Translation: from greek

called after

  • 141 Έριχθόνιος

    Grammatical information: m.
    Meaning: name of a heros and king of Athens, son of Ge, father of Pandion (A., E.); also name of a Trojan, son of Dardanos, father of Tros (Υ 219, 230).
    Other forms: Cf. Ε᾽ρεχθευς (B 547 (sic!), η 80), which is also a surname of Poseidon (inscr.); on Attic vases ᾽Ερεχσες; also Ε᾽ριχθευς (Pape-Benseler 379); cf. Ε᾽ριχθώ a soothsayer in Thessaly. Note the soothsayer Εριχθώ in Thessalia (Luc. Phars., see also Ov. Her. 15, 139), which confirms (Pre-)Greek origin.
    Derivatives: οἱ Έριχθονίδαι = Έρεχθεΐδαι (IG 3, 771; poet., Roman times).
    Origin: PG [a word of Pre-Greek origin]
    Etymology: Uncertain; the name will be very old, cf. the fact that he is called the son of the Earth; the name will be Pre-Greek. There is no explanation for the coexistence of the two names (after αὐτοχθονος?) cf. the name in - ων of Hermes; cf. Ερυσίχθων. Is the form with - χσ- an Atticism, or is it wider spread? Connection with ἐρέχθω is improbable.
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    Greek-English etymological dictionary (Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά ετυμολογική λεξικό) > Έριχθόνιος

  • 142 Ζαγρεύς

    Grammatical information: m.
    Meaning: N. of an old god, perh. of the Underworld, later identified with Dionysos ( Alkmaionis Fr. 3 Kinkel, A. Fr. 228, E. Fr. 472, 11 a. o.); also Ζαγραῖος (Orph. Fr.210; lit. in Kern ad loc.).
    Origin: PG [a word of Pre-Greek origin]X [probably]
    Etymology: If to the name of the mountain Ζάγρος (Anatolia), Ζαγρεύς is without a doubt Pre-Greek (cf. Chantraine Ét. sur le vocab. gr. 60 n. 1). Cf. on the other hand ζάγρη βόθρος, λάπαθον (`pitfall for wild beasts') H., which could be explained as backformation from Dor.-Nordwestgr. *ζᾱγρέω = ζωγρέω (on the phonetics s. Schwyzer 250; thus Chantraine l. c.. 44 n. 1). But it is not clear why the god would have been thus called; a suggestion in Boßhardt Die Nom. auf - ευς 99f. Not with v. Wilamowitz Glaube 1, 250 (after Hoffmann Dial. 2, 237 and Et. Gud. 227, 37) from ζ-αγρεύς = *δι-αγρεύς as "the perfect hunter". - On Ζαγρεύς Nilsson Gr. Rel. 1, 686 n. 1. Guthrie, Orpheus 113 thinks it is a Cretan god. Also Gantz, Early Greek Myth 1993, 118f.
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    Greek-English etymological dictionary (Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά ετυμολογική λεξικό) > Ζαγρεύς

  • 143 Κένταυροι

    Grammatical information: m. pl.
    Meaning: `name of mythical forest- and mountain inhabitants, half men, half horse; in Homer, where the horse-shape is not prominent, limited to the area of Pelion and Ossa (Il.).
    Derivatives: Κενταύρειος `belonging to the K.' (E., Luc.), -( ε)ιον name of a medical plant, `Centaurea salonitana' (Thphr., Dsc., pap.; after the herbalist Cheiron, therefore also called χειρωνιάς; Strömberg Pflanzennamen 100), also Κενταυρίη (Hp.) and - ρίς (Thphr.) `id.'; Κενταυρ-ικός `Centaur-like, wild, raw' (Ar.), - ίδης `descended from the Centaurs' (Luc.).
    Origin: PG [a word of Pre-Greek origin]
    Etymology: Proper meaning unknown, so without etymology; prob. foreign word. The old wrong comparison with Skt. Gandharvá- m. name of a mythical figure (Kuhn KZ 1, 513ff.) is still defended by Carnoy Le Muséon 49, 99f. and Dumézil Le Problème des Centaures (Paris 1929) 253ff. (where also Lat. februum is connected). Often connected with κεντεῖν `sting' with diff. interpretations of the 2. element: to * auro- `horse' (Nazari Riv. fil. class. 32, 99); to αὔρα `air' (Mannhardt Antike Wald- und Feldkulte [1877] 39ff.); to the same word for `water' which was assumed in ἄναυρος `torrent' (s. v.; Kretschmer Glotta 10, 50ff., 211f.). Diff. Sturtevant ClassPhil. 21, 235ff. (rejected by Kretschmer Glotta 17, 249f.). - See Nilsson Gr. Rel. 1, 229ff. - The word is no doubt Pre-Greek; did it have - arʷ-os?
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    Greek-English etymological dictionary (Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά ετυμολογική λεξικό) > Κένταυροι

  • 144 Κίλικες

    Grammatical information: pl.
    Meaning: 1. `Cilician, inhabitant of the province in the south-east of Anatolia; 2. a people in the valley of Thebes, Θήβη, the town of Eetion, the father of Andromache, south of Troy (Il.).
    Other forms: m.sg. Κίλιξ, f. Κίλισσα (A.)
    Derivatives: κιλικίζεσθαι κακοηθίζεσθαι H., ἐγκιλικίζεατι κακοηθεύεται, κακοποιεῖ διεβέβληντο γὰρ ἐπὶ πονηρίᾳ οἱ Κίλικες H. κιλίκιον `a coarse cloth of goat's hair' (Procop.). Κίλιξ mythical name; Κιλικᾶς PN (Cyprus, O. Masson, Κυπρ. Σπουδαι 32 (1968) 9ff. Κιλικία `Cilicia' (Hdt.). κιλκισμός `Cilician behaviour i.e. drunken butchery (Theopomp. Hist.).
    Origin: Assyr.X[probably]
    Etymology: The country (in Hittite times Kizzuwatna) was called (since 858) Hilakku by the Assyrians (but the name may be local); later there were local kingdoms where hieroglyphic Luwian was used. The Greeks arrived in the 8\/7th. cent. On the Greek king(dom) ( Hiyawa) of Mopsos = Musa\/us see now Oettinger (in B.J. Collins, The Hittites, Greeks and their neighbours, 2005). After the Assyrians disappeared the dynasty of the Syennesis (Hdt.) ruled, under the Persians.

    Greek-English etymological dictionary (Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά ετυμολογική λεξικό) > Κίλικες

  • 145 Λέλεγες

    Λέλεγες, -ων
    Grammatical information: m. pl.
    Meaning: old people on the coasts of Greece and Asia Minor and on the islands (Il.).
    Origin: PG [a word of Pre-Greek origin]
    Etymology: Reduplicated formation (like Βάρβαροι); because of the foreign language perhaps called "the babbler, chatterer", to λαλα-γέω, λαλέω (cf. Schwyzer 59 n. 2). Referring to the sing. Λέξ (given by grammarians (Arkad., Theognost.) Brandenstein P. -W. Suppl. 6, 169 f. suggets that Λέ-λεγ-ες is protohattic (= Hattic)and has a pluralprefix λε-; thus Kretschmer Glotta 28, 249 and 32, 162ff. with further quite hypothetic combinations after Trubetzkoy Mél. van Ginneken 171 ff. - Theander Eranos 15, 151 ff. tries to connect ἔλεγος, ἐλελευ
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  • 146 αὐτός

    αὐτός, ή, ὁ (Hom.+; W-S. §22; B-D-F index) reflexive pron. ‘self’
    intensive marker, setting an item off fr. everything else through emphasis and contrast, self, used in all pers., genders, and numbers.
    used w. a subject (noun or pron.)
    α. specif. named (X., Cyr. 1, 4, 6; Plut., Caes. 710 [7, 9] αὐ. Κικέρων; 2 Macc 11:12) αὐ. Δαυίδ David himself Mk 12:36f; Lk 20:42; αὐ. Ἰησοῦς Lk 24:15; J 2:24; 4:44; αὐ. ὁ Ἰησοῦς short ending of Mk.
    β. or otherw. exactly designated αὐ. ὁ θεός (Jos., Bell. 7, 346) Rv 21:3; αὐ. τ. ἐπουράνια Hb 9:23 (cp. 4 Macc 17:17; Sir 46:3b; GrBar); αὐ. ἐγώ I myself Ro 15:14 (cp. 3 Macc 3:13; POxy 294, 13f [22 A.D.]); αὐ. ἐγὼ Παῦλος 2 Cor 10:1; αὐτοὶ ὑμεῖς J 3:28 (cp. 4 Macc 6:19; En 103:7); αὐτοὶ οὗτοι (Thu. 6, 33, 6) Ac 24:15; ἐν ὑμῖν αὐτοῖς among yourselves 1 Cor 11:13.
    to emphasize a subject already known: of Jesus Mt 8:24; Mk 8:29; Lk 5:16f; 9:51; 10:38; 24:36 (cp. the Pythagorean αὐτὸς ἔφα Schwyzer II 211). Of God Hb 13:5 (cp. Wsd 6:7; 7:17; Sir 15:12; 1 Macc 3:22 and oft. LXX).
    differentiating fr. other subjects or pointing out a contrast w. them αὐτὸς καὶ οἱ μετʼ αὐτοῦ Mk 2:25; J 2:12; 4:53; 18:1; Lk 24:15; 1 Cor 3:15. αὐ. οὐκ εἰσήλθατε καὶ τοὺς εἰσερχομένους ἐκωλύσατε you yourselves did not come in etc. Lk 11:52; cp. vs. 46.—J 7:9; 9:21; Mt 23:4; Lk 6:11; Ac 18:15; 1 Th 1:9; 1 Cor 2:15. αὐτὸς ἐγώ I alone 2 Cor 12:13. Ro 7:25 s. e below.—εἰ μὴ αὐ. except himself Rv 19:12. αὐ. ὄγδοός ἐστιν he is the eighth 17:11; s. also 2a. In anticipation of an incorrect inference Ἰησοῦς αὐ. οὐκ ἐβάπτιζεν Jesus did not personally baptize J 4:2 opp. ‘his disciples.’ Of bodily presence, αὐ. παραγενοῦ come in person (as opp. to letter-writing) AcPlCor 1:7; with component of surprise that the subject specified is actually present in person (Philo, De Jos. 238: Jos. to his brothers αὐ. εἰμι ἐγώ) Lk 24:36, 39.
    of one whose action is independent or significant without ref. to someth. else (Hyperid. 1, 19, 11; 3, 2) without help J 2:25; 4:42; 6:6; Ac 20:34; αὐ. ᾠκοδόμησεν he built at his own expense Lk 7:5; αὐ. ὁ πατὴρ φιλεῖ ὑμᾶς the Father personally loves you J 16:27 (i.e. they require no intermediary).
    of one viewed as a solitary figure ‘(be) by oneself, alone’ w. μόνος (cp. μόνος 1aβ) Mk 6:47; J 6:15. W. κατʼ ἰδιαν Mk 6:31.thrown on one’s own resources αὐ. ἐγὼ τῷ νοὶ̈ δουλεύω νόμῳ θεοῦ thrown on my own resources I am enslaved in mind to God’s interests but in my flesh to the interests of sin Ro 7:25 (JWeiss, Beitr. zur Paulin. Rhetorik, in BWeiss Festschr., 1897, 233f; JKürzinger, BZ 7, ’63, 270–74).
    with climactic force in connection with one or more lexical units καὶ αὐτός even (Sir prol. line 24 καὶ αὐ. ὁ νόμος even the law; 4 Macc 17:1; GrBar 4:13; 9:4 al.) καὶ αὐ. ἡ κτίσις even the created world Ro 8:21. καὶ αὐ. Σάρρα even Sara Hb 11:11 (on the rdg. here s. Windisch ad loc. and B-D-F §194, 1; Rob. 686; Mlt-Turner 220; cp. Ps.-Callisth. 1, 10, 3 καὶ αὐτὸν τὸν Φίλιππον=and even Philip; but the text of the Hb passage is prob. corrupt; s. καταβολή). οὐδὲ ἡ φύσις αὐ. διδάσκει; does not even nature teach? 1 Cor 11:14.—Without ascensive particle, Ro 9:3 Paul expresses extraordinary devotion to his people (imagine!) I myself.
    w. attention directed to a certain pers. or thing to the exclusion of other lexical units, so that αὐ. can almost take on demonstrative sense (s. 2a, also Aeschyl., 7 against Thebes 528; Hes., Works 350): αὐ. τὰ ἔργα the very deeds J 5:36; αὐ. ὁ Ἰωάννης (POxy 745, 3 [I A.D.] αὐ. τὸν Ἀντᾶν) this very (or same) John Mt 3:4 (s. Mlt. 91); αὐτῆς τῆς Ἡρωδίαδος Mk 6:22 v.l. (s. 2bα for the rdg. αὐτοῦ W-H., N. and s. on this RBorger, TRu 52, ’87, 25f); ἐν αὐ. τ. καιρῷ (cp. Tob 3:17 BA; 2:9; SIG 1173, 1 αὐταῖς τ. ἡμέραις) just at that time Lk 13:1.—23:12; 24:13.—2:38; 10:21; 12:12.—10:7. αὐτὸ τοῦτο just this, the very same thing (Oenomaus in Eus., PE 5, 22, 3; PRyl 77, 39; POxy 1119, 11; cp. Phoenix Coloph. 6, 8 Coll. Alex. p. 235) 2 Cor 7:11; Gal 2:10; Phil 1:6; εἰς αὐ. τοῦτο Ro 9:17; 13:6; 2 Cor 5:5; Eph 6:22; Col 4:8. The phrases τοῦτο αὐ. 2 Cor 2:3 and αὐ. τοῦτο 2 Pt 1:5 are adverbial accusatives for this very reason (Pla., Prot. 310e [pl.]; X., An. 1, 9, 21; PGrenf I, 1, 14).
    a ref. to a definite person or thing, he, him, she, her, it, they, them
    αὐτός refers w. more or less emphasis, esp. in the nom., to a subject, oft. resuming one already mentioned: αὐ. παρακληθήσονται they (not others) shall be comforted Mt 5:4; cp. vs. 5ff. οὐκ αὐ. βλασφημοῦσιν; Js 2:7. αὐ. σώσει Mt 1:21 (cp. Ps 129:8). αὐ. ἀποδώσει 6:4 v.l.—Mk 1:8; 14:15 al. Freq. the emphasis is scarcely felt: Mt 14:2; Lk 4:15; 22:23; J 6:24; Ac 22:19 (cp. Gen 12:12; Tob 6:11 BA; Sir 49:7; Vett. Val. 113, 16.—JWackernagel, Syntax II2 1928, 86).—Perh. the development of αὐ. in the direction of οὗτος (which it practically replaces in Mod. Gk.) is beginning to have some influence in the NT (Pla., Phdr. 229e αὐτά=this; X., An. 4, 7, 7 αὐτό; Dio Chrys. 3, 37; 15 [32], 10 αὐτοί; Aelian, NA 6, 10; Mél. de la fac. orient … Beyrouth 1, 1906, 149 no. 18 εἰς αὐτὸ ἐγεννήθης=for this [purpose] you were born; Schmid IV 69; 616 αὐτός = οὗτος; Synes., Ep. 3, 159a; 4, 165a; Agathias [VI A.D.], Hist. 1, 3 p. 144, 17 D.) καὶ αὐ. ἦν Σαμαρίτης Lk 17:16 (cp. 3:23; 19:2 and 1g above; on 5:1 s. Mussies 169). Yet here αὐ. could mean alone (examples of this from Hom. on in many writers in WSchulze, Quaestiones epicae 1892, p. 250, 3) he alone was a Samaritan; but Luke’s thematic interest in unexpected candidates for the Kingdom (cp. 5:30–32; 15:2; 19:2 [καὶ αὐτός]; 23:43) militates against the view.
    The oblique cases of αὐ. very oft. (in a fashion customary since Hom.) take the place of the 3rd pers. personal pron.; in partic. the gen. case replaces the missing possessive pron.
    α. w. ref. to a preceding noun διαφέρετε αὐτῶν Mt 6:26; καταβάντος αὐτοῦ 8:1; ἀπεκάλυψας αὐτά 11:25.—26:43f; Mk 1:10; 4:33ff; 12:19; Lk 1:22; 4:41. The gen. is sometimes put first for no special reason (Esth 1:1e) αὐτοῦ τὰ σημεῖα J 2:23, cp. 3:19, 21, 33; 4:47; 12:40. αὐτῶν τὴν συνείδησιν 1 Cor 8:12. Sim. Lk 1:36 αὐτῇ τῇ καλουμένῃ στείρᾳ w. her who was called barren. Forms of αὐ. are sometimes used without qualifiers in a series, referring to difft. pers.: φέρουσιν αὐτῷ (Jesus) τυφλόν, καὶ παρακαλοῦσιν αὐτὸν (Jesus) ἵνα αὐτοῦ (i.e. τοῦ τυφλοῦ) ἅψηται Mk 8:22. On problems related to the rdg. τῆς θυγατρὸς αὐτοῦ Ἡρωδιάδος εἰσελθούσης when his (Herod’s) daughter Herodias came in (?) Mk 6:22, s. Borger in 1g, and entry Ἡρῳδίας.
    β. w. ref. to a noun to be supplied fr. the context, and without suggestion of contrast or disparagement: ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς αὐτῶν (i.e. τ. Γαλιλαίων) Mt 4:23. ἐν ταῖς πόλεσιν αὐτῶν 11:1. ἐκήρυσσεν αὐτοῖς (i.e. the inhabitants) Ac 8:5. παρακαλέσας αὐτούς 20:2. ἀποταξάμενος αὐτοῖς 2 Cor 2:13. τὰ γινόμενα ὑπʼ αὐτῶν Eph 5:12. ἐδημηγόρει πρὸς αὐτούς Ac 12:21. τὸν φόβον αὐτῶν 1 Pt 3:14 (cp. 13 and s. Is 8:12). Mt 12:9 (cp. vs. 2); Lk 2:22; 18:15; 19:9; 23:51; J 8:44; 20:15; Ac 4:5; Ro 2:26; Hb 8:9.
    γ. freq. used w. a verb, even though a noun in the case belonging to the verb has already preceded it (cp. Dio Chrys. 6, 23; 78 [29], 20; Epict. 3, 1, 22; POxy 299 [I A.D.] Λάμπωνι ἔδωκα αὐτῷ δραχμὰς η´; FKälker, Quaest. de Eloc. Polyb. 1880, 274) τοῖς καθημένοις ἐν σκιᾷ θανάτου φῶς ἀνέτειλεν αὐτοῖς Mt 4:16.—5:40; 9:28; 26:71; J 15:2; 18:11; Js 4:17; Rv 2:7, 17; 6:4 al.
    δ. used pleonastically after a relative, as somet. in older Gk., e.g. Soph., X., Hyperid. (B-D-F §297; Rob. 683), freq. in the LXX fr. Gen 1:11 (οὗ τὸ σπέρμα αὐτοῦ ἐν αὐτῷ; GrBar 2:11 ὸ̔ν οὐδεὶς δύναται πειρᾶσαι αὐτόν al.) on (Helbing, Grammatik p. iv; Thackeray 46), and quotable elsewh. in the Koine (Callim., Epigr. 43 [42], 3 ὧν … αὐτῶν; Peripl. Eryth. c. 35; POxy 117, 15f ἐξ ὧν δώσεις τοῖς παιδίοις σου ἓν ἐξ αὐτῶν): οὗ τὸ πτύον ἐν τῇ χειρὶ αὐτοῦ Mt 3:12; Lk 3:17. οὗ οὐκ εἰμὶ ἱκανὸς … τῶν ὑποδημάτων αὐτοῦ Mk 1:7; Lk 3:16. ἧς εἶχεν τὸ θυγάτριον αὐτῆς Mk 7:25. πᾶν ὸ̔ δέδωκεν … ἀναστήσω αὐτό J 6:39; Ac 15:17. ἣν οὐδεὶς δύναται κλεῖσαι αὐτήν Rv 3:8. οἷς ἐδόθη αὐτοῖς 7:2, cp. 13:12. οὗ ἡ πνοὴ αὐτοῦ 1 Cl 21:9.—Cp. in ref. to an anticipatory noun τὰ Ἐλισαίου ὀστᾶ … νεκροῦ βληθέντος … ἐπʼ αὐτά when a corpse was cast on the bones of Elisha AcPlCor 2:32.
    ε. continuing a relative clause (an older Gk. constr.; B-D-F §297; Rob. 724): ἐξ οὗ τὰ πάντα καὶ ἡμεῖς εἰς αὐτόν 1 Cor 8:6; οἷς τὸ κρίμα … καὶ ἡ ἀπώλεια αὐτῶν (for καὶ ὧν ἡ ἀπώλεια) 2 Pt 2:3.
    ζ. w. a change of pers. Lk 1:45; Rv 18:24.
    η. w. a change of number and gender ἔθνη … αὐτούς Mt 28:19. τοῦ παιδίου … αὐτῇ Mk 5:41. φῶς … αὐτόν J 1:10. λαόν … αὐτῶν Mt 1:21.—14:14; Mk 6:45f; 2 Cor 5:19.
    pert. to someth. that is identical with, or closely related to, someth., w. art. ὁ αὐτός, ἡ αὐτή, τὸ αὐτό the same (Hom. et al.; Ps 101:28, s. Mussies 171).
    w. a noun τὸν αὐ. λόγον Mt 26:44; Mk 14:39; τὸ αὐ. φύραμα Ro 9:21; cp. Lk 23:40; 1 Cor 1:10; 10:3f; 12:4ff; 15:39; Phil 1:30.
    without a noun τὸ (τὰ) αὐ. ποιεῖν (Jos., Ant. 5, 129; 9, 271) Mt 5:46; Lk 6:33; Eph 6:9. τὰ αὐτὰ πράσσειν Ro 2:1. τὸ αὐ. λέγειν agree (not only in words; s. on λέγω 1aα) 1 Cor 1:10. ἀπαγγέλλειν τὰ αὐτά Ac 15:27. τὸ αὐ. as adv. in the same way (X., Mem. 3, 8, 5) Mt 27:44; 18:9 D.—ἐπὶ τὸ αὐ. (Hesychius: ὁμοῦ, ἐπὶ τὸν αὐ. τόπον; Iambl., Vi. Pyth. 30, 167; SIG 736, 66 [92 B.C.]; BGU 762, 9 [II A.D.] ἀπὸ τῶν ἐπὶ τὸ αὐ. καμήλων ε´ of the five camels taken together; PTebt 14, 20; 319, 9 al.; 2 Km 2:13; Ps 2:2 al.; 3 Macc 3:1; Sus 14 Theod.) of place at the same place, together (En 100:2; Jos., Bell. 2, 346; s. συνέρχομαι 1a) Mt 22:34; 1 Cor 11:20; 14:23; B 4:10; IEph 5:3; εἶναι ἐπὶ τὸ αὐ. (TestNapht 6:6) Lk 17:35; Ac 1:15; 2:1. προστιθέναι ἐπὶ τὸ αὐ. add to the total Ac 2:47 (see M-M.). κατὰ τὸ αυ. of pers. being together as a body in each other’s company, together (PEleph 1, 5 εἶναι δὲ ἡμᾶς κατὰ ταὐτό) and also with ref. to simultaneous presence at the same time (Aelian, VH 14, 8 δύο εἰκόνας εἰργάσατο Πολύκλειτος κατὰ τ. αὐ.; 3 Km 3:18) Ac 14:1; the mng. in the same way may also apply (ENestle, Acts 14:1: ET 24, 1913, 187f) as in Hs 8, 7, 1 (cod. A; s. καθά; but s. Bonner 105, n. 17, who restores κατʼ αὐ[τοὺς αἱ ῥάβ]δοι; so also Joly).—In combinations ἓν καὶ τὸ αὐ. (also Pla., Leg. 721c; Aristot., Metaph. 1039a, 28; other exx. in GKypke, Observ. II 1755, 220; Diod S 3, 63, 2 εἷς καὶ ὁ αὐτός) one and the same thing 1 Cor 11:5; cp. 12:11 (Diod S 22, 6, 3 μίαν καὶ τὴν αὐτὴν ἀπόκρισιν; Epict. 1, 19, 15 μία καὶ ἡ αὐ. ἀρχή). W. gen. foll. τὰ αὐ. τῶν παθημάτων the same sufferings as 1 Pt 5:9. Without comparison: ὁ αὐ. (Thu. 2, 61, 2; Plut., Caesar 729 [45, 7], Brutus 989 [13, 1]) εἶ thou art the same Hb 1:12 (Ps 101:28); cp. 13:8. On the variation betw. αὐτοῦ and αὑτοῦ, αὐτῶν and αὑτῶν in the mss., s. ἑαυτοῦ, beg.—WMichaelis, D. unbetonte καὶ αὐτός bei Lukas: StTh 4, ’51, 86–93; MBlack, An Aramaic Approach3, ’67, 96–100; MWilcox, The Semitisms of Ac, ’65, 93–100 (Qumran).—Mussies 168–73. DELG. M-M. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > αὐτός

  • 147 βαπτίζω

    βαπτίζω fut. βαπτίσω; 1 aor. ἐβάπτισα. Mid.: ἐβαπτισάμην. Pass.: impf. ἐβαπτιζόμην; fut. βαπτισθήσομαι; 1 aor. ἐβαπτίσθην; pf. ptc. βεβαπτισμένος (Hippocr., Pla., esp. Polyb.+; UPZ 70, 13 [152/151 B.C.]; PGM 5, 69; LXX; ApcSed 14:7 [p. 136, 8f Ja.]; Philo; Joseph.; SibOr 5, 478; Just.; Mel., Fgm. 8, 1 and 2 Goodsp.=8b, 4 and 14 P.—In Gk. lit. gener. to put or go under water in a variety of senses, also fig., e.g. ‘soak’ Pla., Symp. 176b in wine) in our lit. only in ritual or ceremonial sense (as Plut.; Herm. Wr. [s. 2a below]; PGM 4, 44; 7, 441 λουσάμενος κ. βαπτισάμενος; 4 Km 5:14; Sir 34:25; Jdth 12:7; cp. Iren. 1, 21, 3 [Harv. I 183, 83]).
    wash ceremonially for purpose of purification, wash, purify, of a broad range of repeated ritual washing rooted in Israelite tradition (cp. Just., D. 46, 2) Mk 7:4; Lk 11:38; Ox 840, 15.—WBrandt, Jüd. Reinheitslehre u. ihre Beschreibg. in den Ev. 1910; ABüchler, The Law of Purification in Mk 7:1–23: ET 21, 1910, 34–40; JDöller, D. Reinheits-u. Speisegesetze d. ATs 1917; JJeremias, TZ 5, ’49, 418–28. See 1QS 5:8–23; 2:25–3:12; 4:20–22.
    to use water in a rite for purpose of renewing or establishing a relationship w. God, plunge, dip, wash, baptize. The transliteration ‘baptize’ signifies the ceremonial character that NT narratives accord such cleansing, but the need of qualifying statements or contextual coloring in the documents indicates that the term β. was not nearly so technical as the transliteration suggests.
    of dedicatory cleansing associated w. the ministry of John the Baptist (Orig., C. Cels. 1, 47, 4), abs. J 1:25, 28; 3:23a; 10:40; hence John is called ὁ βαπτίζων Mk 1:4; 6:14, 24 (Goodsp., Probs. 50–52).—Pass. Mt 3:16; ISm 1:1; oft. have oneself baptized, get baptized Mt 3:13f; Lk 3:7, 12, 21; 7:30; J 3:23b; GEb 18, 35f; IEph 18:2 al. (B-D-F §314; s. §317).—(ἐν) ὕδατι w. water Mk 1:8a; Lk 3:16a; Ac 1:5a; 11:16a; ἐν (τῷ) ὕδατι J 1:26, 31, 33; ἐν τῷ Ἰορδ. (4 Km 5:14) Mt 3:6; Mk 1:5; εἰς τὸν Ἰορδ. (cp. Plut., Mor. 166a βάπτισον σεαυτὸν εἰς θάλασσαν; Herm. Wr. 4, 4 βάπτισον σεαυτὸν εἰς τὸν κρατῆρα) Mk 1:9.—W. the external element and purpose given ἐν ὕδατι εἰς μετάνοιαν Mt 3:11a (AOliver, Is β. used w. ἐν and the Instrumental?: RevExp 35, ’38, 190–97).—βαπτίζεσθαι τὸ βάπτισμα Ἰωάννου undergo John’s baptism Lk 7:29. εἰς τί ἐβαπτίσθητε; Ac 19:3 means, as the answer shows, in reference to what (baptism) were you baptized? i.e. what kind of baptism did you receive (as the context indicates, John’s baptism was designed to implement repentance as a necessary stage for the reception of Jesus; with the arrival of Jesus the next stage was the receipt of the Holy Spirit in connection with apostolic baptism in the name of Jesus, who was no longer the ‘coming one’, but the arrived ‘Lord’)? β. βάπτισμα μετανοίας administer a repentance baptism vs. 4; GEb 13, 74.—S. the lit. on Ἰωάν(ν)ης 1, and on the baptism of Jesus by John: JBornemann, D. Taufe Christi durch Joh. 1896; HUsener, D. Weihnachtsfest2 1911; DVölter, D. Taufe Jesu durch Joh.: NThT 6, 1917, 53–76; WBundy, The Meaning of Jesus’ Baptism: JR 7, 1927, 56–75; MJacobus, Zur Taufe Jesu bei Mt 3:14, 15: NKZ 40, 1929, 44–53; SHirsch, Taufe, Versuchung u. Verklärung Jesu ’32; DPlooij, The Baptism of Jesus: RHarris Festschr. (Amicitiae Corolla), ed. HWood ’33, 239–52; JKosnetter, D. Taufe Jesu ’36; HRowley, TManson memorial vol., ed. Higgins ’59, 218–29 (Qumran); JSchneider, Der historische Jesus u. d. kerygmatische Christus ’61, 530–42; HKraft, TZ 17, ’61, 399–412 (Joel); FLentzen-Dies, D. Taufe Jesu nach den Synoptikern, ’70. More reff. s.v. περιστερά.
    of cleansing performed by Jesus J 3:22, 26; 4:1; difft. 4:2 with disclaimer of baptismal activity by Jesus personally.
    of the Christian sacrament of initiation after Jesus’ death (freq. pass.; s. above 2a; Iren. 3, 12, 9 [Harv. II 63, 3]) Mk 16:16; Ac 2:41; 8:12f, 36, 38; 9:18; 10:47; 16:15, 33; 18:8; 22:16; 1 Cor 1:14–17; D 7 (where baptism by pouring is allowed in cases of necessity); ISm 8:2.—β. τινὰ εἰς (τὸ) ὄνομά τινος (s. ὄνομα 1dγב) baptize in or w. respect to the name of someone: (τοῦ) κυρίου Ac 8:16; 19:5; D 9:5; Hv 3, 7, 3. Cp. 1 Cor 1:13, 15. εἰς τ. ὄν. τ. πατρὸς καὶ τ. υἱοῦ καὶ τ. ἁγίου πνεύματος Mt 28:19 (on the original form of the baptismal formula see FConybeare, ZNW 2, 1901, 275–88; ERiggenbach, BFCT VII/1, 1903; VIII/4, 1904; HHoltzmann, Ntl. Theologie2 I 1911, 449f; OMoe: RSeeberg Festschr. 1929, I 179–96; GOngaro, Biblica 19, ’38, 267–79; GBraumann, Vorpaulinische christl. Taufverkündigung bei Paulus ’62); D 7:1, 4. Likew. ἐν τῷ ὀν. Ἰ. Χριστοῦ Ac 2:38 v.l.; 10:48; ἐπὶ τῷ ὀν. Ἰ. Χρ. Ac 2:38 text; more briefly εἰς Χριστόν Gal 3:27; Ro 6:3a. To be baptized εἰς Χρ. is for Paul an involvement in Christ’s death and its implications for the believer εἰς τὸν θάνατον αὐτοῦ ἐβαπτίσθημεν vs. 3b (s. Ltzm. ad loc.; HSchlier, EvTh ’38, 335–47; GWagner, D. relgeschichtliche Problem von Rö 6:1–11, ’62, tr. Pauline Bapt. and the Pagan Mysteries, by JSmith, ’67; RSchnackenburg, Baptism in the Thought of St. Paul ’64, tr. of D. Heilsgeschehen b. d. Taufe nach dem Ap. Paulus ’50). The effect of baptism is to bring all those baptized εἰς ἓν σῶμα 1 Cor 12:13 (perh. wordplay: ‘plunged into one body’).—W. the purpose given εἰς ἄφεσιν τ. ἁμαρτιῶν Ac 2:38 (IScheftelowitz, D. Sündentilgung durch Wasser: ARW 17, 1914, 353–412).—Diod S 5, 49, 6: many believe that by being received into the mysteries by the rites (τελεταί) they become more devout, more just, and better in every way.—ὑπὲρ τ. νεκρῶν 1 Cor 15:29a, s. also vs. * 29b, is obscure because of our limited knowledge of a practice that was evidently obvious to the recipients of Paul’s letter; it has been interpr. (1) in place of the dead, i.e. vicariously; (2) for the benefit of the dead, in var. senses; (3) locally, over (the graves of) the dead; (4) on account of the dead, infl. by their good ex.; of these the last two are the least probable. See comm. and HPreisker, ZNW 23, 1924, 298–304; JZingerle, Heiliges Recht: JÖAI 23, 1926; Rtzst., Taufe 43f; AMarmorstein, ZNW 30, ’31, 277–85; AOliver, RevExp 34, ’37, 48–53; three articles: Kirchenblatt 98, ’42 and six: ET 54, ’43; 55, ’44; MRaeder, ZNW 46, ’56, 258–60; BFoschini, 5 articles: CBQ 12, ’50 and 13, ’51.—On the substitution of a ceremony by another person cp. Diod S 4, 24, 5: the boys who do not perform the customary sacrifices lose their voices and become as dead persons in the sacred precinct. When someone takes a vow to make the sacrifice for them, their trouble disappears at once.
    to cause someone to have an extraordinary experience akin to an initiatory water-rite, to plunge, baptize. Cp. ‘take the plunge’ and s. OED ‘Plunge’ II 5 esp. for the rendering of usage 3c, below.
    typologically of Israel’s passage through the Red Sea εἰς τὸν Μωϋσῆν ἐβαπτίσαντο they got themselves plunged/ baptized for Moses, thereby affirming his leadership 1 Cor 10:2 v.l. (if the pass. ἐβαπτίσθησαν is to be read with N. the point remains the same; but the mid. form puts the onus, as indicated by the context, on the Israelites).
    of the Holy Spirit (fire) β. τινὰ (ἐν) πνεύματι ἁγίῳ Mk 1:8 (v.l. + ἐν); J 1:33; Ac 1:5b; 11:16b; cp. 1 Cor 12:13 (cp. Just., D. 29, 1). ἐν πν. ἁγ. καὶ πυρί Mt 3:11b; Lk 3:16b (JDunn, NovT 14, ’72, 81–92). On the oxymoron of baptism w. fire: REisler, Orphischdionysische Mysterienged. in d. christl. Antike: Vortr. d. Bibl. Warburg II/2, 1925, 139ff; CEdsman, Le baptême de feu (ASNU 9) ’40. JATRobinson, The Baptism of John and Qumran, HTR 50, ’57, 175–91; cp. 1QS 4:20f.
    of martyrdom (s. the fig. uses in UPZ 70, 13 [152/151 B.C.]; Diod S 1, 73, 6; Plut., Galba 1062 [21, 3] ὀφλήμασι βεβ. ‘overwhelmed by debts’; Chariton 2, 4, 4, βαπτιζόμενος ὑπὸ τ. ἐπιθυμίας; Vi. Aesopi I c. 21 p. 278, 4 λύπῃ βαπτιζόμενος; Achilles Tat. 3, 10, 1 πλήθει βαπτισθῆναι κακῶν; Herm. Wr. 4, 4 ἐβαπτίσαντο τοῦ νοός; Is 21:4; Jos., Bell. 4, 137 ἐβάπτισεν τ. πόλιν ‘he drowned the city in misery’) δύνασθε τὸ βάπτισμα ὸ̔ ἐγὼ βαπτίζομαι βαπτισθῆναι; Mk 10:38 (perh. the stark metaph. of impending personal disaster is to be rendered, ‘are you prepared to be drowned the way I’m going to be drowned?’); cp. vs. 39; Mt 20:22 v.l.; in striking contrast to fire Lk 12:50 (GDelling, Novum Testamentum 2, ’57, 92–115).—PAlthaus, Senior, D. Heilsbedeutung d. Taufe im NT 1897; WHeitmüller, Im Namen Jesu 1903, Taufe u. Abendmahl b. Paulus 1903, Taufe u. Abendmahl im Urchristentum 1911; FRendtorff, D. Taufe im Urchristentum 1905; HWindisch, Taufe u. Sünde im ältesten Christentum 1908; ASeeberg, D. Taufe im NT2 1913; AvStromberg, Studien zu Theorie u. Praxis der Taufe 1913; GottfrKittel, D. Wirkungen d. chr. Wassertaufe nach d. NT: StKr 87, 1914, 25ff; WKoch, D. Taufe im NT3 1921; JLeipoldt, D. urchr. Taufe im Lichte der Relgesch. 1928; RReitzenstein, D. Vorgesch. d. christl. Taufe 1929 (against him HSchaeder, Gnomon 5, 1929, 353–70, answered by Rtzst., ARW 27, 1929, 241–77); FDölger, Ac I 1929, II 1930; HvSoden, Sakrament u. Ethik bei Pls: ROtto Festschr., Marburger Theologische Studien ’31, no. 1, 1–40; MEnslin, Crozer Quarterly 8, ’31, 47–67; BBacon, ATR 13, ’31, 155–74; CBowen: RHutcheon, Studies in NT, ’36, 30–48; GBornkamm, ThBl 17, ’38, 42–52; 18, ’39, 233–42; HSchlier, EvTh ’38, 335–47 ( Ro 6); EBruston, La notion bibl. du baptême: ÉTLR ’38, 67–93; 135–50; HMarsh, The Origin and Signif. of the NT Baptism ’41; KBarth, D. kirchl. Lehre v. d. Taufe2 ’43 (Eng. tr., The Teaching of the Church Regarding Baptism, EPayne ’48); FGrant, ATR 27, ’45, 253–63; HSchlier, D. kirchl. Lehre v. d. Taufe: TLZ 72, ’47, 321–26; OCullmann, Baptism in the NT (tr. JReid) ’50; MBarth, D. Taufe ein Sakrament? ’51; RBultmann, Theology of the NT, tr. KGrobel ’51, I 133–44; JSchneider, D. Taufe im NT ’52; DStanley, TS 18, ’57, 169–215; EFascher, Taufe: Pauly-W. 2. Reihe IV 2501–18 (’32); AOepke, TW I ’33, 527–44; GBeasley-Murray, Baptism in the NT ’62; MQuesnel, Baptisés dans l’Esprit ’85 (Acts); DDaube, The NT and Rabbinic Judaism ’56, 106–40; NMcEleney, Conversion, Circumstance and the Law: NTS 20, ’74, 319–41; HBraun, Qumran u. d. NT II ’66, 1–29; OBetz, D. Proselytentaufe der Qumransekte u. d. NT: RevQ 1, ’58, 213–34; JYsebaert, Gk. Baptismal Terminology, ’62. S. τέκνον 1aα.—B. 1482. DELG s.v. βάπτω. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > βαπτίζω

