D. Menschensohn in d. Bilderreden d. Hen. 1922; ESjöberg, Kenna 1 Henok och 4 Esra tanken på den lidande Människosonen? Sv. Ex. Årsb. 5, ’40, 163–83, D. Menschensohn im äth. Hen. ’46. This view is in some way connected w. Da 7:13; acc. to some it derives its real content fr. an eschatological tradition that ultimately goes back to Iran (WBousset, Hauptprobleme der Gnosis 1907, 160–223; Reitzenstein, Erlösungsmyst. 119ff, ZNW 20, 1921, 18–22, Mysterienrel.3 418ff; Clemen2 72ff; CKraeling, Anthropos and Son of Man: A Study in the Religious Syncretism of the Hellenistic Orient 1927); acc. to this tradition the First Man was deified; he will return in the last times and usher in the Kingdom of God.—Outside the gospels: Ac 7:56 (v.l. τοῦ θεοῦ; GKilpatrick, TZ 21, ’65, 209); Rv 1:13; 14:14 (both after Da 7:13; sim. allusion to Da in Just., D. 31, 1). The quot. fr. Ps 8:5 in Hb 2:6 prob. does not belong here, since there is no emphasis laid on υἱὸς ἀνθρώπου. In IEph 20:2 Jesus is described as υἱὸς ἀνθρώπου καὶ υἱὸς θεοῦ. Differently B 12:10 Ἰησοῦς, οὐχὶ υἱὸς ἀνθρώπου ἀλλὰ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ Jesus, not a man’s son, but Son of God.—HLietzmann, Der Menschensohn 1896; Dalman, Worte 191–219 (Eng. tr., 234–67); Wlh., Einl.2 123–30; PFiebig, Der Menschensohn 1901; NSchmidt, The Prophet of Nazareth 1905, 94–134, Recent Study of the Term ‘Son of Man’: JBL 45, 1926, 326–49; FTillmann, Der Menschensohn 1907; EKühl, Das Selbstbewusstsein Jesu 1907, 65ff; HHoltzmann, Das messianische Bewusstsein Jesu, 1907, 49–75 (lit.), Ntl. Theologie2 I 1911, 313–35; FBard, D. Sohn d. Menschen 1908; HGottsched, D. Menschensohn 1908; EAbbott, ‘The Son of Man’, etc., 1910; EHertlein, Die Menschensohnfrage im letzten Stadium 1911, ZNW 19, 1920, 46–48; JMoffatt, The Theology of the Gospels 1912, 150–63; WBousset, Kyrios Christos2 1921, 5–22 (the titles of the works by Wernle and Althaus opposing his first edition [1913], as well as Bousset’s answer, are found s.v. κύριος, end); DVölter, Jesus der Menschensohn 1914, Die Menschensohnfrage neu untersucht 1916; FSchulthess, ZNW 21, 1922, 247–50; Rtzst., Herr der Grösse 1919 (see also the works by the same author referred to above in this entry); EMeyer II 335ff; HGressmann, ZKG n.s. 4, 1922, 170ff, D. Messias 1929, 341ff; GDupont, Le Fils d’Homme 1924; APeake, The Messiah and the Son of Man 1924; MWagner, Der Menschensohn: NKZ 36, 1925, 245–78; Guillaume Baldensperger, Le Fils d’Homme: RHPR 5, 1925, 262–73; WBleibtreu, Jesu Selbstbez. als der Menschensohn: StKr 98/99, 1926, 164–211; AvGall, Βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ 1926; OProcksch, D. Menschensohn als Gottessohn: Christentum u. Wissensch. 