Translation: from greek

called after

  • 181 φῶς

    φῶς, φωτός, τό (Trag.+ [in Hom. φάος or φόως]; loanw. in rabb.) ‘light’
    light in contrast to darkness, light
    in the physical realm καθόλου τὸ φῶς μὴ βλέπειν (of Judas) Papias (3:2).—Opp. σκότος, as Job 18:18; En 104:8; PGM 5, 101; 7, 262; 13, 335; Theoph. Ant. 1, 2 (p. 60, 7) 2 Cor 4:6 (cp. Gen 1:3ff); 6:14. Not present at night J 11:10. λευκὸς ὡς τὸ φ. Mt 17:2. νεφέλη φωτός a bright cloud vs. 5 v.l. (TestAbr A 9 p. 87, 12 [Stone p. 22]). Of the light of the sun (φ. ἡλίου: Dio Chrys. 57 [74], 20 fr. Eur., Hippol. 617; Ael. Aristid. 45, 29 K.=8 p. 95 D; ApcZeph; Just., D. 128, 4; τὸ φ. τοῦ ἡλίου Theoph. Ant. 1, 2 [p. 60, 16]) Rv 22:5b; of a wondrous star IEph 19:2ab. Of lamp-light (Jer 25:10; Jos., Ant. 12, 319) Lk 8:16; 11:33 (v.l. φέγγος); J 5:35 (in imagery); Rv 18:23; 22:5a. Light fr. a transcendent source (Ael. Aristid. 49, 46 K.=p. 500, 17 D. ἐγένετο φῶς παρὰ τῆς Ἴσιδος; Marinus, Vi. Procli 23: a halo of light around Proclus’ head moves the beholder to προσκύνησις): an angel Ac 12:7; 2 Cor 11:14 (here ἄγγελος φωτός [cp. 1QS 3:20] is a messenger of the world of light in contrast to Satan); of Paul’s conversion experience Ac 9:3; 22:6 (both w. ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, as X., Cyr. 4, 2, 15; Dio Chrys. 11 [12], 29), 9, 11; 26:13 (οὐρανόθεν); the heavenly city Rv 21:24 (s. also bα below). ἐφάνη φῶς μέγα ἐν τῷ σπηλαίῳ a bright light appeared in the cave GJs 19:2, followed by φῶς ἐκεῖνο ὑπεστέλλετο that light faded out. ἦν τὸ ὄρος ἐκεῖνο διαφαίνων (pap=διαφαῖνον) αὐτῇ φ. that mountain was shining a light for her GJs 22:3.—In imagery: (εἰς φ. ἐλθεῖν=‘become apparent’ Hippol., Ref. 4, 28, 4) ἐν τῷ φωτί in the open, publicly (φ. of ‘the open’ X., Ages. 9, 1.—Opp. ἐν τῇ σκοτίᾳ) Mt 10:27; Lk 12:3 (Proverbia Aesopi 104 P.: ἅπερ ἐν νυκτὶ καλύπτεται, ταῦτα εἰς φῶς λαληθέντα … ‘what is hidden in the night gets talked about in the light’). Of an evil-doer it is said: μισεῖ τὸ φῶς καὶ οὐκ ἔρχεται πρὸς τὸ φῶς J 3:20 (cp. Eur., Iph. T. 1026 κλεπτῶν γὰρ ἡ νύξ, τῆς δʼ ἀληθείας τὸ φῶς=the night’s for thieves, the light’s for truth; Plut., Mor. 82b, Contra Volupt. in Stob., Anthol. 3, 6, 33 vol. III 299 H.; Philo, De Jos. 68, Spec. Leg. 1, 319–23; TestNapht 2:10).
    in a transcendent sense
    α. the passages in the central portion of 1a above show that light is the element and sphere of the divine (Ael. Aristid. 28, 114 K.=49 p. 528 D.: τοῦ θεοῦ φῶς; SibOr 3, 787 ἀθάνατον φ.; Tat. 13, 2 λόγος … ἐστὶ τὸ τοῦ θεοῦ φ.—Iren. 1, 4, 1 [Harv. I 32, 1]). God is called φῶς οἰκῶν ἀπρόσιτον 1 Ti 6:16 (Plut., Pericl. 173 [39, 2] the gods dwell in τὸν τόπον ἀσάλευτον φωτὶ καθαρωτάτῳ περιλαμπόμενον, Mor. 567f: the divine φωνή proceeds fr. a φῶς μέγα that suddenly shines forth), or it is said that God dwells ἐν τῷ φωτί 1J 1:7b. In fact, God is described as light pure and simple ὁ θεὸς φῶς ἐστιν vs. 5 (Philo, Somn. 1, 75; cp. TestJob 4:1 εἶπεν τὸ φῶς; ParJer 6:12; Ath. 31, 3 πάντα δὲ φῶς αὐτὸν ὄντα.—OSchaefer, StKr 105, ’33, 467–76). Cp. Dg 9:6. Likew. the Divine Redeemer (ParJer 9:14 τὸ φῶς τῶν αἰώνων πάντων) in the Fourth Gospel: J 1:7–9 (FAuer, Wie ist J 1:9 zu verstehen?: ThGl 28, ’36, 397–407); 12:35ab, 36ab (for 1J 2:8 s. β; on divinity as light s. RCharles, The Book of Enoch 1912, 71f; GWetter, Phōs [ΦΩΣ] 1915. S. also MDibelius, Die Vorstellung v. göttl. Licht: Deutsche Literaturzeitung 36, 1915, 1469–83 and MNilsson, GGA 1916, 49ff; FDölger, Die Sonne der Gerechtigkeit 1918, Sol Salutis 1920; WBousset, Kyrios Christos 2, 1921, 173; 174, 2 and 3; HJonas, Gnosis u. spätantiker Geist I ’34; Dodd 133–36; 183–87 al.; EGoodenough, By Light, Light: The Mystic Gospel of Hellenistic Judaism ’35; RBultmann, Z. Gesch. der Lichtsymbolik im Altertum: Philol 97, ’48, 1–36; 1QH 4:6; 18:29; BGU 597, 33 [I A.D.]). Jesus calls himself τὸ φῶς τοῦ κόσμου J 8:12a; 9:5; 12:46; cp. 3:19a (Mel., P. 103, 795; Wetter, ‘Ich bin das Licht der Welt’: Beiträge zur Religionswissenschaft I/2, 1914, 171ff), and is called τὸ φῶς τῶν ἀνθρώπων 1:4 (Ael. Aristid. 45, 33 K.=8 p. 97 D.: Sarapis as κοινὸν ἄπασιν ἀνθρώποις φῶς; hymn to Anubis fr. Kios [IAndrosIsis, p. 139] 7: Isis as φῶς πᾶσι βροτοῖσι). His very being is light and life (ζωή 2aβ; s. JWeisengoff, CBQ 8, ’46, 448–51) 1:4. Cp. also vs. 5; 3:19b, 21; Lk 2:32 (Jesus is a φῶς εἰς ἀποκάλυψιν ἐθνῶν).—FDölger, Lumen Christi: Ac V/1, ’35, 1–43. The martyr καθαρὸν φῶς λαμβάνει receives the pure light of heaven IRo 6:2.
    β. light, that illuminates the spirit and soul of humans (OdeSol 11:19 μεταβληθέντες ἀπὸ σκότους εἰς τὸ φῶς; JosAs 15:13 ἀναγαγεῖν με εἰς τὸ φῶς; Mel., P. 68, 491 ῥυσάμενος … ἐκ σκότους εἰς φῶς; Philosoph. Max. 499, 39 σωφροσύνη … ψυχῆς φῶς ἐστιν), is gener. the element in which the redeemed person lives, rich in blessings without and within (En 5:6 σωτηρία, φῶς ἀγαθόν; vs. 8 φ. καὶ χάρις; PsSol 3:12 ἡ ζωὴ αὐτῶν ἐν φωτὶ κυρίου): τότε ῤαγήσεται πρώϊμον τὸ φῶς σου then your light will break out early in the morning B 3:4 (Is 58:8; s. πρόϊμος, end). Of God δεῖξαι αὐτῷ (God’s servant) φῶς 1 Cl 16:12 (Is 53:11); of Messianic salvation, the gospel, etc. (opp. σκοτία, σκότος) Mt 4:16ab; AcPl Ha 8, 32f (Is 9:1ab; cp. Lucian, Nigr. 4 ἔχαιρον ὥσπερ ἐκ ζοφεροῦ ἀέρος ἐς μέγα φῶς ἀναβλέπων ‘I rejoiced, looking up as it were from a gloomy atmosphere into a bright light’); Ac 26:18; Eph 5:13; Col 1:12; 1 Pt 2:9; 1 Cl 36:2; 59:2; 2 Cl 1:4. τὸ φῶς τῆς ζωῆς (cp. 1QS 3:7) J 8:12b. τὸ φῶς τὸ ἀληθινόν (ParJer 9:3 φ. ἀληθινόν; cp. τὸ τῆς ἀληθείας φ. Did., Gen. 87, 23f; Orig., C. Cels. 5, 13, 20; saying of Pythagoreans: WienerStud 8, 1886 p. 280 no. 118 in contrast to σκότος; cp. TestJob 43:6 ὁ τοῦ σκότους καὶ οὐχὶ τοῦ φωτός [of Elihu]) 1J 2:8, cp. J 1:9 (s. α above). φῶς καταγγέλλειν Ac 26:23. To be filled w. Christian truth means ἐν τῷ φωτὶ περιπατεῖν 1J 1:7a, εἶναι 2:9, μένειν vs. 10. Such persons are called υἱοὶ τοῦ φωτός Lk 16:8; J 12:36c (cp. 1QS 1:9 et passim); 1 Th 5:5; τέκνα φωτός Eph 5:8b (ESelwyn, 1 Pt ’46, 375–82; KKuhn, NTS 7, ’61, 339: 1QS 3:20; 5:9, 10); τέκνα φωτὸς ἀληθείας IPhld 2:1 (Porphyr., Ep. ad Marcellam 20 φῶς τοῦ θεοῦ τῆς ἀληθείας; Simplicius p. 88, 3; 138, 30 Düb. τὸ τῆς ἀληθείας φῶς). They put on τὰ ὅπλα τοῦ φωτός Ro 13:12, travel the ὁδὸς τοῦ φωτός B 18:1; 19:1, 12, and produce the καρπὸς τοῦ φωτός Eph 5:9. The rdg. τ̣ο̣ [φω]ς Ox 1081, 29 is better restored after the Coptic SJCh as τέλος (q.v. 1).
    γ. bearers or bringers of this kind of light (φῶς of persons: Od. 16, 23; Anacr. 51 Diehl [32 Page; 124 Bergk] φάος Ἑλλήνων; Pind., I. 2, 17; Trag.; Biogr. p. 453 Hippocr. as ἀστήρ and φῶς of the healing art; TestJob 53:3 Job as φῶς τῶν τυφλῶν; SIG 1238, 2 [c. 160 A.D.] Φήγιλλα, τὸ φῶς τῆς οἰκίας) Is 49:6 φῶς ἐθνῶν is referred to Paul and Barnabas Ac 13:47, and to Christ B 14:8 (as Just., D. 65, 7); cp. 14:7 (Is 42:6) and cp. bα above. The Ἰουδαῖος considers himself a φῶς τῶν ἐν σκότει Ro 2:19. Jesus’ disciples are τὸ φῶς τοῦ κόσμου Mt 5:14; cp. vs. 16.—On Is 49:6 s. HOrlinsky, The 75th Anniv. Vol. of the JQR ’67, 409–28.
    δ. by metonymy, one who is illuminated or filled w. such light, or who stands in it Eph 5:8a (s. 1bβ above).—On the dualism of light and darkness, etc., s. Hebr. texts in the Dead Sea scrolls: KKuhn, ZTK 47, ’50, 192–211; WBrownlee, Excerpts fr. theTransl. of the Dead Sea Manual of Discipline: BASOR no. 121, ’51, 8–13; HPreisker, TLZ 77, ’52, 673–78; CHowie, The Cosmic Struggle: Int 8, ’54, 206–17.
    that which gives/bears light, torch, lamp, lantern, etc. (X., Hell. 5, 1, 8 φῶς ἔχειν; Musaeus vs. 224 of a λύχνος. Pl.: Plut., Ant. 927 [26, 6], Pelop. 284 [12, 3] al.; Lucian, Philops. 31) Ac 16:29. Fire, which furnishes both light and heat (X., Hell. 6, 2, 29; Cyr. 7, 5, 27; 1 Macc 12:29) Mk 14:54 (GBuchanan, ET 68, ’56, 27); Lk 22:56. Heavenly bodies (Manetho, Apotel. 6, 146 sun and moon δύο φῶτα; likew. Dio Chrys. 23 [40], 38; Ptolem., Apotel. 2, 13, 8; 3, 3, 3; 3, 5, 3 al. τὰ φ=constellations; Vett. Val. index II p. 384; PGM 13, 400; Ps 135:7; Jer 4:23): God is πατὴρ τῶν φώτων Js 1:17 (TestAbr B 7 p. 111, 11 [Stone p. 70] φῶς καλούμενον πατὴρ τοῦ φωτός; cp. ApcMos 36; 38); the sun as τὸ φῶς τοῦ κόσμου τούτου J 11:9 (Macrobius, Saturnal. 1, 23, 21 ἥλιε παντοκράτορ, … κόσμου φῶς; cp. Ps.-Demosth. 60, 24). Of the eye as an organ of light (Eur., Cycl. 633 φῶς Κύκλωπος; Ath. 32, 2) Mt 6:23; Lk 11:35.
    that which is illuminated by light: πᾶν τὸ φανερούμενον φῶς ἐστιν everything that becomes visible is (= stands in the) light Eph 5:14.—CMugler, Dictionnaire historique de la terminologie optique des Grecs ’64.—B. 60. Cp. φέγγος; s. Schmidt, Syn. I 563–98. DELG s.v. φάε. Frisk s.v. φάος. New Docs 1, 98f. M-M. EDNT. TW. Spicq. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > φῶς