  • 148 εἰρήνη

    εἰρήνη, ης, ἡ (s. εἰρηνεύω; Hom.+; εἰρ. and related terms are common in astr. texts, e.g. Cat. Cod. Astr. IX/2 p. 173, 21; 175, 10)
    a state of concord, peace, harmony
    between governments opp. πόλεμος IEph 13:2. ἐρωτᾷ τὰ πρὸς εἰρήνην asks for terms of peace Lk 14:32 (cp. TestJud 9:7 αἰτοῦσιν ἡμᾶς τὰ πρὸς εἰρήνην; Anna Comn., Alex. 8, 5 ed. R. II p. 12, 17 τὰ περὶ εἰρήνης ἐρωτῶντες.—It is also poss. to transl. inquires about his health like ἐρωτ. [τὰ] εἰς εἰρήνην=שָׁאַל לְשָׁלוֹם 2 Km 8:10; 11:7; s. HThackeray, JTS 14, 1913, 389–99; Helbing, Kasussyntax 40); ἐν εἰ. εἶναι (Aristot., Mirabilia 119, 842a 2) be in peace, out of danger Lk 11:21. λαμβάνειν τὴν εἰ. ἔκ τινος take peace away fr. someth.=plunge it into a state of war Rv 6:4.—Ac 24:2. Of those who are fighting αἰτεῖσθαι εἰ. ask for peace (Anonym. Alex.-gesch. [II B.C.]: 151 Fgm. 1, 5 Jac.) Ac 12:20.
    harmony in personal relationships peace, harmony w. ὁμόνοια (Chrysipp.: Stoic. II 1076; Diod S 16, 60, 3; Dio Chrys. 21 [38], 14; 22 [39], 2; SIG 685, 13 [139 B.C.]; Jos., Ant. 4, 50) 1 Cl 60:4; 61:1; 63:2; w. πραΰτης 61:2; opp. ὀργή D 15:3; opp. μάχαιρα Mt 10:34, cp. Lk 12:51. συναλλάσσειν εἰς εἰ. pacify Ac 7:26; σύνδεσμος τῆς εἰ. Eph 4:3. βασιλεὺς εἰρήνης king of peace (as transl. of Salem; cp. Philo, Leg. All. 3, 79) Hb 7:2. Of the Christian community εἰ. ἔχειν have peace, rest (fr. persecution, as Ac 14:2 v.l.; for the phrase s. Diod S 11, 72, 1; cp. Jos., Bell. 2, 401) Ac 9:31; εἰ. βαθεῖα (Ath. 1, 3 [opp. διώκεσθαι]; s. βαθύς 3a) 1 Cl 2:2. ὁδὸς εἰρήνης the way of peace, that leads to peace Ro 3:17 (Ps 13:3; Is 59:8); Lk 1:79. μετʼ εἰρήνης peaceably (Diod S 3, 18, 7; Vi. Aesopi W 97 P. μετʼ εἰρήνης ζῆν; EpJer 2; 1 Esdr 5:2; 1 Macc 12:4, 52 al.; Jos., Ant. 1, 179; 8, 405) Hb 11:31; ποιεῖν εἰ. make peace (Hermocles [IV/III B.C.]: Anth. Lyr. II p. 250, 21 [p. 174, 21 Coll. Alex.=Athen. 6, 253e] πρῶτον μὲν εἰρήνην ποίησον, φίλτατε.—ἐπί τινα Iren. 4, 40, 1 [Harv. II 301, 9]) Ac 14:2 v.l.; Eph 2:15; οἱ ποιοῦντες εἰ. those who make peace Js 3:18. βούλεσθαι εἰ. (Pr 12:20) wish for peace 1 Cl 15:1. διώκειν strive toward peace (w. δικαιοσύνη, πίστις, ἀγάπη) 2 Ti 2:22; Gal 5:22; 1 Cl 22:5 (Ps 33:15). εἰ. διώκειν μετὰ πάντων strive to be at peace w. everyone Hb 12:14 (cp. Epict. 4, 5, 24 εἰ. ἄγεις πρὸς πάντας). τὰ τῆς εἰ. διώκειν strive after peace Ro 14:19; ζητεῖν εἰ. 1 Pt 3:11 (Ps 33:15); cp. 2 Cl 10:2. τὰ πρὸς εἰ. what makes for peace Lk 19:42. W. ἀσφάλεια 1 Th 5:3; w. ἀγάπη B 21:9; 1 Cl 62:2. ἀπέστη ἡ εἰ. peace has disappeared 1 Cl 3:4 (cp. δαίμονας … τὴν εἰ. ταράσσοντας Orig., C. Cels. 8, 73, 29). πρόσωπον εἰρήνης ἔχειν maintain a facade of peace Hv 3, 6, 3; εἰ. ἔχειν ἐν ἑαυτοῖς have peace within one’s group 3, 5, 1.
    good order opp. ἀκαταστασία 1 Cor 14:33; cp. 7:15, and 1 Cl 20:1, 9ff.
    a state of well-being, peace
    corresp. to Hebr. שָׁלוֹם welfare, health (WCaspari, Vorstellung u. Wort ‘Friede’ im AT 1910, esp. p. 128ff) in a farewell greeting: ὑπάγειν ἐν εἰ. go in peace, approx. equiv. to ‘keep well’ Js 2:16; also πορεύεσθαι ἐν εἰ. (Judg 18:6 B; 2 Km 3:21) Ac 16:36; ὑπάγειν εἰς εἰρήνην Mk 5:34; πορεύεσθαι εἰς εἰ. (1 Km 1:17; 20:42; 29:7; Jdth 8:35) Lk 7:50; 8:48. προπέμπειν τινὰ ἐν εἰ. send someone on the way in peace 1 Cor 16:11 (cp. Vi. Aesopi I, 32 p. 297, 1 Eberh. ἐν εἰρήνῃ ἀπέστειλεν [αὐτόν]). ἐν εἰ. μετὰ χαρᾶς ἀναπέμψατε send back in peace w. joy 1 Cl 65:1. ἀπολύειν τινὰ μετὰ εἰρήνης send someone away w. a greeting of peace Ac 15:33 (cp. Gen 26:29; Jos., Ant. 1, 179). In the formula of greeting εἰ. ὑμῖν=שָׁלוֹם לָכֶם (cp. Judg 6:23; 19:20; Da 10:19 Theod.; Tob 12:17) Lk 24:36; J 20:19, 21, 26. εἰρήνη τῷ οἴκῳ τούτῳ peace to this house Lk 10:5; cp. vs. 6 (WKlassen, NTS 27, ’81, 488–506); Mt 10:12 v.l., 13 (on εἰ. ἐπί w. acc. cp. Is 9:7; Ps 84:9). In epistolary closure καὶ ἔστω μεθʼ ὑμῶν εἰρήνη peace be w. you AcPlCor 2:40.—A new and characteristic development is the combination of the Greek epistolary greeting χαίρειν with a Hebrew expression in the Pauline and post-Pauline letters χάρις καὶ εἰρήνη (s. χάρις 2c) Ro 1:7; 1 Cor 1:3; 2 Cor 1:2; Gal 1:3; Eph 1:2; Phil 1:2; Col 1:2; 1 Th 1:1; 2 Th 1:2; Tit 1:4; Phlm 3; Rv 1:4. (χάρις, ἔλεος, εἰρήνη) 1 Ti 1:2; 2 Ti 1:2; 2J 3. (χάρις καὶ εἰ.—or w. ἔλεος—πληθυνθείη, cp. Da 4:1; 4:37c LXX; 6:26 Theod.) 1 Pt 1:2; 2 Pt 1:2; Jd 2; 1 Cl ins; Pol ins; MPol ins; cp. Gal 6:16; Eph 6:23; 2 Th 3:16; 1 Pt 5:14; 3J 15; ISm 12:2; B 1:1 (χαίρετε ἐν εἰ.); to a degree, mng. 2b also is implied in this expr.
    Since, acc. to the prophets, peace will be an essential characteristic of the messianic kgdm. (εἰ. as summum bonum: Seneca, Ep. 66, 5), Christian thought also freq. regards εἰ. as nearly synonymous w. messianic salvation εὐαγγελίζεσθαι εἰ. proclaim peace, i.e. messianic salvation (Is 52:7) Ac 10:36; Ro 10:15 v.l.; Eph 2:17; τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τῆς εἰ. 6:15. ἔχειν ἐν Χριστῷ εἰ. J 16:33; ἔχειν εἰ. πρὸς τὸν θεόν have peace w. God Ro 5:1 (on εἰ. πρός τινα cp. Pla., Rep. 5, 465b; X., Hiero 2, 11; Epict. 4, 5, 24; Jos., Ant. 8, 396). ἀφιέναι εἰ. leave peace τινί J 14:27a (cp. Orig., C. Cels. 8, 14, 20); same sense εἰ. διδόναι give or grant peace 14:27b; 2 Th 3:16b (so Is 26:12. Since Thu. 4, 19, 1; 21, 1 εἰ. διδόναι refers to granting of political peace). Hence εἰ. τοῦ Χριστοῦ the peace brought by Christ Col 3:15; εἰ. τοῦ θεοῦ Phil 4:7; ὁ θεὸς τῆς εἰ. (TestDan 5:2) Ro 15:33; 16:20; 2 Cor 13:11; Phil 4:9; 1 Th 5:23; Hb 13:20; ὁ κύριος τῆς εἰ. 2 Th 3:16a; αὐτός (i.e. ὁ Χριστός) ἐστιν ἡ εἰρήνη ἡμῶν Eph 2:14 (cp. POxy 41, 27, where an official is called εἰρήνη πόλεως; sim. ἐπὶ τῆς εἰρήνης PAchm 7, 8; 104.—FCoggan, ET 53, ’42, 242 [peace-offering]; but s. NSnaith, ibid. 325f). ἐπαναδράμωμεν ἐπὶ τὸν τῆς εἰ. σκοπόν let us run toward the goal of peace 1 Cl 19:2.—2 Pt 3:14; (w. ζωή) Ro 8:6; (w. δόξα and τιμή) 2:10; (w. δικαιοσύνη and χαρά.—W. χαρά En 5:9; Philo, Leg. All. 1, 45) 14:17; 15:13; (πίστις, φόβος, ὑπομονή, μακροθυμία) 1 Cl 64:1. παιδεία εἰηρήνης ἡμῶν ἐπʼ αὐτόν 16:5 (Is 53:5). In prayer εἰς ἀγαθὰ ἐν εἰ. 60:3. Also Lk 2:29 and the angelic greeting ἐπὶ γῆς εἰ. peace on earth 2:14 are prob. to be classed here; cp. 19:38.—On peace as a gift of God cp. Epict. 3, 13, 12 εἰρήνη ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ κεκηρυγμένη διὰ τοῦ λόγου (=philosophy); Oenomaus in Eus., PE 5, 26, 5: it is the task of deities to establish and to promote εἰρήνη and φιλία; cp. the boasts of Isis in related terms, IAndrosIsis, Kyme.—HFuchs, Augustin u. d. antike Friedensgedanke 1926, 39–43; 167–223; WNestle, D. Friedensgedanke in d. antiken Welt: Philol. Suppl. 31, ’38; WvanLeeuwen, Eirene in het NT ’40; FBammel, Die Religionen der Welt und der Friede auf Erden ’57; on the word’s history, KBrugmann and BKeil, Εἰρήνη: Ber. d. Sächs. Ges. d. Wiss. 68, 1916 nos. 3 and 4; GKöstner, Εἰρήνη in d. Briefen des hl. Apostels, diss. Rome ’58; WEisenbeis, D. Wurzel שׁלם im AT, Beih. ZAW 113, ’69; RAC VIII 434–505 (lit.).—B. 1376. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW. Spicq. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > εἰρήνη

  • 149 εἷς

    εἷς, μία, ἕν, gen. ἑνός, μιᾶς, ἑνός a numerical term, ‘one’ (Hom.+)
    a single pers. or thing, with focus on quantitative aspect, one
    in contrast to more than one
    α. adj. μίλιον ἕν Mt 5:41; cp. 20:12; 25:15, 24; Ac 21:7; 28:13; 2 Pt 3:8. Opp. πάντες Ro 5:12 (εἷς ἄνθρωπος as Hippocr., Ep. 11, 2 [IX p. 326]; SHanson, Unity of the Church in the NT, ’46, 65–73 [lit.]). Opp. the nation J 11:50; 18:14 (cp. Oenom. in Eus., PE 5, 25, 5 μεῖον εἶναι ἕνα ἀντι πάντων πεσεῖν τὸν βασιλέα=it is a lesser evil when one, instead of all the citizens, falls, namely, the king).
    β. noun, Lk 23:16 (17) v.l. w. partitive gen. (Diod S 1, 91, 5 αὐτῶν εἷς; Jos., Vi. 204; Just., A I, 1, 1 al.) Mt 5:19; 6:29; 18:6; Mk 9:42; Lk 12:27; 15:21 v.l.; 17:2, 22; 23:39; J 19:34 or w. ἐκ (Maximus Tyr. 1, 6 ab ἐκ πολλῶν εἷς; Lucian, Somn. 9; Jos., Bell. 7, 47) Mt 18:12; 22:35; 26:21; Mk 14:18; J 1:40; 6:8; Ac 11:28 al. ὁ εἷς τῶν δώδεκα one of the twelve Mk 14:10 is a peculiar expr. (cp. BGU 1145, 25 [18 B.C.] ὁ εἷς αὐτῶν Ταυρῖνος; UPZ 161, 50; 54; PTebt 138; 357, 10).
    in contrast to the parts, of which a whole is made up (Theophr. in Apollon. Paradox. 16 τὰ πολλὰ ἓν γίγνεσθαι; Stephan. Byz. s.v. Ὠκεανός: γίγνεται ἐκ δύο εἰς ἕν; Just., D. 103, 5 ἐξ ἀμφοτέρων … ἓν ὄνομα). ἔσονται οἱ δύο εἰς σάρκα μίαν Mt 19:5; Mk 10:8; 1 Cor 6:16 (all three Gen 2:24). οἱ πολλοὶ ἓν σῶμά ἐσμεν we, though many, form one body Ro 12:5; cp. 1 Cor 12:12, 20; Eph 2:15. πάντες εἷς ἐστε you are all one Gal 3:28. ἕν εἰσιν 1 Cor 3:8; cp. J 10:30; 17:11, 21–23 (cp. 1QS 5, 2; Just., D. 42, 3 ἓν ὄντες πρᾶγμα). Also εἰς τὸ ἕν 1J 5:8 (Appian, Iber. 66 §280 ἐς ἕν=together, as a unity). εἰς ἕν J 11:52 (cp. 1QS 5, 7). ὁ ποιήσας τὰ ἀμφότερα ἕν who has united the two divisions Eph 2:14.—MAppold, The Oneness Motif (John) ’76.
    w. negative foll. εἷς … οὐ (μή), stronger than οὐδείς (Aristoph., Eccl. 153, Thesm. 549; X., An. 5, 6, 12; Demosth. 30, 33 ἡ γυνὴ μίαν ἡμέραν οὐκ ἐχήρευσεν; Dionys. Hal., Comp. Verb. 18) ἓν ἐξ αὐτῶν οὐ πεσεῖται not one of them will fall Mt 10:29 (Lucian, Herm. 28 ἓν ἐξ ἁπάντων); cp. 5:18; Mk 8:14; Lk 11:46; 12:6. The neg. rarely comes first Mt 5:36.
    a single entity, with focus on uniformity or quality, one
    one and the same (Pind., N. 6, 1 ἓν ἀνδρῶν, ἓν θεῶν γένος• ἐκ μιᾶς δὲ πνέομεν ἀμφότεροι; Dio Chrys. 19 [36], 6; Maximus Tyr. 19, 4a; cp. OGI 383, 59 [I B.C., the ruler’s statue is to be made of the type of stone used for statues of the gods]; Gen 11:1; 40:5; Lev 22:28; Wsd 7:6; Ar. 13, 5 μία φύσις τῶν θεῶν) ἐν ἑνὶ οἴκῳ in one and the same house Lk 12:52 (Diod S 14, 43, 1 ἐν ἑνὶ τόπω). Expressing unanimity ἐν ἑνὶ στόματι w. one voice Ro 15:6; τοῦ ἑνὸς ἄρτου one and the same loaf 1 Cor 10:17; εἷς ὁ θεός one and the same God (Amphitheos of Heracleia: 431 Fgm. 1b Jac. Διόνυσος κ. Σαβάζιος εἷς ἐστι θεός; difft. Ath. 10, 2 ἑνὸς ὄντος τοῦ πατρὸς καὶ τοῦ υἱοῦ) Ro 3:30; cp. 9:10; 1 Cor 6:16f; 12:9, 13. εἷς κύριος, μία πίστις, ἓν βάπτισμα• εἷς θεός κτλ. (cp. the three genders of εἷς consecutively in Simonides 97 Diehl2 ἓν πέλαγος, μία ναῦς, εἷς τάφος [of shipwrecked pers.]; Just., D. 63, 5 μιᾷ ψυχῇ … συναγωγῇ … ἐκκλησίᾳ) Eph 4:5f (NJklA 35, 1915, 224ff. The repetition of εἷς is like Herm. Wr. 11, 11; Epict. 3, 24, 10ff).—Rv 9:13; 18:8; Ac 17:26. ἐν ἑνὶ πνεύματι, μιᾷ ψυχῇ Phil 1:27; cp. Ac 4:32 (cp. Aristot., EN 9, 8, 2; Plut., Mor. 478c). τὸ ἓν φρονεῖν be of one mind Phil 2:2. συνάγειν εἰς ἕν unite, bring together (Pla., Phileb. 23e; Dionys. Hal. 2, 45, 3 συνάξειν εἰς ἓν τὰ ἔθνη; POxy 1411, 3 τῶν δημοσίων εἰς ἓν συναχθέντων; TestJob 28:5 τὰ χρήματα ἐὰν συναχθῇ εἰς ἓν ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό ‘if all [our] valuables were brought together at one place’; Jos., Bell. 3, 518) J 11:52. τὸ ἓν καὶ τὸ αὐτό one and the same 1 Cor 12:11 (cp. Diod S 11, 47, 3; 17, 104, 6; Epict. 1, 11, 28; 1, 19, 15; Just., D. 123, 1 ἑνὸς καὶ τοῦ αὐτοῦ … νόμου); cp. ἓν καὶ αὐτό τινι 11:5.—εἰς ἕνα τόπον in a place by itself (Jos., Ant. 6, 125) J 20:7.
    (a) single, only one (Diod S 16, 11, 2; Appian, Bell. Civ. 2, 44 §180 εἷς ἀνήρ; Maximus Tyr. 11, 6c μαντεῖον ἕν al.; Just., D. 141, 3 τῆν μίαν τοῦ Δαυεὶδ … παράπτωσιν) λόγον ἕνα Mt 21:24 (GrBar 5:1); Gal 5:14. ἕνα ἄρτον Mk 8:14. εἷς ἄρτος 1 Cor 10:17a (εἷς ἄ. is also the symbol of the unity of the Pythagorean fellowship: Diog. L. 8, 35; here Diog. L. adds that οἱ βάρβαροι hold the same view ἔτι καὶ νῦν). πῆχυν ἕνα Mt 6:27 (s. πῆχυς); ἓν μέλος 1 Cor 12:26; ἓν ἔργον J 7:21 (here, following ἕν, καί adds an indication of the greatness of the accomplishment, as Appian, Bell. Civ. 2, 133 §555 ἓν ἐκ τῶν Καίσαρος ἔργων προὔθηκα …, καί). εἷς ἐστιν ὁ ἀγαθός Mt 19:17; ποιῆσαι ἕνα προσήλυτον 23:15; ἕνα εἶχεν υἱὸν ἀγαπητόν he had an only son, whom he loved dearly Mk 12:6 (εἷς υἱ. as Phalaris, Ep. 18). ὁ δὲ θεὸς εἷς ἐστιν Gal 3:20; cp. Mk 12:32; 1 Cor 8:4, 6 (v.l. adds to God the Father and Jesus Christ ἓν πνεῦμα ἅγιον κτλ. Cp. also Maximus Tyr. 11, 5a θεὸς εἷς … κ. πατήρ, κ. θεοὶ πολλοί and as early as Xenophanes, Fgm. 19 Diehl3 εἷς θεὸς ἔν τε θεοῖσι κ. ἀνθρωποῖσι μέγιστος [= Fgm. 23 Diels]); Js 2:19; PtK 3 p. 15, 20 (Herm. Wr. 11, 11; 14 εἷς ὁ θεός; POxy 1382, 20 εἷς Ζεὺς Σάραπις; Sb 159, 1 εἷς θεὸς ὁ βοηθῶν ὑμῶν; Philo, Spec. Leg. 1, 67; Jos., Ant. 5, 97 θεός τε εἷς; 8, 343, C. Ap. 2, 193; SibOr 4, 30 and Fgm. 1, 7; Ath. 6, 1 μονάς ἐστιν ὁ θεός, τοῦτʼ ἔστιν εἷς; 6, 4 ὁ θεὸς εἷς; s. EPeterson, Εἷς Θεός 1926; D. Monotheismus als polit. Problem ’35; additional reff. Horst, Ps.-Phoc. p. 151f). εἷς ἐστιν ὑμῶν ὁ διδάσκαλος Mt 23:8; cp. vs. 9. μιᾶς γυναικὸς ἀνήρ a husband married only once (numerous sepulchral ins celebrate the virtue of a surviving spouse by noting that he or she was married only once, thereby suggesting the virtue of extraordinary fidelity, e.g. CIL VI, 3604; 723; 12405; 14404; cp. Horace, Odes 3, 14, 4; Propertius 4, 11, 36; Valerius Maximus 4, 3, 3; and s. esp. CIL VI, 1527, 31670, 37053=ILS 8393 [text and Eng. tr.: EWistrand, The So-Called Laudatio Thuriae, ’76]; s. GWilliams, JRS 48, ’58 16–29. For the use of μία in ref. to a woman: Ael. Aristid. 46 p. 346 D.: ὑπὲρ μιᾶς γυναικός=for only one woman; μία γυνή quite freq.: Diod S 17, 72, 6; cp. 1, 80, 3, where the phrase γαμοῦσι μίαν simply means that the priests married only once, not that they lead a strictly moral life, a concept for which Greeks never use the expression μιᾶς γυναικὸς ἀνήρ or anything like it; Hippostratus [III B.C.]: 568 Fgm. 1 Jac.; Appian, Bell. Civ. 4, 95 §402; Ath. 33, 2 ἐφʼ ἑνὶ γάμῳ: Ath. terms a second marriage εὐπρεπής μοιχεία veiled adultery) 1 Ti 3:2, 12; Tit 1:6; others render husband of one wife (e.g. RSV in later printings; REB). Correspondingly ἑνὸς ἀνδρὸς γυνή (cp. the exemplary conduct of Hannah [Anna] Lk 2:36; Paus. 7, 25, 13 the priestess of the earth goddess must be a woman who, before she became a priestess, was not πλέον ἢ ἑνὸς ἀνδρὸς ἐς πεῖραν ἀφιγμένη) 1 Ti 5:9.—Abs. 1 Cor 9:24; 2 Cor 5:14. μεσίτης ἑνός an intermediary for one alone Gal 3:20; cp. Js 4:12. οὐδὲ εἷς not even a single (X., Mem. 1, 6, 2, Cyr. 1, 3, 10 et al.; Sir 42:20; 49:14 v.l.; 1 Macc 11:70) Mt 27:14; Ac 4:32. Freq. at the end of a sentence or clause (ref. fr. comedy in ESchwartz, NGG 1908, p. 534, 3. Also Hermocles [IV–III B.C.] p. 174, 17 Coll. Alex.; Dio Chrys. 21 [38], 23; Ael. Aristid. 28, 156 K.=49 p. 542 D.; 53 p. 617 D.; Epict. 2, 18, 26, Enchir. 1, 3; Philonides in Stob. 3, 35, 6 ed. Hense III p. 688; Mitt-Wilck. I/2, 59, 5 [39 A.D.]; Bel 18 Theod.; 1 Macc 7:46) Ro 3:10; οὐδὲ ἕν foll. by ἐὰν μή J 3:27. This is a good reason for placing the period after οὐδὲ ἕν J 1:3 (s. GBergh van Eysinga, PM 13, 1909, 143–50. EHennecke, Congr. d’ Hist. du Christ. I 1928, 207–19; Md’Asbeck, ibid. 220–28; REisler, Revue de Philol. 3 sér. 4, 1930, 350–71; BVawter, CBQ 25, ’63, 401–6; KAland, ZNW 59, ’68, 174–209; Metzger 195f; γίνομαι 2a), but the lack of inner punctuation in the older mss. validates consideration of alternative punctuation. οὐκ ἔστιν ἕως ἑνός there is not even one Ro 3:12 (Ps 13:3; Just., D. 103, 2 οὐδὲ μέχρις ἑνὸς ἀνθρώπου ‘not a single person’). μία εἴσοδος the only entrance Hs 9, 12, 6.—ἕν only one thing: ἔτι ἕν σοι λείπει you still lack only one thing (Jos., Bell. 4, 257) Lk 18:22. ἕν σε ὑστερεῖ you lack only one thing Mk 10:21; cp. Lk 10:42. ἓν οἶδα at least this one thing I know J 9:25. ἓν δὲ τοῦτο this one thing (Porphyr., Vi. Plot. 19; Just., D. 115, 6 ἓν δὲ μικρὸν ὁτιοῦν) 2 Pt 3:8.—ἓν δέ is a short interjectional sentence (like Xenophon Eph. 1, 5, 3 τοσοῦτο δέ•) just one thing! Phil 3:13 (AFridrichsen, ConNeot 9, ’44, 31f).—Gal 5:14 commercial imagery εἷς λόγος (just) one entry, one heading (cp. BGU 831, 13).
    alone (οὐδεὶς) … εἰ μὴ εἷς ὁ θεός Mk 2:7 (in the parallel Lk 5:21 μόνος ὁ θεός, cp. Herm Wr. 11, 11 εἰ μὴ εἷς ὁ θεός … εἰ μὴ μόνῳ τῷ θεῷ); 10:18; 12:29 (Dt 6:4); Mt 23:10; Lk 18:19.—EBishop, ET 49, ’38, 363–66.
    an unspecified entity, some/one=τὶς, whereby εἷς can mean exactly the same thing as the indef. art. (Aristoph. et al. [Av. 1292 εἷς κάπηλος]; Περὶ ὕψους 33, 4 p. 62, 18 V. [the rdg. of cod. Paris], εἷς ἕτερος w. μή ‘for no other reason’; Strabo 5, 3, 2, 230c ἐπηγγείλατο ἕνα ἀγῶνα ἱππικόν; Syntipas p. 29, 3 μία γαλῆ; Appian, Liby. 117 §554 νυκτὸς μιᾶς=one night; Marc. Diac. 27, 5 ἐν μιᾷ ἡμέρᾳ=on a certain day; SIG 1170, 15 [160 A.D.] μιᾷ ἡμέρᾳ; UPZ 162 I, 27 [117 B.C.]; PAmh 30, 28 [II B.C.] Κονδύλου ἑνὸς τῶν ἁλιείων; BGU 1044, 6; Gen 21:15; Jdth 14:6; 1 Esdr 3:5. B-D-F §247, 2; Mlt. 96f; Rob. 674f; Mlt-Turner 195f; EBruhn, RhM 49, 1894, 168–71; JWackernagel, Syntax II2 1928, 151; MBlack, An Aramaic Approach3, ’67, 104–6).
    someone, anyone Mt 18:24; 19:16; Mk 10:17; εἷς ὀνόματι Κλεοπᾶς Lk 24:18. Oft. w. partitive gen. foll. (Alexis 220, 5; Diod S 20, 107, 5 εἷς τῶν φίλων; Epict. 4, 2, 9; Dio Chrys. 71 [21], 15 εἷς τῶν Σπαρτῶν; TestJob 26:6 μίαν τῶν … γυναικῶν; Jos., Ant. 9, 106) ἕνα τῶν προφητῶν (some) one of the prophets Mt 16:14 (a diminishing term? s. Reader, Polemo p. 257). ἕνα τ. συνδούλων 18:28. ἐν μιᾷ τ. πόλεων Lk 5:12. ἐν μιᾷ τ. ἡμερῶν on one of the days vs. 17; cp. 15:19, 26; 22:47.
    as indef. art. (s. at 3 above beg.) εἷς γραμματεύς a scribe Mt 8:19. συκῆν μίαν a fig tree Mt 21:19; cp. 26:69; Mk 12:42. παιδάριον ἕν J 6:9 v.l.; ἑνὸς ἀετοῦ Rv 8:13; cp. 18:21; 19:17; ἄρχων εἷς ἐλθών Mt 9:18. εἷς στέφανος ApcPt 3:10; ἓν σῶμα AcPlCor 2:26.
    used w. τὶς (Pla., Thu., et al.; Jdth 2:13) εἷς τις νεανίσκος a certain young man Mk 14:51 v.l. W. partitive gen. foll. (Trypho Alex. [I B.C.] in Athen. 3, 78a ἕνα τινὰ τ. Τιτάνων; Aesop, Fab. 300 H./30 P. and H-H.; Hierocles 27, 484; IG XII/5, 445, 12 [III B.C.] ἕνα τινὰ αὐτῶν; Ael. Aristid. 29, 14 K.=40 p. 755D.: εἷς τις τ. χορευτῶν) εἷς τις τῶν παρεστηκότων a certain one of the bystanders vs. 47 (on the v.l. without τις s. PDickerson, JBL 116, ’97, 302); also εἷς τις ἐξ αὐτῶν (Jos., Vi. 290) Lk 22:50; J 11:49.
    marker of someth. that is first, the first
    perh. Hebraistic (cp. Num 1:1 ἐν μιᾷ τοῦ μηνὸς τ. δευτέρου; 2 Esdr 10:17; Esth 1:1a; Jos., Ant. 1, 29.—But s. also Lydus, Mens. 3, 4 W. τὴν κεφαλὴν τ. χρόνου οἱ Πυθαγόρειοι οὐχὶ πρώτην ἀλλὰ μίαν ὠνόμασαν; Callim., Fgm. 550 P. [482 Schneider] πρὸ μιῆς ὥρης=before the first hour of the day) is its use w. expressions denoting time instead of the ordinal number εἰς μίαν σαββάτων on the first day of the week Mt 28:1; cp. Lk 24:1; Mk 16:2; J 20:1, 19; Ac 20:7; also κατὰ μίαν σαββάτου 1 Cor 16:2 (cp. Just., D. 41, 4 τῇ μίᾳ τῶν σαββάτων ἡμέρᾳ; 27, 5 [here w. πρό and μετά resp., in accordance with Latin usage]).
    not Semitic (Hdt. 4, 161 μία, ἄλλη, τρίτη; Ael. Aristid. 36, 40 K.=48 p. 453 D.: ἕν, δεύτερον, τρίτον, τέταρτον; JosAs 2:17) εἷς καὶ δεύτερος a first and second Tit 3:10 (cp. Alciphron, Ep. 1, 9, 2; Galen XII 746 K.: ὕδωρ ὄμβριον ἔγχριε μέχρι μιᾶς καὶ δευτέρας ἡμέρας; Maximus Tyr. 28, 2h μίαδευτέρα; EpArist 143; Jos., Ant. 11, 150; 16, 350 πεσόντος ἑνός καὶ δευτέρου). S. also ἡ οὐαὶ ἡ μία Rv 9:12.—ἓν τριάκοντα Mk 4:8, 20 is prob. to be considered an Aramaism thirtyfold (B-D-F §248, 3; EKautzsch, Gramm. d. bibl. Aram. 1884 §66, 2; JHudson, ET 53, ’41/42, 266f).
    special combinations:
    εἷς … εἷς (Hom. et al. εἷς μὲν … εἷς δέ: X., Cyr. 1, 2, 4; Aristot., Rhet. 2, 20, 1393a; pap in Mitt-Wilck. I/2, 50, 11 and 13 [III B.C.] ἓν μὲν … ἓν δέ; II/2, 372 V, 14 [II A.D.] ὁ εἷς … ὁ εἷς; POxy 1153, 14 [I A.D.] ἓν μὲν … καὶ ἕν; 2 Km 12:1; Sir 34:23f εἷς … καὶ εἷς; Esth 10:3g δύο, ἕνα τῷ λαῷ … καὶ ἕνα τ. ἔθνεσιν; TestJob 51:3 μιᾶς ὑποσειμιούσης τῇ μιᾷ) (the) one … the other Mt 20:21; 24:40f; 27:38; J 20:12; Gal 4:22; B 7:6f. εἷς τὸν ἕνα one another (=ἀλλήλους) 1 Th 5:11 (cp. Theocr. 22, 65 εἷς ἑνί; TestJob 27:3 εἷς τόν ἕνα κατέρραξαν ‘threw each other to the ground’).
    εἷς … εἷς … εἷς one … another … a third Mt 17:4 (cp. 1 Km 10:3; 13:17, 18).
    εἷς ἕκαστος every single, strengthening ἕκαστος, adj. Eph 4:16. Mostly subst.; s. ἕκαστος b.
    ὁ εἷς … ὁ ἕτερος the one … the other (Aristot., De Rep. Ath. 37, 1; Hyperid. 5, 14f; UPZ 161, 39; 43; 46 [119 B.C.]; PGen 48, 6ff μίαν μὲν … τὴν δὲ ἑτέραν; BGU 194, 15f; Esth 5:1a; TestAbr A 11 p. 88, 29 [Stone p. 24]; Just. D. 49, 2 al.) Mt 6:24; Lk 7:41; 16:13; 17:34f; 18:10 al.; also ὁ εἷς … ὁ ἄλλος Rv 17:10.
    distrib. (1 Ch 24:6 εἷς εἷς; AscIs 3:27 εἷς καὶ εἷς καὶ εἷς ἐν τόποις καὶ τόποις) καθʼ ἕνα, καθʼ ἕν (Hdt., Pla. et al.; 1 Esdr 1:31; 4 Macc 15:12, 14; Jos., Bell. 4, 240, Ant. 12, 191; Ath. 25, 3 καθʼ ἕνα καὶ κατὰ ἔθνη) ITr 12:2; καθʼ ἕνα πάντες all, one by one 1 Cor 14:31 (cp. Ps.-Xenophon, Cyn. 6, 14). ὑμεῖς οἱ καθʼ ἕνα ἕκαστος each one of you Eph 5:33. καθʼ ἕν one after the other (hence τὸ καθʼ ἕν ‘a detailed list’: PLille 11, 8 [III B.C.]; PTebt 47, 34; 332, 16) J 21:25. Also καθʼ ἓν ἕκαστον (X., Cyr. 1, 6, 22, Ages. 7, 1; EpArist 143) Ac 21:19. ἓν καθʼ ἕν (Aesop, Fab. 274 P.; PLeid II, X 1, 22) each one Rv 4:8. In this pass. the second ἕν could be an undeclined nom. as in εἷς κατὰ εἷς (cp. Lucian, Sol. 9; 3 Macc 5:34. Other exx. in W-S. §26, 9; 11 and Wetstein I 627) one after the other Mk 14:19; J 8:9. τὸ καθʼ εἷς opp. οἱ πολλοί individually Ro 12:5; but κατὰ ἕνα = ἕκαστον Hs 9, 3, 5; 9, 6, 3 (B-D-F §305). ἀνὰ εἷς ἕκαστος each one Rv 21:21.
    ἀπὸ μιᾶς s. ἀπό 6 (as idiom w. noun to be supplied Mitt-Wilck. I/2, 46, 15 [338 A.D.] μίαν ἐκ μιᾶς, i.e. ἡμέραν=day after day).—B. 937; 1007f. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > εἷς