3, 1927, 425–43; 473–81; CMontefiore, The Synoptic Gospels2 1927 I 64–80; ROtto, Reich Gottes u. Menschensohn ’34, Eng. tr. The Kgdm. of God and the Son of Man, tr. Filson and Woolf2 ’43; EWechssler, Hellas im Ev. ’36, 332ff; PParker, The Mng. of ‘Son of Man’: JBL 60, ’41, 151–57; HSharman, Son of Man and Kingdom of God ’43; JCampbell, The Origin and Mng. of the Term Son of Man: JTS 48, ’47, 145–55; HRiesenfeld, Jésus Transfiguré ’47, 307–13 (survey and lit.); TManson, ConNeot 11, ’47, 138–46 (Son of Man=Jesus and his disciples in Mk 2:27f); GDuncan, Jesus, Son of Man ’47, 135–53 (survey); JBowman, ET 59, ’47/48, 283–88 (background); MBlack, ET 60, ’48f, 11–15; 32–36; GKnight, Fr. Moses to Paul ’49, 163–72 (survey); TNicklin, Gospel Gleanings ’50, 237–50; TManson (Da, En and gospels), BJRL 32, ’50, 171–93; TPreiss, Le Fils d’Homme: ÉThR 26/3, ’51, Life in Christ, ’54, 43–60; SMowinckel, He That Cometh, tr. Anderson, ’54, 346–450; GIber, Überlieferungsgesch. Unters. z. Begriff des Menschensohnes im NT, diss. Heidelb. ’53; ESjöberg, D. verborgene Menschensohn in den Ev. ’55; WGrundmann, ZNW 47, ’56, 113–33; HRiesenfeld, The Mythological Backgrd. of NT Christology, CHDodd Festschr. ’56, 81–95; PhVielhauer, Gottesreich u. Menschensohn in d. Verk. Jesu, GDehn Festschr. ’57, 51–79; ESidebottom, The Son of Man in J, ET 68, ’57, 231–35; 280–83; AHiggins, Son of Man- Forschung since (Manson’s) ‘The Teaching of Jesus’: NT Essays (TW Manson memorial vol.) ’59, 119–35; HTödt, D. Menschensohn in d. synopt. Überl. ’59 (tr. Barton ’65); JMuilenburg, JBL 79, ’60, 197–209 (Da, En); ESchweizer, JBL 79, ’60, 119–29 and NTS 9, ’63, 256–61; BvIersel, ‘Der Sohn’ in den synopt. Jesusworten, ’61 (community?); MBlack, BJRL 45, ’63, 305–18; FBorsch, ATR 45, ’63, 174–90; AHiggins, Jesus and the Son of Man, ’64; RFormesyn, NovT 8, ’66, 1–35 (barnasha=‘I’); SSandmel, HSilver Festschr. ’63, 355–67; JJeremias, Die älteste Schicht der Menschensohn-Logien, ZNW 58, ’67, 159–72; GVermes, MBlack, Aram. Approach3, ’67, 310–30; BLindars, The New Look on the Son of Man: BJRL 63, ’81, 437–62; WWalker, The Son of Man, Some Recent Developments CBQ 45, ’83, 584–607; JDonahue, Recent Studies on the Origin of ‘Son of Man’ in the Gospels, CBQ 48, ’86, 584–607; DBurkitt, The Nontitular Son of Man, A History and Critique: NTS 40, ’94 504–21 (lit.); JEllington, BT 40, ’89, 201–8; RGordon, Anthropos: 108–13.—B. 105; DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > υἱός

  • 179 Φίλιππος

    Φίλιππος, ου, ὁ (freq. found in lit., ins, pap; occurring also in LXX and Joseph., Ath.) Philip (‘Fond-of-horses’) a common name in the Gr-Rom. world. In our lit.:
    the tetrarch, son of Herod the Great and Cleopatra of Jerusalem (s. Joseph., index Φίλιππος 6). He was tetrarch of Gaulanitis, Trachonitis, Auranitis, Batanea and Panias (so Joseph., if the indications he gives in var. passages may thus be brought together), and acc. to Lk 3:1, also Iturea (all small districts northeast of Palestine). He rebuilt Panias as Caesarea (Philippi) and Bethsaida as Julias. Joseph. praises his personality and administration (Ant. 18, 106f). He was married to Salome, the daughter of Herodias (s. Ἡρωδιάς and Σαλώμη, end). He died 33/34 A.D., whereupon his territory was joined to the Rom. province of Syria, though only for a short time. Mt 16:13; Mk 8:27. Some think that this Philip is erroneously implied Mt 14:3; Mk 6:17; Lk 3:19 v.l.; s. 2 below.—Schürer I 336–40.