  • 182 χάρις

    χάρις, ιτος, ἡ (Hom.+) acc. quite predom. χάριν, but χάριτα Ac 24:27; 25:9 v.l.; Jd 4 and pl. χάριτας Ac 24:27 v.l.; 1 Cl 23:1 (Eur., Hel. 1378; Hdt. 6, 41; X., Hell. 3, 5, 16; ins, pap; Zech 4:7; 6:14; EpArist 272, pl. 230.—B-D-F §47, 3; W-S. §9, 7; Mayser 271f; Thackeray 150; Helbing 40f; Mlt-H. 132.—It seems that χάρις is not always clearly differentiated in mng. fr. χαρά; Apollodorus [II B.C.]: 244 Fgm. 90 Jac. says in the second book περὶ θεῶν: κληθῆναι δὲ αὐτὰς ἀπὸ μὲν τ. χαρᾶς Χάριτας• καὶ γὰρ πολλάκις … οἱ ποιηταὶ τ. χάριν χαρὰν καλοῦσιν ‘the [deities] Charites are so called from χαρά [joy], for poets freq. equate χάρις with χαρά’. Cp. the wordplay AcPl Ha 8, 7 χαρᾶς καὶ χάριτος the house was filled with gaiety and gratitude.).
    a winning quality or attractiveness that invites a favorable reaction, graciousness, attractiveness, charm, winsomeness (Hom.+; Jos., Ant. 2, 231) of human form and appearance παῖς λίαν εὐειδής ἐν χάριτι an exceptionally fine-looking and winsome youth AcPl Ha 3, 13. Of speech (Demosth. 51, 9; Ps.-Demetr. [I A.D.], Eloc. §127; 133; 135 al.; Eccl 10:12; Sir 21:16; Jos., Ant. 18, 208) οἱ λόγοι τῆς χάριτος (gen. of quality) the gracious words Lk 4:22. ὁ λόγος ὑμῶν πάντοτε ἐν χάριτι let your conversation always be winsome Col 4:6 (cp. Plut., Mor. 514f; s. also HAlmqvist, Plut. u. das NT ’46, 121f; Epict. 3, 22, 90). τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ χάριτος ἐπληροῦτο MPol 12:1 can also be placed here in case χάρις means nothing more than graciousness (s. 4 below); prob. also GJs 7:3 (s. 3b).
    a beneficent disposition toward someone, favor, grace, gracious care/help, goodwill (almost a t.t. in the reciprocity-oriented world dominated by Hellenic influence [cp. e.g. OGI 669, 29] as well as by the Semitic sense of social obligation expressed in the term חֶסֶד [NGlueck, Das Wort ḥesed in alttestamentlichen Sprachgebrauche etc. 1927]. Of a different order and spirit is the subset of reciprocity known as Roman patronage, in which superiority of the donor over the client is clearly maintained)
    act., that which one grants to another, the action of one who volunteers to do someth. not otherwise obligatory χάρις θεοῦ ἦν ἐπʼ αὐτό Lk 2:40. ἡ χάρις τοῦ θεοῦ (cp. τῇ τοῦ θεοῦ Κλαυδίου χάριτι OGI 669, 29) Ac 11:2 D; 14:26. τοῦ κυρίου 15:40.—Esp. of the beneficent intention of God (cp. χ. in reference to God: Apollon. Rhod. 3, 1005 σοὶ θεόθεν χάρις ἔσσεται; Dio Chrys. 80 [30], 40 χ. τῶν θεῶν; Ael. Aristid. 13 p. 320 D.; 53 p. 620; Sextus 436b; likew. in LXX, Philo, Joseph.; SibOr 4, 46=189; 5, 330; Ezk. Trag. 162 [Eus., PE 9, 29, 12].—χ. to denote beneficent dispensations of the emperor: OGI 669, 44 [I A.D.]; BGU 19 I, 21 [II A.D.] χάρ. τοῦ θεοῦ Αὐτοκράτορος; 1085 II, 4) and of Christ, who give (undeserved) gifts to people; God: δικαιούμενοι δωρεὰν τῇ αὐτοῦ χάριτι Ro 3:24. Cp. 5:15a, 20f; 6:1; 11:5 (ἐκλογή 1), 6abc; Gal 1:15 (διά A 3e); Eph 1:6f (KKuhn, NTS 7, ’61, 337 [reff. to Qumran lit.]); 2:5, 7, 8; cp. Pol 1:3; 2 Th 1:12; 2:16; 2 Ti 1:9; Tit 2:11 (ἡ χάρ. τοῦ θεοῦ σωτήριος; s. Dibelius, Hdb. exc. after Tit 2:14); 3:7; Hb 2:9 (χωρίς 2aα); 4:16a (DdeSilva, JBL 115, ’96, 100–103); 1 Cl 50:3; ISm 9:2; IPol 7:3. ἐν χάρ[ιτι θεοῦ] AcPl Ha 7, 23 (restoration uncertain). κατὰ χάριν as a favor, out of goodwill (cp. Pla., Leg. 740c; schol. on Soph., Oed. Col. 1751 p. 468 Papag.) Ro 4:4 (opp. κατὰ ὀφείλημα), 16.—The beneficence or favor of Christ: διὰ τῆς χάριτος τοῦ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ πιστεύομεν σωθῆναι Ac 15:11. Cp. Ro 5:15b; 2 Cor 8:9; 1 Ti 1:14; IPhld 8:1. On Ac 2:47 in this sense s. TAnderson, NTS 34, ’88, 604–10.
    pass., that which one experiences fr. another (Arrian, Anab. Alex. 3, 26, 4) χάριν ἔχειν have favor 3J 4 v.l. πρός τινα with someone=win his respect Ac 2:47 (cp. 2a end; cp. Pind., O. 7, 89f χάριν καὶ ποτʼ ἀστῶν καὶ ποτὶ ξείνων grant him respect in the presence of his townfolk as well as strangers); παρά τινι (Appian, Bell. Civ. 2, 89 §376) Hm 10, 3, 1, cp. 5, 1, 5. εὑρεῖν χάριν παρά τινι (Philo, Leg. All. 3, 77, end) Lk 1:30; Hs 5, 2, 10; ἐνώπιόν τινος Ac 7:46; GJs 11:2 (JosAs 15:14). ἐν τοῖς μέλλουσι μετανοεῖν among those who are about to repent Hm 12, 3, 3. Ἰησοῦς προέκοπτεν χάριτι παρὰ θεῷ καὶ ἀνθρώποις Lk 2:52 (an indication of exceptional ἀρετή, cp. Pind. above). Cp. Ac 4:33; 7:10 (ἐναντίον Φαραώ); Hb 4:16b.—ποία ὑμῖν χάρις ἐστίν; what credit is that to you? Lk 6:32–34; s. D 1:3; 2 Cl 13:4. Cp. 1 Cor 9:16 v.l. In these passages the mng. comes close to reward (s. Wetter [5 below] 209ff w. reff.).—Also by metonymy that which brings someone (God’s) favor or wins a favorable response fr. God 1 Pt 2:19, 20.
    In Christian epistolary lit. fr. the time of Paul χάρις is found w. the sense (divine) favor in fixed formulas at the beginning and end of letters (Zahn on Gal 1:3; vDobschütz on 1 Th 1:1; ELohmeyer, ZNW 26, 1927, 158ff; APujol, De Salutat. Apost. ‘Gratia vobis et pax’: Verb. Dom. 12, ’32, 38–40; 76–82; WFoerster, TW II ’34, 409ff; Goodsp., Probs. 141f. S. also the lit. s.v. χαίρω 2b). At the beginning of a letter χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη (sc. εἴη; New Docs 8, 127f) Ro 1:7; 1 Cor 1:3; 2 Cor 1:2; Gal 1:3; Eph 1:2; Phil 1:2; Col 1:2; 1 Th 1:1; 2 Th 1:2; Phlm 3; Rv 1:4; without ὑμῖν Tit 1:4. χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη πληθυνθείη 1 Pt 1:2; 2 Pt 1:2; 1 Cl ins. χάρις, ἔλεος, εἰρήνη 1 Ti 1:2; 2 Ti 1:2; 2J 3 (on the triplet cp. En 5:7 φῶς καὶ χάρις καὶ εἰρήνη).—At the end ἡ χάρις (τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ etc.) μεθʼ ὑμῶν (or μετὰ πάντων ὑμῶν etc.) Ro 16:20, 23 (24) v.l.; 1 Cor 16:23; 2 Cor 13:13; Gal 6:18; Eph 6:24; Phil 4:23; Col 4:18; 1 Th 5:28; 2 Th 3:18; 1 Ti 6:21; 2 Ti 4:22; Tit 3:15; Phlm 25; Hb 13:25; Rv 22:21; 1 Cl 65:2. ἔσται ἡ χάρις μετὰ πάντων τῶν φοβουμένων τὸν Κύριον GJs 25:2. ὁ κύριος τῆς δόξης καὶ πάσης χάριτος μετὰ τοῦ πνεύματος ὑμῶν B 21:9. χάρις ὑμῖν, ἔλεος, εἰρήνη, ὑπομονὴ διὰ παντός ISm 12:2. ἔρρωσθε ἐν χάριτι θεοῦ 13:2.
    practical application of goodwill, (a sign of) favor, gracious deed/gift, benefaction
    on the part of humans (X., Symp. 8, 36, Ages. 4, 3; Appian, Bell. Civ. 1, 49 §213; Dionys. Hal. 2, 15, 4) χάριν (-ιτα) καταθέσθαι τινί (κατατίθημι 2) Ac 24:27; 25:9. αἰτεῖσθαι χάριν 25:3 (in these passages from Ac χ. suggests [political] favor, someth. one does for another within a reciprocity system. Cp. Appian, Bell. Civ. 1, 108 §506 ἐς χάριν Σύλλα=as a favor to Sulla; ApcSed 8:1 οὐκ ἐποίησάς μοι χάριν=you did me no favor). ἵνα δευτέραν χάριν σχῆτε that you might have a second proof of my goodwill 2 Cor 1:15 (unless χάρις here means delight [so in poetry, Pind. et al., but also Pla., Isocr.; L-S-J-M s.v. χάρις IV; cp. also the quot. fr. Apollodorus at the beg. of the present entry, and the fact that χαρά is v.l. in 2 Cor 1:15]; in that case δευτέρα means double; but s. comm.). Of the collection for Jerusalem (cp. Appian, Bell. Civ. 3, 42 §173 χάριτας λαμβάνειν=receive gifts) 1 Cor 16:3; 2 Cor 8:4, 6f, 19 (DdeSilva, JBL 115, ’96, 101). Cp. B 21:7.—Eph 4:29 may suggest a demonstration of human favor (cp. Plut., Mor. 514e χάριν παρασκευάζοντες ἀλλήλοις), but a ref. to the means by which divine grace is mediated is not to be ruled out (s. b below).