  • 150 ζάω

    ζάω contr. ζῶ (Hom.+) impf. ἔζων (Ro 7:9 B ἔζην; on this form s. Schwyzer I 675; B-D-F §88; Mlt-H. 194, both w. ref.); fut. ζήσω (uniformly attested Ro 6:2; Hb 12:9); the later (since Hippocr. VII p. 536 L.; LXX; AscIs 3:9; Jos., Ant. 1, 193 al.) form ζήσομαι (B-D-F §77; Rob. 356) is more common (on the fut. forms s. JLee, NovT 22, ’80, 289–98; GKilpatrick, ibid. 25, ’83, 146–51); 1 aor. ἔζησα. On the LXX usage s. Thackeray 269; for forms in pap, Gignac II 370.
    to be alive physically, live
    of physical life in contrast to death
    α. gener. Ac 22:22; Ro 7:1, 2, 3; 14:8ac; 1 Cor 7:39; 2 Cor 5:15a; 6:9; Hb 9:17. ψυχὴ ζῶσα a living soul (Gen 1:20 al.; Just., D. 6, 1 ζῇ ψυχῇ) 1 Cor 15:45 (Gen 2:7); Rv 16:3 v.l. ὅσα ἔτη ζῇ as many years as he lives B 10:6 (cp. SIG 663, 6; Sb 173, 6 Αὐρήλιος ζήσας ἔτη νε´; En 10:10). τὸ ζῆν life (Attic wr., ins, pap, LXX) ὥστε ἐξαπορηθῆναι ἡμᾶς καὶ τοῦ ζῆν so that we even despaired of life 2 Cor 1:8. διὰ παντὸς τοῦ ζῆν during the whole lifetime Hb 2:15 (cp. Diod S 1, 74, 3 διατελεῖν πάντα τὸν τοῦ ζῆν χρόνον; 4, 46, 4). ἔτι ζῶν while he was still living= before his death Mt 27:63 (CB I/2 660 no. 618 Ζώσιμος ἔτι ζῶν κατεσκεύασεν; 3 Km 12:6). ζῶντες ἐβλήθησαν … εἰς τὴν λίμνην τοῦ πυρός they were thrown alive into the lake of fire Rv 19:20. ζῶσα τέθνηκεν though alive she is dead 1 Ti 5:6 (cp. Sextus 7). ἡμεῖς οἱ ζῶντες we during our (earthly) life 2 Cor 4:11; the same phrase= we who are still living 1 Th 4:15, 17. Here the opp. is νεκροί, as in Mt 22:32; Mk 12:27; Lk 20:38a. ζῶντες καὶ νεκροί the living and the dead Ac 10:42; Ro 14:9b; 2 Ti 4:1; 1 Pt 4:5; 2 Cl 1:1; B 7:2.—Occasionally the contrast betw. νεκρός and ζῆν is used fig. with ref. to the realm of religion and ethics Lk 15:24 v.l., 32.
    β. of dead persons who return to life become alive again: of humans in general (3 Km 17:23) Mt 9:18; Ac 9:41; 20:12; Rv 20:4, 5; AcPl Ha 11, 7. Of Jesus Mk 16:11; Lk 24:5, 23; Ac 1:3; 25:19; Ro 14:9a; 2 Cor 13:4a; Rv 1:18b; 2:8 (Just., D. 69, 6 νεκροὺς … ζῆν ποιήσας).
    γ. of sick persons, if their illness terminates not in death but in recovery be well, recover (Artem. 4, 4 ἔζησεν ὁ παῖς=became well; 5, 71; 72; PGM 1, 188; 4 Km 1:2; 8:8 εἰ ζήσομαι ἐκ τῆς ἀρρωστίας μου ταύτης; Jos., Vi. 421) Mk 5:23; J 4:50, 51, 53.—Of removal of anxiety 1 Th 3:8.
    δ. also of healthy persons live on, remain alive (X., An. 3, 2, 39 ὅστις δὲ ζῆν ἐπιθυμεῖ πειράσθω νικᾶν; Ep. 56 of Apollonius of Tyana [Philostrat. I 359, 14]; ApcMos 31 διὰ τί σὺ ἀποθνῄσκεις καγὼ ζῶ;) Ac 25:24; 28:4. ἐὰν ὁ κύριος θελήσῃ ζήσομεν Js 4:15. ὸ̓ς ἔχει τὴν πληγὴν τῆς μαχαίρης καὶ ἔζησεν Rv 13:14.
    ε. of beings that in reality, or as they are portrayed, are not subject to death: of Melchizedek Hb 7:8 (opp. ἀποθνῄσκοντες ἄνθρωποι). Jesus as everlasting high priest πάντοτε ζῶν 7:25.—In this sense it is most comprehensively applied to God (s. CBurchard, Untersuch. zu JosAs p. 103) (ὁ) θεὸς (ὁ) ζῶν (cp. 4 Km 19:4, 16; Is 37:4, 17; Hos 2:1; Da 6:21 Theod.; 3 Macc 6:28; TestAbr A 17 p. 99, 10 [Stone p. 46]; TestJob 37:2; JosAs 49:3 al.; SibOr 3, 763; POxy 924, 11 [IV A.D., Gnostic]; PGM 4, 1038 ὁ μέγας ζῶν θεός; 7, 823; 12, 79; Philo, Decal. 67 ὁ ζῶν ἀεὶ θεός; Orig., C. Cels. 8, 59, 18.—The phrase ‘the living God’ is not found in Joseph.) Mt 16:16; 26:63; J 6:69 v.l.; Ac 14:15; Ro 9:26 (Hos 2:1); 2 Cor 3:3; 6:16; 1 Th 1:9; 1 Ti 3:15; 4:10; 6:17 v.l.; Hb 3:12; 9:14; 10:31; 12:22; Rv 1:18a; 4:10; 7:2; 10:6; 2 Cl 20:2; GJs 20:1; AcPl Ha 2, 32; also ὁ ζῶν πατήρ J 6:57. W. the addition εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων Rv 15:7; cp. 4:9 (cp. Tob 13:2; Sir 18:1). God takes a sovereign oath in the words ζῶ ἐγώ as surely as I live (Num 14:28 al.) Ro 14:11 (Is 49:18; classical parallels GStählin, NovT 5, ’62, 142 n. 2). ζῇ κύριος ὁ θεός [μου] as surely as the Lord my God lives GJs 4:1; 6:1; 13:3; 15:3; 19:3 (Judg 8:19; 1 Km 25:34 al; GrBar 1:7; cp. ApcEsdr 2:7); in expanded form καὶ ζῇ ὁ Χριστὸς αὐτοῦ 15:4 (s. deStrycker ad loc.).—Christ lives διὰ τὸν πατέρα because of the Father J 6:57b (s. Bultmann, comm. ad loc.).
    w. mention of that upon which life depends ἐπί τινι on the basis of someth. (Andoc. 1, 100; Isocr. 10, 18; Ael. Aristid. 28, 103 K.=49 p. 525 D.) ζ. ἐπʼ ἄρτῳ live on bread Mt 4:4; Lk 4:4 (both Dt 8:3). ζ. ἔκ τινος obtain one’s living fr. someth. (Aristoph., Eccl. 591; Demosth. 57, 36; POxy 1117, 19; 1557, 12; TestJob 47:1f) 1 Cor 9:14.
    w. more precise mention of the sphere (Artem. 3, 62 ἐν ἀγορᾷ ζ.=spend his life in the marketplace) ζ. ἐν σαρκί live in the flesh in contrast to the heavenly life Phil 1:22; Gal 2:20c; ζ. ἐν κόσμῳ live in the world Col 2:20. ζ. ἐν θεῷ, live in God (as the Being who penetrates and embraces everything) Ac 17:28 (s. κινέω 3). For AcPl Ha 1, 15 s. 2a end.
    to live in a transcendent sense, live, of the sanctified life of a child of God (ζῆν in the sense of a higher type of life than the animal: X., Mem. 3, 3, 11; Cass. Dio 69, 19: after years of public service, Similis retires and prepares this epitaph: Σίμιλις ἐνταύθα κεῖται βιοὺς μὲν ἔτη τόσα, ζήσας δὲ ἔτη ἑπτά=Here lies Similis, existing for so many years, but alive for only seven.).
    in the world ἐγὼ ἔζων χωρὶς νόμου ποτέ I was once (truly) alive without law (this has been interpr. to mean when no law existed; Paul is then regarded as speaking fr. the viewpoint of humanity in paradise before the command Gen 2:16 f; 3:3. Another interpr. thinks of Paul as referring to the period in his life when he was not conscious of the existence and significance of the law. In view of Paul’s climactic affirmation in Ro 7:25, Paul probably illustrates in the first person the perils of a Christian who succumbs to the illusion that moral action is connected with law rather than with the ‘spirit of life in Christ’ Ro 8:2) Ro 7:9. Even now those who listen to the voice of the Son of God enjoy this life J 5:25; cp. 11:26; likew. those who receive him into their being ὁ τρώγων τὸν ἄρτον 6:57c; cp. Ro 6:11, 13 (ἐκ νεκρῶν ζῶντας); Gal 2:19; Rv 3:1. This heavenly life on earth is a ζ. πνεύματι Gal 5:25 or a life not of mere human achievement, but of Christ who lives in Christians 2:20ab. Also of the superhuman power of the apostle ζήσομεν σὺν αὐτῷ ἐκ δυνάμεως θεοῦ εἰς ὑμᾶς we shall live with him (Christ) through God’s power in our dealings with you 2 Cor 13:4. ὁ κύριος βούλεται ζῆν ἡμᾶς ἐν θεῷ=the Lord wills that we live under God’s direction AcPl Ha 1, 15 (opp. ἀποθανεῖν ἐν ἁμαρτίαις; s. 1c end)
    in the glory of the life to come (Sir 48:11; cp. Dt 4:1; 8:1; 30:16).
    α. abs. Lk 10:28; J 11:25; 14:19; Ro 8:13b; Hb 12:9. ἐμοὶ τ. ζῆν Χριστός= life is possible for me only where Christ is (hence death is gain) Phil 1:21 (s. OSchmitz, GHeinrici Festschr. 1914, 155–69). Another common interpr. is for me to live is Christ, i.e. while I am alive I experience real life in connection with Christ; w. death comes life in all fullness in the presence of Jesus.
    β. More specifically εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα have eternal life (Ps.-Lucian, Philopatr. 17 ζῆν εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα; PsSol 14:2) J 6:51, 58 (in J the blessed life which the follower of Jesus enjoys here and now in the body is simply continued in the heavenly life of the future. In other respects also the dividing line betw. the present and the future life is somet. nonexistent or at least not discernible); B 6:3; 8:5; 9:2; 11:10f; ἅμα σὺν αὐτῷ (i.e. Χριστῷ) ζ. live together with Christ 1 Th 5:10; ζ. διʼ αὐτοῦ (i.e. Chr.) 1J 4:9; ζ. κατὰ θεὸν πνεύματι live, as God (lives), in the Spirit 1 Pt 4:6. ὁ δίκαιος ἐκ πίστεως ζήσεται (cp. Hab 2:4) he that is just through faith will have life Ro 1:17 (AFeuillet, NTS 6, ’59, 52–80; but s. Fitzmyer, Ro [AB] ad loc.); Gal 3:11; Hb 10:38. This life is τὸ ἀληθινὸν ζῆν ITr 9:2; IEph 11:1. Christ is called τὸ ἀδιάκριτον ἡμῶν ζῆν our unshakable or inseparable life 3:2. τὸ διὰ παντὸς ἡμῶν ζῆν our total life 1 Mg 1:2—The law-directed pers. believes concerning legal performance: ὁ ποιήσας αὐτὰ ζήσεται ἐν αὐτοῖς (Lev 18:5) Gal 3:12; cp. Ro 10:5 (cp. Dio Chrys. 58 [75], 1 οἱ τοῦτον [= τ. νόμον] φυλάττοντες ἔχονται τῆς σωτηρίας=those who observe law have a firm grip on security).
    to conduct oneself in a pattern of behavior, live (Hom. et al.)
    used w. adverbs or other modifiers: adv. (Sallust. 19 p. 34, 25 κακῶς ζῆν [Just., A I, 4, 7]; SIG 889, 13ff; Wsd 14:28; Philo; Jos., Ant. 12, 198; Ath. 3, 1 δίκην θηρίων) ἀσώτως Lk 15:13. ἐθνικῶς and ἰουδαϊκῶς Gal 2:14. εὐσεβῶς 2 Ti 3:12. πανούργως Hm 3, 3. σωφρόνως κ. δικαίως κ. εὐσεβῶς Tit 2:12 (Plut., Mor. 1108c ζῆν σωφρόνως κ. δικαίως; cp. Diog. L. 10, 132; 140; Ar. 15, 10).—Φαρισαῖος live as a Pharisee Ac 26:5. ἐν πίστει Gal 2:20d. ἐν ἁμαρτίᾳ Ro 6:2; ζ. ἐν τούτοις live in these (sins) Col 3:7. κατὰ ἀλήθειαν in keeping w. the truth IEph 6:2 (cp. Philo, Post. Cai. 73 κατὰ βούλημα τὸ τοῦ θεοῦ ζ.; Jos., Ant. 4, 302 κατὰ τ. νόμους ζ.; Just., D. 47, 4 κατὰ τὸν νόμον; Orig., C. Cels. 7, 12, 7 κατὰ τὰς θείας γραφάς). κατὰ θεόν 8:1 (cp. SIG 910 A and B). κατὰ Ἰησοῦν Χριστόν IPhld 3:2. κατὰ Χριστιανισμόν live in accordance w. (our) commitment to Christ IMg 10:1. κατὰ σάρκα Ro 8:12f; Dg 5:8; κατὰ κυριακὴν ζ. (opp. σαββατίζειν) include the observance of the Lord’s day in one’s life IMg 9:1. Of a married woman ζ. μετὰ ἀνδρός live w. her husband Lk 2:36 (for the added acc. of extent of time cp. Ael. Aristid. 46 p. 332 D.; Pr 28:16; ἥτις ἔζησεν καλῶς μετʼ ἐμοῦ ἔτη 28, μῆνας 4, ἡμέρας 5: SEG II, 384, 6–8 [restored]; s. also FDanker, Jesus and the New Age ’88, 71).
    τινί live for someone or someth., for the other’s benefit (Hom. et al.; Demosth. 7, 17 οἳ οὐκ αἰσχύνονται Φιλίππῳ ζῶντες καὶ οὐ τῇ ἑαυτῶν πατρίδι; Dionys. Hal. 3, 17 … παῖδες, τῷ πατρὶ ζῶντες) ζ. τῷ θεῷ (4 Macc 7:19; 16:25; Philo, Mut. Nom. 13, Rer. Div. Her. 111; s. SAalen, NTS 13, ’67, 10) Lk 20:38b (cp. Soph., Ajax 970); Ro 6:10, 11; Gal 2:19; Hm 3:5; AcPl Ha 10, 7; τῷ κυρίῳ Ro 14:8b (cp. Plut., Cleom. 819 [31, 5]). For Christ 2 Cor 5:15; τῷ ἐμῷ βασιλεῖ AcPl Ha 9, 26 (restored after Aa I 112, 14) τῇ δικαιοσύνῃ ζ. 1 Pt 2:24; ἑαυτῷ ζ. live for oneself (Menand., Fgm. 646 Kö. οὐχ ἑαυτῷ ζῆν μόνον; Diod S 10, 33, 2 ζ. ἑαυτοῖς=live for themselves) Ro 14:7.
    to be full of vitality, be lively the ptc. is used fig. w. respect to things (cp. τῶν δένδρων τῶν ζῶντων ParJer 9:3), of spring water in contrast w. cistern water ὕδωρ ζῶν (Gen 26:19; Lev 14:5; Jer 2:13 v.l.; Zech 14:8.—Stagnant water is called ὕ. νεκρόν: Synes., Ep. 114, 254d) J 4:10f (Hdb. exc. on J 4:14); 7:38; D 7:1f (Wengst p. 77 n. 57). ζώσας πηγάς Rv 7:17 v.l.
    to be life-productive, offer life ptc. used w. respect to things (SIG 1173 [138 A.D.], 5 ζῶσαι ἀρεταὶ ἐγένοντο=miracles full of divine life occurred) λόγια ζῶντα words that meant life Ac 7:38. λόγος ζῶν θεοῦ 1 Pt 1:23; cp. Hb 4:12. ὁδὸς ζῶσα a living way 10:20. ἐλπὶς ζῶσα a living hope 1 Pt 1:3.—ζ. is also used of things which serve as descriptions of pers. who communicate divine life: of Christ ὁ ἄρτος ὁ ζῶν J 6:51a. λίθος ζῶν 1 Pt 2:4. Of Christians: θυσία ζῶσα a living sacrifice Ro 12:1. λίθοι ζῶντες 1 Pt 2:5.—τὰ παρὰ ζώσης φωνῆς καὶ μενούσης the (words) of a living and abiding voice Papias (2:4) (opp. ἐκ τῶν βιβλίων).—Lit. s. ζωή end. DELG s.v. ζώω.M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ζάω