    The Philip mentioned Mt 14:3 and Mk 6:17 is associated by some scholars with a half-brother of Herod Antipas (s. Ἡρῳδιάς), but the identification is not otherwise attested.
    the apostle, one of the Twelve. In the lists of the Twelve (which is the only place where his name is mentioned in the synoptics and Ac), he is found in fifth place, after the two pairs of brothers Peter-Andrew, James-John Mt 10:3; Mk 3:18; Lk 6:14; Ac 1:13. He is given more prominence in J, where he is one of the first to be called, and comes fr. Bethsaida, the city of Simon and Andrew; cp. 1:43–46, 48; 6:5, 7; 12:21f; 14:8f. Papias (2:4): one of the πρεσβύτεροι.—On the apostle and the evangelist (s. 4 below), who have oft. been confused, s. TZahn, Apostel u. Apostelschüler in der Provinz Asien: Forsch. VI 1900 p. 369b (index); EBishop, ATR 28, ’46, 154–59 equates 3 and 4.
    one of the seven ‘assistants’ at Jerusalem Ac 6:5; 21:8; in the latter pass. also called the ‘evangelist’ (s. εὐαγγελιστής) to differentiate him fr. the apostle. Ac 8:5–13 after the death of Stephen he worked in Samaria w. great success; vss. 26–39 he baptized a non-Israelite, the chamberlain of the Ethiopian Queen Candace (MvanWanroy, VD ’40, 287–93; FBlanke, Kirchenfreund 84, ’50, 145–49) and vs. 40 preached the gospel in all the cities fr. Ashdod to Caesarea. Later he lived in Caesarea w. his four unmarried daughters, who possessed the gift of prophecy 21:8f (s. LSwindler, Biblical Affirmations of Women ’79); Papias (11:2).—Zahn (3 above); HWaitz, Die Quelle der Philippus-geschichten in der AG 8:5–40: ZNW 7, 1906, 340–55; AStrobel, ZNW 63, ’72, 271–76.
    the Asiarch MPol 12:2, or high priest MPol 21, under whom Polycarp suffered martyrdom.—Pauly-W. XIX 2551f; 2266–2331; Suppl. II 158–62; Kl. Pauly IV 752f; BHHW III 1453f.—DELG s.v. ἵππος. M-M. EDNT.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > Φίλιππος

  • 180 φύσις

    φύσις, εως, ἡ (φύω; Hom.+)
    condition or circumstance as determined by birth, natural endowment/condition, nature, esp. as inherited fr. one’s ancestors, in contrast to status or characteristics that are acquired after birth (Isocr. 4, 105 φύσει πολίτης; Isaeus 6, 28 φύσει υἱός; Pla., Menex. 245d φύσει βάρβαροι, νόμῳ Ἕλληνες; Just., A I, 1, 1 Καίσαρος φύσει υἱῷ; SIG 720, 3; OGI 472, 4; 558, 6 al.; PFay 19, 11.—Theoph. Ant. 1, 13 [p. 86, 16]) ἡμεῖς φύσει Ἰουδαῖοι Gal 2:15 (cp. Ptolemaeus, Περὶ Ἡρῴδου τ. βασιλέως: no. 199 Jac. [I A.D.] Ἰουδαῖοι … ἐξ ἀρχῆς φυσικοί; Jos., Ant. 7, 130; φύσει Λιμναίου IK XXXVII, 15, 3 of the birth daughter of L. in contrast to her adoptive relationship w. one named Arsas). ἡ ἐκ φύσεως ἀκροβυστία the uncircumcision that is so by nature (a ref. to non-Israelites, who lack the moral cultivation of those who are circumcised and yet ‘observe the upright requirements of the law’ [Ro 2:26]. Israelites who violate their responsibilities to God, despite their privileged position indicated by receipt of circumcision and special revelation, run the risk of placing themselves in the condition of the uncircumcised) Ro 2:27. ἤμεθα τέκνα φύσει ὀργῆς we were, in our natural condition (as descendants of Adam), subject to (God’s) wrath Eph 2:3 (the position of φύσει betw. the two words as Plut., Mor. 701a; DTurner, Grace Theological Journal 1, ’80, 195–219). The Christians of Tralles have a blameless disposition οὐ κατὰ χρῆσιν, ἀλλὰ κατὰ φύσιν not from habit, but by nature ITr 1:1 (here the contrast is between perfunctory virtue and spontaneous or instinctive behavior; Pindar sim. extolled the virtues of athletes who, in contrast to those w. mere acquired learning, reflected their ancestral breeding for excellence: O. 7, 90–92; P. 10, 11–14; N. 3, 40–42; 6, 8–16). οἱ κατὰ φύσιν κλάδοι the natural branches Ro 11:21, 24c. ἡ κατὰ φύσιν ἀγριέλαιος a tree which by nature is a wild olive vs. 24a; opp. παρὰ φύσιν contrary to nature vs. 24b; s. lit. s.v. ἀγριέλαιος and ἐλαία 1. On κατὰ and παρὰ φύσιν s. MPohlenz, Die Stoa I ’48, 488c.