    on the part of God and Christ; the context will show whether the emphasis is upon the possession of divine favor as a source of blessings for the believer, or upon a store of favor that is dispensed, or a favored status (i.e. standing in God’s favor) that is brought about, or a gracious deed wrought by God in Christ, or a gracious work that grows fr. more to more (so in contrast to the old covenant Mel., P. 3, 16 al.). God is called ὁ θεὸς πάσης χάριτος 1 Pt 5:10, i.e. God, who is noted for any conceivable benefit or favor; cp. B 21:9.—χάριν διδόναι τινί show favor to someone (Anacr. 110 Diehl; Appian, Ital. 5 §10): τὸν δόντα αὐτῷ τὴν χάριν GJs 14:2. ταπεινοῖς δίδωσι χάριν (Pr 3:34) Js 4:6b; 1 Pt 5:5; 1 Cl 30:2; without a dat. Js 4:6a (Menand., Epitr. 231 S. [55 Kö.]). Perh. καὶ ἔβαλλε κύριος … χάριν ἐπʼ αὐτήν GJs 7:3 (but s. 1 above). The Logos is πλήρης χάριτος J 1:14. Those who belong to him receive of the fullness of his grace, χάριν ἀντὶ χάριτος vs. 16 (ἀντί 2). Cp. vs. 17. τὴν χάριν ταύτην ἐν ᾗ ἑστήκαμεν this favor (of God) we now enjoy Ro 5:2 (Goodsp.).—5:17; 1 Cor 1:4; 2 Cor 4:15 (divine beneficence in conversion); cp. Ac 11:23; 6:1; Gal 1:6 (by Christ’s gracious deed); 2:21; 5:4; Col 1:6; 2 Ti 2:1; Hb 12:15; 13:9; 1 Pt 1:10, 13; 3:7 (συνκληρονόμοι χάριτος ζωῆς fellow-heirs of the gift that spells life; s. ζωή 2bα); 5:12; 2 Pt 3:18; Jd 4; IPhld 11:1; ISm 6:2. Christians stand ὑπὸ χάριν under God’s gracious will as expressed in their release from legal constraint Ro 6:14f, or they come ὑπὸ τὸν ζυγὸν τῆς χάριτος αὐτοῦ 1 Cl 16:17 (ζυγός 1). The proclamation of salvation is the message of divine beneficence τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τῆς χάριτος τοῦ θεοῦ Ac 20:24 or ὁ λόγος τῆς χάριτος αὐτοῦ (=τοῦ κυρίου) 14:3; 20:32. Even the gospel message can be called ἡ χάρις τοῦ θεοῦ 13:43; cp. 18:27; MPol 2:3. τὸ πνεῦμα τῆς χάριτος the Spirit from or through whom (God’s) favor is shown Hb 10:29 (AArgyle, Grace and the Covenant: ET 60, ’48/49, 26f).—Pl. benefits, favors (Diod S 3, 2, 4; 3, 73, 6; Sb 8139, 4 [ins of I B.C.] of Isis; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 190) 1 Cl 23:1.—Nelson Glueck, Das Wort ḥesed etc. 1927, but s. FAndersen, ‘Yahweh, the Kind and Sensitive God’: God Who is Rich in Mercy, ed. PO’Brien/DPeterson ’86.
    exceptional effect produced by generosity, favor. Of effects produced by divine beneficence which go beyond those associated with a specific Christian’s status (ins μεγάλαι χάριτες τοῦ θεου: FCumont, Syria 7, 1926, 347ff), in the congregations of Macedonia 2 Cor 8:1 and Corinth 9:14; cp. vs. 8; in Rome AcPl Ha 7, 8. The Christian confessor is in full possession of divine grace ISm 11:1. Paul knows that through the χάρις of God he has been called to be an apostle, and that he has been fitted out w. the powers and capabilities requisite for this office fr. the same source: Ro 1:5; 12:3; 15:15; 1 Cor 3:10; 15:10ab (for the subject matter cp. Polyb. 12, 12b, 3 αὐτὸν [Alex. the Great] ὑπὸ τοῦ δαιμονίου τετευχέναι τούτων ὧν ἔτυχεν=whatever he has received he has received from what is divine. [For this reason he does not deserve any divine honors.]); 2 Cor 12:9; Gal 2:9; Eph 3:2, 7f; Phil 1:7.—The χάρις of God manifests itself in various χαρίσματα: Ro 12:6; Eph 4:7; 1 Pt 4:10. This brings into view a number of passages in which χάρις is evidently to be understood in a very concrete sense. It is hardly to be differentiated fr. δύναμις (θεοῦ) or fr. γνῶσις or δόξα (q.v. 1b. On this subj. s. Wetter [5 below] p. 94ff; esp. 130ff; pap in the GLumbroso Festschr. 1925, 212ff: χάρις, δύναμις, πνεῦμα w. essentially the same mng.; PGM 4, 2438; 3165; Herm. Wr. 1, 32; Just., D. 87, 5 ἀπὸ χάριτος τῆς δυνάμεως τοῦ πνεύματος). οὐκ ἐν σοφίᾳ σαρκικῇ ἀλλʼ ἐν χάριτι θεοῦ 2 Cor 1:12. οὐκ ἐγὼ δὲ ἀλλὰ ἡ χάρις τοῦ θεοῦ σὺν ἐμοί 1 Cor 15:10c. αὐξάνετε ἐν χάριτι καὶ γνώσει τοῦ κυρίου 2 Pt 3:18; cp. 1 Cl 55:3; B 1:2 (τῆς δωρεᾶς πνευματικῆς χάρις). Stephen is said to be πλήρης χάριτος καὶ δυνάμεως Ac 6:8. Divine power fills the Christian confessor or martyr w. a radiant glow MPol 12:1 (but s. 1 above). As the typical quality of the age to come, contrasted w. the κόσμος D 10:6.
    response to generosity or beneficence, thanks, gratitude (a fundamental component in the Gr-Rom. reciprocity system; exx. fr. later times: Diod S 11, 71, 4 [χάριτες=proofs of gratitude]; Appian, Syr. 3, 12; 13. Cp. Wetter [below] p. 206f) χάριν ἔχειν τινί be grateful to someone (Eur., Hec. 767; X., An. 2, 5, 14; Pla., Phlb. 54d; Ath. 2, 1; PLips 104, 14 [I B.C.] χάριν σοι ἔχω) foll. by ὅτι (Epict. 3, 5, 10; Jos., C. Ap. 1, 270; 2, 49) Lk 17:9 (ERiggenbach, NKZ 34, 1923, 439–43); mostly of gratitude to God or Christ; χάρις in our lit. as a whole, in the sense gratitude, refers to appropriate respone to the Deity for benefits conferred (Hom., Pind., Thu. et al.; ins, pap, LXX; Jos., Ant. 7, 208) χάριν ἔχω τῷ θεῷ (POxy 113, 13 [II A.D.] χάριν ἔχω θεοῖς πᾶσιν.—Epict. 4, 7, 9) 2 Ti 1:3; foll. by ὅτι because 1 Ti 1:12 (Herm. Wr. 6, 4 κἀγὼ χάριν ἔχω τῷ θεῷ …, ὅτι; Jos., Ant. 4, 316); χάριν ἔχειν ἐπί τινι be grateful for someth. Phlm 7 v.l. (to humans). ἔχωμεν χάριν let us be thankful (to God) Hb 12:28 (the reason for it is given by the preceding ptc. παραλαμβάνοντες). Elliptically (B-D-F §128, 6; cp. Rob. 1201f) χάρις (ἔστω) τῷ θεῷ (X., Oec. 8, 16 πολλὴ χάρις τοῖς θεοῖς; Epict. 4, 4, 7 χάρις τῷ θεῳ; BGU 843, 6 [I/II A.D.] χάρις τοῖς θεοῖς al. in pap since III B.C..—Philo, Rer. Div. Her. 309) Ro 7:25; MPol 3:1. Foll. by ὅτι (X., An. 3, 3, 14 τοῖς θεοῖς χάρις ὅτι; PFay 124, 16 τοῖς θεοῖς ἐστιν χάρις ὅτι; Epict. 4, 5, 9) Ro 6:17. Foll. by ἐπί τινι for someth. (UPZ 108, 30 [99 B.C.]) 2 Cor 9:15. The reason for the thanks is given in the ptc. agreeing w. τῷ θεῷ 2:14; 8:16; 1 Cor 15:57 (cp. Jos., Ant. 6, 145; Philo, Somn. 2, 213). Thankfulness (Appian, Bell. Civ. 3, 15 §51 πρός τινα=toward someone) χάριτι in thankfulness 10:30. So prob. also ἐν τῇ χάριτι in a thankful spirit Col 3:16 (Dibelius, Hdb. ad loc.). πλησθῆναι χαρᾶς καὶ χάριτος AcPl Ha 8, 7. S. εὐχαριστέω, end. Also PSchubert, Form and Function of the Pauline Thanksgivings ’39.—OLoew, Χάρις, diss., Marburg 1908; GWetter, Charis 1913; AvHarnack, Sanftmut, Huld u. Demut in der alten Kirche: JKaftan Festschr. 1920, 113ff; NBonwetsch, Zur Geschichte des Begriffs Gnade in der alten Kirche: Harnack Festgabe 1921, 93–101; EBurton, Gal ICC 1921, 423f; WWhitley, The Doctrine of Grace ’32; JMoffatt, Grace in the NT ’31; RWinkler, D. Gnade im NT: ZST 10, ’33, 642–80; RHomann, D. Gnade in d. Syn. Ev.: ibid. 328–48; JWobbe, D. Charisgedanke b. Pls ’32; RBultmann, Theologie des NT ’48, 283–310 (Paul); HBoers, Ἀγάπη and Χάρις in Paul’s Thought: CBQ 59, ’97, 693–713; on 2 Cor 8: FDanker, Augsburg Comm. 2 Cor, 116–34; PRousselot, La Grâce d’après St. Jean et d’après St. Paul: SR 18, 1928, 87–108, Christent. u. Wissensch. 8, ’32, 402–30; JMontgomery, Hebrew Hesed and Gk. Charis: HTR 32, ’39, 97–102; Dodd 61f; TTorrance, The Doctrine of Grace in the Apost. Fathers, ’48; JRenié, Studia Anselmiana 27f, ’51, 340–50; CRSmith, The Bible Doctrine of Grace, ’56; EFlack, The Concept of Grace in Bibl. Thought: Bibl. Studies in Memory of HAlleman, ed. Myers, ’60, 137–54; DDoughty, NTS 19, ’73, 163–80.—B. 1166. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW. Spicq. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > χάρις