  • 151 ζωή

    ζωή, ῆς, ἡ (Hom.+; in Hom. ‘living’=‘substance, property’, without which there would not be life; after Hom. ‘life, existence’ opp. death, then ‘way of life’ Hdt. 4, 112)
    life in the physical sense, life ἐν σαρκὶ ζ. Orig., C. Cels. 6, 59, 8)
    opp. θάνατος (Pind. et al.; Lucian, Tox. 38; Sir 37:18; Pr 18:21; Philo; Just., A I, 57, 3; Mel., P. 49, 355) Ro 8:38; 1 Cor 3:22; Phil 1:20. ἐν τῇ ζωῇ σου during your life Lk 16:25 (s. Sir 30:5); cp. 12:15; Ac 8:33 (Is 53:8); Js 4:14; 1 Cl 16:8 (Is 53:8); 17:4 (cp. Job 14:5); 20:10; Hm 3:3. πᾶς χρόνος τῆς ζωῆς ἡμῶν B 4:9 (cp. PsSol 17:2; JosAs 13:12). πάσας τὰς ἡμέρας τῆς ζωῆς αὐτῶν Hs 9, 29, 2; cp. GJs 4:1; τὰς λοιπὰς τῆς ζωῆς ἡμέρας Hv 4, 2, 5; cp. v 5, 2; m 12, 2; Hs 6, 3, 6. τὴν ἐσχάτην ἡμέραν τῆς ζωῆς αὐτοῦ Hv 3, 12, 2. ἐν τῇ ζ. ταύτῃ in this life 1 Cor 15:19; also ζ. ἡ νῦν (opp. ἡ μέλλουσα) 1 Ti 4:8 (Tat. 14, 2). τέλος ζωῆς end of life Hb 7:3 (TestAbr A 1 p. 78, 5 [Stone p. 4]). ζωὴ κ. πνοή life and breath Ac 17:25 (cp. Gen 2:7; 7:22). πνεῦμα ζωῆς breath of life Rv 11:11 (cp. Gen 6:17; 7:15; TestAbr A 18 p. 100, 31 [Stone p. 48]). ψυχὴ ζωῆς living thing 16:3 (cp. Gen 1:30; Just., D. 6, 1 ἡ ψυχὴ ἤτοι ζωή ἐστιν ἢ ζωὴν ἔχει). πρὸς ζωῆς necessary for life 1 Cl 20:10. Of the indestructible life of those clothed in the heavenly body 2 Cor 5:4. The life of the risen Christ also has this character Ro 5:10; 2 Cor 4:10f; ζ. ἀκατάλυτος Hb 7:16. ὁδοὶ ζωῆς Ac 2:28 (Ps 15:11). Christ is ἐν θανάτῳ ζ. ἀληθινή IEph 7:2.
    means of sustenance, livelihood (Hdt. et al.; Sir 4:1; 29:21) Hs 9, 26, 2.
    the course or mode of one’s life (cp. βίος 1) Hm 8, 4 and 9; 11, 7 and 16; Hs 9, 16, 2 al. In some of these pass. a transition to the moral aspect is apparent.
    transcendent life, life
    God and Christ
    α. God as ζωή Dg 9:6b; as ζωὴ αἰώνιος 1J 5:20. Of the cross IEph 18:1. It is true of God that ἔχει ζωὴν ἐν ἑαυτῷ J 5:26a. God’s commandment is eternal life 12:50 (cp. Philo, Fug. 198 God is the πρεσβυτάτη πηγὴ ζωῆς; Herm. Wr. 11, 13; 14; 12, 15 God the πλήρωμα τ. ζωῆς; PGM 3, 602 [s. Rtzst., Mysterienrel.3 286, ln. 11]; the deity called Νοῦς as ζωή and φῶς Herm. Wr. 1:9, 12, 17, 21, 32; 13:9, 18, 19. Cp. also Ps 35:10; 55:14; SibOr Fgm. 3, 34; JosAs 8:10f al.).
    β. of Christ, who received life fr. God J 5:26b (ἡ ζωὴ τῆς πίστεως ParJer 9:14). ἐν αὐτῷ ζ. ἦν 1:4a; cp. 1J 5:11b. He is the ἀρχηγὸς τ. ζωῆς Ac 3:15, the λόγος τ. ζωῆς 1J 1:1; cp. vs. 2, the ἄρτος τ. ζωῆς J 6:35, 48; cp. vs. 33 (EJanot, Le pain de vie: Gregorianum 11, 1930, 161–70), also simply ζωή 11:25; 14:6 or ἡ ζ. ὑμῶν Col 3:4; cp. B 2, 10; IMg 9:1. Since the life in him was τὸ φῶς τ. ἀνθρώπων J 1:4b, people through following him obtain τὸ φῶς τ. ζωῆς 8:12 (on the combination of light and life cp. 1QS 3, 7 and the Orph. Hymns to Helios no. 8, 18 Qu. ζωῆς φῶς, as well as Christian ins of Rome [Ramsay, Luke the Physician 1908 p. 375, 238 A.D.], where a father calls his dead son γλυκύτερον φωτὸς καὶ ζοῆς; s. also α above).—SBartina, La vida como historia en J 1:1–18, Biblica 49, ’68, 91–96.
    The discussion now turns naturally to the life of the believers, which proceeds fr. God and Christ.
    α. without (clear) eschatol. implications, of the life of grace and holiness ἐν καινότητι ζωῆς περιπατεῖν walk in (i.e. live) a new life Ro 6:4; cp. IEph 19:3. ἀπηλλοτριωμένοι τ. ζωῆς τ. θεοῦ estranged fr. the life of God Eph 4:18 (cp. Philo, Post. Cai. 69 τῆς θεοῦ ζωῆς ἀπεσχοινίσθαι). ἡ ζωὴ τ. ἀνθρώπων the (true) life of persons (in God) Hm 2:1.—Of the life of salvation and of glory. It is ζ. κυρίου B 1:4 (cp. PGM 12, 255 κύριε τ. ζωῆς; 13, 783) or ζ. ἐν Χρ. Ἰησοῦ 2 Ti 1:1; cp. ζωὴν ὑμῖν ὁ κύριος χαρίζεται Hs 9, 28, 6; effected by his words or by the proclamation of the gospel: ῥήματα ζ. αἰωνίου J 6:68; cp. vs. 63. τὰ ῥήματα τῆς ζ. ταύτης Ac 5:20. λόγος ζωῆς word of life Phil 2:16; cp. 2 Ti 1:10; 2 Cor 4:12. Hence the apostle, proclaiming the gospel, can term himself the bearer of the ‘fragrance of Christ’, leading those appointed to this bliss, the rescued ἐκ ζωῆς εἰς ζωήν from life to life (i.e., as it seems, ever more deeply into the divine life) 2 Cor 2:16.—The Spirit stands w. Christ as the power of life πνεῦμα τῆς ζωῆς ἐν Χρ. Ἰησοῦ the spirit of life in Chr. J. Ro 8:2; cp. vss. 6, 10 and J 6:63.—Like the words of Christ, the divine ἐντολή is also to bring life Ro 7:10; Hm 7:5; Hs 8, 7, 6. This ζ. is regarded as God’s gift ζ. ἐν ἀθανασίᾳ 1 Cl 35:2. W. ἀφθαρσία 2 Ti 1:10; 2 Cl 14:5; IPol 2:3. W. γνῶσις D 9:3; Dg 12:3–7. W. εὐσέβεια 2 Pt 1:3. W. εἰρήνη Ro 8:6. W. σωτηρία 2 Cl 19:1. ἀγάπην ἥτις ἐστὶν ἀρχὴ ζωὴς καὶ τέλος IEph 14:1. Christians, who truly belong to the ἐκκλησία τῆς ζωῆς 2 Cl 14:1, are heirs of life, the gift of grace 1 Pt 3:7. This life, as long as they are in the body, κέκρυπται σὺν τ. Χριστῷ ἐν τῷ θεῷ is hidden with Christ in God Col 3:3. Those who forfeit their ζ. (=their real life in contrast to their physical existence as ψυχή) are excluded fr. the life of glory Hv 1, 1, 9; Hs 6, 2, 3; 8, 6, 4; 6; 8, 8, 2f; 5; 9, 21, 4.—Cp. also Ac 11:18 (s. 1QS 3, 1); 13:46, 48. ἡ ὁδὸς τῆς ζ. D 1:2; 4:14. τὰς τρίβους τῆς ζ. Hs 5, 6, 3. Esp. in Johannine usage the term ζ. is copiously employed, as a rule to designate the result of faith in Christ; in most cases it is stated expressly that the follower of Jesus possesses life even in this world: ἔχειν ζωήν (Theophr. in a scholion on Pla. 631c εἰ ζωὴν εἶχεν ὁ πλοῦτος=‘had life, were alive’) J 3:15f, 36a; 5:24a, 40; 6:40, 47, 51, 53f; 10:10; 20:31; 1J 3:15; 5:12ab, 13. διδόναι ζωήν (cp. Sb 8202, 3 [105 B.C.]) J 10:28; 17:2; 1J 5:11.—Cp. 5:16. ὁρᾶν ζωήν J 3:36b. μεταβεβηκέναι ἐκ τ. θανάτου εἰς τ. ζωήν to have passed fr. death into life J 5:24; 1J 3:14. Hence in the eschatol. pass. J 5:29 ἀνάστασις ζωῆς means not a resurrection to enter life (cp. 2 Macc 7:14 and MPol 14:2, where ἀνάστασις ζωῆς αἰ., it seems, is res. to everlasting life), but a resurrection which corresponds to the Christian’s possession of life here and now, a resurrection proceeding from life. J is fond of calling this Life ζ. αἰώνιος, as in many pass. just cited (s. αἰώνιος 3) J 3:15f, 36; 4:14, 36; 5:24, 39; 6:27, 40, 47, 54, 68; 10:28; 12:25, 50; 17:2f; 1J 1:2; 2:25; 3:15; 5:11, 13, 20. But the use of this expr. in our lit. is by no means limited to J and 1J; it is also found in Mt, Mk, Lk, Ac, Ro, Gal, 1 Ti, Tit, Jd, 2 Cl, Ign, MPol, Hermas, Didache (Just., Mel., Ath.; Orig., C. Cels. 2, 77, 31 [w. ἀνάστασις]; cp. αἴδιος ζ. Tat. 14, 2) w. unmistakable eschatol. connotation.
    β. ζ. (and ζ. αἰώνιος; cp. 1QS 4:7 and s. J 3:15 al.; opp. ἀπώλεια TestAbr B 8 p. 113, 2 [Stone p. 74]) is used of life in the blessed period of final consummation, in the foll. pass.: ἐν τῷ αἰῶνι τῷ ἐρχομένῳ ζ. αἰ. in the coming age eternal life Mk 10:30; Lk 18:30; cp. Mt 19:29 (Ar. 15, 3 ζ. τοῦ μέλλοντος αἰώνος). τί ποιήσω ἵνα ζ. αἰ. κληρονομήσω; Mk 10:17; cp. Lk 18:18; 10:25; Mt 19:16f (PsSol 14:10). As a result of the Last Judgment ἀπελεύσονται οἱ δίκαιοι εἰς ζ. αἰ. Mt 25:46 (cp. PsSol 13:11); s. also Ro 2:7 (cp. 1QS 4:6–8).—Cp. also Mt 7:14; 18:8f; Mk 9:43, 45; Ro 5:17f, 21; 6:22f; ζ. ἐκ νεκρῶν life for those who have come out of the state of death 11:15.—Gal 6:8; 1 Ti 1:16; 6:12, 19; 1 Pt 3:10 (Ps 33:13); Jd 21; 2 Cl 8:4, 6; Dg 9:1, 6a. For 2 Cor 5:4 s. 1a. Of martyrs τὴν αἰώνιον ζ. ἐξαγοραζόμενοι purchasing eternal life for themselves MPol 2:3 (Mosquensis, other Gk. codd. κόλασιν). W. ἀνάπαυσις τ. μελλούσης βασιλείας 2 Cl 5:5. This life is called ἡ ὄντως ζ. the real, true life (the redundancy may derive from awareness of a distinction sometimes made in the Gr-Rom. world between real living ζωή and biological existence βίος; s., e.g., IPriene 105, 10=OGI 458, 10; cp. Cass. Dio 69, 19) 1 Ti 6:19; ζωῆς ἀληθοῦς Dg 12:4; ἡ ἐπουράνιος ζ. 2 Cl 20:5; ἀί̈διος ζ. IEph 19:3 (s. ἀί̈διος). Hope is directed toward it, ζωῆς ἐλπίς B 1:6; cp. Tit 1:2; 3:7; Hs 9, 26, 2.—The references to future glory include the foll. expressions: βίβλος or βιβλίον (τῆς) ζωῆς (s. βίβλος 2) Phil 4:3; Rv 3:5; 13:8; 17:8; 20:12, 15; 21:27; Hv 1, 3, 2. τὸ ξύλον (τῆς) ζωῆς the tree of life (4 Macc 18:16; cp. Pr 3:18; Gen 2:9; PsSol 14:3; ParJer 9:16 [δένδρον]; ApcEsdr 2:11; ApcMos 19 al.; Philo.—ξύλον 3) Rv 2:7; 22:2, 14, 19; Dg 12:3f. στέφανος τ. ζωῆς (s. Bousset, Rel.3 277f; MDibelius on Js 1:12; FCumont, Études syriennes 1917, 63–69; s. στέφανος) Js 1:12; Rv 2:10. ὕδωρ (τῆς) ζωῆς (Just., D. 19, 2 βάπτισμα; cp. ὕδωρ 2) 21:6; 22:1, 17. πηγὴ ζωῆς B 11:2 (cp. Jer 2:13; Ps 35:10; OdeSol 11:6). ζωῆς πηγαὶ ὑδάτων springs of living water Rv 7:17. For ἄρτος τῆς ζωῆς s. ἄρτος 2 end.—FBurkitt, ZNW 12, 1911, 228–30; RCharles, A Critical Hist. of the Doctrine of a Fut. Life in Israel, in Judaism and in Christianity2 1913; FLindblom, D. ewige Leben 1914; Bousset, Rel.3 269–95; JFrey, Biblica 13, ’32, 129–68.—EvDobschütz, D. Gewissheit des ew. Leb. nach d. NT: ‘Dienet einander’ 29, 1920/21, 1–8; 43–52; 65–71; 97–101; JUbbink, Het eeuwige leven bij Pls 1917; ESommerlath, D. Ursprung d. neuen Lebens nach Pls2 1926; JMüller, D. Lebensbegr. d. Hl. Pls ’40; NvArseniew, D. neue Leben nach dem Eph: Internat. Kirchl. Ztschr. 20, 1930, 230–36; EvSchrenk, D. joh. Anschauung vom ‘Leben’ 1898; JFrey, ‘Vie’ dans l’Év. de St. Jean: Biblica 1, 1920, 37–58; 211–39; RBultmann, D. Eschatol. d. Joh Ev.: Zwischen d. Zeiten 6, 1928, 1ff; HPribnow, D. joh. Anschauung v. ‘Leben’ ’34; DLyons, The Concept of Eternal Life in J ’38; JKoole, Diorama Johanneum. Ζωή: GereformTT 43, ’42, 276–84; FMussner, ΖΩΗ (Joh. lit.), diss. Munich ’52; DHill, Gk. Words and Hebrew Mngs. ’67, 163–201.—B. 285. S. βίος and Schmidt, Syn. IV 40–53. DELG s.v. ζώω 1. EDNT. M-M. TW. Sv.

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  • 152 θάνατος

    θάνατος, ου, ὁ (Hom.+)
    the termination of physical life, death
    natural death J 11:4, 13; Hb 7:23; 9:15f; Rv 18:8 (s. also 1d); 1 Cl 9:3. Opp. ζωή (Mel., P. 49, 355; cp. 2a.) Ro 7:10; 8:38; 1 Cor 3:22; 2 Cor 1:9 (s. also 1bα); Phil 1:20. γεύεσθαι θανάτου taste death = die (γεύομαι 2) Mt 16:28; Mk 9:1; Lk 9:27; J 8:52; Hb 2:9b. Also ἰδεῖν θάνατον (Astrampsychus p. 26 Dec. 48, 2. Also θεάομαι θ. p. 6 ln. 53) Lk 2:26; Hb 11:5; ζητεῖν τὸν θ. Rv 9:6 (where follows φεύγει ὁ θ. ἀπʼ αὐτῶν). θανάτου καταφρονεῖν despise death ISm 3:2; Dg 10:7a (Just., A II, 10, 8 al.; Tat. 11, 1 al.). περίλυπος ἕως θανάτου sorrowful even to the point of death (Jon 4:9 σφόδρα λελύπημαι ἕως θανάτου; Sir 37:2) Mt 26:38; Mk 14:34; ἄχρι θ. to the point of death of a devotion that does not shrink even fr. the sacrifice of one’s life Rv 2:10; 12:11 (TestJob 5:1; cp. Just., D. 30, 2 μέχρι θ. al.); διώκειν ἄχρι θανάτου persecute even to death Ac 22:4. Also διώκειν ἐν θανάτῳ B 5:11. διώκειν εἰς θ. AcPl Ha 11, 20 (opp. εἰς ζωήν). εἰς θ. πορεύεσθαι go to one’s death Lk 22:33. [ἀναβῆναι] εἰς τὸν τοῦ θανάτου [τόπον] AcPl Ha 6, 30. ἀσθενεῖν παραπλήσιον θανάτῳ be nearly dead with illness Phil 2:27; ἐσφαγμένος εἰς θ. receive a fatal wound Rv 13:3a. ἡ πληγὴ τοῦ θανάτου a fatal wound 13:3b, 12. φόβος θανάτου Hb 2:15.
    of death as a penalty (Thu. et al.; Diod S 14, 66, 3: the tyrant is μυρίων θανάτων τυχεῖν δίκαιος=‘worthy of suffering countless deaths’; Just., A I, 45, 5 θανάτου ὁρισθέντος κατὰ … τῶν ὁμολογούντων τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ Χριστοῦ al.).
    α. as inflicted by secular courts ἔνοχος θανάτου ἐστίν he deserves death (ἔνοχος 2bα) Mt 26:66; Mk 14:64; παραδιδόναι εἰς θ. betray, give over to death Mt 10:21; Mk 13:12 (ApcEsdr 3:12 p. 27, 23 Tdf.). θανάτῳ τελευτᾶν die the death = be punished w. death Mt 15:4; Mk 7:10 (both Ex 21:17). ἄξιον θανάτου, deserving death (the entire clause οὐδὲν … αὐτῷ=he is not guilty of any capital crime; cp. Jos., Ant. 11, 144) Lk 23:15 (s. αἴτιος 2); Ac 23:29; 25:11, 25. αἴτιον θανάτου Lk 23:22 (s. αἴτιος 2). Also αἰτία θανάτου (Lucian, Tyrannic. 11) Ac 13:28; 28:18; κρίμα θ. sentence of death: παραδιδόναι εἰς κρίμα θ. sentence to death Lk 24:20; fig. ἐν ἑαυτοῖς τὸ ἀπόκριμα τοῦ θ. ἐσχήκαμεν 2 Cor 1:9. κατακρίνειν τινὰ θανάτῳ (εἰς θάνατον v.l.) condemn someone to death Mt 20:18.—Several of the pass. just quoted refer to the death sentence passed against Christ; sim., θάνατος is freq. used
    β. of the death of Christ gener. (Just., D. 52, 4 al.; ἀνθρώπου θ. ἀποθανεῖν Orig., C. Cels. 1, 61, 40): Ro 5:10; 6:3–5; 1 Cor 11:26; Phil 2:8a; 3:10; Col 1:22; Hb 2:14a; IEph 7:2; 19:1; IMg 9:1; ITr 2:1. τὸ πάθημα τ. θανάτου the suffering of death Hb 2:9. ἕως θανάτου καταντῆσαι even to meet death Pol 1:2.—GWiencke, Pls über Jesu Tod ’39.—The expr. ὠδῖνες τοῦ θανάτου, used Ac 2:24 in a passage referring to Christ, comes fr. the LXX, where in Ps 17:5 and 114:3 it renders חֶבְלֵי־מָוֶת (cp. 1QH 3, 7–12). This would lit. be ‘bonds of death’. But an interchange of חֶבֶל ‘bond’ and חֵבֶל ‘pain’, specif. ‘birth-pangs’, has made of it pangs of death (cp. a sim. interchange in 2 Km 22:6 al. LXX, and the expr. in Pol 1:2 λύσας τ. ὠδῖνας τοῦ ᾅδου after Ac 2:24 v.l.). This results in a remarkably complex metaphor (s. BGildersleeve, Pindar 1885, 355 on ‘telescoped’ metaphor) Ac 2:24, where death is regarded as being in labor, and unable to hold back its child, the Messiah (s. Beginn. IV ad loc.; Field, Notes 112).
    γ. of natural death as divine punishment (Did., Gen. 148, 25; 171, 9) Ro 5:12ab; 21; 1 Cor 15:21; B 12:2, 5.
    of the danger of death (2 Ch 32:11) σῴζειν τινὰ ἐκ θανάτου save someone fr. death (PsSol 13:2 [ἀπὸ … θ.]; Ael. Aristid. 45 p. 120 D.; Just., D. 98, 1 σωθῆναι ἀπὸ τοῦ θ.) Hb 5:7. Also ῥύεσθαι ἐκ θ. 2 Cor 1:10 (Just., D. 111, 3). θάνατοι danger(s)/perils of death (Epict. 4, 6, 2; Ptolem., Apotel. 2, 9, 5; Ael. Aristid. 46 p. 307 D.: ὥσπερ Ὀδυσσεὺς θ.; Maximus Tyr. 15, 8a; Philo, In Flacc. 175 προαποθνῄσκω πολλοὺς θανάτους) 11:23. μέχρι θανάτου ἐγγίζειν come close to dying Phil 2:30. 2 Cor 4:11, cp. vs. 12, is reminiscent of the constant danger of death which faced the apostle as he followed his calling.
    of the manner of death (Artem. 1, 31 p. 33, 10; 4, 83 p. 251, 16 μυρίοι θ.=‘countless kinds of death’; TestAbr A 20 p. 102, 25 [Stone p. 52] ἑβδομήκοντα δύο εἰσὶν θ.; ParJer 9:22; Ps.-Hecataeus: 264 Fgm. 21, 191 Jac. [in Jos., C. Ap. 1, 191]) ποίῳ θ. by what kind of death J 12:33; 18:32; 21:19. θ. σταυροῦ Phil 2:8b.
    death as personified Ro 5:14, 17; 6:9; 1 Cor 15:26 (cp. Plut., Mor. 370c τέλος ἀπολεῖσθαι [for ἀπολείπεσθαι] τὸν Ἅιδην); vss. 54–56 (s. on κέντρον 1); Rv 1:18; 6:8a; 20:13f; 21:4; B 5:6; 16:9 (this concept among Jews [Hos 13:14; Sir 14:12; 4 Esdr 8, 53; SyrBar 21, 23; TestAbr A 16ff; Bousset, Rel.3 253, 2] and Greeks [ERohde, Psyche1903, II 241; 249; CRobert, Thanatos 1879].—JKroll, Gott u. Hölle ’32; Dibelius, Geisterwelt 114ff; JUbbink, Paulus en de dood: NThSt 1, 1918, 3–10 and s. on ἁμαρτία 3a).
    death viewed transcendently in contrast to a living relationship with God, death extension of mng. 1 (Philo)
    of spiritual death, to which one is subject unless one lives out of the power of God’s grace. θάνατον οὐ μὴ θεωρήσῃ J 8:51. Opp. ζωή 5:24; 1J 3:14; Ro 7:10; 8:6. This death stands in the closest relation to sin: Ro 7:13b; Js 1:15; 5:20; 2 Cl 1:6; Hv 2, 3, 1; also to the flesh: Paul thinks of the earthly body as σῶμα τ. θανάτου Ro 7:24. In contrast to the gospel the law of Moses engraved on stone διακονία τοῦ θανάτου service that leads to death 2 Cor 3:7 (cp. Tat. 14, 1 θανάτου … ἐπιτηδεύματα). The νόμος, which is τὸ ἀγαθόν, proves to be θάνατος death = deadly or cause of death Ro 7:13a. The unredeemed are ἐν χώρᾳ καὶ σκιᾷ θανάτου Mt 4:16; cp. Lk 1:79 (both Is 9:2). ἐν σκοτίᾳ θανάτου AcPl Ha 8, 32 (=BMM verso 4). This mng. of θάνατος cannot always be clearly distinguished fr. the foll., since spiritual death merges into
    eternal death. θαν. αἰώνιος B 20:1. This kind of death is meant Ro 1:32; 6:16, 21, 23; 7:5; 2 Cor 7:10; 2 Ti 1:10; Hb 2:14b; B 10:5; 2 Cl 16:4; Dg 10:7b; Hv 1, 1, 8; m 4, 1, 2. ἁμαρτία πρὸς θάνατον 1J 5:16f (Polyaenus 8, 32 bravery πρὸς θ.=‘to the point of death’; s. ἁμαρτάνω e and TestIss 7:1 ἁμαρτία εἰς θάνατον). ὀσμὴ ἐκ θανάτου εἰς θάνατον a fragrance that comes from death and leads to death 2 Cor 2:16. In Rv this (final) death is called the second death (ὁ δεύτερος θ. also Plut., Mor. 942f) 2:11; 20:6, 14b; 21:8 (s. TZahn, comm. 604–8).—GQuell, Die Auffassung des Todes in Israel 1926; JLeipoldt, D. Tod bei Griechen u. Juden ’42; TBarrosse, Death and Sin in Ro: CBQ 15, ’53, 438–59; ELohse, Märtyrer u. Gottesknecht ’55 (lit.); SBrandon, The Personification of Death in Some Ancient Religions, BJRL 43, ’61, 317–35.
    a particular manner of death, fatal illness, pestilence and the like, as established by context (Job 27:15; Jer 15:2: θάνατος … μάχαιρα … λιμός) Rv 2:23. ἀποκτεῖναι ἐν ῥομφαίᾳ κ. ἐν λιμῷ κ. ἐν θανάτῳ 6:8b; 18:8 (cp. PsSol 13:2; 15:7; Orig., C. Cels. 5, 37, 10).—JToynbee, Death and Burial in the Roman World ’71; SHumphreys, The Family, Women, and Death ’83.—B. 287. DELG. BHHW III 1999–2001. 1609–13. M-M. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > θάνατος

  • 153 θεός

    θεός, οῦ (Hom.+; Herm. Wr.; ins, pap, LXX, pseudepigr., Philo, Joseph.) and ἡ, voc. θεέ (Pisidian ins [JHS 22, 1902, 355] θέ; PGM 4, 218 θεὲ θεῶν; 7, 529 κύριε θεὲ μέγιστε; 12, 120 κύριε θεέ; 13, 997; LXX [Thackeray 145; PKatz, Philo’s Bible ’50, 152f]; ApcMos 42; Jos., Ant. 14, 24 ὦ θεὲ βασιλεῦ τ. ὅλων; SibOr 13, 172 βασιλεῦ κόσμου θεέ) Mt 27:46, more frequently (s. 2 and 3c, h below) ὁ θεός (LXX; ParJer 6:12; ApcEsdr 7:5; ApcMos 32; B-D-F §147, 3m; JWackernagel, Über einige antike Anredeformen 1912; Mlt-H. 120). On the inclusion or omission of the art. gener. s. W-S. §19, 13d; B-D-F §254, 1; 268, 2; Rob. 758; 761; 780; 786; 795; Mlt-Turner 174; BWeiss, D. Gebr. des Artikels bei den Gottesnamen, StKr 84, 1911, 319–92; 503–38 (also published separately). The sg. article freq. suggests personal claim on a deity. ‘God, god’.
    In the Gr-Rom. world the term θεός primarily refers to a transcendent being who exercises extraordinary control in human affairs or is responsible for bestowal of unusual benefits, deity, god, goddess (s. on θεά) Ac 28:6; 2 Th 2:4 (cp. SibOr 5, 34 ἰσάζων θεῷ αὐτόν; Ar. 4, 1 οὐκ εἰσὶ θεοί; Tat. 10, 1 θεὸς … κύκνος γίνεται …; Ath. 18, 3 θεός τις δισώματος); θεὸς Ῥαιφάν Ac 7:43 (Am 5:26; s. entry Ῥαιφάν). οὐδεὶς θεὸς εἰ μὴ εἷς there is no god but one 1 Cor 8:4 (cp. AcPl Ha 1, 17 restored). θεοῦ φωνὴ καὶ οὐκ ἀνθρώπου Ac 12:22.—ἡ θεός the (female) god, goddess (Att., later more rarely; Peripl. Eryth. c. 58; Lucian, Dial. Deor. 17, 2; SIG 695, 28; ins, one of which refers to Artemis, in Hauser p. 81f; Jos., Ant. 9, 19; Ar. 11, 2 [Artemis]; Ath. 29, 2 [Ino]) Ac 19:37.—Pl. Ac 7:40 (Ex 32:1). Cp. 14:11; 19:26; PtK 2 p. 14, 21. εἴπερ εἰσὶν λεγόμενοι θεοί even if there are so-called gods 1 Cor 8:5a; s. vs. 5b (on θεοὶ πολλοί cp. Jos., Ant. 4, 149.—Maximus Tyr. 11, 5a: θ. πολλοί w. εἷς θ. πατήρ). οἱ φύσει μὴ ὄντες θεοί those who by nature are not really gods Gal 4:8b (cp. Ar. 4, 2 μὴ εἶναι τὸν οὐρανὸν θεόν al.). θεοὶ … λίθινοι etc. AcPl Ha 1, 18 (cp. JosAs 10:13 τοὺς χρυσοῦς καὶ ἀργυροῦς). Of the devil μὴ ὢν θεός AcPlCor 2:15.
    Some writings in our lit. use the word θ. w. ref. to Christ (without necessarily equating Christ with the Father, and therefore in harmony w. the Shema of Israel Dt 6:4; cp. Mk 10:18 and 4a below), though the interpretation of some of the pass. is in debate. In Mosaic and Gr-Rom. traditions the fundamental semantic component in the understanding of deity is the factor of performance, namely saviorhood or extraordinary contributions to one’s society. Dg. 10:6 defines the ancient perspective: ὸ̔ς ἃ παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ λάβων ἔχει, ταῦτα τοῖς ἐπιδεομένοις χορηγῶν, θεὸς γίνεται τῶν λαμβανάντων one who ministers to the needy what one has received from God proves to be a god to the recipients (cp. Sb III, 6263, 27f of a mother). Such understanding led to the extension of the mng. of θ. to pers. who elicit special reverence (cp. pass. under 4 below; a similar development can be observed in the use of σέβομαι and cognates). In Ro 9:5 the interpr. is complicated by demand of punctuation marks in printed texts. If a period is placed before ὁ ὢν κτλ., the doxology refers to God as defined in Israel (so EAbbot, JBL 1, 1881, 81–154; 3, 1883, 90–112; RLipsius; HHoltzmann, Ntl. Theol.2 II 1911, 99f; EGünther, StKr 73, 1900, 636–44; FBurkitt, JTS 5, 1904, 451–55; Jülicher; PFeine, Theol. d. NTs6 ’34, 176 et al.; RSV text; NRSV mg.). A special consideration in favor of this interpretation is the status assigned to Christ in 1 Cor 15:25–28 and the probability that Paul is not likely to have violated the injunction in Dt 5:7.—If a comma is used in the same place, the reference is to Christ (so BWeiss; EBröse, NKZ 10, 1899, 645–57 et al.; NRSV text; RSV mg. S. also εἰμί 1.—Undecided: THaering.—The transposition by the Socinian scholar JSchlichting [died 1661] ὧν ὁ=‘to whom belongs’ was revived by JWeiss, D. Urchristentum 1917, 363; WWrede, Pls 1905, 82; CStrömman, ZNW 8, 1907, 319f). In 2 Pt 1:1; 1J 5:20 the interpretation is open to question (but cp. ISmyrna McCabe.0010, 100 ὁ θεὸς καὶ σωτὴρ Ἀντίοχος). In any event, θ. certainly refers to Christ, as one who manifests primary characteristics of deity, in the foll. NT pass.: J 1:1b (w. ὁ θεός 1:1a, which refers to God in the monotheistic context of Israel’s tradition. On the problem raised by such attribution s. J 10:34 [cp. Ex 7:1; Ps 81:6]; on θεός w. and without the article, acc. to whether it means God or the Logos, s. Philo, Somn. 1, 229f; JGriffiths, ET 62, ’50/51, 314–16; BMetzger, ET 63, ’51/52, 125f), 18b. ὁ κύριός μου καὶ ὁ θεός μου my Lord and my God! (nom. w. art.=voc.; s. beg. of this entry.—On a resurrection as proof of divinity cp. Diog. L. 8, 41, who quotes Hermippus: Pythagoras returns from a journey to Hades and appears among his followers [εἰσέρχεσθαι εἰς τὴν ἐκκλησίαν], and they consider him θεῖόν τινα) J 20:28 (on the combination of κύριος and θεός s. 3c below). Tit 2:13 (μέγας θ.). Hb 1:8, 9 (in a quot. fr. Ps 44:7, 8). S. TGlasson, NTS 12, ’66, 270–72. Jd 5 P72. But above all Ignatius calls Christ θεός in many pass.: θεὸς Ἰησοῦς Χριστός ITr 7:1; Χριστὸς θεός ISm 10:1. ὁ θεὸς ἡμῶν IEph ins; 15:3; 18:2; IRo ins (twice); 3:3; IPol 8:3; τὸ πάθος τοῦ θεοῦ μου IRo 6:3. ἐν αἵματι θεοῦ IEph 1:1. ἐν σαρκὶ γενόμενος θεός 7:2. θεὸς ἀνθρωπίνως φανερούμενος 19:3. θεὸς ὁ οὕτως ὑμᾶς σοφίσας ISm 1:1.—Hdb. exc. 193f; MRackl, Die Christologie d. hl. Ign. v. Ant. 1914. ὁ θεός μου Χριστὲ Ἰησοῦ AcPl Ha 3, 10; Χριστὸς Ἰησοῦς ὁ θ[εός] 6, 24; cp. ln. 34 (also cp. Just., A I, 63, 15, D. 63, 5 al.; Tat. 13, 3; Ath. 24, 1; Mel., P. 4, 28 al.).—SLösch, Deitas Jesu u. antike Apotheose ’33. Cp. AWlosk, Römischer Kaiserkult ’78.
    God in Israelite/Christian monotheistic perspective, God the predom. use, somet. with, somet. without the art.
    ὁ θεός Mt 1:23; 3:9; 5:8, 34; Mk 2:12; 10:18; 13:19 (cp. TestJob 37:4); Lk 2:13; J 3:2b; Ac 2:22b; Gal 2:6 al. With prep. εἰς τὸν θ. Ac 24:15. ἐκ τοῦ θ. J 8:42b, 47; 1J 3:9f; 4:1ff, 6f; 5:1, 4; 2 Cor 3:5; 5:18 al.; ἐν τῷ θ. Ro 5:11; Col 3:3 (Ath. 21, 1). ἔναντι τοῦ θ. Lk 1:8; ἐπὶ τὸν θ. Ac 15:19; 26:18, 20 (Just., D. 101, 1); ἐπὶ τῷ θ. Lk 1:47 (Just., D. 8, 2); παρὰ τοῦ θ. J 8:40 (Ar. 4, 2; Just., A I, 33, 6 al.; without art. Just., D. 69, 6 al.). παρὰ τῷ θ. Ro 2:13; 9:14 (Just., A I, 28, 3; Tat. 7, 1; Ath. 31, 2 al.); πρὸς τὸν θ. J 1:2; Ac 24:16; AcPl Ha 3, 8 (Just., D. 39, 1 al.; Mel., HE 4, 26, 13 al.); τὰ πρὸς τὸν θ. Hb 2:17; 5:1; Ro 15:17 is acc. of respect: with respect to one’s relation to God or the things pert. to God, in God’s cause (s. B-D-F §160; Rob. 486. For τὰ πρὸς τ. θ. s. Soph., Phil. 1441; X., De Rep. Lac. 13, 11; Aristot., Pol. 1314b, 39; Lucian, Pro Imag. 8; Mitt-Wilck. I/2, 109, 3 [III B.C.] εὐσεβὴς τὰ πρὸς θεούς; Ex 4:16; 18:19; Jos., Ant. 9, 236 εὐσεβὴς τὰ πρὸς τ. θεόν). τὰ πρὸς τ[ὸν] θεὸν ἐτήρουσαν, when they were observant of matters pert. to God AcPl Ha 8, 13 (=τα π̣ρος θ̣̄ν̄| ἐτήρουσαν Ox 1602, 10f=BMM recto 16 restored after the preceding).
    without the art. Mt 6:24; Lk 2:14; 20:38; J 1:18a; Ro 8:8, 33b; 2 Cor 1:21; 5:19; Gal 2:19; 4:8f; 2 Th 1:8; Tit 1:16; 3:8; Hb 3:4; AcPl Ha 8, 20=BMM recto 25 (s. also HSanders’ rev. of Ox 1602, 26, in HTR 31, ’38, 79, n. 2, Ghent 62 verso, 6); AcPlCor 1:15; 2:19, 26. W. prep. ἀπὸ θεοῦ J 3:2a; 16:30 (Just., A II, 13, 4 τὸν … ἀπὸ ἀγεννήτου … θεοῦ λόγον). εἰς θεόν IPhld 1:2. ἐκ θεοῦ (Pind., O. 11, 10, P. 1, 41; Jos., Ant. 2, 164; Just., A I, 22, 2; Mel., P. 55, 404) Ac 5:39; 2 Cor 5:1; Phil 3:9. ἐν θεῷ J 8:21; Ro 2:17; Jd 1; AcPl Ha 1, 15; 2, 35. ἐπὶ θεόν AcPl Ha 2, 29 (cp. πρὸς θεόν Just., D. 138, 2). κατὰ θεόν acc. to God’s will (Appian, Iber. 19 §73; 23 §88; 26 §101, Liby. 6 §25, Bell. Civ. 4, 86 §364) Ro 8:27; 2 Cor 7:9ff; IEph 2:1. ἡ κατὰ θ. ἀγάπη godly love IMg 1:1; cp. 13:1; ITr 1:2. παρὰ θεῷ (Jos., Bell. 1, 635) Mt 19:26; Lk 2:52.
    w. gen. foll. or w. ἴδιος to denote a special relationship: ὁ θ. Ἀβραάμ Mt 22:32; Mk 12:26; Lk 20:37; Ac 3:13; 7:32 (all Ex 3:6). ὁ θ. (τοῦ) Ἰσραήλ (Ezk 44:2; JosAs 7:5) Mt 15:31; Lk 1:68; cp. Ac 13:17; 2 Cor 6:16; Hb 11:16. ὁ θ. μου Ro 1:8; 1 Cor 1:4; 2 Cor 12:21; Phil 1:3; 4:19; Phlm 4. OT κύριος ὁ θ. σου (ἡμῶν, ὑμῶν, αὐτῶν) Mt 4:7 (Dt 6:16); 22:37 (Dt 6:5); Mk 12:29 (Dt 6:4); Lk 1:16; 4:8 (Dt 6:13); 10:27 (Dt 6:5); Ac 2:39. ὁ κύριος καὶ ὁ θ. ἡμῶν Rv 4:11 (Just., D. 12, 3; the combination of κύριος and θεός is freq. in the OT: 2 Km 7:28; 3 Km 18:39; Jer 38:18; Zech 13:9; Ps 29:3; 34:23; 85:15; 87:2; TestAbr A 3 p. 79, 19 [Stone p. 6]; JosAs 3:4; 12:2 κύριε ὁ θ. τῶν αἰώνων. But s. also Epict. 2, 16, 13 κύριε ὁ θεός [GBreithaupt, Her. 62, 1927, 253–55], Herm. Wr.: Cat. Cod. Astr. VIII/2, p. 172, 6 κύριε ὁ θεὸς ἡμῶν, the PGM ref. at the beg. of this entry, and the sacral uses τ. θεῷ κ. κυρίῳ Σοκνοπαίῳ [OGI 655, 3f—24 B.C.]; PTebt 284, 6; τῷ κυρίῳ θεῷ Ἀσκληπίῳ [Sb 159, 2]; deo domino Saturno [ins fr. imperial times fr. Thala in the prov. of Africa: BPhW 21, 1901, 475], also Suetonius, Domit. 13 dominus et deus noster [for the formulation s. 4a: PMich 209]; Ar. 15, 10; Just., D. 60, 3 al.) τὸν ἴδιον θ. AcPl Ha 3, 22.—ὁ θ. τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰ. Χ. Eph 1:17.
    used w. πατήρ (s. πατήρ 6a) ὁ θ. καὶ πατὴρ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ Ro 15:6; 2 Cor 1:3; Eph 1:3; Col 1:3; 1 Pt 1:3. ὁ θ. καὶ πατὴρ ἡμῶν Gal 1:4; Phil 4:20; 1 Th 1:3; 3:11, 13. ὁ θ. καὶ πατήρ 1 Cor 15:24; Eph 5:20; Js 1:27. θ. πατήρ Phil 2:11; 1 Pt 1:2; cp. 1 Cor 8:6. ἀπὸ θεοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν Ro 1:7b; 1 Cor 1:3; 2 Cor 1:2; Gal 1:3; Eph 1:2; Phil 1:2; Col 1:2; Phlm 3; ἀπὸ θ. π. Gal 1:3 v.l.; Eph 6:23; 2 Th 1:2; 2 Ti 1:2; Tit 1:4; παρὰ θεοῦ π. 2 Pt 1:17; 2J 3.
    w. gen. of what God brings about, in accordance w. the divine nature: ὁ θ. τῆς εἰρήνης Ro 15:33; 1 Th 5:23. τῆς ἐλπίδος the God fr. whom hope comes Ro 15:13. πάσης παρακλήσεως 2 Cor 1:3b. ὁ θ. τῆς ἀγάπης 13:11. ὁ θ. πάσης χάριτος 1 Pt 5:10. In οὐ γάρ ἐστιν ἀκαταστασίας ὁ θεός 1 Cor 14:33, θεός is to be supplied before ἀκατ.: for God is not a God of disorder.
    The gen. (τοῦ) θεοῦ is
    α. subj. gen., extremely freq. depending on words like βασιλεία, δόξα, θέλημα, ἐντολή, εὐαγγέλιον, λόγος, ναός, οἶκος, πνεῦμα, υἱός, υἱοί, τέκνα and many others. Here prob. (s. β) belongs τὸ μωρὸν τ. θ. the (seeming) foolishness of G. 1 Cor 1:25 (s. B-D-F §263, 2).
    β. obj. gen. ἡ ἀγάπη τοῦ θ. love for God Lk 11:42; J 5:42; ἡ προσευχὴ τοῦ θ. prayer to God Lk 6:12. πίστις θεοῦ faith in God Mk 11:22. φόβος θεοῦ fear of, reverence for God Ro 3:18 al. (s. φόβος 2bα) If 1 Cor 1:25 is to be placed here (s. α above), τὸ μωρὸν τ. θ. refers to apostolic allegiance to God, which is viewed by outsiders as folly.
    γ. τὰ τοῦ θεοῦ the things, ways, thoughts, or secret purposes of God 1 Cor 2:11. φρονεῖν τὰ τ. θ. Mt 16:23; Mk 8:33 s. φρονέω 2b (ἀτιμάζοντας τὰ τοῦ θ. Just., D. 78, 10 al.). ἀποδιδόναι τὰ τ. θ. τῷ θεῷ give God what belongs to God Mt 22:21; Mk 12:17; Lk 20:25.
    δ. Almost as a substitute for the adj. divine IMg 6:1f; 15 (cp. Ath. 21, 4 οὐδὲν ἔχων θεοῦ [of Zeus]).
    The dat. τῷ θεῷ (s. B-D-F §188, 2; 192; Rob. 538f; WHavers, Untersuchungen z. Kasussyntax d. indogerm. Sprachen 1911, 162ff) is
    α. dat. of advantage (cp. e.g. Ath. 26, 3 ὡς ἐπηκόῳ θεῷ) for God 2 Cor 5:13. Perh. (s. β) ὅπλα δυνατὰ τῷ θ. 10:4. The dat. of Ro 6:10f rather expresses the possessor.
    β. ethical dat. in the sight of God, hence w. superl. force (s. Beginn. IV, 75, on Ac 7:20) very: μεγάλοι τῷ θ. B 8:4 (cp. Jon 3:3). ἀστεῖος τῷ θ. Ac 7:20. Perh. (s. α) ὅπλα δυνατὰ τ. θ. weapons powerful in the sight of God 2 Cor 10:4. This idea is usu. expressed by ἐνώπιον τοῦ θ.
    ὁ θ. is used as a vocative Mk 15:34 (Ps 21:2. θεός twice at the beginning of the invocation of a prayer: Ael. Dion. θ, 8; Paus. Attic. θ, 7 ‘θεὸς θεός’ ταῖς ἀρχαῖς ἐπέλεγον ἐπιφημιζόμενοι); Lk 18:11; Hb 1:8 (Ps 44:7; MHarris, TynBull 36, ’85, 129–62); 10:7 (Ps 39:9); AcPl Ha 3, 10; 5, 12; 31. S. also 2 and 3c and the beg. of this entry.
    θ. τῶν αἰώνων s. αἰών 3 and 4; θ. αἰώνιος s. αἰώνιος 2; θ. ἀληθινός s. ἀληθινός 3b; εἷς ὁ θεός s. εἷς 2b; (ὁ) θ. (ὁ) ζῶν s. [ζάω] 1aε.—ὁ μόνος θεός the only God (4 Km 19:15, 19; Ps 85:10; Is 37:20; Da 3:45; Philo, Leg. All. 2, 1f; s. Norden, Agn. Th. 145) J 5:44 (some mss. lack τοῦ μόνου); 1 Ti 1:17.—ὁ μόνος ἀληθινὸς θ. (Demochares: 75 Fgm. 2 p. 135, 7 Jac. [in Athen. 6, 62, 253c] μόνος θ. ἀληθινός) J 17:3. cp. the sim. combinations w. μόνος θ. Ro 16:27; Jd 25. μόνος ὁ θεὸς μένει AcPl Ha 2, 27.—θ. σωτήρ s. σωτήρ 1.—OHoltzmann, D. chr. Gottesglaube, s. Vorgesch. u. Urgesch.1905; EvDobschütz, Rationales u. irrat. Denken über Gott im Urchristent.: StKr 95, 1924, 235–55; RHoffmann, D. Gottesbild Jesu ’34; PAlthaus, D. Bild Gottes b. Pls: ThBl 20, ’41, 81–92; Dodd 3–8; KRahner, Theos im NT: Bijdragen (Maastricht) 11, ’50, 212–36; 12, ’51, 24–52.
    that which is nontranscendent but considered worthy of special reverence or respect, god (Artem. 2, 69 p. 161, 17: γονεῖς and διδάσκαλοι are like gods; Simplicius in Epict. p. 85, 27 acc. to ancient Roman custom children had to call their parents θεοί; s. 2 above and note on σέβομαι).
    of humans θεοί (as אֱלֹהִים) J 10:34f (Ps 81:6; humans are called θ. in the OT also Ex 7:1; 22:27; cp. Philo, Det. Pot. Insid. 161f, Somn. 1, 229, Mut. Nom. 128, Omn. Prob. Lib. 43, Mos. 1, 158, Decal. 120, Leg. All. 1, 40, Migr. Abr. 84). θ. γίνεται τῶν λαμβανόντων (a benefactor) proves to be a god to recipients Dg 10:6 (cp. Pliny, NH 2, 7, 18; s. 2 above, beg.—Aristot., Pol. 3, 8, 1, 1284a of the superior pers. as a god among humans; Arcesilaus [III B.C.] describes Crates and Polemo as θεοί τινες=‘a kind of gods’ [Diog. L. 4, 22]; Antiphanes says of the iambic poet Philoxenus: θεὸς ἐν ἀνθρώποισιν ἦν [Athen. 14, 50, 643d]; Diod S 1, 4, 7 and 5, 21, 2 of Caesar; for honors accorded Demetrius, s. IKertész, Bemerkungen zum Kult des Demetrios Poliorketes: Oikumene 2, ’78, 163–75 [lit.]; Dio Chrys. 30 [47], 5 Πυθαγόρας ἐτιμᾶτο ὡς θεός; Heliod. 4, 7, 8 σωτὴρ κ. θεός, addressed to a physician; BGU 1197, 1 [4 B.C.] a high official, and 1201, 1 [2 B.C.] a priest θεός and κύριος; PMich 209, 11f [II/III A.D.] οἶδας ἄδελφε, ὅτει οὐ μόνον ὧς ἀδελφόν σε ἔχω, ἀλλὰ καὶ ὡς πατέρα κ. κύριον κ. θεόν; Just., A I, 26, 2 [Σίμων] θεὸς ἐνομίσθη καὶ … ὡς θεὸς τετίμηται; Tat. 3, 2 μὴ θεὸς ὤν [Empedocles]; Ath. 30, 2 Ἀντίνους … ἔτυχε νομίζεσθαι θεός of benefactors in gener. AcJ 27 [Aa II/1, 166, 4]).—JEmerton, JTS 11, ’60, 329–32.
    of the belly (=appetite) as the god of certain people Phil 3:19 (cp. Athen. 3, 97c γάστρων καὶ κοιλιοδαίμων. Also Eupolis Com. [V B.C.] Fgm. 172 K. [in Athen. 3, 100b]; on the use of θ. in ref. to impersonal entities [e.g. Eur., Cyclops 316 of wealth as a god] s. DDD 693f).
    of the devil ὁ θ. τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου 2 Cor 4:4 (s. αἰών 2a and WMüllensiefen, StKr 95, 1924, 295–99).—668–99. RAC XI 1202–78; XII 81–154; B. 1464. LfgrE s.v. θεός col. 1001 (lit.). Schmidt, Syn. IV 1–21. DELG. M-M. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > θεός