    the natural character of an entity, natural characteristic/disposition (χρυσὸς … τὴν ἰδίαν φ. διαφυλάττει Iren. 1, 6, 2 [Harv. I 55, 2]; Hippol., Ref. 5, 8, 12) ἡ φύσις ἡ ἀνθρωπίνη human nature (Pla., Tht. 149b, Tim. 90c; Aristot. 1286b, 27; Epict. 2, 20, 18; Philo, Ebr. 166 al.; Aelian, VH 8, 11 τῶν ἀνθρώπων φύσις θνητή; TestJob 3:3 ἡ ἀνθρωπίνη φ.; Orig., C. Cels. 1, 52, 13; Just., A II, 6, 3 τῇ φύσει τῶν ἀνθρώπων) Js 3:7b (unless the sense should be humankind, s. 4 below). Euphemistically: παρθένος ἐγέννησεν, ἃ οὐ χωρεῖ ἡ φύσις αὐτῆς while remaining a virgin, a virgin has had a child or a virgin has given birth, something that does not accord w. her natural condition (as a virgin) GJs 19:3. τὸ ἀδύνατον τῆς ἡμετέρας φύσεως the weakness of our nature Dg 9:6. θείας κοινωνοὶ φύσεως sharers in the divine nature 2 Pt 1:4 (cp. ὅσοι φύσεως κοινωνοῦντες ἀνθρω[πίν]ης IReisenKN, p. 371, 46f; Jos., C. Ap. 1, 232 θείας μετεσχηκέναι φύσεως; Himerius, Or. 48 [=Or. 14], 26 of Dionysus: πρὶν εἰς θεῶν φύσιν ἐλθεῖν=before he attained to the nature of the gods; Ar. 13, 5 μία φ. τῶν θεῶν. Difft. AWolters, Calvin Theological Journal 25, ’90, 28–44 ‘partners of the Deity’).—Also specif. of sexual characteristics (Diod S 16, 26, 6 originally παρθένοι prophesied in Delphi διὰ τὸ τῆς φύσεως ἀδιάφθορον=because their sexuality was uncorrupted. φύσις of sex and its change Dicaearchus, Fgm. 37 W.; ἑρμαφροδίτου φ. Iren. 1, 11, 5 [Harv. I 108, 8]. Obviously φ. also has the concrete mng. ‘sex organ’: Nicander, Fgm. 107; Diod S 32, 10, 7 φ. ἄρρενος corresponding to φ. θηλείας following immediately; Anton. Lib. 41, 5; Phlegon: 257 Fgm. 36, 2, 1 Jac.). In the context of Mary’s virginal delivery ἐραυνήσω τὴν φύσιν αὐτῆς= I will examine whether she remains a virgin GJs 19:3b; 20:1 (where Tdf. with codd. reads ἔβαλε Σαλώμη τὸν δάκτυλον αὐτῆς εἰς τὴν φύσιν αὐτῆς [cp. J 20:25]). The hyena παρʼ ἐνιαυτὸν ἀλλάσσει τὴν φύσιν changes its nature every year, fr. male to female and vice versa B 10:7 (s. ὕαινα). Polytheists worship τοῖς φύσει μὴ οὖσιν θεοῖς beings that are by nature no gods at all Gal 4:8 (s. CLanger, Euhemeros u. die Theorie der φύσει u. θέσει θεοί: Αγγελος II 1926, 53–59; Mel., P. 8, 58 φύσει θεὸς ὢν καὶ ἄνθρωπος; Synes., Prov. 1, 9 p. 97c τοῖς φύσει θεοῖς; Diod S 3, 9, 1 differentiates between two kinds of gods: some αἰώνιον ἔχειν κ. ἄφθαρτον τὴν φύσιν, others θνητῆς φύσεως κεκοινωνηκέναι κ. διʼ ἀρετὴν … τετευχέναι τιμῶν ἀθανάτων=some ‘have an everlasting and incorruptible nature’, others ‘share mortal nature and then, because of their personal excellence, … attain immortal honors’).—ὅταν ἔθνη φύσει τὰ τοῦ νόμου ποιῶσιν when gentiles spontaneously (i.e. without extraneous legal instruction; cp. the prophetic ideal Jer 31:32–34) fulfill the demands of the (Mosaic) law Ro 2:14 (s. WMundle, Theol. Blätter 13, ’34, 249–56 [the gentile as Christian under direction of the πνεῦμα]; difft. s. 3 below).