  • 183 ψυχή

    ψυχή, ῆς, ἡ (Hom.+; ‘life, soul’) It is oft. impossible to draw hard and fast lines in the use of this multivalent word. Gen. it is used in ref. to dematerialized existence or being, but, apart fr. other data, the fact that ψ. is also a dog’s name suggests that the primary component is not metaphysical, s. SLonsdale, Greece and Rome 26, ’79, 146–59. Without ψ. a being, whether human or animal, consists merely of flesh and bones and without functioning capability. Speculations and views respecting the fortunes of ψ. and its relation to the body find varied expression in our lit.
    (breath of) life, life-principle, soul, of animals (Galen, Protr. 13 p. 42, 27 John; Gen 9:4) Rv 8:9. As a rule of human beings (Gen 35:18; 3 Km 17:21; ApcEsdr 5:13 λαμβάνει τὴν ψυχὴν the fetus in its sixth month) Ac 20:10. When it leaves the body death occurs Lk 12:20 (cp. Jos., C. Ap. 1, 164; on the theme cp. Pind., I. 1, 67f). The soul is delivered up to death (the pass. in ref. to divine initiative), i.e. into a condition in which it no longer makes contact with the physical structure it inhabited 1 Cl 16:13 (Is 53:12), whereupon it leaves the realm of earth and lives on in Hades (Lucian, Dial. Mort. 17, 2; Jos., Ant. 6, 332) Ac 2:27 (Ps 15:10), 31 v.l. or some other place outside the earth Rv 6:9; 20:4; ApcPt 10:25 (GrBar 10:5 τὸ πεδίον … οὗπερ ἔρχονται αἱ ψυχαὶ τῶν δικαίων; ApcEsdr 7:3 ἀπέρχεται εἰς τὸν οὐρανόν; Himerius, Or. 8 [23]: his consecrated son [παῖς ἱερός 7] Rufinus, when he dies, leaves his σῶμα to the death-daemon, while his ψυχή goes into οὐρανός, to live w. the gods 23).—B 5:13 (s. Ps 21:21).
    the condition of being alive, earthly life, life itself (Diod S 1, 25, 6 δοῦναι τὴν ψυχήν=give life back [to the dead Horus]; 3, 26, 2; 14, 65, 2; 16, 78, 5; Jos., Ant. 18, 358 σωτηρία τῆς ψυχῆς; 14, 67; s. Reader, Polemo 354 [reff.]) ζητεῖν τὴν ψυχήν τινος Mt 2:20 (cp. Ex 4:19); Ro 11:3 (3 Km 19:10, 14). δοῦναι τὴν ψυχὴν ἑαυτοῦ (cp. Eur., Phoen. 998) Mt 20:28; Mk 10:45; John says for this τιθέναι τὴν ψυχὴν J 10:11, 15, 17, (18); 13:37f; 15:13; 1J 3:16ab; παραδιδόναι Ac 15:26; Hs 9, 28, 2. παραβολεύεσθαι τῇ ψυχῇ Phil 2:30 (s. παραβολεύομαι). To love one’s own life (JosAs 13:1 ἐγὼ ἀγαπῶ αὐτὸν ὑπὲρ τὴν ψυχήν μου) Rv 12:11; cp. B 1:4; 4:6; 19:5; D 2:7. Life as prolonged by nourishment Mt 6:25ab; Lk 12:22f. Cp. 14:26; Ac 20:24; 27:10, 22; 28:19 v.l.; Ro 16:4. S. also 2e below.
    by metonymy, that which possesses life/soul (cp. 3 below) ψυχὴ ζῶσα (s. Gen 1:24) a living creature Rv 16:3 v.l. for ζωῆς. Cp. ἐγένετο Ἀδὰμ εἰς ψυχὴν ζῶσαν 1 Cor 15:45 (Gen 2:7. S. πνεῦμα 5f). ψυχὴ ζωῆς Rv 16:3.
    seat and center of the inner human life in its many and varied aspects, soul
    of the desire for luxurious living (cp. the OT expressions Ps 106:9 [=ParJer 9:20, but in sense of d below]; Pr 25:25; Is 29:8; 32:6; Bar 2:18b; PsSol 4:17. But also X., Cyr. 8, 7, 4; ins in CB I/2, 477 no. 343, 5 the soul as the seat of enjoyment of the good things in life) of the rich man ἐρῶ τῇ ψυχῇ μου• ψυχή, ἀναπαύου, φάγε, πίε, εὐφραίνου Lk 12:19 (cp. PsSol 5:12; Aelian, VH 1, 32 εὐφραίνειν τὴν ψυχήν; X., Cyr. 6, 2, 28 ἡ ψυχὴ ἀναπαύσεται.—The address to the ψυχή as PsSol 3, 1; Cyranides p. 41, 27). Cp. Rv 18:14.
    of evil desires (PsSol 4:13; Tat. 23, 2) 2 Cl 16:2; 17:7.
    of feelings and emotions (Anacr., Fgm. 4 Diehl2 [15 Page]; Diod S 8, 32, 3; JosAs 6:1; SibOr 3, 558; Just., D. 2, 4; Mel., P. 18, 124 al.) περίλυπός ἐστιν ἡ ψυχή μου (cp. Ps 41:6, 12; 42:5) Mt 26:38; Mk 14:34. ἡ ψυχή μου τετάρακται J 12:27; cp. Ac 2:43 (s. 3 below).—Lk 1:46; 2:35; J 10:24; Ac 14:2, 22; 15:24; Ro 2:9; 1 Th 2:8 (τὰς ἑαυτῶν ψυχάς our hearts full of love); Hb 12:3; 2 Pt 2:8; 1 Cl 16:12 (Is 53:11); 23:3 (scriptural quot. of unknown origin); B 3:1, 5b (s. on these two passages Is 58:3, 5, 10b); 19:3; Hm 4, 2, 2; 8:10; Hs 1:8; 7:4; D 3:9ab. ἐμεγαλύνθη ἡ ψυχή μου GJs 5:2; 19:2 (s. μεγαλύνω 1). αὔξειν τὴν ψυχὴν τοῦ Παύλου AcPl Ha 6, 10. It is also said of God in the anthropomorphic manner of expr. used by the OT ὁ ἀγαπητός μου εἰς ὸ̔ν εὐδόκησεν ἡ ψυχή μου Mt 12:18 (cp. Is 42:1); cp. Hb 10:38 (Hab 2:4).—One is to love God ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ ψυχῇ Mt 22:37; Lk 10:27. Also ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ψυχῆς (Dt 6:5; 10:12; 11:13) Mk 12:30, 33 v.l. (for ἰσχύος); Lk 10:27 v.l. (Epict. 2, 23, 42; 3, 22, 18; 4, 1, 131; M. Ant. 12, 29; Sextus 379.—X., Mem. 3, 11, 10 ὅλῃ τῇ ψυχῇ). ἐκ ψυχῆς from the heart, gladly (Jos., Ant. 17, 177.—The usual form is ἐκ τῆς ψυχῆς: X., An. 7, 7, 43, Apol. 18 al.; Theocr. 8, 35) Eph 6:6; Col 3:23; ἐκ ψυχῆς σου B 3:5a (Is 58:10a); 19:6. μιᾷ ψυχῇ with one mind (Dio Chrys. 19 [36], 30) Phil 1:27; cp. Ac 4:32 (on the combination w. καρδία s. that word 1bη and EpArist 17); 2 Cl 12:3 (s. 1 Ch 12:39b; Diog. L. 5, 20 ἐρωτηθεὶς τί ἐστι φίλος, ἔφη• μία ψυχὴ δύο σώμασιν ἐνοικοῦσα).
    as the seat and center of life that transcends the earthly (Pla., Phd. 28, 80ab; Paus. 4, 32, 4 ἀθάνατός ἐστιν ἀνθρώπου ψ.; Just., A I, 44, 9 περὶ ἀθανασίας ψυχῆς; Ath. 27, 2 ἀθάνατος οὖσα. Opp. Tat. 13, 1, who argues the state of the ψ. before the final judgment and states that it is not immortal per se but experiences the fate of the body οὐκ ἔστιν ἀθάνατος). As such it can receive divine salvation σῴζου σὺ καὶ ἡ ψυχή σου be saved, you and your soul Agr 5 (Unknown Sayings 61–64). σῴζειν τὰς ψυχάς Js 1:21. ψυχὴν ἐκ θανάτου 5:20; cp. B 19:10; Hs 6, 1, 1 (on death of the ψ. s. Achilles Tat. 7, 5, 3 τέθνηκας θάνατον διπλοῦν, ψυχῆς κ. σώματος). σωτηρία ψυχῶν 1 Pt 1:9. περιποίησις ψυχῆς Hb 10:39. It can also be lost 2 Cl 15:1; B 20:1; Hs 9, 26, 3. Humans cannot injure it, but God can hand it over to destruction Mt 10:28ab; AcPl Ha 1, 4. ζημιωθῆναι τὴν ψυχήν (ζημιόω 1) Mt 16:26a; Mk 8:36 (FGrant, Introd. to NT Thought, ’50, 162); 2 Cl 6:2. There is nothing more precious than ψυχή in this sense Mt 16:26b; Mk 8:37. It stands in contrast to σῶμα, in so far as that is σάρξ (cp. Ar. 15, 7 οὐ κατὰ σάρκα … ἀλλὰ κατὰ ψυχήν; Tat. 15, 1 οὔτε … χωρὶς σώματος; Ath. 1, 4 τὰ σώματα καὶ τὰς ψυχάς; SIG 383, 42 [I B.C.]) Dg 6:1–9. The believer’s soul knows God 2 Cl 17:1. One Christian expresses the hope that all is well w. another’s soul 3J 2 (s. εὐοδόω). For the soul of the Christian is subject to temptations 1 Pt 2:11 and 2 Pt 2:14; longs for rest Mt 11:29 (ParJer 5:32 ὁ θεὸς … ἡ ἀνάπαυσις τῶν ψυχῶν); and must be purified 1 Pt 1:22 (cp. Jer 6:16). The soul must be entrusted to God 1 Pt 4:19; cp. 1 Cl 27:1. Christ is its ποιμὴν καὶ ἐπίσκοπος (s. ἐπίσκοπος 1) 1 Pt 2:25; its ἀρχιερεὺς καὶ προστάτης 1 Cl 61:3; its σωτήρ MPol 19:2. Apostles and congregational leaders are concerned about the souls of the believers 2 Cor 12:15; Hb 13:17. The Christian hope is called the anchor of the soul 6:19. Paul calls God as a witness against his soul; if he is lying, he will forfeit his salvation 2 Cor 1:23.—Also life of this same eternal kind κτήσεσθε τὰς ψυχὰς ὑμῶν you will gain (real) life for yourselves Lk 21:19.
    Since the soul is the center of both the earthly (1a) and the transcendent (2d) life, pers. can find themselves facing the question concerning the wish to ensure it for themselves: ὸ̔ς ἐὰν θέλῃ τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ σῶσαι, ἀπολέσει αὐτὴν• ὸ̔ς δʼ ἂν ἀπολέσει τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ ἕνεκεν ἐμοῦ, σώσει αὐτήν Mk 8:35. Cp. Mt 10:39; 16:25; Lk 9:24; 17:33; J 12:25. The contrast betw. τὴν ψυχὴν εὑρεῖν and ἀπολέσαι is found in Mt 10:39ab (s. HGrimme, BZ 23, ’35, 263f); 16:25b; σῶσαι and ἀπολέσαι vs. 25a; Mk 8:35ab; Lk 9:24ab; περιποιήσασθαι, ζῳογονῆσαι and ἀπολέσαι 17:33; φιλεῖν and ἀπολλύναι J 12:25a; μισεῖν and φυλάσσειν vs. 25b.
    On the combination of ψυχή and πνεῦμα in 1 Th 5:23; Hb 4:12 (Just., D. 6, 2; Tat. 15, 1 χρὴ … ζευγνύναι … τὴν ψυχὴν τῷ πνεύματι τῷ ἁγίῳ) s. πνεῦμα 3a, end.—A-JFestugière, L’idéal religieux des Grecs et l’Évangile ’32, 212–17.—A unique combination is … σωμάτων, καὶ ψυχὰς ἀνθρώπων, slaves and human lives Rv 18:13 (cp. Ezk 27:13; on the syntax s. Mussies 98).
    In var. Semitic languages the reflexive relationship is paraphrased with נֶפֶשׁ (Gr.-Rom. parallels in W-S. §22, 18b note 33); the corresp. use of ψυχή may be detected in certain passages in our lit., esp. in quots. fr. the OT and in places where OT modes of expr. have had considerable influence (B-D-F §283, 4; W-S. §22, 18b; Mlt. 87; 105 n. 2; Rob. 689; KHuber, Untersuchungen über d. Sprachcharakter des griech. Lev., diss. Zürich 1916, 67), e.g. Mt 11:29; 26:38; Mk 10:45; 14:34; Lk 12:19; 14:26; J 10:24; 12:27; 2 Cor 1:23; 3J 2; Rv 18:14; 1 Cl 16:11 (Is 53:10); B 3:1, 3 (Is 58:3, 5); 4:2; 17:1. Cp. also 2 Cor 12:15; Hb 13:17; GJs 2:2; 13:2; 15:3 (on these last s. ταπεινόω 2b).
    an entity w. personhood, person ext. of 2 by metonymy (cp. 1c): πᾶσα ψυχή everyone (Epict. 1, 28, 4; Lev 7:27; 23:29 al.) Ac 2:43; 3:23 (Lev 23:29); Ro 2:9; 13:1; Jd 15; 1 Cl 64; Hs 9, 18, 5.—Pl. persons, cp. our expression ‘number of souls’ (Pla. et al.; PTebt 56, 11 [II B.C.] σῶσαι ψυχὰς πολλάς; LXX) ψυχαὶ ὡσεὶ τρισχίλιαι Ac 2:41; cp. 7:14 (Ex 1:5); 27:37; 1 Pt 3:20.—This may also be the place for ἔξεστιν ψυχὴν σῶσαι ἢ ἀποκτεῖναι; is it permissible to rescue a person ( a human life is also poss.) or must we let the person die? Mk 3:4; Lk 6:9. Cp. 9:55 [56] v.l.—EHatch, Essays in Bibl. Gk. 1889, 112–24; ERohde, Psyche9–10 1925; JBöhme, D. Seele u. das Ich im homer. Epos 1929; EBurton, Spirit, Soul and Flesh 1918; FRüsche, Blut, Leben u. Seele 1930; MLichtenstein, D. Wort nefeš in d. Bibel 1920; WStaples, The ‘Soul’ in the OT: JSL 44, 1928, 145–76; FBarth, La notion Paulinienne de ψυχή: RTP 44, 1911, 316–36; ChGuignebert, RHPR 9, 1929, 428–50; NSnaith, Life after Death: Int 1, ’47, 309–25; essays by OCullmann, HWolfson, WJaeger, HCadbury in Immortality and Resurrection, ed. KStendahl, ’65, 9–53; GDautzenberg, Sein Leben Bewahren ’66 (gospels); R Jewett, Paul’s Anthropological Terms, ’71, 334–57; also lit. cited GMachemer, HSCP 95, ’93, 121, 13.—TJahn, Zum Wortfeld ‘Seele-Geist’ in der Sprache Homers (Zetemata 83) ’81.—B. 1087. New Docs 4, 38f (trichotomy). DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