  • 154 καί

    καί conjunction (Hom.+), found most frequently by far of all Gk. particles in the NT; since it is not only used much more commonly here than in other Gk. lit. but oft. in a different sense, or rather in different circumstances, it contributes greatly to some of the distinctive coloring of the NT style.—HMcArthur, ΚΑΙ Frequency in Greek Letters, NTS 15, ’68/69, 339–49. The vivacious versatility of κ. (for earlier Gk. s. Denniston 289–327) can easily be depressed by the tr. ‘and’, whose repetition in a brief area of text lacks the support of arresting aspects of Gk. syntax.
    marker of connections, and
    single words
    α. gener. Ἰάκωβος καὶ Ἰωσὴφ καὶ Σίμων καὶ Ἰούδας Mt 13:55. χρυσὸν καὶ λίβανον καὶ σμύρναν 2:11. ἡ ἐντολὴ ἁγία καὶ δικαία καὶ ἀγαθή Ro 7:12. πολυμερῶς κ. πολυτρόπως Hb 1:1. ὁ θεὸς κ. πατήρ God, who is also the Father 1 Cor 15:24; cp. 2 Cor 1:3; 11:31; Eph 1:3; Js 1:27; 3:9 al.—Connects two occurrences of the same word for emphasis (OGI 90, 19 [196 B.C.] Ἑρμῆς ὁ μέγας κ. μέγας; pap in Mayser II/1, 54) μείζων κ. μείζων greater and greater Hv 4, 1, 6. ἔτι κ. ἔτι again and again B 21:4; Hs 2, 6 (B-D-F §493, 1; 2; s. Rob. 1200).
    β. w. numerals, w. the larger number first δέκα καὶ ὁκτώ Lk 13:16. τεσσεράκοντα κ. ἕξ J 2:20. τετρακόσιοι κ. πεντήκοντα Ac 13:20.—The καί in 2 Cor 13:1 ἐπὶ στόματος δύο μαρτύρων καὶ τριῶν σταθήσεται πᾶν ῥῆμα=‘or’ ([v.l. ἢ τριῶν for καὶ τριῶν as it reads Mt 18:16]; cp. Js 4:13 v.l. σήμερον καὶ αὔριον=‘today or tomorrow’, but s. above all Thu. 1, 82, 2; Pla., Phd. 63e; X., De Re Equ. 4, 4 ἁμάξας τέτταρας καὶ πέντε; Heraclides, Pol. 58 τρεῖς καὶ τέσσαρας; Polyb. 3, 51, 12 ἐπὶ δυεῖν καὶ τρισὶν ἡμέραις; 5, 90, 6; Diod S 34 + 35 Fgm. 2, 28 εἷς καὶ δύο=one or two; schol. on Apollon. Rhod. 4, 1091 p. 305, 22 W. τριέτης καὶ τετραέτης) by the statement of two or three witnesses every charge must be sustained, as explained by Dt 19:15.
    γ. adding the whole to the part and in general (Aristoph., Nub. 1239 τὸν Δία καὶ τοὺς θεούς; Thu. 1, 116, 3; 7, 65, 1) Πέτρος καὶ οἱ ἀπόστολοι Peter and the rest of the apostles Ac 5:29. οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς κ. τὸ συνέδριον ὅλον the high priest and all the rest of the council Mt 26:59. Vice versa, adding a (specially important) part to the whole and especially (πᾶς Ἰουδὰ καὶ Ἰερουσαλήμ 2 Ch 35:24; cp. 32, 33; 1 Macc 2:6) τοῖς μαθηταῖς κ. τῷ Πέτρῳ Mk 16:7. σὺν γυναιξὶ κ. Μαριάμ Ac 1:14.
    δ. The expr. connected by καί can be united in the form of a hendiadys (Alcaeus 117, 9f D.2 χρόνος καὶ καρπός=time of fruit; Soph., Aj. 144; 749; Polyb. 6, 9, 4; 6, 57, 5 ὑπεροχὴ καὶ δυναστεία=1, 2, 7; 5, 45, 1 ὑπεροχὴ τῆς δυναστείας; Diod S 5, 67, 3 πρὸς ἀνανέωσιν καὶ μνήμην=renewal of remembrance; 15, 63, 2 ἀνάγκη καὶ τύχη=compulsion of fate; 16, 93, 2 ἐπιβουλὴ κ. θάνατος=a fatal plot; Jos., Ant. 12, 98 μετὰ χαρᾶς κ. βοῆς=w. a joyful cry; 17, 82 ἀκρίβεια κ. φυλακή) ἐξίσταντο ἐπὶ τῇ συνέσει καὶ ταῖς ἀποκρίσεσιν αὐτοῦ they were amazed at his intelligent answers Lk 2:47. δώσω ὑμῖν στόμα κ. σοφίαν I will give you wise utterance 21:15. τροφὴ κ. εὐφροσύνη joy concerning (your) food Ac 14:17. ἐλπὶς κ. ἀνάστασις hope of a resurrection 23:6 (2 Macc 3:29 ἐλπὶς καὶ σωτηρία; s. OLagercrantz, ZNW 31, ’32, 86f; GBjörck, ConNeot 4, ’40, 1–4).
    ε. A colloquial feature is the coordination of two verbs, one of which should be a ptc. (s. B-D-F §471; Rob. 1135f) ἀποτολμᾷ κ. λέγει = ἀποτολμῶν λέγει he is so bold as to say Ro 10:20. ἔσκαψεν κ. ἐβάθυνεν (=βαθύνας) Lk 6:48. ἐκρύβη κ. ἐξῆλθεν (=ἐξελθών) J 8:59. Sim. χαίρων κ. βλέπων I am glad to see Col 2:5. Linking of subordinate clause and ptc. Μαριὰμ ὡς ἦλθεν … καὶ ἰδοῦσα J 11:32 v.l. Cp. παραλαβών … καὶ ἀνέβη Lk 9:28 v.l.
    clauses and sentences
    α. gener.: ἐν γαστρὶ ἕξει κ. τέξεται υἱόν Mt 1:23 (Is 7:14). εἰσῆλθον … κ. ἐδίδασκον Ac 5:21. διακαθαριεῖ τὴν ἅλωνα αὐτοῦ κ. συνάξει τὸν σῖτον Mt 3:12. κεκένωται ἡ πίστις καὶ κατήργηται ἡ ἐπαγγελία Ro 4:14 and very oft. Connecting two questions Mt 21:23, or quotations (e.g. Ac 1:20), and dialogue (Lk 21:8), or alternate possibilities (13:18).
    β. Another common feature is the practice, drawn fr. Hebrew or fr. the speech of everyday life, of using κ. as a connective where more discriminating usage would call for other particles: καὶ εἶδον καὶ (for ὅτι) σεισμὸς ἐγένετο Rv 6:12. καὶ ἤκουσεν ὁ βασιλεὺς … καὶ (for ὅτι) ἔλεγον and the king learned that they were saying Mk 6:14 (s. HLjungvik, ZNW 33, ’34, 90–92; on this JBlinzler, Philol. 96, ’43/44, 119–31). τέξεται υἱὸν καὶ καλέσεις τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ (for οὗ τὸ ὄνομα καλ.) Mt 1:21; cp. Lk 6:6; 11:44. καλόν ἐστιν ἡμᾶς ὧδε εἶναι καὶ ποιήσωμεν σκηνάς Mk 9:5. Esp. freq. is the formula in historical narrative καὶ ἐγένετο … καὶ (like וַ … וַיְהִי) and it happened or came about … that Mt 9:10; Mk 2:15; Lk 5:1 v.l. (for ἐγένετο δὲ … καὶ; so also the text of 6:12), 12, 17; 14:1; 17:11 al. (Gen 7:10 al.; JosAs 11:1; 22:1). S. MJohannessohn, Das bibl. Καὶ ἐγένετο u. seine Geschichte, 1926 (fr. ZVS 35, 1925, 161–212); KBeyer, Semitische Syntax im NT I, 1 ’62, 29–62; Mlt-Turner 334f; ÉDelebecque, Études Grecques sur L’Évangile de Luc ’76, 123–65; JVoelz, The Language of the NT: ANRW II/25/2, 893–977, esp. 959–64.—As in popular speech, κ. is used in rapid succession Mt 14:9ff; Mk 1:12ff; Lk 18:32ff; J 2:13ff; 1 Cor 12:5f; Rv 6:12ff; 9:1ff. On this kind of colloquial speech, which joins independent clauses rather than subordinating one to the other (parataxis rather than hypotaxis) s. B-D-F §458; Rdm.2 p. 222; Rob. 426; Dssm., LO 105ff (LAE 129ff), w. many references and parallels fr. secular sources. This is a favorite, e.g., in Polyaenus 2, 3, 2–4; 2, 4, 3; 3, 9, 10; 3, 10, 2; 4, 6, 1; 7, 36 al.
    γ. It is also coordination rather than subordination when κ. connects an expr. of time with that which occurs in the time (Od. 5, 362; Hdt. 7, 217; Thu. 1, 50, 5; Pla., Symp. 220c; Aeschin. 3, 71 νὺξ ἐν μέσῳ καὶ παρῆμεν; s. B-D-F §442, 4; KBrugmann4-AThumb, Griechische Gramm. 1913, 640*): ἤγγικεν ἡ ὥρα κ. παραδίδοται the time has come when he is to be given up Mt 26:45. κ. ἐσταύρωσαν αὐτόν when they crucified him Mk 15:25. κ. ἀνέβη εἰς Ἰεροσόλυμα when he went up to Jerusalem J 2:13. κ. συντελέσω when I will make Hb 8:8 (Jer 38:31); cp. J 4:35; 7:33; Lk 19:43; 23:44; Ac 5:7.
    δ. καί introducing an apodosis is really due to Hebr./LXX infl. (B-D-F §442, 7; Abel §78a, 6 p. 341; Mlt-H. 422; KBeyer, Semitische Syntax im NT I, 1 ’62, 66–72; but not offensive to ears trained in good Gk.: s. Il. 1, 478; Hdt. 1, 79, 2; sim.Thu. 2, 93, 4 ὡς ἔδοξεν αὐτοῖς, καὶ ἐχώρουν εὐθύς; 8, 27, 5; Herm. Wr. 13, 1 …, καὶ ἔφης; Delebecque [s. above in β] 130–32) καὶ ὅτε ἐπλήσθησαν ἡμέραι ὀκτὼ …, κ. ἐκλήθη τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Lk 2:21; cp. Rv 3:20. Also κ. ἰδού in an apodosis Lk 7:12; Ac 1:10.
    ε. connecting negative and affirmative clauses Lk 3:14. οὔτε ἄντλημα ἔχεις κ. τὸ φρέαρ ἐστὶ βαθύ you have no bucket, and the well is deep J 4:11; cp. 3J 10 (οὔτε … καί Eur., Iph. Taur. 591f; Longus, Past. 1, 17; 4, 28; Aelian, NA 1, 57; 11, 9; Lucian, Dial. Meretr. 2, 4 οὔτε πάντα ἡ Λεσβία, Δωρί, πρὸς σὲ ἐψεύσατο καὶ σὺ τἀληθῆ ἀπήγγελκας Μυρτίῳ ‘It wasn’t all lies that Lesbia told you, Doris; and you certainly reported the truth to Myrtium’). After a negative clause, which influences the clause beginning w. καί: μήποτε καταπατήσουσιν … κ. στραφέντες ῥήξωσιν ὑμᾶς Mt 7:6; cp. 5:25; 10:38; 13:15 (Is 6:10); 27:64; Lk 12:58; 21:34; J 6:53; 12:40 (Is 6:10); Ac 28:27 (Is 6:10); 1 Th 3:5; Hb 12:15; Rv 16:15.
    ζ. to introduce a result that comes fr. what precedes: and then, and so Mt 5:15; 23:32; Mk 8:34; 2 Cor 11:9; Hb 3:19; 1J 3:19. καὶ ἔχομεν and so we have 2 Pt 1:19. Esp. after the impv., or expr. of an imperatival nature (Soph., Oed. Col. 1410ff θέσθε … καὶ … οἴσει, El. 1207; Sir 2:6; 3:17) δεῦτε ὀπίσω μου καὶ ποιήσω and then I will make Mt 4:19. εἰπὲ λόγῳ, κ. ἰαθήσεται ὁ παῖς μου speak the word, and then my servant will be cured Mt 8:8; Lk 7:7; cp. Mt 7:7; Mk 6:22; Lk 10:28; J 14:16; Js 4:7, 10; Rv 4:1.—καί introduces a short clause that confirms the existence of someth. that ought to be: ἵνα τέκνα θεοῦ κληθῶμεν, καὶ ἐσμέν that we should be called children of God; and so we really are (καλέω 1d) 1J 3:1 (Appian, Bell. Civ. 2, 40 §161 they were to conquer Sardinia, καὶ κατέλαβον=and they really took it; 4, 127 §531 one day would decide [κρίνειν] the fate of Rome, καὶ ἐκρίθη).
    η. emphasizing a fact as surprising or unexpected or noteworthy: and yet, and in spite of that, nevertheless (Eur., Herc. Fur. 509; Philostrat., Her. 11 [II 184, 29 Kayser] ῥητορικώτατον καὶ δεινόν; Longus, Past. 4, 17 βουκόλος ἦν Ἀγχίσης καὶ ἔσχεν αὐτὸν Ἀφροδίτη) κ. σὺ ἔρχῃ πρὸς μέ; and yet you come to me? Mt 3:14; cp. 6:26; 10:29; Mk 12:12; J 1:5, 10; 3:11, 32; 5:40; 6:70; 7:28; 1 Cor 5:2; 2 Cor 6:9; Hb 3:9 (Ps 94:9); Rv 3:1. So also, connecting what is unexpected or otherw. noteworthy with an attempt of some kind (JBlomqvist, Das sogennante και adversativum ’79): but ζητεῖ κ. οὐχ εὑρίσκει but he finds none (no resting place) Mt 12:43. ἐπεθύμησαν ἰδεῖν κ. οὐχ εἶδαν but did not see (it) 13:17; cp. 26:60; Lk 13:7; 1 Th 2:18. Cp. GJs 18:3 (not pap). Perhaps Mk 5:20. Introducing a contrasting response καὶ ἀποδώσεις μοι Hv 2, 1, 3.
    θ. to introduce an abrupt question, which may often express wonder, ill-will, incredulity, etc. (B-D-F §442, 8. For older lit. exx. of this usage s. Kühner-G. II p. 247f; for later times EColwell, The Gk. of the Fourth Gospel ’31, 87f): κ. πόθεν μοι τοῦτο; how have I deserved this? Lk 1:43. κ. τίς; who then? Mk 10:26; Lk 10:29; J 9:36. καὶ τί γέγονεν ὅτι … ; how does it happen that … ? 14:22. καὶ πῶς σὺ λέγεις … ; how is it, then, that you say … J 14:9 v.l. W. a protasis εἰ γὰρ ἐγὼ λυπῶ ὑμᾶς, κ. τίς ὁ εὐφραίνων με; for if I make you sad, who then will cheer me up? 2 Cor 2:2 (cp. Ps.-Clem., Hom. 2, 43; 44 εἰ [ὁ θεὸς] ψεύδεται, καὶ τίς ἀληθεύει;). Thus Phil 1:22 is prob. to be punctuated as follows (s. ADebrunner, GGA 1926, 151): εἰ δὲ τὸ ζῆν ἐν σαρκί, τοῦτο μοι καρπὸς ἔργου, καὶ τί αἱρήσομαι; οὐ γνωρίζω but if living on here means further productive work, then which shall I choose? I really don’t know. καὶ πῶς αὐτοῦ υἱός ἐστιν; how, then, is he his son? Lk 20:44 (cp. Gen 39:9).
    ι. to introduce a parenthesis (Eur., Orest. 4, Hel. 393; X., Equ. 11, 2.—B-D-F §465, 1; Rob. 1182) κ. ἐκωλύθην ἄρχι τοῦ δεῦρο but so far I have been prevented Ro 1:13.
    oft. explicative; i.e., a word or clause is connected by means of καί w. another word or clause, for the purpose of explaining what goes before it and so, that is, namely (PPetr II, 18 [1], 9 πληγὰς … καὶ πλείους=blows … indeed many of them.—Kühner-G. II 247; B-D-F §442, 9; Rob. 1181; Mlt-Turner 335) χάριν κ. ἀποστολήν grace, that is, the office of an apostle Ro 1:5. ἀπήγγειλαν πάντα καὶ τὰ τ. δαιμονιζομένων they told everything, namely what had happened to those who were possessed Mt 8:33. καὶ χάριν ἀντὶ χάριτος that is, grace upon grace J 1:16. Cp. 1 Cor 3:5; 15:38.—Mt 21:5.—Other explicative uses are καὶ οὗτος, καὶ τοῦτο, καὶ ταῦτα (the first and last are in earlier Gk.: Hdt., X. et al.; s. Kühner-G. I 647; II 247) and, also ascensive and indeed, and at that Ἰ. Χρ., καὶ τοῦτον ἐσταυρωμένον J. Chr., (and) indeed him on the cross 1 Cor 2:2. καὶ τοῦτο Ro 13:11; 1 Cor 6:6, 8; Eph 2:8. καὶ ταῦτα w. ptc. and to be sure Hb 11:12. See B-D-F §290, 5; 425, 1; 442, 9.—The ascensive force of καί is also plain in Ῥωμαῖον καὶ ἀκατάκριτον a Roman citizen, and uncondemned at that Ac 22:25. ἔρχεται ὥρα καὶ νῦν ἐστιν an hour is coming, indeed it is already here J 5:25. προσέθηκεν καὶ τοῦτο ἐπὶ πᾶσιν καὶ κατέκλεισεν τὸν Ἰωάννην ἐν φυλακῇ added this on top of everything else, namely to put John in prison Lk 3:20.
    After πολύς and before a second adj. καί is pleonastic fr. the viewpoint of modern lang. (earlier Gk.: Hom. et al. [Kühner-G. II 252, 1]; cp. Cebes 1, 1 πολλὰ καὶ ἄλλα ἀναθήματα; 2, 3; B-D-F §442, 11) πολλὰ … κ. ἄλλα σημεῖα many other signs J 20:30 (cp. Jos., Ant. 3, 318). πολλὰ κ. βαρέα αἰτιώματα many severe charges Ac 25:7. πολλὰ … καὶ ἕτερα Lk 3:18 (cp. Himerius, Or. 40 [=Or. 6], 6 πολλὰ καὶ ἄλλα). πολλοὶ καὶ ἀνυπότακτοι Tit 1:10.
    introducing someth. new, w. loose connection: Mt 4:23; 8:14, 23, 28; 9:1, 9, 27, 35; 10:1; 12:27; Mk 5:1, 21; Lk 8:26; J 1:19 and oft.
    καί … καί both … and, not only …, but also (Synes., Dreams 10 p. 141b καὶ ἀπιστεῖν ἔξεστι καὶ πιστεύειν.—B-D-F §444, 3; Rob. 1182; Mlt-Turner 335) connecting single expressions Mt 10:28; Mk 4:41; Ro 11:33; Phil 2:13; 4:12. κ. ἐν ὀλίγῳ κ. ἐν μεγάλῳ Ac 26:29. κ. ἅπαξ κ. δίς (s. ἅπαξ 1) Phil 4:16; 1 Th 2:18. Connecting whole clauses or sentences: Mk 9:13; J 7:28; 9:37; 12:28; 1 Cor 1:22. Introducing contrasts: although … yet (Anthol. VII, 676 Δοῦλος Ἐπίκτητος γενόμην καὶ σῶμʼ ἀνάπηρος καὶ πενίην ῏Ιρος καὶ φίλος ἀθανάτοις ‘I was Epictetus, a slave; crippled in body and an Iros [a beggar in Hom., Od.] in poverty, but dear to the Immortals’) J 15:24; Ac 23:3. καὶ … κ. οὐ Lk 5:36; J 6:36. καὶ οὐ … καί 17:25; κ. … κ. now … now Mk 9:22. On τὲ … καί s. τέ 2c. Somet. w. ἤ q.v. 1aβ.—HCadbury, Superfluous καί in the Lord’s Prayer (i.e. Mt 6:12) and Elsewhere: Munera Studiosa (=WHatch Festschr.) ’46.
    marker to indicate an additive relation that is not coordinate to connect clauses and sentences, also, likewise, funct. as an adv.
    simply κ. τὴν ἄλλην the other one also Mt 5:39; cp. vs. 40; 6:21; 12:45; Mk 1:38; 2:26; 8:7 and oft. Freq. used w. pronouns κἀγώ (q.v.). καὶ σύ Mt 26:73. κ. ὑμεῖς 20:4, 7; Lk 21:31; J 7:47 and oft. κ. αὐτός (s. αὐτός 1f).
    intensive: even Mt 5:46f; 10:30; Mk 1:27; Lk 10:17; J 14:9 v.l.; Ac 5:39; 22:28; Ro 9:24 (ἀλλὰ καί); 1 Cor 2:10; 2 Cor 1:8; Gal 2:17; Eph 5:12; Phlm 21; Hb 7:25; 1 Pt 4:19 (but s. d below); Jd 23; Hs 5, 2, 10; 7:1; ἔτι καὶ νῦν Dg 2:3. CBlackman, JBL 87, ’68, 203f would transl. Ro 3:26b: even in the act of declaring righteous (cp. the gen. abs. Polemon Soph. B 14 Reader καὶ Δάτιδος ἀποπλέοντος=even though Datis was sailing away). In formulas expressing a wish: ὄφελον καί if only, would that Gal 5:12. In connection w. a comparative: κ. περισσότερον προφήτου one who is even more than a prophet Mt 11:9. κ. μείζονα ποιήσει J 14:12.
    In sentences denoting a contrast καί appears in var. ways, somet. in both members of the comparison, and oft. pleonastically, to our way of thinking καθάπερ …, οὕτως καί as …, thus also 2 Cor 8:11. ὥσπερ …, οὕτως καί (Hyperid. 1, 2, 5–8) Ro 5:19; 11:30f; 1 Cor 11:12; 15:22; Gal 4:29. ὡς …, οὕτως καί Ro 5:15, 18. ὸ̔ν τρόπον …, οὕτως καί 2 Ti 3:8.—οὕτως καί thus also Ro 6:11. ὡσαύτως καί in the same way also 1 Cor 11:25. ὁμοίως καί (Jos., Bell. 2, 575) J 6:11; Jd 8. ὡς καί Ac 11:17; 1 Cor 7:7; 9:5. καθὼς καί Ro 15:7; 1 Cor 13:12; 2 Cor 1:14; Eph 4:17. καθάπερ καί Ro 4:6; 2 Cor 1:14.—καί can also stand alone in the second member w. the mng. so also, so. ὡς … καί Mt 6:10; Ac 7:51; Gal 1:9; Phil 1:20. καθὼς … καί Lk 6:31 v.l.; J 6:57; 13:15; 1 Cor 15:49.—οἷος …, τοιοῦτος καί 1 Cor 15:48. After a comp. ὅσῳ καί by so much also Hb 8:6. καί is found in both members of the comparison (s. Kühner-G. II 256; 2 Macc 2:10; 6:14) Ro 1:13; 1 Th 2:14. καθὼς καὶ … οὕτως καί Col 3:13 (cp. Hyperid. 1, 40, 20–25 ὥσπερ καὶ … οὕτω καί; 3, 38).
    w. expressions that introduce cause or result, here also pleonastic to a considerable degree διὰ τοῦτο καί for this reason (also) Lk 11:49; J 12:18. διὸ καί Lk 1:35; Ac 10:29; Ro 4:22; Hb 13:12. εἰς τοῦτο καί 2 Cor 2:9. ὥστε καί 1 Pt 4:19 (but this pass. may well fit in b). ὅθεν καί Hb 7:25; 11:19.
    after an interrogative (as Thu., X., et al.; s. Kühner-G. II 255. S. also B-D-F §442, 14) at all, still ἱνατί καὶ τ. γῆν καταργεῖ; Lk 13:7. τί καί; (Hyperid. 3, 14 τί καὶ ἀδικεῖ; what kind of wrong, then, is he committing?) τί καὶ ἐλπίζει; why does he still (need to) hope? Ro 8:24. v.l. τί καὶ βαπτίζονται; why are they baptized (at all)? 1 Cor 15:29; cp. vs. 30.
    used w. a relative, it oft. gives greater independence to the foll. relative clause: Mk 3:14; Lk 10:30; J 11:2 v.l.; Ac 1:3, 11; 7:45; 10:39; 11:30; 12:4; 13:22; 28:10; Ro 9:24; 1 Cor 11:23; Gal 2:10; Col 1:29 al.
    used pleonastically w. prep.
    α. μετά (BGU 412, 6 μετὰ καὶ τ. υἱοῦ) Phil 4:3.
    β. σύν (ins in PASA III 612; PFay 108; BGU 179, 19; 515, 17) 1 Cl 65:1.—Dssm., NB 93 (BS 265f).
    w. double names ὁ καί who is also called … (the earliest ex. in a fragment of Ctesias: 688 Fgm. 15, 51 p. 469, 23 Jac. ῏Ωχος καὶ Δαρειαῖος [s. Hatch 141]; OGI 565; 574; 583; 589; 603; 604; 620; 623; 636; POxy 45; 46; 54; 101; 485; 1279; PFay 30; BGU 22, 25; 36, 4; Jos., Ant. 1, 240; 5, 85; 12, 285; 13, 320; 18, 35. Further material in WSchmid, Der Atticismus III 1893, 338; Dssm., B 181ff [BS 313–17]. Lit. in B-D-F §268, 1) Σαῦλος, ὁ καὶ Παῦλος Ac 13:9. Ἰγνάτιος, ὁ καὶ Θεοφόρος ins of all the letters of Ign.
    with other particles
    α. καὶ γάρ for (s. γάρ 1b).—καὶ γὰρ … ἀλλά (or granted that … but) 2 Cor 13:4; Phil 2:27.—καὶ γὰρ οὐ(κ): neither 1 Cor 11:9; for even … not 2 Cor 3:10.
    β. καί γε (without intervening word [opp. earlier Gk, e.g. Pla., Phd. 58d; Rep. 7, 531a]: Hippocr., Septim. 9, VII 450 Littré; Cornutus p. 40, 12; Περὶ ὕψους 13, 2; Rhetor Apsines [III A.D.] p. 332, 17 Hammer; TestReub 4:4 al.; for גָּם always in Theod. [DBarthélemy, Les devanciers d’Aquila ’63, 31ff]), weakened force: (if) only or at least Lk 19:42 v.l.; intensive: indeed (Jos. Ant 29, 19) Ac 2:18 (J 3:2 v.l.; Mel., P. 30, 207); Hm 8:5; 9:9. καί γε οὐ μακράν= and indeed God is not far Ac 17:27.—Kühner-G. II 176b; Schwyzer II 561; B-D-F §439, 2; Rdm.2 35–37.
    γ. καὶ … δέ and also, but also (s. δέ 5b).
    δ. καίτοι (Il. 13, 267 et al., ins, pap; 4 Macc 2:6; 5:18; 7:13; Ath. 8, 1 al.; Mel., P. 58, 422) particle (B-D-F §425, 1; 450, 3; Rob. 1129 and 1154) w. finite verb (Chion, Ep. 3, 1; Jos. Ant. 5, 78) yet, on the other hand Ac 14:17. W. gen. abs. foll. (BGU 850, 4 [76 A.D.] καίτοι ἐμοῦ σε πολλὰ ἐρωτήσαντος; 898, 26; Philo, Vi. Mos. 1, 20; Jos., Ant. 2, 321; Ath. 19, 2; 25, 2) Hb 4:3.—καίτοι γε or καί τοι γε (since Aristoph., Ach. 611; but esp. in later Gk. [cp. Schwyzer II 561; MMeister, De Aiocho dial., Breslau diss. 1915 p. 31, 5]; Ps.-Pla., Axioch. 364b; Jos., Bell. 1, 7, Ant. 5, 36; Epict. 3, 24, 90; Just., A II, 11, 2; D. 7, 3; Ath. 3, 1; 22, 7; SIG 685, 76 and 82 [139 B.C.]) although J 4:2; Ac 14:17 v.l.; Dg 8:3. W. part. foll. (Jos., C. Ap. 1, 230; Mel., P. 58, 422) AcPt Ox 849, 18.—Kühner-G. II 151f; B-D-F §439, 1; 450, 3.—For ἀλλὰ κ., δὲ και, ἐὰν κ., εἰ κ., ἢ κ. s. ἀλλά, δέ, ἐάν, εἰ, ἤ.—ERobson, KAI-Configurations in the Gk. NT, 3 vols. diss. Syracuse ’79. LfgrE s.v. καί col. 1273f (lit.). DELG. M-M. EDNT.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > καί