    the regular or established order of things, nature (Ar. 4, 2 κατὰ ἀπαραίτητον φύσεως ἀνάγκην=in accordance with the non-negotiable order of things; Ath. 3, 1 νόμῳ φύσεως) μετήλλαξαν τὴν φυσικὴν χρῆσιν εἰς τὴν παρὰ φύσιν they exchanged the natural function for one contrary to nature Ro 1:26 (Diod S 32, 11, 1 παρὰ φύσιν ὁμιλία; Appian, Bell. Civ. 1, 109 §511; Athen. 13, 605d οἱ παρὰ φύσιν τῇ Ἀφροδίτῃ χρώμενοι=those who indulge in Aphrodite contrary to nature; TestNapht 3:4; Philo, Spec. Leg. 3, 39 ὁ παιδεραστὴς τὴν παρὰ φύσιν ἡδονὴν διώκει=a lover of boys pursues unnatural pleasure; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 273; Tat. 3:4; Ath. 26, 2; on φ. as definer of order s. JKube, ΤΕΧΝΗ und ΑΡΕΤΗ ’69, esp. 44–46; on relation to κτίσι in Paul, s. OWischmeyer, ZTK 93, ’96, 352–75). ὅταν ἔθνη φύσει τὰ τοῦ νόμου ποιῶσιν when gentiles fulfil the law’s demands by following the natural order (of things) Ro 2:14 (cp. Ltzm., Hdb., exc. on Ro 2:14–16; but s. 2 above). ἡ φύσις διδάσκει ὑμᾶς 1 Cor 11:14 (Epict. 1, 16, 9f; Plut., Mor. 478d; Synes., Calv. [Baldhead] 14 p. 78c φύσις as well as νόμος prescribes long hair for women, short hair for men.—Ltzm., Hdb. ad loc.). τὸ ὄνομα, ὸ̔ κέκτησθε φύσει δικαίᾳ the name which you bear because of a just natural order IEph 1:1 (s. Hdb. ad loc.—τῇ φ. τὸ ἀγαθὸν ἀνώφορόν ἐστιν Did., Gen. 21, 5.—JKleist, transl. ’46, 119 n. 2 suggests ‘natural disposition’).—RGrant, Miracle and Natural Law ’52, 4–18.
    an entity as a product of nature, natural being, creature (X., Cyr. 6, 2, 29 πᾶσα φύσις=every creature; 3 Macc 3:29.—Diod S 2, 49, 4 plants are called φύσεις καρποφοροῦσαι; 3, 6, 2 θνητὴ φ.= a mortal creature. Ps.-Callisth. 1, 10, 1 ἀνθρωπίνη φ. = a human creature. It can also mean species [X. et al.; 4 Macc 1:20; Philo] and then at times disappear in translation: Ps.-Pla, Epin. 948d ἡ τῶν ἄστρων φύσις=the stars; X., Lac. 3, 4 ἡ τῶν θηλειῶν φύσις=the women; Aristot., Part. An. 1, 5 περὶ τῆς ζῳϊκῆς φ.=on animals) πᾶσα φύσις θηρίων κτλ. Js 3:7a. Also prob. ἡ φ. ἡ ἀνθρωπίνη humankind 3:7b; s. 2 above.—Kl. Pauly IV 841–44 (lit.).—DELG s.v. φύομαι C 6. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > φύσις

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