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  • 184 ἀγάπη

    ἀγάπη, ης, ἡ (this term has left little trace in polytheistic Gk. lit. A sepulchral ins, prob. honoring a polytheistic army officer, who is held in ‘high esteem’ by his country [SEG VIII, 11, 6 (III A.D.)] sheds light on an ex. such as Philod., παρρ. col. 13a, 3 Oliv., but s. Söding [below] 294. The restorations in POxy 1380, 28 and 109f [II A.D.] are in dispute: s. New Docs 4, 259 [lit.]; Söding [end] 294f, n. 68 [lit.]. For other exx. from the Gr-Rom. world s. Ltzm., exc. after 1 Cor 13; L-S-J-M; ACeresa-Gastaldo, Αγάπη nei documenti anteriori al NT: Aegyptus 31, ’51, 269–306, has a new pap and a new ins ex. fr. III A.D. secular sources; in RivFil 31, ’53, 347–56 the same author shows it restored in an ins of 27 B.C., but against C-G. s. lit. Söding 293, n. 57. In Jewish sources: LXX, esp. SSol, also pseudepigr., Philo, Deus Imm. 69; Just., D. 93, 4. Cp. ACarr, ET 10, 1899, 321–30. Its paucity in gener. Gk. lit. may be due to a presumed colloq. flavor of the noun (but s. IPontEux I, 359, 6 as parallel to 2 Cor 8:8 below). No such stigma attached to the use of the verb ἀγαπαω (q.v.).
    the quality of warm regard for and interest in another, esteem, affection, regard, love (without limitation to very intimate relationships, and very seldom in general Greek of sexual attraction).
    of human love
    α. without indication of the pers. who is the object of interest (cp. Eccl 9:1, 6; Sir 48:11 v.l.): ἀ. as subj. ἡ ἀ. οἰκοδομεῖ 1 Cor 8:1.13:4, 8 (on 1 Cor 13 see the comm. [Maxim Tyr. 20:2 praise of ἔρως what it is not and what it is; s. AHarnack, SBBerlAk 1911, 132–63, esp. 152f; ELehmann and AFridrichsen, 1 Cor 13 e. christl.-stoische Diatribe: StKr Sonderheft 1922, 55–95]; EHoffmann, Pauli Hymnus auf d. Liebe: Dtsche Vierteljahrsschrift für Literaturwiss. u. Geistesgesch. 4, 1926, 58–73; NLund, JBL 50, ’31, 266–76; GRudberg, Hellas och Nya Testamentet ’34, 149f; HRiesenfeld, ConNeot 5, ’41, 1–32, Nuntius 6, ’52, 47f); Phil 1:9. ἡ ἀ. κακὸν οὐκ ἐργάζεται Ro 13:10; πλήρωμα νόμου ἡ ἀ. ibid.; ψυγήσεται ἡ ἀ. τ. πολλῶν Mt 24:12; ἡ ἀ. ἀνυπόκριτος let love be genuine Ro 12:9, cp. 2 Cor 6:6. As predicate 1 Ti 1:5; 1J 4:16b (cp. bα). As obj. ἀγάπην ἔχειν (Did., Gen. 221, 30) 1 Cor 13:1–3; Phil 2:2 φιλίαν ἢ ἀγάπην ἔχοντες Just., D. 93, 4; διώκειν 1 Cor 14:1; 1 Ti 6:11; 2 Ti 2:22; ἐνδύσασθαι τὴν ἀ. Col 3:14. ἀφιέναι Rv 2:4.—2 Pt 1:7; Col 1:8. ἐμαρτύρησάν σου τῇ ἀ. 3J 6. Attributively in gen. case ὁ κόπος τῆς ἀ. 1 Th 1:3; τὸ τ. ὑμετέρας ἀ. γνήσιον the genuineness of your love 2 Cor 8:8. ἔνδειξις τῆς ἀ. vs. 24; cp. πᾶσαν ἐνδεικνυμένους ἀ. Tit 2:10 v.l.—Hb 10:24; Phil 2:1; 1 Pt 5:14; 1 Cl 49:2.—In prep. phrases ἐξ ἀγάπης out of love Phil 1:16; παράκλησις ἐπὶ τῇ ἀ. σου comfort from your love Phlm 7; περιπατεῖν κατὰ ἀ., ἐν ἀ. Ro 14:15; Eph 5:2; ἐν ἀ. ἔρχεσθαι (opp. ἐν ῥάβδῳ) 1 Cor 4:21; ἀληθεύειν ἐν ἀ. Eph 4:15. Other verbal combinations w. ἐν ἀ., 1 Cor 16:14; Eph 3:17; 4:2; Col 2:2; 1 Th 5:13; cp. Eph 4:16 (on Eph 1:4 s. bα). ἐν τῇ ἀ. 1J 4:16b, 18. διὰ τῆς ἀ. δουλεύετε ἀλλήλοις Gal 5:13. πίστις διʼ ἀγάπης ἐνεργουμένη 5:6. διὰ τὴν ἀ. παρακαλῶ for love’s sake I appeal Phlm 9. μετὰ ἀγάπης πολιτεύεσθαι live in love 1 Cl 51:2.—W. ἀλήθεια 2J 3; πίστις 1 Th 3:6; 5:8; 1 Ti 1:14; 2 Ti 1:13; Phlm 5; B 11:8; IEph 1:1; 9:1; 14:1 al. W. πίστις and other concepts on the same plane Eph 6:23; 1 Ti 2:15; 4:12; 6:11; 2 Ti 2:22; 3:10; Tit 2:2; Rv 2:19; Hm 8:9; cp. v 3, 8, 2–5. The triad πίστις, ἐλπίς, ἀγάπη 1 Cor 13:13; s. also Col 1:4f; 1 Th 1:3; 5:8; B 1:4 (cp. Porphyr., Ad Marcellam 24 τέσσαρα στοιχεῖα μάλιστα κεκρατύνθω περὶ θεοῦ• πίστις, ἀλήθεια, ἔρως, ἐλπίς and s. Rtzst., Hist. Mon. 1916, 242ff, NGG 1916, 367ff; 1917, 130ff, Hist. Zeitschr. 116, 1916, 189ff; AHarnack, PJ 164, 1916, 5ff=Aus d. Friedens-u. Kriegsarbeit 1916, 1ff; PCorssen, Sokrates 7, 1919, 18ff; ABrieger, D. urchr. Trias Gl., Lbe, Hoff., diss. Heidelb. 1925; WTheiler, D. Vorbereitung d. Neuplatonismus 1930, 148f). W. δύναμις and σωφρονισμός 2 Ti 1:7. Cp. B 1:6.—Attributes of love: ἀνυπόκριτος Ro 12:9; 2 Cor 6:6. γνησία 1 Cl 62:2. φιλόθεος and φιλάνθρωπος Agr 7. σύμφωνος IEph 4:1 ἄοκνος IPol 7:2. ἐκτενής 1 Pt 4:8. It is a fruit of the Spirit καρπὸς τοῦ πνεύματος Gal 5:22, and takes first rank among the fruits. ἀ. τοῦ πνεύματος Ro 15:30; cp. Col 1:8. Since the term denotes concern for another, the sense alms, charity ISm 6:2 is readily apparent (cp. ἀ. λαμβάνειν ‘receive alms’ PGen 14, 7).—ἀσπάζεται ὑμᾶς ἡ ἀγάπη τῶν ἀδελφῶν the members greet you with love IPhld 11:2; ISm 12:1, cp. ITr 13:1; IRo 9:3. In these passages the object of the love is often made plain by the context; in others it is
    β. expressly mentioned
    א. impers. ἀ. τῆς ἀληθείας 2 Th 2:10; ἀ. τῆς πατρίδος love for the homeland 1 Cl 55:5.
    ב. human beings ἀ. εἴς τινα love for someone εἰς πάντας τοὺς ἁγίους Eph 1:15; Col 1:4. εἰς ἀλλήλους καὶ εἰς πάντας 1 Th 3:12; 2 Th 1:3; cp. 2 Cor 2:4, 8; 1 Pt 4:8; 2J 6. ἐν ἀλλήλοις J 13:35. ἐξ ἡμῶν ἐν ὑμῖν 2 Cor 8:7; ἡ ἀ. μου μετὰ ὑμῶν 1 Cor 16:24.
    ג. God or Christ (πρὸς τὸν θεόν Orig., C. Cels. 3, 15, 12) ἀ. τοῦ θεοῦ love toward God (but in many cases the gen. may be subjective) Lk 11:42; J 5:42; 2 Th 3:5; 1J 2:5, 15; 3:17; 4:12; 5:3; 2 Cor 7:1 P 46 (for φόβος); ἀ. εἰς θεὸν καὶ Χριστὸν καὶ εἰς τὸν πλησίον Pol 3:3; ἀ. εἰς τὸ ὄνομα θεοῦ Hb 6:10.
    of the love of God and Christ