  • 155 καλέω

    καλέω impf. ἐκάλουν; fut. καλέσω (LXX; JosAs 17:5; 20:6; Jos., Ant. 11, 266.—W-S. §13, 5; B-D-F §74, 1; Mlt-H. 242); 1 aor. ἐκάλεσα; pf. κέκληκα. Mid.: fut. 3 sg. καλέσεται (Just., D. 43, 5). Pass. 1 fut. κληθῆσομαι (W-S. §15); 2 fut. 3 sg. κεκλήσεται Lev 13:45; Hos 12:1; 1 aor. ἐκλήθην; pf. κέκλημαι (Hom.+).
    to identify by name or attribute, call, call by name, name
    call (to someone) abs., with naming implied (opp. ὑπακούειν; cp. PHamb 29, 3 [89 A.D.] κληθέντων τινῶν καὶ μὴ ὑπακουσάντων; Just., D. 136, 2 οὔτε καλοῦντος αὐτοῦ ἀνέχεσθε οὔτε λαλοῦντος ἀκούετε) of God ἐκάλουν καὶ οὐχ ὑπηκούσατε 1 Cl 57:4 (Pr 1:24); w. obj. τὰ ἴδια πρόβατα καλεῖ κατʼ ὄνομα J 10:3 v.l.
    call, address as, designate as w. double acc. (Just., D. 3, 5 θεὸν σὺ τί καλεῖς; Hippol., Ref. 6, 20, 1) αὐτὸν καλῶμεν κύριον 2 Cl 4:1; cp. Mt 22:43, 45; 23:9 (here the sense supplies the second acc.: you are to call no one your father); Lk 20:44; Ac 14:12; Ro 9:25; Hb 2:11; 1 Pt 1:17 P72; 3:6. A voc. can take the place of the second acc. τί με καλεῖτε κύριε, κύριε; Lk 6:46. Pass. καλεῖσθαι ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων ῥαββί Mt 23:7. ὑμεῖς μὴ κληθῆτε ῥαββί you are not to have people call you ‘rabbi’ vs. 8; vs. 10. Cp. Lk 22:25; Js 2:23. ὁ οἶκός μου οἶκος προσευχῆς κληθήσεται Mt 21:13; Mk 11:17 (both Is 56:7). κληθήσονται υἱοὶ θεοῦ Ro 9:26 (Hos 2:1).
    name, provide with a name w. double acc. (Iren. 1, 1, 1 [Harv. I 8, 3]) ἐκάλουν αὐτὸ … Ζαχαρίαν they were for naming him Z. Lk 1:59 (on ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματι τ. πατρός after his father[’s name] cp. 1 Esdr 5:38; Sir 36:11 and s. Hs 9, 17, 4).—Pass. be given a name, be named (Jos., Ant. 1, 34) κληθήσεται Ἰωάννης his name is to be John Lk 1:60; cp. vs. 62. σὺ κληθήσῃ Κηφᾶς J 1:42. Also of localities Mt 27:8; Ac 1:19; ApcPt Rainer (s. Ἀχερουσία).—Have as a name, be called (Lucian, Jud. Voc. 7 Λυσίμαχος ἐκαλεῖτο; Just., D. 1, 3 Τρύφων…καλοῦμαι; 63, 5 Χριστιανοὶ … καλούμεθα) ὸ̔ς καλεῖται τ. ὀνόματι τούτῳ who bears this name Lk 1:61. Also of localities (Appian, Bell. Civ. 3, 70 §289; 3, 91 §374; SIG 599, 5 τὸ φρούριον ὸ̔ καλεῖται Κάριον; Just., A I, 59, 6 τὸ καλούμενον Ἔρεβος) πόλις Δαυὶδ ἥτις καλεῖται Βηθλέεμ Lk 2:4. Cp. Ac 28:1; Rv 11:8.—Lk, Ac, Rv, GPt add to a pers. or thing the name or surname which he, she, or it bears, by means of the pres. pass. ptc. (cp. SIG 685, 39 νῆσον τὴν καλουμένην Λεύκην; 826e 22; 1063, 5; PPetr II, 45 II, 20; BGU 1000, 6; PCairGoodsp 9, 4; O. Wilck II, 1210, 4). The name: ἀδελφὴ καλουμένη Μαριάμ a sister named Mary Lk 10:39 (PCairMasp 23, 16 τ. ἀδελφὴν καλουμένην Πρόκλαν; TestJob 48:1 ἡ καλουμένη Ἡμέρα). Cp. 19:2; Ac 7:58; Rv 19:11, also 12:9. πόλις καλουμένη Ν. Lk 7:11; cp. 9:10; 19:29; 21:37; 23:33; Ac 1:12; 3:11; 8:10; 9:11; 10:1; 27:8, 14, 16; Rv 1:9; 16:16; GPt 6:24. The surname (2 Macc 10:12 Πτολεμαῖος ὁ καλούμενος Μάκρων; 1 Macc 3:1; Jos., Ant. 13, 367; TestJob 1:1 Ιωβ τοῦ καλουμένου Ιωβαβ): Σίμων ὁ κ. ζηλωτής Simon the Zealot Lk 6:15. Cp. 1:36; 8:2; 22:3 (s. ἐπικαλέω 2); Ac 1:23; 13:1; 15:22 (s. ἐπικαλέω), 37.—The example of the OT (Gen 17:19; 1 Km 1:20; Hos 1:9; 1 Macc 6:17) has influenced the expr. καλεῖν τὸ ὄνομά τινος, w. the name added in the acc. καλέσεις τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Ἰησοῦν Mt 1:21; GJs 11:3; 14:2. Cp. Mt 1:23 (Is 7:14), 25; Lk 1:13, 31. Pass. Lk 2:21; Rv 19:13.
    Very oft. the emphasis is to be placed less on the fact that names are such and such, than on the fact that the bearers of the name actually are what the name says about them. The pass. be named thus approaches closely the mng. to be, and it must be left to the sensitivity of the interpreter whether this transl. is to be attempted in any individual case (Quint. Smyrn. 14, 434 οὔτʼ ἔτι σεῖο κεκλήσομαι=I do not wish any longer to be yours, i.e. your daughter). Among such pass. are these: Ναζωραῖος κληθήσεται he is to be a Nazarene Mt 2:23. υἱοὶ θεοῦ κληθήσονται 5:9; cp. vs. 19ab. υἱὸς ὑψίστου κληθήσεται (in parallelism w. ἔσται μέγας) Lk 1:32; so GJs 11:3, but without the ref. to greatness; cp. Lk 1:35, 76; 2:23. οὐκέτι εἰμὶ ἄξιος κληθῆναι υἱός σου 15:19, 21. οὐκ εἰμὶ ἱκανὸς καλεῖσθαι ἀπόστολος 1 Cor 15:9. ἵνα τέκνα θεοῦ κληθῶμεν, καί ἐσμέν that we should be called children of God; and so we really are 1J 3:1 (sim. Eur., Ion 309 τ. θεοῦ καλοῦμαι δοῦλος εἰμί τε; cp. Just., D. 123, 9; καλεῖσθαι beside εἶναι as Plut., Demetr. 900 [25, 6]). οἱ κεκλημένοι ἐν ὀνόματι κυρίου those who are identified by the Lord’s name i.e. as Christians Hs 8, 1, 1. ἄχρις οὗ τὸ σήμερον καλεῖται as long as it is called ‘today’, as long as ‘today’ lasts Hb 3:13 (WLorimer, NTS 12, ’66, 390f, quoting Pla., Phd. 107c).—Here we may also class ἐν Ἰσαὰκ κληθήσεταί σοι σπέρμα in (through) Isaac you are to have your descendants Ro 9:7 and Hb 11:18 (Gen 21:12).
    to request the presence of someone at a social gathering, invite (Hom. et al.; pap; 2 Km 13:23; Esth 5:12; ISardRobert 1, ’64, p. 9, lines 1–4) τινά someone εἰς (τοὺς) γάμους to the wedding (Diod S 4, 70, 3; POxy 1487, 1 καλεῖ σε Θέων εἰς τοὺς γάμους) Mt 22:9; Lk 14:8, cp. vs. 10 (Syn. ἐρωτάω; s. three texts, invitations to the κλινή of Sarapis [ZPE 1, ’67, 121–26], two w. ἐ. and one w. καλέω New Docs 1, 5–9; on Luke’s compositional use of the meal context, s. XdeMeeûs, ETL 37, ’61, 847–70; cp. J 2:2; Rv 19:9. Abs. invite τινά someone 1 Cor 10:27 (Diog. L. 7, 184 of Chrysippus: ἐπὶ θυσίαν [sacrificial meal] ὑπὸ τῶν μαθητῶν κληθῆναι); priests to a child’s birthday GJs 6:2. Cp. Lk 7:39; 14:9, 12f, 16. οἱ κεκλημένοι the invited guests (Damox. Com. [IV/III B.C.] Fgm. 2, 26 K. in Athen. 3, 59, 102c τ. κεκλημένον; Jos., Ant. 6, 48; 52); Mt 22:3b (οἱ κεκλημένοι εἰς τ. γάμους as Diphilus Com. [IV/III B.C.] Fgm. 17, 1), 4, 8; Lk 14:7, 17; cp. vs. 24. ὁ κεκληκώς, the host 14:10 (s. above).—If αὐτοῦ Mk 2:15 refers to Jesus’ home, κ. in vs. 17 registers the double sense of an invitation to dinner and receipt of Messianic benefits, w. Jesus as host (s. AMcNeile, Mt ’57, 118); difft. Lk 5:27–32, s. 4 below. Of a follow-up invitation to guests upon completion of banquet preparations Mt 22:3a (cp. 3b below).
    to use authority to have a person or group appear, summon
    call together τινάς people: Workers to be paid Mt 20:8. Slaves to receive orders 25:14; Lk 19:13. Shepherds GJs 4:3. τὰς θυγατέρας τῶν Ἑβραίων for Mary’s diversion 6:1; 7:2. τὰς παρθένους Ox 404 recto, 21 (Hs 113, 5); GJs 10:1. Guests Mt 22:3a (s. 2 end).
    summon τινά someone (Appian, Bell. Civ. 4, 82 §347; 4, 86 §362; 1 Macc 1:6) ἀπέστειλαν πρὸς αὐτὸν καλοῦντες αὐτόν they sent to him to summon him Mk 3:31. Cp. Mt 2:7; 22:3a. Of Joseph ἐκάλεσεν αὐτήν GJs 13:2 (for the context cp. Mt 1:18f). Of God: the Israelites fr. Egypt (as a type of Christ) Mt 2:15. Call upon (Himerius, Or. 48 [=Or. 14], 10; 4 Macc 3:19) Hb 11:8.
    a legal t.t. call in, summon before a court (oft. pap) τινά someone (Jos., Ant. 14, 169) Ac 4:18; 24:2.—The transition to mng. 4 is well illustrated by Mt 4:21; Mk 1:20; Papias (8), where the summons is also a call to discipleship.
    From the mngs. ‘summon’ and ‘invite’ there develops the extended sense choose for receipt of a special benefit or experience, call (Paus. 10, 32, 13 οὓς ἂν ἡ ῏Ισις καλέσῃ διʼ ἐνυπνίων; Ael. Aristid. 30, 9 K.=10 p. 116 D.: ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ κληθείς) καλούμενος ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ Hb 5:4. τινὰ εἴς τι someone to someth., in the usage of the NT, as well as that of the LXX, of the choice of pers. for salvation: God (much more rarely Christ) calls εἰς τὴν ἑαυτοῦ βασιλείαν καὶ δόξαν 1 Th 2:12; εἰς τὴν αἰώνιον αὐτοῦ δόξαν 1 Pt 5:10. εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον 1 Ti 6:12. εἰς κοινωνίαν τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ to fellowship with his son 1 Cor 1:9. ἐκ σκότους εἰς τὸ αὐτοῦ φῶς from darkness to his light 1 Pt 2:9. ἀπὸ σκότους εἰς φῶς 1 Cl 59:2. διὰ τ. χάριτος αὐτοῦ Gal 1:15. for this God called you through our proclamation, namely to obtain the glory 2 Th 2:14; cp. 1 Th 2:12. καλέσαντι … εἰς τὴν μερίδα τοῦ κλήρους τῶν ἁγίων Col 1:12 v.l. (for ἱκανώσαντι). Without further modification Ro 8:30; 9:24; 1 Cor 7:17f, 20–22, 24; Eph 1:11 v.l.; 2 Cl 9:5; 10:1.—κ. κλήσει ἁγίᾳ call with a holy calling 2 Ti 1:9. ἀξίως τῆς κλήσεως ἧς (attraction, instead of ἣν) ἐκλήθητε worthily of the calling by which you were called Eph 4:1 (on the constr. s. W-S. §24, 4b; Rob. 478). Of God: ὁ καλῶν τινά Gal 5:8; 1 Th 5:24. Abs. ὁ καλῶν Ro 9:12. ὁ καλέσας τινά Gal 1:6; 1 Pt 1:15; 2 Pt 1:3. Likew. of Christ ὁ καλέσας τινά 2 Cl 5:1 (Just., A I, 15, 7). Pass. οἱ κεκλημένοι those who are called Hb 9:15. κεκλημένοι ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ διʼ αὐτοῦ (=Ἰ. Χρ.) 1 Cl 65:2. οἱ κεκλημένοι ὑπʼ αὐτοῦ (=υἱοῦ τ. θεοῦ) Hs 9, 14, 5. οἱ κληθέντες Hm 4, 3, 4. S. also 1d.—More closely defined: ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ B 14:7 (Is 42:6). ἐπʼ ἐλευθερίᾳ (s. ἐλευθερία) Gal 5:13. οὐκ ἐπὶ ἀκαθαρσίᾳ ἀλλʼ ἐν ἁγιασμῷ not for impurity, but in consecration 1 Th 4:7. ἐν εἰρήνῃ in peace 1 Cor 7:15. ἐκλήθητε ἐν μιᾷ ἐλπίδι τῆς κλήσεως ὑμῶν you were called in the one hope that you share in your call Eph 4:4. ἡμεῖς διὰ θελήματος αὐτου (=θεοῦ) ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ κληθέντες 1 Cl 32:4. εἰς εἰρήνην τοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐν ἐνὶ σώματι Col 3:15. ἐν τῇ σαρκί 2 Cl 9:4. ἐν Ἰσαάκ Hb 11:18 (=Ro 9:7). πόθεν ἐκλήθημεν καὶ ὑπὸ τίνος καὶ εἰς ὸ̔ν τόπον 2 Cl 1:2. εἰς τοῦτο ἵνα for this reason, that 1 Pt 3:9; cp. 2:21. Of Christ: οὐκ ἦλθον καλέσαι δικαίους ἀλλὰ ἁμαρτωλούς (+ εἰς μετάνοιαν v.l.) Mt 9:13; Mk 2:17 (on a prob. double sense in this pass. s. 2); 2 Cl 2:4; cp. vs. 7 (cp. Just., A I, 40, 7 εἰς μετάνοιαν καλεῖ πάντας ὁ θεός); Lk 5:32 (ἐλήλυθα … εἰς μετάνοιαν). Of God: ἐκάλεσεν ἡμᾶς οὐκ ὄντας he called us when we did not exist 2 Cl 1:8. ὁ καλῶν τὰ μὴ ὄντα ὡς ὄντα the one who calls into being what does not exist Ro 4:17 (Philo, Spec. Leg. 4, 187 τὰ μὴ ὄντα ἐκάλεσεν εἰς τὸ εἶναι; cp. Is 41:4; 48:13).—Of the call to an office by God Hb 5:4.—JHempel, Berufung u. Bekehrung (also GBeer Festschr.) ’35; HWildberger, Jahwes Eigentumsvolk ’60.—B. 1276. DELG. EDNT. M-M. TW.

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  • 156 κατεργάζομαι

    κατεργάζομαι mid. dep., Att. fut. 2 sg. κατεργᾷ Dt 28:39; 1 aor. κατειργασάμην; perf. κατείργασμαι. Pass.: fut. 2 pl. κατεργασθήσεσθε Ezk 36:9; aor. κατειργάσθην (on κατηργασάμην and κατηργάσθην s. B-D-F §67, 3; W-S. §12, 1; Mlt-H. 189) (Soph., Hdt.+).
    to bring about a result by doing someth., achieve, accomplish, do τὶ someth. (Hdt. 5, 24 πρήγματα μεγάλα; X., Mem. 3, 5, 11; Jos., Vi. 289) Ro 7:15, 17f, 20; 1 Cor 5:3; 1 Cl 32:3f. τὴν ἀσχημοσύνην κατεργαζόμενοι committing shameless acts Ro 1:27. τὸ κακόν do what is wrong 2:9; 13:10 v.l. τὸ βούλημα τῶν ἐθνῶν do what the gentiles (i.e. polytheists) like to do 1 Pt 4:3. δικαιοσύνην θεοῦ does what is right in the sight of God or (s. ἐργάζεσθαι 2c) achieves the uprightness that counts before God Js 1:20 v.l. ἅπαντα κατεργασάμενοι after you have done or accomplished everything (in this case the reference would be to the individual pieces of armor mentioned in what follows, which the reader is to employ as is prescribed; but s. 4 below) Eph 6:13. ὧν οὐ κατειργάσατο Χριστὸς διʼ ἐμοῦ of anything except what Christ has accomplished through me Ro 15:18. Pass. τὰ σημεῖα τοῦ ἀποστόλου κατειργάσθη ἐν ὑμῖν the signs by which an apostle demonstrates his authority have been done among you 2 Cor 12:12.
    to cause a state or condition, bring about, produce, create (Hdt. 7, 102 ἀρετὴ ἀπὸ σοφίης κατεργασμένη; Philo, Plant. 50; TestJos 10:1) τὶ someth. νόμος ὀργήν Ro 4:15. θλῖψις ὑπομονήν 5:3 (TestJos 10:1 πόσα κατεργάζεται ἡ ὑπομονή); cp. Js 1:3. λύπη μετάνοιαν 2 Cor 7:10a v.l. (for ἐργάζεται). λύπη θάνατον vs. 10b; cp. vs. 11 (where a dat. of advantage is added). φθόνος ἀδελφοκτονίαν 1 Cl 4:7. μνησικακία θάνατον Hv 2, 3, 1. ἡ ἁμαρτία κ. ἐν ἐμοὶ πᾶσαν ἐπιθυμίαν sin called forth every desire within me Ro 7:8. τινί τι bring about someth. for someone (Eur., Her. 1046 πόλει σωτηρίαν) μοι θάνατον 7:13. αἰώνιον βάρος δόξης ἡμῖν 2 Cor 4:17. εὐχαριστίαν τῷ θεῷ bring about thankfulness to God 9:11; θάνατον ἑαυτῷ κ. bring death upon oneself Hm 4, 1, 2; cp. Hs 8, 8, 5 ἐργάζεσθαι.— Work out τὶ someth. (Pla., Gorg. 473d ὁ κατειργασμένος τὴν τυραννίδα ἀδίκως) τὴν ἑαυτῶν σωτηρίαν κατεργάζεσθε Phil 2:12 (JMichael, Phil 2:12: Exp. 9th ser., 2, 1924, 439–50).
    to cause to be well prepared, prepare someone κ. τινα εἴς τι prepare someone for someth. (cp. Hdt. 7, 6, 1; X., Mem. 2, 3, 11) ἡμᾶς εἰς αὐτὸ τοῦτο for this very purpose 2 Cor 5:5.
    to be successful in the face of obstacles, overpower, subdue, conquer (Hdt. 6, 2 νῆσον; Thu. 6, 11, 1 al. τινά; 1 Esdr 4:4; Philo, Sacr. Abel. 62; Jos., Ant. 2, 44) ἅπαντα κατεργασάμενοι στῆναι after proving victorious over everything, to stand your ground Eph 6:13 (but s. 1 above).—M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > κατεργάζομαι

  • 157 κλῆσις

    κλῆσις, εως, ἡ (s. καλέω; Aristoph., X., Pla.; pap, LXX, TestSol, Philo, Just.; Tat. 15, 4).
    invitation to experience of special privilege and responsibility, call, calling, invitation. In our lit. almost exclusively of divine initiative (cp. κλῆσις, ἣν κέκληκεν [ὁ θεός] Epict. 1, 29, 49; s. also Maximus Tyr. 11, 11a) of the divine call, of the invitation to enter the kgdm. of God κ. ἐπουράνιος a heavenly (=divine) call Hb 3:1. ἡ κ. τοῦ θεοῦ the call that comes fr. God Ro 11:29; Lk 11:42 v.l. (Marcion’s rdg., accord. to Epiph.; the latter has κρίσις). ἵνα ἐνμίνωσι (=ἐμμείνωσι) τῇ πρὸς τὸν πατέρα κλήσι so that they might remain steadfast in their calling to the Father AcPl Ha 7, 33. ἡ ἐλπὶς τῆς κλήσεως αὐτοῦ (=τοῦ θεοῦ) the hope to which God calls Eph 1:18. ἐλπὶς τῆς κ. ὑμῶν the hope that your calling brings you 4:4. ἡ ἄνω κ. τοῦ θεοῦ ἐν Χριστῷ the upward call of God in Christ Phil 3:14; cp. 1 Cl 46:6. καλεῖν κλήσει ἁγίᾳ call with a holy calling 2 Ti 1:9; cp. Eph 4:1, 4 (cp. Orig., C. Cels. 3, 61, 21); ἀξιοῦν τινα τῆς κ. 2 Th 1:11 (s. ἀξιόω 1). ἡ κ. τινος the call that has come to someone (Orig., C. Cels. 2, 78, 5) 2 Pt 1:10. βλέπετε τὴν κ. ὑμῶν consider your call i.e., what happened when it occurred 1 Cor 1:26. κ. τῆς ἐπαγγελίας the calling of (i.e. that consists in) God’s promise B 16:9. Of baptism (s. HKoch, Die Bussfrist des Pastor Hermae: Festgabe für AvHarnack 1921, 175f) μετὰ τὴν κ. ἐκείνην τὴν μεγάλην καὶ σεμνήν after that great and sacred call Hm 4, 3, 6; ὁ κύριος θέλει τὴν κ. τὴν γενομένην διὰ τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ σωθῆναι the Lord desires the salvation of those who are called through his Son Hs 8, 11, 1.—Cp. AcThom 50 (Aa II/2, 166, 17); ὑπὸ πάντων τῶν τῆς κλήσεως ‘by all those who are called’ Iren. 1, 4, 4 (Harv. I 136, 13); also Hippol., Ref. 6, 45, 3.
    position that one holds, position, condition (Libanius, Argumenta Orationum Demosth. 2: VIII 601, 6 F. τὴν τοῦ μαχαιροποιοῦ κλῆσιν ἔλαβεν=took up the occupation; idem Progymn. 9, 2, 1: VIII 290, 14 ἐν τῇ κλήσει ταύτῃ=in this characteristic, i.e. as Phrygians; Philo, Leg. ad Gai. 163 θεοῦ κλῆσισ=the position of a god [is a thing so sacred to the Alexandrians that they even give animals a share in it]) ἕκαστος ἐν τῇ κ. ᾗ ἐκλήθη, ἐν ταύτῃ μενέτω everyone is to remain in the (same) condition/position in which the person was when called (to salvation) 1 Cor 7:20.—For other perspectives s. KHoll, D. Gesch. des Wortes Beruf: SBBerlAk 1924, xxixff; ENorden, Antike Menschen im Ringen um ihre Berufsbestimmung: SBBerlAk ’32, p. xxxviiiff; WBieder, D. Berufung im NT ’61.—DELG s.v. καλέω. M-M. TW. Sv.