    α. to humans. Of God (cp. Wsd 3:9): 1J 4:10; ἐν ἡμῖν 1J 4:9, 16. εἰς ἡμᾶς Ro 5:8, cp. vs. 5. τετελείωται ἡ ἀ. μεθʼ ἡμῶν 1J 4:17 (s. HPreisker app. to HWindisch Comm. 167); ἀπὸ τῆς ἀ. τοῦ θεοῦ τῆς ἐν χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ Ro 8:39. ἀγάπην διδόναι bestow love 1J 3:1; ἐν ἀ. προορίσας ἡμᾶς εἰς υἱοθεσίαν Eph 1:4f: the rhythm of the passage suggests the believers as agents for ἀ. in vs. 4 (cp. vs. 15), but 2:4 favors God; s. the comm.—2 Cor 13:13; Jd 2 and 21. God is the source of love 1J 4:7, the θεὸς τῆς ἀ. 2 Cor 13:11, and therefore God is love 1J 4:8, 16. Christians, embraced by God’s love, are τέκνα ἀγάπης B 9:7; 21:9.—Of Jesus’ love J 15:9, 10a, 13 (s. MDibelius, Joh 15:13: Deissmann Festschr. 1927, 168–86); 1J 3:16.—Ro 8:35; 2 Cor 5:14; cp. Eph 3:19. Perh. the ἀληθὴς ἀγάπη of Pol 1:1 is a designation of Jesus or his exemplary concern for others.
    β. of the relation betw. God and Christ J 15:10b; 17:26 (on the constr. cp. Pel.-Leg. 12, 21 ὁ πλοῦτος ὅν με ἐπλούτισεν ὁ σατανᾶς). τοῦ υἱοῦ τῆς ἀ. αὐτοῦ of the son of (God’s) love, i.e. of (God’s) beloved son Col 1:13 (s. PsSol 13:9 υἱὸς ἀγαπήσεως).—WLütgert, D. L. im NT 1905; BWarfield, PTR 16, 1918, 1–45; 153–203; JMoffatt, Love in the NT 1929; HPreisker, StKr 95, 1924, 272–94, D. urchr. Botschaft v. der L. Gottes 1930; RSchütz, D. Vorgeschichte der joh. Formel ὁ θεὸς ἀγ. ἐστίν diss. Kiel 1917; CBowen, Love in the Fourth Gosp.: JR 13, ’33, 39–49; GEichholz, Glaube u. L. im 1 J: EvTh ’37, 411–37. On ἔρως and ἀ. s. Harnack, SBBerlAk 1918, 81–94; ANygren, Eros u. Agape I 1930, II ’37 (Eng. tr. Agape and Eros, AHebert and PWatson ’32, ’39; on this JRobinson, Theology 48, ’45, 98–104); LGrünhut, Eros u. Ag. ’31. Cp. CTarelli, Ἀγάπη: JTS n.s. 1, ’50, 64–67; ELee, Love and Righteousness: ET 62, ’50/51, 28–31; AŠuštar, Verbum Domini 28, ’50, 110–19; 122–40; 193–213; 257–70; 321–40; TOhm, D. Liebe zu Gott in d. nichtchristl. Religionen, ’50; WHarrelson, The Idea of Agape: JR 31, ’51, 169–82; VWarnach, Agape: Die Liebe als Grundmotiv der ntl. Theol. 1951; JSteinmueller, Ἐρᾶν, Φιλεῖν, Ἀγαπᾶν in Extrabiblical and Bibl. Sources: Studia Anselmiana 27f, ’51, 404–23.—Full bibliog. in HRiesenfeld, Étude bibliographique sur la notion biblique d’ ἀγάπη, surtout dans 1 Cor 13: ConNeot 5, ’41, 1–32; s. also EDNT.
    a common meal eaten by early Christians in connection with their worship, for the purpose of fostering and expressing mutual affection and concern, fellowship meal, a love-feast (the details are not discussed in the NT, although Paul implicitly refers to it 1 Cor 11:17ff; cp. D 9–10; s. also Pliny Ep. 10, 96, 7; AcPlTh 25 [Aa I 252]; Clem. Al., Paed. 2, 1, 4, Strom. 3, 2, 10; Pass. Perp. et Felic. 17, 1; Tertull., Apolog. 39, De Jejun. 17; Minucius Felix 31) Jd 12 (v.l. ἀπάταις; in 2 Pt 2:13 ἀγάπαις is v.l. for ἀπάταις; the same v.l. Eccl 9:6, where ἀπάτη in ms. S is meaningless: s. RSchütz, ZNW 18, 1918, 224; s. ἀγαπάω 3 on J 13:1, 34). ἀγάπη ἄφθαρτος IRo 7:3. ἀγάπην ποιεῖν hold a love-feast ISm 8:2, in both pass. w. prob. ref. to the eucharist (s. ἀγαπάω 2 and 3).—Meals accompanied by religious rites and in a religious context were conducted by various social groups among the Greeks from early times (s. Bauer’s Introduction, pp. xxvii–viii, above). A scholion on Pla. 122b says of such meals among the Lacedaemonians that they were called φιλίτια, because they φιλίας συναγωγά ἐστιν. Is ἀγ. perhaps a translation of φιλία into Christian terminology?—JKeating, The Ag. and the Eucharist in the Early Church 1901; HLeclercq, Dict. d’Arch. I 1903, 775–848; FFunk, Kirchengesch. Abhdlgen. 3, 1907, 1–41; EBaumgartner, Eucharistie u. Ag. im Urchr. 1909; RCole, Love Feasts, a History of the Christian Ag. 1916; GWetter, Altchr. Liturgien II 1921; HLietzmann, Messe u. Herrenmahl 1926 (on this ALoisy, Congr. d’Hist. du Christ. I 1928, 77–95); KVölker, Mysterium u. Ag. 1927; DTambolleo, Le Agapi ’31; BReicke, Diakonie, Festfreude u. Zelos in Verbindung mit der altchristlichen Agapenfeier, ’51.—TSöding, Das Wortfeld der Liebe im paganen und biblischen Griechisch: ETL 68, ’92, 284–330.—DELG s.v. ἀγαπάω. M-M. TW. Spicq. TRE s.v. Liebe.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἀγάπη

  • 185 Ἀραβία

    Ἀραβία, ας, ἡ (Hdt. 3, 107 et al.; TestSol; EpArist 119; Philo; Joseph. Ἀρρ-; Just. On Ἀ. w. and without the art. s. B-D-F §261, 6; PFlor 278 στρατηγῷ Ἀραβίας) Arabia as a geogr. concept includes the territory west of Mesopotamia, east and south of Syria and Palestine, to the isthmus of Suez. In Roman times independent kingdoms arose like that of the Nabataeans south of Damascus, which could be called simply Arabia (Diod S 19, 94, 1 χώρα τῶν Ἀράβων τῶν καλουμένων Ναβαταίων; Stephan. Byz. s.v. Γοαρήνη: χώρα Ἀραβίας πλησίον Δαμασκοῦ; Appian, Bell. Civ. 2, 71 §294 describes Ἄραβες and Ἑβραῖοι as neighbors), and is regularly so called by Joseph. This seems to have been the country visited by Paul after his conversion Gal 1:17 (CBriggs, The Ap. Paul in Arabia: Biblical World 41, 1913, 255–59). Of Arabia in the narrower sense, w. special ref. to the Sinai peninsula Gal 4:25. As the home of the phoenix 1 Cl 25:1.—BMoritz, Arabien 1923; HPhilby, Arabia 1930; JMontgomery, A. and the Bible ’34; FAbel, Géographie de la Palestine ’33/38, I 288–94; II 164–68. ANegev, ANRW II/8, ’77, 520–686.—EDNT. M-M.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > Ἀραβία