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  • 158 λέγω

    λέγω (Hom.+; on the mng. of the word ADebrunner, TW IV 71–73) impf. ἔλεγον (3 pl. ἔλεγαν s. B-D-F §82 app.; Mlt-H. 194; KBuresch, RhM 46, 1891, 224). Only pres. and impf. are in use; the other tenses are supplied by εἶπον (q.v., also B-D-F §101 p. 46; Mlt-H. 247), but the foll. pass. forms occur: fut. 3 sg. λεχθήσεται; aor. ptc. fem. sg. λεχθεῖσα (SyrBar 14:1), neut. pl. τὰ λεχθέντα (Jos. 24, 27; Esth 1:18; Papias, Just.), 3 sg. ἐλέχθη and pl. ἐλέχθησαν; pf. 3 sg. λέλεκται; plupf. ἐλέλεκτο; pf. ptc. λελεγμένος (all Just.; B-D-F §101) ‘say’ (beginning w. Hes. [Hom. uses the word in the senses ‘gather, collect’, as Il. 11, 755 al., and mid. ‘select’, as Il. 21, 27, and esp. of stories that one elects to ‘tell over’ or ‘recount’, as Od. 14, 197] and more freq. in Pind.; the usual word since the Attic writers; ins, pap, LXX, pseudepigr., Philo, Joseph., apolog.).
    to express oneself orally or in written form, utter in words, say, tell, give expression to, the gener. sense (not in Hom., for this εἶπον, ἐν[ν]έπω, et al.)
    w. an indication of what is said
    α. in the acc. ταύτην τ. παραβολήν Lk 13:6. (τὴν) ἀλήθειαν (Teles p. 4, 14; TestAbr A 16 p. 97, 27 [Stone p. 42]) J 8:45f; Ro 9:1; 1 Ti 2:7. ἀληθῆ (cp. Herodian 4, 14, 4) J 19:35. παροιμίαν οὐδεμίαν 16:29. τὶ καινότερον Ac 17:21 (w. ἀκούω as Pla., Prot. 310a; Dio Chrys. 3, 28; 4, 37). τί λέγουσιν what they say Mt 21:16; cp. Lk 18:6; 1 Cor 14:16. τί λέγω; what shall I say? Hb 11:32. ὸ̔ λέγει Lk 9:33; cp. 2 Ti 2:7; Phlm 21. ἃ λέγουσιν 1 Ti 1:7; AcPlCor 1:9. ταῦτα (τοῦτο) λ. (Jos., Vi. 291) Lk 9:34; 11:45b; 13:17; J 2:22; τοιαῦτα λ. Hb 11:14. τὸ αὐτὸ λέγειν be in agreement (not only in words: Thu. 4, 20, 4; 5, 31, 6; Polyb. 2, 62, 4; 5, 104, 1; Jos., Ant. 18, 375; 378) 1 Cor 1:10.—Also τινί τι tell someone someth. παραβολὴν αὐτοῖς Lk 18:1. μυστήριον ὑμῖν 1 Cor 15:51. τ. ἀλήθειαν ὑμῖν J 16:7. ὸ̔ λέγω ὑμῖν Mt 10:27. μηδενὶ λ. τοῦτο Lk 9:21. οὐδὲν αὐτῷ λέγουσιν they say nothing to him J 7:26. ταῦτα ἔλεγον ὑμῖν 2 Th 2:5.—τὶ πρός τινα (Pla, Gorg. 465a) παραβολὴν πρὸς αὐτούς Lk 5:36; cp. 14:7; 20:9.—24:10; 11:53 v.l. W. double acc. ἀδύνατα ταῦτα εἴρηκας Hm 11:19.
    β. by direct discourse or direct question foll., mostly abs. (extremely freq.) Mt 9:34; 12:44; Mk 3:30; Lk 5:39; J 1:29, 36; 1 Cor l2:3; Js 4:13. Also oft. introduced by recitative ὅτι Mt 9:18; Mk 1:15; 2:12; 3:21f; 5:28; 6:14f (on the textual problem s. FNeirynck, ETL 65, ’89, 110–18), 35; 7:20; Lk 1:24; 4:41; 17:10; 21:8 v.l.; J 6:14; 7:12; 8:33; Ac 2:13; 11:3 and oft.—καὶ ἔλεγεν Mk 4:21, 24, 26, 30 may = he used to say (so that they might memorize): WEssame, ET 77, ’66, 121.
    γ. by indirect discourse or indirect question foll.; abs. Mt 21:27; Mk 11:33c; Lk 20:8.—Introduced by ὅτι (Diod S 11, 4, 3; 11, 6, 2; 14, 4, 3; Petosiris, Fgm. 14c; Jos., Bell. 4, 543) Lk 22:70; Ac 20:23.—In acc. w. inf. τίνα λέγουσιν οἱ ἄνθρωποι εἶναι τ. υἱὸν τ. ἀνθρώπου; Mt 16:13; cp. vs. 15; Lk 9:20; 11:18; 23:2b; 24:23b; J 12:29a; Ac 4:32; 8:9; 17:7.—W. the inf. only Lk 24:23a; Js 2:14; 1J 2:6, 9.
    w. indication of the pers. or thing about which someth. is said, or that is meant by someth.
    α. by a prep. περί τινος (Soph., Thu. et al.) οἱ Φαρισαῖοι ἔγνωσαν ὅτι περὶ αὐτῶν λέγει the Pharisees perceived that he was talking about them Mt 21:45. λέγει περὶ αὐτοῦ he said concerning him J 1:47; cp. 2:21; 11:13; 13:18, 22. εἴς τινα (Eur., Med. 453; X., Mem. 1, 5, 1) Ac 2:25; Eph 5:32. ἐπί τινα Hb 7:13. πρός τινα Lk 12:41; Hb 1:7.
    β. by the acc. alone mean someone or someth. (Demosth. 18, 88; Diod S 15, 23, 5; Phalaris, Ep. 142, 1 ἣν λέγω; Ael. Aristid. 48, 35 K.=24 p. 474 D.: τὸν Φιλάδελφον λέγων; Aelian, NA 8, 3 ὸ̔ δὲ λέγω, τοιοῦτόν ἐστιν, VH 3, 36; Lucian, Dial. Deor. 3; 10, 2; 2 Macc 14:7; Jos., Ant. 6, 86; TestSol 4:6 D τὸν δύστηνον λέγω γέροντα; Just., D. 130, 2 μετὰ τοῦ λαοῦ αὐτοῦ, λέγω Ἀβραὰμ καὶ Ἰσαὰκ …) τ. ἄνθρωπον τοῦτον ὸ̔ν λέγετε this man whom you mean Mk 14:71. ἔλεγεν τὸν Ἰούδαν J 6:71. συνείδησιν λέγω οὐχὶ τὴν ἑαυτοῦ I mean not your own conscience 1 Cor 10:29. τοῦτο δὲ λέγω but this is what I mean Gal 3:17; cp. 1 Cor 1:12a (Ptolem., Apotel. 2, 3, 12; 2, 11, 1 λέγω δέ … but I mean).—Mt 26:70; Mk 14:68; Lk 22:60. Cp. 4 end.
    γ. w. an indication of the one to whom someth. is said (on the synoptics and Ac s. WLarfeld, Die ntl. Ev. 1925, 237f); mostly in dat. (Aeschyl., Ag. 103; Herodas 4, 42 σοί; POxy 413, 99; s. also 1aα above) Mt 8:7; Mk 2:8, 17f; Lk 3:7; 5:24; J 1:39, 41, 43 and oft.—πρός τινα (Epict. 2, 17, 34 πρὸς ἄλλους ἐρεῖς; TestSol 1:6 D λέγει Νάθαν πρὸς τὸν ἄγγελον; ApcEsdr 6:16; s. also 1aα above) Mk 4:41; 16:3; Lk 4:21; 8:25 (λ. πρὸς ἀλλήλους as Jos., Ant. 2, 108; 9, 239); 9:23; 12:1; 16:1; J 2:3; 3:4; Ac 2:12; 28:4. μετά τινος: ἔλεγον μετʼ ἀλλήλων they said to each other J 11:56.
    δ. in other (s. 1aα, 1bα, 1bγ) prep. uses ἀφʼ ἑαυτοῦ (=ἀπὸ σεαυτοῦ v.l.) σὺ τοῦτο λέγεις; do you say this of your own accord? J 18:34 (TestAbr A 15 p. 95, 26 [Stone p. 38] al.). εἴς τινα against someone Lk 22:65. τὶ περί τινος say someth. about or concerning someone J 1:22; Ac 8:34; Tit 2:8. λ. περὶ τοῦ ἱεροῦ, ὅτι say, with reference to the temple, that Lk 21:5. τί σὺ λέγεις περὶ αὐτοῦ, ὅτι; what have you to say about him, since? J 9:17b (λ. τι περί τινος, ὅτι as Jos., Bell. 7, 215). τινὶ περί τινος say to someone about someone w. direct discourse foll. Mt 11:7. Also πρός τινα περί τινος (Jos., C. Ap. 1, 279 πρὸς αὐτὸν περὶ Μωϋσέως) Lk 7:24. πρός τινα ἐπί τινος bring charges against someone before someone Ac 23:30 (λ. ἐπί τινος as Jos., Vi. 258). λ. περί (v.l. ὑπέρ) τινος say (someth.), speak in someone’s defense 26:1.
    ε. in connection w. adverbs and adv. exprs.: Λυκαονιστὶ λ. say in (the) Lycaonian (language) Ac 14:11. καλῶς correctly (X., Mem. 2, 7, 11; 3, 3, 4; TestJob 7:8; EpArist 125; 196) J 8:48; 13:13. ὡσαύτως in the same way Mk 14:31. ἀληθῶς λέγω ὑμῖν truly, I tell you Lk 12:44; 21:3. κατὰ ἄνθρωπον (s. ἄνθρωπος 2b) Ro 3:5; Gal 3:15. κατὰ συγγνώμην, οὐ κατʼ ἐπιταγήν (s. ἐπιταγή) 1 Cor 7:6; cp. 2 Cor 8:8. καθʼ ὑστέρησιν Phil 4:11.
    ζ. w. emphasis on a certain kind of saying: φωνῇ μεγάλῃ in a loud voice Rv 5:12; 8:13 (cp. TestSol 16:1). Also ἐν φωνῇ μεγάλῃ 14:7; 9. ἄγγελος ἐν φωνῇ λέγων GJs 20:4 (pap, s. deStrycker p. 387f). Opp. ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ (cp. Ps 13:1) 18:7. Also ἐν ἑαυτῷ (TestAbr B 3 p. 107, 11 [Stone p. 62]; TestJob 23:8) Mt 3:9; 9:21; Lk 3:8; 7:39, 49; GJs 1:1,4; 3:1; 5:1; cp. 1:3 (codd.); 2:1 v.l.; 14:1 v.l.
    η. in quotations fr. scripture (but s. also Epict. 1, 28, 4 ὡς λέγει Πλάτων with a quotation) Ἠσαί̈ας λέγει Isaiah says Ro 10:16, 20; 15:12. Μωϋσῆς λέγει 10:19. Δαυὶδ λέγει 11:9. ἡ γραφὴ λέγει (Just., D. 56, 17; cp. Paus. 2, 16, 4 τὰ ἔπη λέγει=the epic poets say) 4:3; 10:11; Gal 4:30; 1 Ti 5:18; Js 4:5; cp. 2:23; J 19:24; 2 Cl 14:2. In the case of the quot. formula λέγει without the subj. expressed, ἡ γραφή or ὁ θεός is easily understood (B-D-F §130, 3; Rob. 392.—On the omission of the subj. [Just., D. 101, 1 al.] cp. Epict. 1, 24, 12 λέγει σοι ‘θὲς κτλ.’=someone says to you ‘lay aside [this and that sign of prestige]’). It could prob. be translated indefinitely it says: Ro 15:10; 2 Cor 6:2; Gal 3:16; Eph 4:8; 5:14. ὁ θεός is obviously the subj. (Clearch., Fgm. 69c; Epict. 1, 1, 10 λέγει ὁ Ζεύς, followed by a divine revelation to Epictetus) Hb 5:6. λέγει ὁ κύριος 2 Cl 13:2; cp. Hb 8:8–10 (λέγει κύριος Am 5:27; Is 1:18; Jer 9:24; ParJer 6:16 al.). W. the passage more definitely indicated (schol. on Pind., O. 7, 66 ἐν τοῖς Μουσαίου λέγεται; schol. on Apollon. Rhod. 3, 1179 Wendel v.l. ἐν τῇ γ´ τῆς Μουσαίου Τιτανογραφίας λέγεται ὡς) ἐν Ἠλίᾳ τί λέγει ἡ γραφή Ro 11:2 (Epict. 2, 17, 34 τί λέγει Χρύσιππος ἐν τοῖς περὶ τοῦ ψευδομένου). Δαυὶδ λέγει ἐν βίβλῳ ψαλμῶν Lk 20:42 (Epict. 2, 19, 14 Ἑλλάνικος λέγει ἐν τοῖς Αἰγυπτιακοῖς with quot.). ἐν τ. Ὡσηὲ λέγει Ro 9:25. λέγει ἐν τῷ Ἠσαί̈ᾳ 2 Cl 3:5 (Just., D. 123, 8); cp. ἐν Δαυίδ Hb 4:7. ὁ νόμος λέγει (cp. Pla., Crito 12, 50c; Epict. 3, 24, 43 τί γὰρ λέγει; [i.e. ὁ νόμος θεῖος]) 1 Cor 14:34. λέγει τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον Hb 3:7 (Just., D. 124, 1). Of words of Jesus: λέγει ὁ κύριος ἐν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ 2 Cl 8:5. λέγει ὁ κύριος 5:2; 6:1. λέγει αὐτός (i.e. ὁ Χριστός 2:7) 3:2. λέγει 4:2.
    θ. Hebraistic, though by no means limited to the OT (s. EKieckers, IndogF 35, 1915, 34ff; B-D-F §420; Mlt-H. 454), is the freq. use of λ. to introduce
    א. direct discourse (like לֵאמֹר), even though it is preceded by a verb of saying, or one that includes the idea of saying. Esp. λέγων is so used, as in the LXX, e.g. after ἀναβοᾶν, ἀνακράζειν Mk 1:23 (cp. Phlegon: 257 Fgm. 36, 3, 9 Jac. ἀνεκεκράγει λέγων), ἀπαγγέλλειν, ἀποκρίνεσθαι, ἀρνεῖσθαι, βοᾶν, γογγύζειν, διαγογγύζειν, διαλογίζεσθαι, διαμαρτύρεσθαι, διαστέλλεσθαι, διδάσκειν, δοξάζειν, εἰπεῖν Mt 22:1; Lk 12:16; 20:2 (s. B-D-F §101, p. 46; s. Rob. 882f; Kieckers, loc. cit. 36f), ἐμβριμᾶσθαι, ἐντέλλεσθαι, ἐπερωτᾶν, ἐπιτιμᾶν, ἐπιφωνεῖν, ἐρωτᾶν, κατηγορεῖν, κηρύσσειν, κράζειν, κραυγάζειν, λαλεῖν, μαρτυρεῖν, μεριμνᾶν, παραινεῖν, παρακαλεῖν, παρατιθέναι παραβολήν, προσεύχεσθαι, προσφωνεῖν, προφητεύειν, συζητεῖν, συλλαλεῖν, φωνεῖν, ψευδομαρτυρεῖν; s. these entries. Also after such verbs as denote an action accompanied by a statement of some kind: ἄγγελος κυρίου … ἐφάνη αὐτῷ λέγων appeared to him and said Mt 1:20; cp. 2:13; προσεκύνει αὐτῷ λ. fell before him and said 8:2; 9:18; cp. 14:33. ἅπτεσθαι 8:3; 9:29. ἔρχεσθαι Mk 5:35; Lk 18:3; 19:18 al.; cp. Lk 1:66; 5:8; 8:38; 15:9; Ac 8:10, 19; 12:7; 27:23f; 1 Cor 11:25 al.
    ב. the content of a written document (2 Km 11:15; 4 Km 10:6.—1 Macc 8:31; 11:57; Jos., Ant. 11, 26) ἔγραψεν λέγων (=יִכְתֹּב לֵאמֹר) he wrote as follows Lk 1:63.
    ג. orders or instructions to be carried out by other persons: ἔπεμψεν λέγων he sent and had them say Lk 7:19. ἀπέστειλεν λ. (Judg 11:14f; Jdth 3:1; JosAs 3:2; ParJer 3:21 al.) Mt 22:16; 27:19; Lk 7:20; 19:14; J 11:3. If the persons carrying out the orders are named, the ptc. can refer to them Mt 22:16 v.l.
    ד. When it is used w. the ptc. λ. appears in its finite forms ἐμπαίζοντες ἔλεγον they mocked and said Mt 27:41. προσελθὼν αὐτῷ λέγει he approached him and said Mk 14:45. διαρρήξας … λέγει he tore his clothes as he said vs. 63; cp. vs. 67; 15:35; Lk 6:20; J 1:36; Hb 8:8a al.—Also pleonastically (TestSol 2:2; TestJob 23:4; cp. Homeric ἀμειβόμενος προσέειπε Il. 3, 437 al., προσηύδα 14, 270 al.) ἀποκριθεὶς λέγει he answered Mk 8:29b; 9:5, 19; 10:24; 11:22; Lk 3:11; 11:45; 13:8. κράξας λέγει he cried out Mk 5:7; 9:24 (cp. TestAbr B 6 p. 109, 29 [Stone p. 66] κράζων καὶ λέγων; ApcEsdr 1:2 κράξας λέγων).
    ι. Now and then short exprs. with λ. are inserted as parentheses (B-D-F §465, 2; Rob. 434): πολλοί, λέγω ὑμῖν, ζητήσουσιν many, I tell you, will seek Lk 13:24. ἐν ἀφροσύνῃ λέγω 2 Cor 11:21b. ὡς τέκνοις λέγω 6:13.
    κ. ptc. w. the article τὰ λεγόμενα what was said (EpArist 215, 298; TestSol 15:13; ApcEsdr 2:15; Jos., Ant. 3, 85; 207; Just., D. 46, 4; 115, 1) Lk 18:34. προσεῖχον τ. λεγομένοις ὑπὸ τ. Φιλίππου (προσέχω 2b) Ac 8:6 (προσέχ. τοῖς λεγ. as Jos., Ant. 13, 303; τὰ λ. ὑπό τινος as Bell. 7, 56; 423; Esth 3:3, also Nicol. Dam.: 90 Fgm. 24, p. 408, 19 ὑπὸ τῶν μάντεων; Fgm. 30 p. 417, 23 Jac.; Epict. 1, 18, 1; SIG 679, 87). τὰ ἢ λεχθέντα ἢ πραχθέντα (Ps.-Libanius, Charact. Ep. p. 48, 18; 64, 18; Jos., C. Ap. 1, 55) Papias (2:15) in Eus., HE 3, 39, 15 (=Geb., Harn., Zahn 15, p. 72, 17).
    to express oneself in a specific way, say
    ask w. direct question foll: Mt 9:14; 15:1; 18:1; Mk 5:30f. ὁ διδάσκαλος λέγει the Master asks 14:14. W. dat. of pers. and a direct question foll.: Mt 9:28a; 15:34; 16:15; 20:6.
    answer (Lucian, Syr. Dea 18; TestSol 5:8 al.; ApcMos 5) Mt 17:25; Mk 8:24; J 1:21; 18:17b. W. dat. of pers. and direct discourse: Mt 4:10; 8:26; 9:28b; 14:17; 15:33; 18:22; 19:7, 20 al. W. dat of pers. and direct discourse introduced by ὅτι Mt 19:8.
    order, command, direct, enjoin, recommend more or less emphatically (Syntipas p. 9, 4; Num 32:27; TestSol 4:7 D; TestAbr A 17 p. 98, 21 [Stone p. 44]) τὶ someth. 2 Cl 6:4. ἃ λέγω Lk 6:46. τί τινι command someone (to do) someth. ὅ τι ἂν λέγῃ ὑμῖν J 2:5b (TestAbr A 4 p. 81, 8 [Stone p. 10]); cp. Ac 21:23 (s. Num 32:31). ὅ ὑμῖν λέγω, πᾶσιν λέγω, γρηγορεῖτε the order I give to you I give to everyone: be on your guard! Mk 13:37 (for the formal nuance cp. reff. at end of this parag.). Gener. w. dat. of pers. and direct discourse foll.: Mt 5:44; 6:25; 8:4, 9; 26:52; Mk 3:3, 5; 5:8; 6:10; Lk 6:27; 7:8; J 2:7f. W. dat. of pers. and inf. foll.: Rv 10:9; 13:14; w. an inf. and a negative forbid (X., An. 7, 1, 40) Mt 5:34, 39.—Here belongs χαίρειν τινὶ λέγειν (Epict. 3, 22, 64) extend a greeting to someone, since the greeting consists in saying χαῖρε=‘may you prosper’ 2J 10f. W. ἵνα foll. recommend that, tell to τῷ λαῷ λέγων … ἵνα πιστεύσωσιν Ac 19:4. οὐ περὶ ἐκείνης λέγω ἵνα ἐρωτήσῃ I do not recommend that anyone should pray about that (sin) 1J 5:16. W. inf. foll.: Ro 2:22.—τάδε λέγει is the formal style of one who is giving an order (introductory formula for the edicts of the Persian kings [IMagnMai 115, 4]; in the OT a favorite method of introducing a prophetic statement [Thackeray p. 11]) Ac 21:11, 8, 12, 18; 3:1, 7, 14 (s. Gerhard, Philol. 64, 1905, 27ff; Thieme 23; GRudberg, Eranos 11, 1911, 177f; LLafoscade, De epistulis imperatorum 1902, 63 and 77. Roman edicts gener. use the simple λέγει as in the praescriptio of SEG IX, 8 I, 1–3 αὐτοκράτωρ Καίσαρ Σεβαστὸς … λέγει; also by Augustus: Jos., Ant., 16, 162; s. MBenner, The Emperor Says ’75).
    assure, assert; w. direct discourse foll. Esp. in the formulas λέγω σοι, λ. ὑμῖν, ἀμὴν (ἀμὴν) λ. ὑμῖν (TestAbr A 8 p. 85, 19f [Stone p. 18]) Mt 11:22; 12:31; 19:24; 23:39; Mk 11:24; Lk 4:25; 7:9, 28; 9:27.—Mt 5:26; 6:2, 5; 8:10; Mk 3:28; 9:41; 10:15; Lk 4:24; 18:17, 29; 23:43; J 1:51; 3:3, 5, 11; 5:19, 24f; 6:26, 32 al.
    maintain, declare, proclaim as teaching, w. direct discourse foll.: Gal 4:1; 1J 2:4. Foll. by acc. and inf. (X., Symp. 5, 5) Mt 22:23; Mk 12:18; Lk 20:41; 23:2b; Ro 15:8; 2 Ti 2:18. Foll. by ὅτι and direct discourse Mk 12:35b; 1 Cor 15:12. W. dat. of pers. and direct discourse after ὅτι Mt 5:20, 22, 28, 32; 8:11 al. Someth. like interpret εἰς w. ref. to Eph 5:32.—σὺ λέγεις (that is what) you maintain Mt 27:11; Mk 15:2; Lk 23:3 (cp. σὺ εἶπας Mt 26:25 and s. εἶπον 1a). Cp. also Lk 22:70; J 18:37 (s. OMerlier, RevÉtGr 46, ’33, 204–19; Goodsp., Probs. 64–68 [strong affirmative, yes]; MSmith, JBL 64, ’45, 506–10 [intentionally ambiguous, so you say, Tannaitic Parallels to the Gospels, ’51, 27–30]; DCatchpole, NTS 17, ’70/71, 213–26). τί λέγει ἡ γνῶσις; what does Gnosis teach about this? With the answer in direct discourse B 6:9 (cp. Epict. 3, 13, 11 καὶ τί λέγει [i.e., ὁ λόγος ὁ τῶν φιλοσόφων=philosophy]; direct discourse follows).
    of written communications (Hdt. 3, 40; 122; 8, 140; UPZ 68, 5 [152 B.C.]; Jos., Ant. 13, 80) 1 Cor 6:5; 7:6; 15:51; 2 Cor 6:13; 8:8; Gal 5:2; Phil 4:11; Col 2:4; Phlm 21, al. in Paul.
    to inform about / tell of someth., speak, report (Diog. L. 1, 31) τινί to someone Mk 7:36. τὶ about someth. (X., Cyr. 1, 2, 16 νῦν λέξομεν τὰς Κύρου πράξεις) τὴν ἔξοδον αὐτοῦ of his death (lit., departure) Lk 9:31. τὰ περὶ τ. βασιλείας Ac 1:3. τὰ γινόμενα ὑπʼ αὐτῶν αἰσχρόν ἐστιν καὶ λέγειν it is a disgrace even to speak of the things they do Eph 5:12 (Demosth. 10, 27 ὸ̔ … οὔτε λέγειν ἄξιον). τινὶ περί τινος bring a report about someone to someone Mk 1:30; 8:30. Likew. τινί τινα Phil 3:18.
    to identify in a specific manner, call, name (Aeschyl. et al.) w. double acc. (Epict. 2, 19, 19 τί Στωικὸν ἔλεγες σεαυτόν; Diog. L. 8, 88 τὴν ἡδονὴν λέγειν τὸ ἀγαθόν=call pleasure the [real] good; 2 Macc 4:2; Just., D. 61, 1 ἀρχηστρατηγὸν ἑαυτὸν λέγει) τινά τι describe someone as someth. τί με λέγεις ἀγαθόν; why do you call me good? Mk 10:18; Lk 18:19. Δαυὶδ λέγει αὐτὸν κύριον David calls him Lord Mk 12:37. πατέρα ἴδιον ἔλεγεν τὸν θεόν he called God his Father J 5:18. οὐκέτι λέγω ὑμᾶς δούλους I no longer call you slaves 15:15; cp. Ac 10:28; Rv 2:20. Pass. be called, named Mt 13:55; Hb 11:24. ὁ λεγόμενος the so-called (Epict. 4, 1, 51 οἱ βασιλεῖς λεγόμενοι; Socrat., Ep. 14, 7 ὁ λ. θάνατος) λεγόμενοι θεοί so-called gods 1 Cor 8:5 (Herm. Wr. 2, 14 the λεγόμενοι θεοί in contrast to μόνος ὁ θεός. Somewhat differently Jos., Ant. 12, 125 Ἀντίοχος ὁ παρὰ τοῖς Ἕλλησιν θεὸς λεγόμενος). οἱ λεγόμενοι ἀκροβυστία ὑπὸ τῆς λ. περιτομῆς those who are called ‘the uncircumcised’ (i.e. gentiles) by the so-called circumcision (i.e. Jews) Eph 2:11. ὁ λεγόμενος (B-D-F §412, 2; Rob. 1107; cp. BGU 1117, 9 [13 B.C.]; PRyl 133, 11; 137, 19; 2 Macc 12:17; 14:6; 3 Macc 1:3; TestAbr B 13 p. 118, 14 [Stone p. 84]; TestJob 46:5; 47:1; Just., A I, 22, 1, D. 32, 1) who is called … Mt 1:16; 27:17; whose surname is (Appian, Liby. 49 §213 Ἄννων ὁ μέγας λεγόμενος; Jos., Ant. 13, 370, Vi. 4) 10:2; Col 4:11; by name Mt 9:9; 26:3, 14; 27:16; Mk 15:7; Lk 22:47; J 9:11.—Of things: of the name of a star Rv 8:11. Of place-names (BGU 326, 19 [II A.D.]; 2 Macc 9:2; 12:21) Mt 2:23; 26:36; J 4:5; 11:54; 19:13; Ac 3:2; 6:9; Hb 9:3. Of the local, vernacular name λ. Ἑβραϊστί J 5:2 v.l.; 19:17b.—In the transl. of foreign words (which) means: ὅ ἐστιν κρανίου τόπος λεγόμενος which means ‘Place of a Skull’ Mt 27:33b. Cp. also J 4:25; 11:16; 20:24; 21:2. Also ὸ̔ λέγεται 20:16. ὸ̔ λ. μεθερμηνευόμενον which, when translated, means 1:38. ἣ διερμηνευομένη λέγεται Ac 9:36.—Other exx. of the significance mean (Aeschyl. et al.) are Gal 4:1; 2 Cl 6:4; 8:6 Cp. 1bβ.—B. 1253f; 1257; 1277. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv. S. λόγος, ῥῆμα, λαλέω.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > λέγω

  • 159 λόγος

    λόγος, ου, ὁ (verbal noun of λέγω in the sense ‘pick’; Hom.+).
    a communication whereby the mind finds expression, word
    of utterance, chiefly oral.
    α. as expression, word (oratorical ability plus exceptional performance were distinguishing marks in Hellenic society, hence the frequent association of λ. and ἔργον ‘deed’; a sim. formulation as early as Il. 9, 443 μύθων τε ῥητῆρʼ ἔμεναι πρηκτῆρά τε ἔργων; Polystrat. p. 33 μὴ λόγῳ μόνον ἀλλʼ ἔργω; Just., A II, 4, 2 ἢ λόγῳ ἢ ἔργῳ and D. 35, 7 λόγον ἢ πρᾶξιν) δυνατὸς ἐν ἔργῳ κ. λόγῳ, i.e. an exceptional personage Lk 24:19; pl. of Moses Ac 7:22 (the contrast expressed w. a verb Choix 20, 6–8 ποιεῖ ἀγαθὸν ὄτι δύναται καὶ λόγῳ καὶ ἔργῳ of Apollordorus, a benefactor in Cyzicus, a flourishing city in Phrygia; sim. New Docs 7, 233, no. 10, 8f πολιτευόμενος … λόγῳ καὶ ἔργῳ; cp. IKourion 32, 8; without contrast Diod S 13, 101, 3 ἄνδρας λόγῳ δυνατούς; for sim. constructions using λέγω and πράσσω s. Danker, Benefactor 339–43). Cp. Ro 15:18; 2 Cor 10:11; Col 3:17; 2 Th 2:17; Hb 13:21 v.l.; 1J 3:18 (cp. Theognis 1, 87f Diehl3 μή μʼ ἔπεσιν μὲν στέργε κτλ.—For the contrast λόγῳ … ἀληθείᾳ cp. Diod S 13, 4, 1). In contrast to a sinful deed we also have the λόγος ἁμαρτίας sinful word Judaicon 172, 9. W. γνῶσις: ἐν παντὶ λόγῳ κ. πάσῃ γνώσει 1 Cor 1:5. ἰδιώτης τῷ λόγῳ, ἀλλʼ οὐ τῇ γνώσει 2 Cor 11:6. (Opp. δύναμις ‘revelation of power’) 1 Cor 4:19, 20. τὸ εὐαγγέλιον οὐκ ἐγενήθη ἐν λόγῳ μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐν δυνάμει 1 Th 1:5 (cp. Ar. 13, 7 of mythical accounts οὐδέν εἰσιν εἰ μὴ μόνον λόγοι ‘they’re nothing but words’). W. ἐπιστολή: 2 Th 2:2, 15. W. ἀναστροφή: 1 Ti 4:12; 1 Pt 3:1b. Opp. ‘be silent’: IRo 2:1.—μόνον εἰπὲ λόγῳ just say the word Mt 8:8; cp. Lk 7:7 (Ath. 17, 1 ὡς λόγῳ εἰπεῖν; 29, 2; Phalaris, Ep. 121, 1 λόγῳ λέγειν; cp. schol. on Pla. 341a ἐν λόγῳ μόνον εἰπεῖν). οὐδεὶς ἐδύνατο ἀποκριθῆναι αὐτῷ λόγον no one was able to answer him a (single) word Mt 22:46; cp. 15:23 (cp. TestAbr A 16 p. 98, 11 [Stone p. 44] οὐκ ἀπεκρίθη αὐτῷ λόγον).— The (mighty) word (of one who performs miracles) ἐξέβαλεν τὰ πνεύματα λόγῳ Mt 8:16 (a rare use of λ. as ‘single utterance’, s. L-S-J-M s.v. VII).—διὰ λόγου by word of mouth (opp. ‘by letter’) Ac 15:27.—In the textually uncertain pass. Ac 20:24 the text as it stands in N., οὐδενὸς λόγου (v.l. λόγον) ποιοῦμαι τὴν ψυχὴν τιμίαν, may well mean: I do not consider my life worth a single word (cp. λόγου ἄξιον [ἄξιος 1a] and our ‘worth mention’; s. Conzelmann ad loc.).
    β. The expression may take on a variety of formulations or topical nuances: what you say Mt 5:37; statement (PGM 4, 334) Lk 20:20; question (Sext. Emp., Math. 8, 295; 9, 133; Diog. L. 2, 116) ἐρωτήσω ὑμᾶς λόγον I will ask you a question (cp. TestJob 36:5; GrBar 5:1; ApcSed 13:6; Jos., Ant. 12, 99) Mt 21:24; cp. Mk 11:29; Lk 20:3; prayer (PGM 1, 25; 4, 90; 179; 230 al.; 5, 180; 196 al.) Mt 26:44; Mk 14:39. ἡγούμενος τοῦ λ. principal speaker Ac 14:12. W. epexeget. gen. λ. παρακλήσεως 13:15. W. κήρυγμα our manner of presentation and our proclamation 1 Cor 2:4a (but s. comm.). (W. διδασκαλία) preaching 1 Ti 5:17; prophecy (Biogr. p. 364 [Pythia]) J 2:22; 18:32. Command (Aeschyl., Pers. 363) Lk 4:36; 2 Pt 3:5, 7; via a letter 2 Th 3:14. Report, story (X., An. 1, 4, 7; Diod S 3, 40, 9; 19, 110, 1 λ. διαδιδόναι=spread a report; Appian, Iber. 80 §346, Maced. 4 §1 [both=rumor]; Diod S 32, 15, 3 ἦλθεν ὁ λ. ἐπί τινα=the report came to someone; Arrian, Anab. 7, 22, 1 λόγος λέγεται τοιόσδε=a story is told like this, Ind. 9, 2; Diod S 3, 18, 3 λ.=story, account; Jos., Ant. 19, 132; Tat. 27, 2 τοῦ καθʼ Ἡρακλέα λόγου) Mt 28:15; Mk 1:45; Lk 5:15 (λ. περί τινος as X., An. 6, 6, 13; Jos., Ant. 19, 127) 7:17; J 21:23. ἠκούσθη ὁ λόγος εἰς τὰ ὦτα τ. ἐκκλησίας the report came to the ears of the assembly in Jerusalem Ac 11:22. λόγον ἔχειν σοφίας have the appearance of wisdom, pass for wisdom Col 2:23 (cp. Pla., Epinomis 987b ἔχει λόγον; Demosth., C. Lept. 462 [20, 18] λόγον τινʼ ἔχον; but mng. 2f is possible). Proverb (Pla., Phdr. 17, 240c, Symp. 18, 195b, Gorg. 54, 499c, Leg. 6, 5, 757a; Socrat., Ep. 22, 1) J 4:37 (Ps.-Callisth. 1, 13, 7 ἀληθῶς ἐν τούτῳ ὁ λ. foll. by a proverb). Proclamation, instruction, teaching, message Lk 4:32; 10:39; J 4:41; 17:20; Ac 2:41; 4:4; 10:44; 20:7; 1 Cor 1:17; 2:1. In Ac18:15 ζητήματα περὶ λόγου καὶ ὀνομάτων καὶ νόμου the sense appears to be someth. like this: controversial issues involving disputes about words and your way of life with λ. prob. referring to the presentation of controversial subjects, which in turn arouses heated ζητήματα debates. λόγος σοφίας proclamation of wisdom, speaking wisely 1 Cor 12:8a (Ps.-Phoc. 129 τῆς θεοπνεύστου σοφίης λ.); corresp. λ. γνώσεως vs. 8b. Cp. 14:9; 15:2; 2 Cor 1:18; 6:7; 10:10. λ. μαρτυρίας word of witness Rv 12:11. ὁ κατὰ τ. διδαχὴν πιστὸς λ. the message of faith, corresponding to the teaching Tit 1:9; the opp. 2 Ti 2:17. A speech (Aristot. p. 14b, 2; Diod S 40, 5a) διὰ λόγου πολλοῦ in a long speech Ac 15:32; cp. 20:2. λ. κολακείας flattering speech 1 Th 2:5. Speaking gener. 2 Cor 8:7; Eph 6:19; Col 4:6; D 2:5. ἐν λόγῳ πταίειν make a mistake in what one says Js 3:2.—Of God’s word, command, commission (LXX; ParJer 5:19 κατηχῆσαι αὐτοὺς τὸν λόγον; SyrBar 13:2; ApcSed 14:10; Just., D. 84, 2; Ael. Aristid. hears a ἱερὸς λ. at night fr. a god: 28, 116 K.=49, p. 529 D.; Sextus 24) ἠκυρώσατε τ. λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ Mt 15:6 (v.l. νόμον, ἐντολήν); cp. Mk 7:13.—J 5:38; 8:55; 10:35; Ro 3:4 (Ps 50:6). Of God’s promise Ro 9:6, 9 (but these two vss., and Gal 5:14 below, prob. fit better under 2a), 28 (Is 10:22f). Cp. Hb 2:2; 4:2 (s. ἀκοή 4b); 7:28; 12:19. For B 15:1 see 1aδ. The whole law (as the expr. εἴ τι ἑτέρα ἐντολή indicates not limited to a narrow list of commandments), acc. to Ro 13:9. In what is prob. a play on words (s. 2a and b), Gal 5:14 (s. 2a below) is summed up in the λόγος as expressed in Lev 19:18.—That which God has created ἁγιάζεται διὰ λόγου θεοῦ 1 Ti 4:5; in line w. the context, this hardly refers to God’s creative word (so SibOr 3, 20; PtK 2; πάντα γὰρ λόγῳ ποιήσας ὁ θεός Theoph. Ant. 2, 18 [144, 8]), but to table prayers which use biblical expressions. The divine word as judge of thoughts Hb 4:12. τελεσθήσονται οἱ λ. τοῦ θεοῦ Ac 17:17; cp. 19:9.—Of the divine revelation through Christ and his messengers (Just., A I, 61, 9 λόγον … παρὰ τῶν ἀποστόλων ἐμάθομεν τοῦτον) θεὸς ἐφανέρωσεν τὸν λ. αὐτοῦ ἐν κηρύγματι Tit 1:3. δέδωκα αὐτοῖς τὸν λ. σου J 17:14; cp. vss. 6, 17; 1J 1:10; 2:14. ἵνα μὴ ὁ λ. τοῦ θεοῦ βλασφημῆται Tit 2:5. The apostles and other preachers, w. ref. to the λόγος of God, are said to: λαλεῖν Ac 4:29, 31; 13:46; Phil 1:14; Hb 13:7; καταγγέλλειν Ac 13:5; 17:13; διδάσκειν 18:11; μαρτυρεῖν Rv 1:2. Of their hearers it is said: τὸν λ. τοῦ θεοῦ ἀκούειν Ac 13:7; δέχεσθαι 8:14; 11:1. Of the λ. τοῦ θεοῦ itself we read: ηὔξανεν Ac 6:7; 12:24; 19:20; οὐ δέδεται 2 Ti 2:9. In these places and many others ὁ λόγος τοῦ θεοῦ is simply the Christian message, the gospel: Lk 5:1; 8:11, 21; 11:28 (Simplicius in Epict. p. 1, 20 μὴ μόνον ἀκουόντων ἀλλὰ πασχόντων καὶ ὑπὸ τῶν λόγων=let the message have its effect on oneself); Ac 6:2 (s. καταλείπω 7c; for prob. commercial metaph. s. 2a below); 13:44 v.l. (for κυρίου); 16:32 v.l.; 1 Cor 14:36; 2 Cor 2:17; 4:2; Col 1:25; 1 Pt 1:23; Rv 1:9; 6:9; 20:4; IPhld 11:1. Cp. 1 Th 2:13ab; 1J 2:5.—Since this ‘divine word’ is brought to humanity through Christ, his word can be used in the same sense: ὁ λόγος μου J 5:24; cp. 8:31, 37, 43, 51f; 12:48; 14:23f; 15:3, 20b; Rv 3:8. ὁ λόγος τοῦ Χριστοῦ Col 3:16; cp. Hb 6:1. ὁ λ. τοῦ κυρίου Ac 8:25; 12:24 v.l.; 13:44, 48f; 14:25 v.l.; 15:35, 36; 16:32 (cp. λ. θεοῦ); 19:10; 1 Th 1:8; 2 Th 3:1. Pl. Mk 8:38 (Lk 9:26); 1 Ti 6:3; cp. Lk 24:44; s. also 1aδ.—Or it is called simply ὁ λόγος=the ‘Word’, for no misunderstanding would be possible among Christians: Mt 13:20–23; Mk 2:2; 4:14–20, 33; 8:32 (s. 1aε below); 16:20; Lk 1:2; 8:12f, 15; Ac 6:4; 8:4; 10:36 (on the syntax s. FNeirynck, ETL 60, ’84, 118–23); 11:19; 14:25 (cp. λ. κυρίου above); 16:6; 17:11; 18:5; Gal 6:6; Phil 1:14; Col 4:3; 1 Th 1:6; 2 Ti 4:2; Js 1:21ff; 1 Pt 2:8; 3:1; 1J 2:7; AcPl Ha 7, 6 (so also Mel., HE 4, 26, 13; Ath. 2, 3).—Somet. the ‘Word’ is more closely defined by a gen.: ὁ λ. τῆς βασιλείας the word of the reign/rule (of God) Mt 13:19. τῆς σωτηρίας Ac 13:26. τῆς καταλλαγῆς 2 Cor 5:19. τοῦ σταυροῦ 1 Cor 1:18. δικαιοσύνης (q.v. 3a) Hb 5:13. ζωῆς Phil 2:16. (τῆς) ἀληθείας (Theoph. Ant. 3, 4 [p. 212, 2]; cp. περὶ ἀληθείας Hippol., Ref. 10, 6, 1) Eph 1:13; Col 1:5; 2 Ti 2:15; Js 1:18; AcPl Ha 8, 8 (Just., D. 121, 2). τῆς χάριτος αὐτοῦ (=τοῦ κυρίου) Ac 14:3; 20:32. (Differently the pl. οἱ λόγοι τ. χάριτος gracious words Lk 4:22; cp. Marcellinus, Vi. Thu. 57 Hude λόγοι εἰρωνείας.) ὁ λ. τοῦ εὐαγγελίου Ac 15:7; ὁ τοῦ Χριστιανισμοῦ λ. MPol 10:1. In Rv 3:10 the gospel is described by the ‘One who has the key of David’ as ὁ λ. τῆς ὑπομονῆς μου my word of endurance (W-S. §30, 12c). λ. τῶν ὑ[πο]μονῶν AcPl Ha 6, 11. παρελάβετε τὸν λ. ὅτι AcPl Ha 8, 25.—The pastoral letters favor the expr. πιστὸς ὁ λόγος (sc. ἐστίν, and s. πιστός 1b) 1 Ti 1:15; 3:1; 4:9; 2 Ti 2:11; Tit 3:8; cp. Rv 21:5; 22:6. λ. ὑγιής sound preaching Tit 2:8; cp. the pl. ὑγιαίνοντες λόγοι 2 Ti 1:13 (on medicinal use of words for the mind or soul s. VLeinieks, The City of Dionysos ’96, 115–22, on Eur.).—The pl. is also used gener. of Christian teachings, the words of the gospel Lk 1:4 (s. κατηχέω 2a); 1 Th 4:18. οἱ λ. τῆς πίστεως 1 Ti 4:6. On λόγοι κυριακοί for λόγια κυριακά in the title of the Papias document s. ἐξήγησις 2.—JSchniewind, Die Begriffe Wort und Evangelium bei Pls, diss. Bonn 1910; RAsting (εὐαγγέλιον, end).
    γ. of an individual declaration or remark: assertion, declaration, speech ἀκούσαντες τὸν λ. when they heard the statement Mt 15:12; cp. 19:11, 22; 22:15; Mk 5:36. διὰ τοῦτον τὸν λ. because of this statement of yours 7:29 (TestAbr A 15 p. 95, 29 [Stone p. 38] τὸν λ. τοῦτον; ApcMos 25 εἰς τὸν λόγον σου κρινῶ σε). Cp. 10:22; 12:13; Lk 1:29; 22:61 v.l. (for ῥήματος); J 4:39, 50; 6:60; 7:36, 40 v.l.; 15:20a; 18:9; 19:8; Ac 6:5; 7:29; 20:38; 22:22; 1 Th 4:15. ὸ̔ς ἐὰν εἴπῃ λόγον κατὰ τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου whoever utters a (defamatory) word against the Son of Humanity Mt 12:32 (λ. εἰπεῖν κατά τινος as Jos., Ant. 15, 81); cp. Lk 12:10. λόγος σαπρός unwholesome talk Eph 4:29. λόγον ποιεῖσθαι make a speech Ac 11:2 D (cp. Hyperid. 3, 20; Jos., Ant. 11, 86).
    δ. the pl. (οἱ) λόγοι is used, on the one hand, of words uttered on various occasions, of speeches or instruction given here and there by humans or transcendent beings (TestAbr A 14 p. 94, 19 [Stone p. 36]; Jos., Ant. 4, 264; Just., D. 100, 3) ἐκ τῶν λόγων σου δικαιωθήσῃ (καταδικασθήσῃ) Mt 12:37ab; 24:35; Mk 13:31; Lk 21:33; Ac 2:40; 7:22 (ἐν λόγοις καὶ ἔργοις αὐτοῦ. On the word-deed pair cp. Dio Chrys. 4, 6 the λόγοι and ἔργα of Diogenes; s. α above). οἱ δέκα λόγοι the ten commandments (Ex 34:28; Dt 10:4; Philo, Rer. Div. Her. 168, Decal. 32; Jos., Ant. 3, 138; cp. 91f; Did., Gen. 36, 10) B 15:1. Ac 15:24; 20:35; 1 Cor 2:4b, 13; 14:19ab; κενοὶ λ. Eph 5:6; AcPl Ox 6, 13 (cp. Aa 1, 241, 14); Dg 8:2; πλαστοὶ λ. 2 Pt 2:3. λ. πονηροί 3J 10.—Also of words and exprs. that form a unity, whether it be connected discourse (Jos., Ant. 15, 126; Just., A II, 12, 6, D. 11, 5; 81, 3 al.), a conversation, or parts of one and the same teaching, or expositions on the same subject (Diod S 16, 2, 3 μετέσχε τῶν Πυθαγορίων λόγων; Dio Chrys. 37 [54], 1; Ael. Aristid. 50, 55 K.=26 p. 519 D.: οἱ Πλάτωνος λόγοι; PsSol 17:43 [words of the Messiah]; AscIs 3:12 οἱ λόγοι τοῦ Βελχειρά) πᾶς ὅστις ἀκούει μου τοὺς λόγους τούτους Mt 7:24; cp. vss. 26, 28; 10:14; 19:1; 26:1; Mk 10:24; Lk 1:20; 6:47; 9:28, 44. ἐπηρώτα αὐτὸν ἐν λόγοις ἱκανοῖς he questioned him at some length 23:9. τίνες οἱ λ. οὗτοι οὓς ἀντιβάλλετε; what is this conversation that you are holding? 24:17; J 7:40 (s. γ); 10:19; J 14:24a; 19:13; Ac 2:22; 5:5, 24; 16:36; 2 Ti 4:15; 1 Cl 13:1; 46:7. λόγοις φθοριμαίοις AcPlCor 1:2.
    ε. the subject under discussion, matter, thing gener. (Theognis 1055 Diehl; Hdt. 8, 65 μηδενὶ ἄλλῳ τὸν λόγον τοῦτον εἴπῃς. Cp. Hebr. דָּבָר) τὸν λ. ἐκράτησαν they took up the subject Mk 9:10; cp. Mt. 21:24 (s. 1aβ beg.). οὐκ ἔστιν σοι μερὶς ἐν τῷ λόγῳ τούτῳ you have no share in this matter Ac 8:21. ἰδεῖν περὶ τ. λόγου τούτου look into this matter 15:6. ἔχειν πρός τινα λόγον have a complaint against someone (cp. Demosth. 35, 55 ἐμοὶ πρὸς τούτους ὁ λόγος; PIand 16, 3 δίκαιον λόγον ἔχει πρὸς σέ) 19:38. παρεκτὸς λόγου πορνείας Mt 5:32; 19:9 v.l. (2d is also prob.).—Perh. also Mk 8:32 he discussed the subject quite freely (but s. 1aβ above).
    of literary or oratorical productions: of the separate books of a work (Hdt. 5, 36 ἐν τῷ πρώτῳ τ. λόγων; Pla., Parmen. 2, 127d ὁ πρῶτος λόγος; Philo, Omn. Prob. Lib. 1 ὁ μὲν πρότερος λόγος ἦν ἡμῖν, ὦ Θεόδοτε, περὶ τοῦ …) treatise Ac 1:1 (s. on the prologue to Ac: AHilgenfeld, ZWT 41, 1898, 619ff; AGercke, Her 29, 1894, 373ff; RLaqueur, Her 46, 1911, 161ff; Norden, Agn. Th. 311ff; JCreed, JTS 35, ’34, 176–82; Goodsp., Probs. 119–21). Παπίας … πέντε λόγους κυριακῶν λογίων ἔγραψεν Papias (11:1; cp. 3:1 e; 11:2; 12:2).—περὶ οὗ πολὺς ἡμῖν ὁ λόγος about this we have much to say Hb 5:11. Hb is described as ὁ λ. τῆς παρακλήσεως a word of exhortation (in literary form) 13:22. Of writings that are part of Holy Scripture ὁ λ. Ἠσαί̈ου J 12:38. ὁ λ. ὁ ἐν τῷ νόμῳ γεγραμμένος 15:25; ὁ προφητικὸς λ. 2 Pt 1:19; 2 Cl 11:2 (quot. of unknown orig.); AcPl Ha 8, 27/BMM recto 35 (Just., D. 77, 2 al.). ὁ ἅγιος λ. the holy word 1 Cl 56:3. ὁ λ. ὁ γεγραμμένος 1 Cor 15:54 (Is 25:8 and Hos 13:14 follow). Pl. οἱ λόγοι τ. προφητῶν Ac 15:15. ὡς γέγραπται ἐν βίβλῳ λόγων Ἠσαί̈ου Lk 3:4 (Pla., 7th Epistle 335a πείθεσθαι ἀεὶ χρὴ τοῖς παλαιοῖς καὶ ἱεροῖς λόγοις; TestJob 1:1 βίβλος λόγων Ἰώβ; ParJer 9:32 v.l. τὰ λοιπὰ τῶν λόγων Ἱερεμίου; ApcEsdr 1:1 καὶ ἀποκάλυψις τοῦ … Ἐσδράμ; ApcSed prol.; Just., D. 72, 3f).—Of the content of Rv: ὁ ἀναγινώσκων τ. λόγους τῆς προφητείας 1:3. οἱ λόγοι (τ. προφητείας) τ. βιβλίου τούτου 22:7, 9f, 18f.
    computation, reckoning
    a formal accounting, esp. of one’s actions, and freq. with fig. extension of commercial terminology account, accounts, reckoning λόγον δοῦναι (Hdt. 8, 100; X., Cyr. 1, 4, 3; Diod S 3, 46, 4; SIG 1099, 16; BGU 164, 21; Jos., Ant. 16, 120; Just., D. 115, 6) give account, make an accounting ἕκαστος περὶ ἑαυτοῦ λόγον δώσει τ. θεῷ Ro 14:12. Also λ. ἀποδοῦναι abs. (Just., D. 116, 1 al.; Diod S 16, 56, 4; 19, 9, 4) Hb 13:17. τινί to someone (Diod S 16, 27, 4; Plut., Alcib. 7, 3; Chariton 7, 6, 2; SIG 631, 13 τᾷ πόλει; 2 Ch 34:28; Da 6:3 Theod.; Jos., Bell. 1, 209) τῷ ἑτοίμως ἔχοντι κρῖναι 1 Pt 4:5. τινὸς of someth. (SIG 1044, 46; 1105, 10 τοῦ ἀναλώματος; Jos., Ant. 19, 307) Lk 16:2 (here λ. w. the art.; on the subject of undergoing an audit cp. Aeschin. 3, 22). Likew. περί τινος (Diod S 18, 60, 2 δοὺς αὑτῷ περὶ τούτων λόγον=taking account [considering] with himself; BGU 98, 25 περὶ τούτου) Mt 12:36; Ac 19:40. ὑπέρ τινος concerning someone Hv 3, 9, 10.—αἰτεῖν τινα λόγον περί τινος call someone to account for someth. 1 Pt 3:15 (cp. Pla., Pol. 285e; Dio Chrys. 20 [37], 30; Apc4Esdr Fgm. b ἕκαστος ὑπὸ τοῦ οἰκείου ἔργου τὸν λόγον ἀπαιτηθήσεται; Just., A I, 17, 4. For another perspective s. d below.).—Of banking responsibility ὁ λόγος τοῦ θεοῦ (PStras 72, 10 [III A.D.] ὁ τῶν θεῶν λ.; PHerm 108 [III A.D.] λ. τοῦ Σαραπείου) in wordplay Ac 6:2 (w. τράπεζα q.v. 1c); s. also 1aβ.—Of a ledger heading (POxy 1333 [II/III A.D.] δὸς αὐτῳ λόγῳ θεωρικῶν=credit him under ‘festivals’; for others s. Preisig., Wörterbuch s.v. λ. 14; s. also Fachwörter 119) Ro 9:6 (the point is that God’s ‘list’ of Israelites is accurate; on ἐκπίπτω in the sense ‘is not deficient’ s. s.v. 4); vs. 9 (the ‘count’ is subsumed by metonymy in divine promise); Gal 5:14 (all moral obligations come under one ‘entry’: ‘you shall love your neighbor as yourself’; for commercial association of ἀναλίσκω vs. 15, which rounds out the wordplay, s. s.v.). The contexts of these three passages suggest strong probability for commercial associations; for another view s. 1aβ.
    settlement (of an account) (εἰς λόγον commercial t.t. ‘in settlement of an account’ POxy 275, 19; 21) εἰς λόγον δόσεως κ. λήμψεως in settlement of a mutual account (lit., ‘of giving and receiving’, ‘of debit and credit’) Phil 4:15 (cp. Plut., Mor. 11b λόγον δοῦναι καὶ λαβεῖν; a parallel formulation POxy 1134,10 [421 A.D.] λ. λήμματος καὶ ἐξοδιασμοῦ=ledger of income and expenditures); for the linked accounting terms δόσις and λήμψις s. PCairMasp 151, 208 [VI A.D.]. The same ideas are in the background of εἰς λόγον ὑμῶν credited to your account vs 17.—συναίρειν λόγον settle accounts (BGU 775, 18f. The mid. in the same mng. PFay109, 6 [I A.D.]; POxy 113, 27f.—Dssm., LO 94 [LAE 118f]) μετά τινος Mt 18:23; 25:19.
    reflection, respect, regard εἰς λόγον τινός with regard to, for the sake of (Thu. 3, 46, 4; Demosth. 19, 142 εἰς ἀρετῆς λόγον; Polyb. 11, 28, 8; Ath. 31, 1; Ael. Aristid. 39 p. 743 D.: εἰς δεινότητος λ.) εἰς λ. τιμῆς IPhld 11:2. εἰς λ. θεοῦ ISm 10:1.
    reason for or cause of someth., reason, ground, motive (Just., D. 94, 3 δότε μοι λόγον, ὅτου χάριν … ; Ath. 30, 3 τὶς γὰρ … λόγος; Dio Chrys. 64 [14], 18 ἐκ τούτου τ. λόγου; Appian, Hann. 29 §126 τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ; Iambl., Vi. Pyth. 28, 155) τίνι λόγω; for what reason? Ac 10:29 (cp. Pla., Gorg. 512c τίνι δικαίῳ λ.; Appian, Mithrid. 57 §232 τίνι λόγῳ;). λόγον περὶ τῆς ἐν ὑμῖν ἐλπίδος 1 Pt 3:15 (but s. a above); κατὰ λόγον Ac 18:14 (s. κατά B 5bβ). παρεκτὸς λόγου πορνείας Mt 5:32; 19:9 v.l. (though 1aε is also poss.).
    πρὸς ὸ̔ν ἡμῖν ὁ λόγος (ἐστίν) with whom we have to do (i.e. to reckon) (Dio Chrys. 31, 123; other exx. in FBleek, Hb II/1, 1836, 590ff), in his capacity as judge (Libanius, Legat. Ulixis [=Declamatio IV] 2 F. τοῖς δὲ ἀδίκως ἀποκτενοῦσι καὶ πρὸς θεοὺς καὶ πρὸς ἀνθρώπους ὁ λόγος γίγνεται) Hb 4:13. οὐ πρὸς σάρκα ὁ λόγος, ἀλλὰ πρὸς θεόν he has to do not with flesh, but with God IMg 3:2.
    In Col 2:23 (s. 1aβ) λόγον μὲν ἔχοντα σοφίας may= make a case for wisdom (cp. λόγος ἡμῖν οὐδείς Plut., Mor. 870b).
    the independent personified expression of God, the Logos. Our lit. shows traces of a way of thinking that was widespread in contemporary syncretism, as well as in Jewish wisdom lit. and Philo, the most prominent feature of which is the concept of the Logos, the independent, personified ‘Word’ (of God): GJs 11:2 (word of the angel to Mary) συνλήμψῃ ἐκ Λόγου αὐτοῦ (sc. τοῦ πάντων Δεσπότου). J 1:1abc, 14 (cp. Just., A I, 23, 2; Mel., P. 9, 61 and oft. by all apolog., exc.. Ar.). It is the distinctive teaching of the Fourth Gospel that this divine ‘Word’ took on human form in a historical person, that is, in Jesus (s. RSeeberg, Festgabe für AvHarnack ’21, 263–81.—Λόγος w. ζωή in gnostic speculation: Iren.1, 1, 1 [Harv. 1, 10, 4]; Aelian, VH 4, 20 ἐκάλουν τὸν Πρωταγόραν Λόγον. Similarly Favorinus [II A.D.]: Vorsokr. 80 A 1 ln. 22 [in Diog. L. 9, 50] of Democritus: ἐκαλεῖτο Σοφία. Equating a divinity with an abstraction that she personifies: Artem. 5, 18 φρόνησις εἶναι νομίζεται ἡ θεός [Athena]). Cp. 1J 1:1; Rv 19:13. εἷς θεός ἐστιν, ὁ φανερώσας ἑαυτὸν διὰ Ἰ. Χριστοῦ τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ, ὅς ἐστιν αὐτοῦ λόγος, ἀπὸ σιγῆς προελθών there is one God, who has revealed himself through Jesus Christ his Son, who is his ‘Word’ proceeding from silence (i.e., without an oral pronouncement: in a transcendent manner) IMg 8:2 (s. σιγή). The Lord as νόμος κ. λόγος PtK 1. Cp. Dg 11:2, 3, 7, 8; 12:9.—HClavier, TManson memorial vol., ’59, 81–93: the Alexandrian eternal λόγος is also implied in Hb 4:12; 13:7.—S. also the ‘Comma Johanneum’ (to the bibliography in RGG3 I, ’54 [HGreeven] add AJülicher, GGA 1905, 930–35; AvHarnack, SBBerlAk 1915, 572f [=Studien I ’31, 151f]; MMeinertz, Einl. in d. NT4 ’33, 309–11; AGreiff, TQ 114, ’33, 465–80; CDodd, The Joh. Epistles ’46; WThiele, ZNW 50, ’59, 61–73) ὁ πατήρ, ὁ λόγος καὶ τὸ ἅγιον πνεῦμα 1J 5:7 v.l. (s. N. app.; Borger, TRu 52, ’87, 57f). (Such interpolations were not unheard of. According to Diog. L. 1, 48 some people maintain that Solon inserted the verse mentioning the Athenians after Il. 2, 557.—τῆς τριάδος, τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ τοῦ λόγου αὐτοῦ καὶ τῆς σοφίας αὐτοῦ Theoph. Ant. 2, 15 [p. 138, 19].)—On the Logos: EZeller, D. Philosophie der Griechen III 24 1903, 417–34; MHeinze, D. Lehre v. Logos in d. griech. Philosophie 1872; PWendland, Philo u. d. kynisch-stoische Diatribe (Beiträge z. Gesch. der griech. Philosophie u. Religion by Wendl. and OKern 1895, 1–75); AAall, Gesch. d. Logosidee 1896, 1899; MPohlenz, D. Stoa ’48f, I 482; 490 (index); LDürr, D. Wertung des göttl. Wortes im AT u. im ant. Orient ’38 (§9 of the Joh. Logos); EBréhier, Les idées philosophiques et religieuses de Philon d’Alexandrie 1907, 83–111; (2 ’25); JLebreton, Les théories du Logos au début de l’ère chrétienne 1907; ESchwartz, NGG 1908, 537–56; GVos, The Range of the Logos-Title in the Prologue of the Fourth Gospel: PTR 11, 1913, 365–419; 557–602; RHarris, The Origin of the Prologue to St. John’s Gospel 1917, Athena, Sophia and the Logos: BJRL 7, 1, 1922 p. 56–72; M-JLagrange, Vers le Logos de S. Jean: RB 32, 1923, 161–84, Le Logos de Philon: ibid. 321–71; HLeisegang, Logos: Pauly-W. XIII 1926, 1035–81; TGlasson, Heraclitus’ Alleged Logos Doctr., JTS 3, ’52, 231–38.—NWeinstein, Z. Genesis d. Agada 1901, 29–90; Billerb. II 302–33.—Rtzst., Zwei religionsgeschichtl. Fragen 1901, 47–132, Mysterienrel.3 1927, 428 index; WBousset, Kyrios Christos2 1921, 304ff; 316f; JKroll, D. Lehren d. Hermes Trismegistos1914, 418 index.—RBultmann, D. religionsgesch. Hintergrund des Prol. z. Joh.: HGunkel Festschr., 1923, II 1–26, Comm. ’41, 5ff; AAlexander, The Johannine Doctrine of the Logos: ET 36, 1925, 394–99; 467–72; (Rtzst. and) HSchaeder, Studien z. antiken Synkretismus 1926, 306–37; 350; GAvdBerghvanEysinga, In den beginne was de Logos: NThT 23, ’34, 105–23; JDillersberger, Das Wort von Logos ’35; RBury, The 4th Gosp. and the Logos-Doctrine ’40; EMay, CBQ 8, ’46, 438–47; GKnight, From Moses to Paul ’49, 120–29. TW IV 76–89; 126–40 (on this s. SLyonnet, Biblica 26, ’45, 126–31); CStange, ZST 21, ’50, 120–41; MBoismard, Le Prologue de St. Jean ’53; HLangkammer, BZ 9, ’65, 91–94; HRinggren, Word and Wisdom [hypostatization in Near East] ’47; WEltester, Haenchen Festschr., ’64, 109–34; HWeiss, Untersuchungen zur Kosmologie etc., TU 97, ’66, 216–82; MRissi, Die Logoslieder im Prolog des vierten Evangeliums, TZ 31, ’75, 321–36; HLausberg, NAWG, Ph. ’87, 1 pp. 1–7.—B. 1262. DELG s.v. λέγω B 1. M-M. EDNT. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > λόγος

  • 160 μαθητής

    μαθητής, οῦ, ὁ (s. μανθάνω; Hdt.+; ins; BGU 1125, 9 [I B.C.]; POxy 1029, 25. In LXX only in two places in Jer [13:21; 20:11], and then as v.l. of codex A; AscIs 3:17, 21; Philo, Joseph., apolog. exc. Ar.) gener. ‘learner, pupil, disciple’
    one who engages in learning through instruction from another, pupil, apprentice (in contrast to the teacher [Ath. 17, 3 μ. Δαιδάλου]; Did., Gen. 66, 25) Mt 10:24f; Lk 6:40 (TManson, The Teaching of Jesus, ’55, 237–40).
    one who is rather constantly associated with someone who has a pedagogical reputation or a particular set of views, disciple, adherent (Pla., Apol. 33a; X., Mem. 1, 6, 3; Dio Chrys. 11 [12], 5; Lucian, M. Peregr. 28 al.; Diog. L. 7, 7, 179; 8, 1, 3; 10, 11, 22; Iambl., Vi. Pyth. 35, 254 οἱ μ.; SIG 1094, 5f αὐτὸς καὶ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ; Jos., Ant. 9, 68; 13, 289), oft. w. an indication of the pers. whose disciple one is, mostly in the gen. (Jos., C. Ap. 1, 176 Ἀριστοτέλους μ., Ant. 9, 33; 15, 3; Just., A I, 26, 4 τοῦ Σίμωνος; Tat. 39, 3 Ὀρφέως; Iren. 1, prologue 2 [Harv. I 4, 7] Οὐαλεντίνου; Theosophien 66 Φορφυρίου μ.).
    μ. Ἰωάννου Mt 9:14a; 11:2; 14:12; Mk 2:18ab; 6:29; Lk 5:33; 7:18f; 11:1; J 1:35, 37; 3:25. τ. Μωϋσέως 9:28b τῶν Φαρισαίων Mt 22:16; Mk 2:18c τοῦ Πολυκάρπου MPol 22:2; EpilMosq 1.
    esp. of the disciples of Jesus (of Paul: Orig., C. Cels. 1, 48, 70)
    α. of the Twelve οἱ δώδεκα μ. αὐτοῦ his twelve disciples Mt 10:1; 11:1; οἱ ἕνδεκα μ. 28:16. οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ (or w. another gen. of similar mng.; cp. Just., A I, 67, 7 τοῖς ἀποστόλοις αὐτοῦ καὶ μαθηταῖς; Just., D. 53, 1 al.; Did., Gen. 38, 21; Orig., C. Cels. 2, 2, 10.—Yet it is somet. doubtful whether a particular pass. really means the Twelve and not a larger [s. β below] or smaller circle; EMartinez, CBQ 23, ’61, 281–92 [restricted to the 12, even in Mt 18]) Mt 8:21; 12:1; 15:2; Mk 5:31; 6:1, 35, 45; 8:27; Lk 8:9; J 2:2; 3:22 and oft. Also without a gen. (but freq. vv.ll. + αὐτοῦ) οἱ μ. Mt 13:10; 14:19; 16:5; Mk 8:1; 9:14; 10:24; Lk 9:16; J 4:31; 11:7f and oft.—LBrun, D. Berufung der ersten Jünger Jesu: SymbOsl 11, ’32, 35–54; SvanTilborg, The Jewish Leaders in Mt, ’72, 99–141; ULuz, Die Jünger im Mt, ZNW 62, ’71, 141–47; on the ‘beloved disciple’ of J 13:23 al. s. FFilson, JBL 68, ’49, 83–88; ETitus, ibid. ’50, 323–28; FNeirynck, The Anonymous Disciple in John 1: ETL 66, ’90, 5–37.
    β. of Jesus’ disciples, male and female, gener. ὄχλος πολὺς μ. αὐτοῦ a large crowd of his adherents Lk 6:17; ἅπαν τὸ πλῆθος τῶν μ. the whole crowd of the disciples 19:37. οἱ μ. αὐτοῦ ἱκανοί a large number of his disciples 7:11 v.l. πολλοὶ ἐκ (v.l. om.) τῶν μ. αὐτοῦ J 6:66.—Papias (2:4).
    γ. Even after Jesus’ resurrection those who followed him were called μ. (generations later, as Socrates is called the μ. of Homer: Dio Chrys. 38 [55], 3ff) οἱ μ. τοῦ κυρίου Ac 9:1; μ. Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ IMg 9:2 (opp. ὁ μόνος διδάσκαλος, who also had the prophets as his μαθηταί vs. 3; 10:1). Ac uses μ. almost exclusively to denote the members of the new community of believers (Just., D. 35, 2; s. Rtzst., Erlösungsmyst. 127f), so that it almost= Christian (cp. 11:26) 6:1f, 7; 9:19; 11:26, 29; 13:52; 15:10 al. τῶν μαθητῶν (without τινές) some Christians 21:16 (cp. X., Cyr. 1, 4, 20, An. 3, 5, 16; Herodas 2, 36 τῶν πορνέων; Polyaenus 5, 17, 2 καὶ ἦσαν τῶν Μακεδόνων).—καλοὶ μαθηταί IPol 2:1. Individuals (Aberciusins. 3: Ἀ., ὁ μ. ποιμένος ἁγνοῦ): Ananias Ac 9:10; Mnason 21:16b; Timothy 16:1.
    δ. The martyrs (s. on μάρτυς 3) are specif. called μ. κυρίου MPol 17:3. Also absol. μ. IEph 1:2; ITr 5:2; IRo 5:3; IPol 7:1. As long as a Christian’s blood has not been shed, the person is only a beginner in discipleship (IRo 5:3), not a μαθητὴς ἀληθῶς Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ IRo 4:2.—For lit. s. on ἀπόστολος and s. also JWach, Meister and Jünger 1925; ESchweizer, Lordship and Discipleship, ’60, 464–66; GBornkamm, Bultmann Festschr., ’64, 171–91 (Mt 28:16–20)—B. 1225. DELG s.v. μανθάνω. M-M. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > μαθητής

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