  • 186 ἄγγελος

    ἄγγελος, ου, ὁ (Hom.+) ‘messenger’.
    a human messenger serving as an envoy, an envoy, one who is sent
    by humans (Hom.+; ins, pap; Gen 32:4, 7; Jdth 1:11; 3:1; 1 Macc 1:44; 7:10; Jos., Ant. 14, 451, Vi. 89): in his earthly ministry Jesus ἀπέστειλεν ἀγγέλους (Diod S 2,18,1 the king of India to Semiramis; 4, 65, 4) Lk 9:52; of John the Baptist’s disciples 7:24; of Joshua’s scouts Js 2:25 (cp. Josh 7:22).
    by God (prophets Hg 1:13; Mal subscr.; a priest Mal 2:7.—1 Esdr 1:48f. S. also Theognis 1, 769, where the poet is Μουσέων ἄγγελος; Epict. 3, 22, 23; 38; Ael. Aristid. 37 K.=1 p. 15 D.; Maximus Tyr. 11, 9c Plato, as the one who brings us information about God, is called ὁ ἐξ Ἀκαδημίας ἄγγ.; Oenomaus in Eus., PE 5, 20, 3; 5 Carnus the soothsayer is ἄγγ. of the gods) of John the Baptist as forerunner Mt 11:10; Mk 1:2; Lk 7:27 (all Mal 3:1; cp. Ex 23:20).
    a transcendent power who carries out various missions or tasks, messenger, angel (ἄ. as a spirit-being, oft. connected w. the nether world in Gr-Rom. sources [EZiebarth, Neue attische Fluchtafeln: NGG 1899, 127ff no. 24; IG XII/3, 933–74. Other material in Dibelius, Geisterwelt 209ff. S. also the oracles: Theosophien 13 p. 169, 31; Ps.-Callisth. 1, 1, 3 ἐπεκαλεῖτο τοὺς ἀγγέλους καὶ θεὸν Ἄμμωνα; 2, 25, 1; Porphyr., Ad Marcellam 21 ἄγγελοι θεῖοί τε κ. ἀγαθοὶ δαίμονες; Hierocles 3, 424; 23, 468.—ἄ. w. θεοί and δαίμονες Damascius (V/VI A.D.) 183 Ruelle; ἄ. w. δαίμονες and ἥρωες Proclus, Rep. II 243 Kroll, Tim. III 109 Diehl.—FCumont, RHR 72, 1915, 159–82; FAndres, D. Engellehre d. griech. Apologeten 1914 and in Pauly-W. Suppl. III 1918, 101ff; Rtzst., Myst. 171, 2; Bousset, ARW 18, 1915, 170ff] and as a transcendent power in Judaism [LXX; En 10:7; 20:1; 99:3 al.; Essenes in Jos., Bell. 2, 142; Philo, cp. Schürer III 881–85 (on Philo) w. lit.; Joseph.; Test12Patr; prayers for vengeance fr. Rheneia (I B.C.) 9f κύριε ὁ πάντα ἐφορῶν καὶ οἱ ἄνγελοι θεοῦ; on this Dssm. LO 353f; 357=LAE 414; 418f; SIG 1181 w. note 2; PFouad 203, 3f (I A.D.); on this PBenoit, RB 58, ’51, 549–65; PKatz, TZ 10, ’54, 228–31. Loanw. in rabb.—Bousset, Rel. 320ff; J-BFrey, L’Angélologie juive au temps de J-Chr.: RSPT 5, 1911, 75–110; HKuhn, JBL 67, ’48, 217–32 Jewish apocalypses], likewise in the magical pap, w. their mixture of gentile and Jewish infl. [PGM 1, 76 an ἄ. as a star fr. heaven; 4, 570ff; 998; 1112; 13, 329; 585; 609; 744]. Cp. the ins APF 3, 1906, 445 no. 67; 451 no. 94. The more common term in polytheistic lit. for beings intermediate between gods and humans is δαίμων [q.v.], which monotheistic writers reserved for reference to a realm hostile to God’s interests, while retaining the term ἄ. for intermediate beings, either those loyal to God or those in rebellion [s. c].)
    as messengers of God, angels (LXX; Philo, Somn. 1, 190; transcendent messengers of the gods in Hom. are not intermediate beings. Yet the description of Hermes, the κῆρυξ τῶν θεῶν, as their ἄγγελος ἄριστος [Diod S 5, 75, 2] may have made it easier for Gr-Romans in general to understand ἄ. as God’s heavenly messenger; cp. the messenger of the god Men: EA 18, ’91 p. 92f, no. 2, 5f [lit.]) mostly w. gen.: κυρίου (Gen 16:10f al.) Mt 1:20; 2:13, 19; Lk 1:11; 2:9; Ac 5:19; 12:7, 23. τοῦ θεοῦ (Gen 31:11; 32:2 al.; Philo, Deus Imm. 1; Jos., Bell. 5, 388) Lk 12:8f; 15:10; J 1:51 (HWindisch, ZNW 30, ’31, 215–33; also s. below on Lk. 2:15). ἄ. θεοῦ (Gen 21:17 A; Judg 13:6 B; Jos., Ant. 1, 73; Orig., C. Cels. 8, 31, 18) Gal 4:14; Hb 1:6 (Ps 96:7; Dt 32:43); 1 Cl 29:2 (Dt 32:8). Abs. (Num 20:16; Judg 13:11; Tob 6:4ff al.) Lk 1:13, 18, 38; 2:10, 13, 15, 21; J 20:12; Ac 7:53; 1 Ti 3:16; 1 Pt 1:12 (in wordplay on the superiority of human beings to angels s. Sextus 32; on their status and classification s. also Orig., C. Cels. 4, 29, 16) al. ἅγιοι ἄ. (PGM 4, 1934, 1938) Mk 8:38; Lk 9:26; Ac 10:22; Rv 14:10; 1 Cl 39:7 (Job 5:1); Hv 2, 2, 7; ἐκλεκτοὶ ἄ. 1 Ti 5:21 (ἄ. as witnesses so TestLevi 19:3 and SIG 1181, 10=Dssm. LO 351–62 [LAE 413–24]; cp. Jos., Bell. 2, 401); ἄ. ἰσχυρός (cp. Da 4:13; Ps 102:20) Rv 5:2; 18:21. Their abode is heaven, and so they are ἄ. τῶν οὐρανῶν Mt 24:36 (unless οὐρ.=θεοῦ); ἄ. ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς Mk 12:25; ἄ. ἐν οὐρανῷ 13:32; ἄ. ἐξ οὐρανοῦ Gal 1:8, cp. Mt 22:30; 28:2; Lk 22:43. They return to heaven when they have fulfilled their mission on earth 2:15. Hence ἄ. φωτός (cp. SJCh 78, 17) 2 Cor 11:14; ἄ. φωταγωγοί B 18:1. There the good are united w. them after death Hv 2, 2, 7; Hs 9, 27, 3. They appear in dazzling light Lk 2:9; Ac 7:30 (Ex 3:2); ISm 6:1; cp. the ‘shining face’ of Ac 6:15; or in white garments J 20:12; cp. Mt 28:3; Lk 24:4. Called πνεύματα Hb 1:7; 1 Cl 36:3 (both after Ps 103:4). πνεύματα λειτουργικά serving spirits Hb 1:14. Their voice is like thunder J 12:29; γλῶσσαι τῶν ἀ. language of angels 1 Cor 13:1 (after the analogy of the languages of the gods, Plato in Clem. Al., Strom. 1, 143; cp. 2 Cor 12:4; Rv 14:2f; TestJob 48–50; GSteindorff, Apk. d. Elias: TU 17, 3a, 1899, 153). They bring messages fr. God to men Lk 1:11f; Mt 28:2ff, and were also active in the giving of the law νόμος διαταγεὶς διʼ ἀγγέλων Gal 3:19; cp. Ac 7:38, 53; Hb 2:2 (Jos., Ant. 15, 136 τῶν ἐν τοῖς νόμοις διʼ ἀγγέλων παρὰ τ. θεοῦ μαθόντων; cp. Did., Gen. 110, 15 κἂν γὰρ διὰ ὑπουργῶν ἀγγέλων ποιῇ ἃ βούλεται θεός). As guardian angels of individuals (Tob 5:6, 22; cp. PGM 1, 172ff; Ael. Aristid. 50, 57 K.=26 p. 519 D.: ὁ σὸς Ἑρμῆς ἐστιν, to whom Aristid. has been entrusted since his birth) Mt 18:10 (PBarry, ET 23, 1912, 182); Ac 12:15 (JMoulton, JTS 3, 1902, 514–27, ET 14, 1903, 5ff); Lk 4:10 (Ps 90:11); Hv 5:1f. They conduct the blessed dead into heaven Lk 16:22 (Hermes does this acc. to Pythag. [Diog. L. 8, 31]); instruct humans to do good Hv 3, 5, 4; δικαιοσύνης m 6, 2, 1 (ParJer 8:12); rejoice at the repentance of a sinner Lk 15:10; cp. the ἄ. τῆς μετανοίας Hm 12, 4, 7; 12, 6, 1 al. They preside over various realms ἄ. ὁ ἔχων ἐξουσίαν ἐπὶ τοῦ πυρός Rv 14:18; ἄ. τῶν ὑδάτων 16:5; the four winds 7:1. God assigns them διακόσμησις γῆς Pa (4) (cp. ἄγγελοι ἐπὶ τῶν ἐξουσιῶν GrBar 12:3). An angel, Thegri, rules the animal world Hv 4, 2, 4 (Synes., Ep. 57 p. 192b δαίμονες as leaders of the grasshoppers). ἄ. τοῦ πνεύματος τοῦ προφητικοῦ m 11:9; τὸν ἄ. τὸν τιμωρητήν Hs 7:6; cp. ὁ ἄ. ὁ μέγας Hs 8, 4, 1.—As creator of the world AcPlCor 1:15. On ἄ. τῶν ἐκκλησιῶν Rv 1:20, cp. 2:1, 8, 12, 18; 3:1, 7, 14 (on the textual problems associated w. these vss. s. RCharles, ICC Comm. 1920, I, clvii; clxf; II 244; RBorger, TRu 52, ’87, 42f) and s. on ἀστήρ.—Subordinate to Christ Mt 4:11; 13:41; 16:27; Hb 1:4ff (Ps 96:7; B-D-F §254, 2); 1 Pt 3:22; Rv 5:11f; glorify him J 1:51 (JFritsch “… videbitis … angelos Dei ascendentes …,” VD 37, ’59, 1–11). δώδεκα λεγιῶνας ἀ. Mt 26:53; μυριάσιν ἀ. Hb 12:22; cp. Rv 5:11. Seven principal angels (Tob 12:15) Rv 8:2, 6; 15:1, 6; 16:1; 17:1; 21:9 (GDix, The Seven Archangels and the Seven Spirits: JTS 28, 1927, 233–50). Six angels, created first, to whom the management of all creation is entrusted Hv 3, 4, 1. Angels at the Parousia Mt 24:31; 2 Th 1:7. Μιχαὴλ καὶ οἱ ἄ. αὐτοῦ Rv 12:7. Revered by people (Celsus 1, 26 Ἰουδαίους σέβειν ἀγγέλους; 5, 6) θρησκείᾳ τῶν ἀ. worship of angels Col 2:18; λατρεύειν ἀγγέλοις as a sign of Jewish piety PtK 2 p. 14, 26=Clem. Al., Strom. 6, 41 p. 452, 9. Christ as σεμνότατος ἄ. Hv 5:2; m 5, 1, 7; cp. ὁ ἅγιος ἄ. Hs 5, 4, 4 v.l.; ὁ ἔνδοξος ἄ. Hs 5, 4, 4; 7:1ff; 8, 1, 2. ὁ ἄ. κυρίου Hs 7:5; 8, 1, 2ff; called Michael in Hs 8, 3, 3, where it is to be noted that Michael was the guardian angel of God’s people (WLueken, D. Erzengel Michael 1900; MDibelius, Hdb. exc. on Hs 5, 6, 8 p. 575f).
    intermediate beings gener., w. no ref. to their relation to God (opp. ἄνθρωποι; s. 2 above immediately before a) 1 Cor 4:9 (cp. TestJos 19:9 ἔχαιρον ἐπʼ αὐτῷ οἱ ἄγγελοι κ. οἱ ἄνθρωποι κ. πᾶσα ἡ γῆ).—Ro 8:38 ἄ. as serving spirit-powers seem to be differentiated fr. the ἀρχαί, who rule.
    evil spirits (Lactant., Inst. 2, 15, 8 daemonas Trismegistus ἀγγέλους πονηρούς appellat. Cp. also Job 1:6; 2:1; Philo, Gig. 16; TestAsh 6:4; PGM 4, 2701; αἱ πονηραὶ δυνάμεις, διάβολος καὶ οἱ ἄγγελοι αὐτοῦ Did., Gen. 45, 5; ADieterich, Nekyia 1893, 60f) τῷ διαβόλῳ καὶ τοῖς ἀγγέλοις αὐτοῦ Mt 25:41; cp. Rv 12:9. ὁ δράκων καὶ οἱ ἄ. αὐτοῦ vs. 7; ἄ. τῆς ἀβύσσου 9:11 (s. Ἀβαδδών); ἄ. πονηρός B 9:4; ἄ. τῆς πονηρίας in contrast to guardian angels Hm 6, 2, 1; ἄ. Σατανᾶ, which causes physical pain 2 Cor 12:7; esp. called ἄ. τρυφῆς καὶ ἀπάτης Hs 6, 2, 1f; leading men into evil B 18:1. Of the angels’ fall and their punishment (cp., in the opinion of many, Gen 6:2; En 6ff; 54; Book of Jubilees 5; SyrBar 56:13; LJung, Fallen Angels in Jewish, Christian, and Mohammedan Lit. 1926; ALods, Congr. d’Hist. du Christ. I 29–54) ὁ θεὸς ἀγγέλων ἁμαρτησάντων οὐκ ἐφείσατο 2 Pt 2:4; ἀ. τοὺς μὴ τηρήσαντας τὴν ἑαυτῶν ἀρχήν who did not keep to their proper domain (s. ἀρχή 7) Jd 6. From the pass. already quoted above w. Gen. 6:2 (cp. also TestReub 5:3; Jos., Ant. 1, 73 ἄγγελοι θεοῦ γυναιξὶ συνιόντες; and polytheists’ concept of erotic desires of transcendent beings: HUsener, Weihnachtsfest2 1911, 74f; Rtzst., Poim. 228ff. Herr der Grösse 14f; and GJs 14:1) some conclude that the angels were subject to erotic desires; this is held to explain the regulation that women are to wear a veil in church services, since angels are present (cp. Origen, Orat. 31 and Ps 137:1 ἐναντίον ἀγγέλων ψαλῶ σοι) 1 Cor 11:10 (for another view and for the lit. s. ἐξουσία 7; s. also JFitzmyer, [Qumran angelology] NTS 4, ’57/58, 48–58; LJervis, JBL 112, ’93, 243–45: angels mediate God’s presence). In 6:3 οὐκ οἴδατε, ὅτι ἀγγέλους κρινοῦμεν; it is not certain whether only fallen angels are meant; θρησκείᾳ τῶν ἀ. worship of angels Col 2:18 polemicizes against what appears to be a type of gnostic reverence for angels. (On Qumran angelology s. Fitzmyer, cited above.)—OEverling, D. paulinische Angelologie u. Dämonologie 1888; Dibelius, Geisterwelt 1909; GKurze, D. Engels-u. Teufels-glaube d. Ap. Pls 1915; MJones, St Paul and the Angels: Exp. 8th ser., 16, 1921, 356–70; 412–25; EPeterson, D. Buch von den Engeln ’35; JMichl, D. Engelvorstellungen in Apk I ’37; ELangton, The Angel Teaching of the NT ’37; JBernardin, JBL 57, ’38, 273–79; ESchick, D. Botschaft der Engel im NT ’40; WMichaelis, Z. Engelchristol. im Urchristent. ’42; GHatzidakis, Ἄγγελος u. Verwandtes: SBWienAk 173, 1914.—B. 1486. DELG. DDD 81–96 (lit.). M-M. New Docs 5, 72f. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἄγγελος

  • 187 ἄνθρωπος

    ἄνθρωπος, ου, ὁ (Hom.+; loanw. in rabb.; ἡ ἄνθρωπος [Hdt. 1, 60, 5] does not appear in our lit.) ‘human being, man, person’.
    a person of either sex, w. focus on participation in the human race, a human being
    ἐγεννήθη ἄ. J 16:21; εἰς χεῖρας ἀ. Mk 9:31; ψυχὴ ἀνθρώπου Ro 2:9; συνείδησις ἀ. 2 Cor 4:2; μέτρον ἀ. Rv 21:17.
    in contrast to animals, plants, etc. Mt 4:19; 12:12; Mk 1:17; Lk 5:10; 1 Cor 15:39; 2 Pt 2:16; Rv 9:4, 7; 13:18 al. To angels (cp. Aristaen. 1, 24, end σάτυροι οὐκ ἄνθρωποι) 1 Cor 4:9; 13:1. To God (Aeschyl., Ag. 663 θεός τις οὐκ ἄνθ.; Aeschines 3, 137 θεοὶ κ. δαίμονες; Ael. Aristid. 30 p. 578 D.; Herm. Wr. 14, 8 θεοὺς κ. ἀνθρ.; οὐκ ἐλογίσατο ὅτι ἄ. ἐστιν PsSol 2:28) Hb 13:6 (Ps 117:6); Mt 10:32f; 19:6; Mk 10:9; J 10:33 (ἄνθ. ὤν=‘as a mortal human’, a favorite formula: X., An. 7, 6, 11; Menand., Epitr. 592 Kö.; Fgm.: 46; 395, 2 Kö; Comp. I 282; Alexis Com., Fgm. 150; Polyb. 3, 31, 3; Chariton 4, 4, 8 [WBlake ’38]; Heliod. 6, 9, 3; As early as Eur., Hipp. 472ff ἄνθρωπος οὖσα … κρείσσω δαιμόνων εἶναι θέλειν); Ac 10:26; 12:22; 14:11, 15; 1 Th 2:13; Phil 2:7. ἐντάλματα ἀνθρώπων human precepts Mt 15:9; Mk 7:7 (Is 29:13); w. οὐρανός (=God) Mt 21:25; Mk 11:30. ἀδύνατα παρὰ ἀνθρώποις Lk 18:27, cp. Mt 19:26. δοῦλοι ἀνθρώπων people’s slaves 1 Cor 7:23. πείθειν and ἀρέσκειν ἀ. Gal 1:10. μεσίτης θεοῦ καὶ ἀ. 1 Ti 2:5 al. θεὸς πάντας ἀνθρώπους θέλει σωθῆναι 1 Ti 2:4 (cp. Epict. 3, 24, 2 ὁ θεὸς πάντας ἀνθρώπους ἐπὶ τὸ εὐδαιμονεῖν ἐποίησεν).
    in pl. w. gener. mng. (cp. Hom., Il. 21, 569; Od. 1, 351) οἱ ἄ. people, also one’s associates (Jos., Ant. 9, 28) Mt 5:13, 16; 6:1f, 5, 14, 18; 7:12; 8:27; 23:5; Mk 8:27 and often. οἱ τότε ἄ. the people of that time Pol 3:2.—οἱ υἱοὶ τῶν ἀνθρώπων the offspring of human beings or simply human beings, people (Gen 11:5; 1 Esdr 4:37; Ps 10:4; En10:7 al.; PsSol 9:4) Mk 3:28; Eph 3:5. Sim. ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀ. as a self-designation of Jesus but s. next, also 2a and υἱός 2dγ.
    Jesus Christ is called ἄ. as one who identifies with humanity (cp. ὁ Σωτὴρ ἄ. γενόμενος Did., Gen. 41, 28) 1 Ti 2:5; Hb 2:6a (Ps 8:5a; cp. Just., A II, 6, 4). He is in contrast to Adam Ro 5:15; 1 Cor 15:21, the πρῶτος ἄ. 1 Cor 15:45, 47 (cp. Philo, Abr. 56; s. DDD 112) as δεύτερος ἄ. vs. 47. On the nature and origin of this concept cp. Ltzm. and JWeiss on 1 Cor 15:45ff; WBousset, Kyrios Christos2 1921, 120 ff, Jesus der Herr 1916, 67ff; Rtzst., Mysterienrel.3 343ff, Erlösungsmyst. 107ff; ARawlinson, The NT Doctrine of the Christ 1926, 124ff; BStegmann, Christ, the ‘Man from Heaven’, a Study of 1 Cor 15:45–47: The Cath. Univ., Washington 1927; CKraeling, Anthropos and Son of Man 1927. S. on Ἀδάμ and on οὐρανός 2b.—On ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀ. as a self-designation of Jesus s.c end, above, and υἱός 2dγ.
    a member of the human race, w. focus on limitations and weaknesses, a human being
    of physical aspect Js 5:17; subject to death Hb 9:27; Rv 8:11; Ro 5:12; sunken in sin (cp. fr. a different perspective Menand., Fgm. 432 Kö [499 K.] ἄνθρωπος ὢν ἥμαρτον; Herodas 5, 27 ἄνθρωπός εἰμι, ἥμαρτον; schol. on Apollon. Rhod. 4, 1015–17a σὺ ἄνθρωπος εἶ, οἷς τὸ ἁμαρτάνειν γίνεται ῥᾳδίως; cp. Orig. C. Cels. 3, 62, 17) 5:18f al., hence judged to be inferior Gal 1:1, 11f; Col 2:8, 22 (Is 29:13) or even carefully to be avoided προσέχειν ἀπὸ τ. ἀ. beware of (evil) men Mt 10:17; cp. Lk 6:22, 26.
    of status κατὰ ἄνθρωπον (Aeschyl., Sept. 425; Pla., Phileb. 370f; Diod S 16, 11, 2; Athen. 10, 444b; Plut., Mor. 1042a; Witkowski 8, 5 [252 B.C.]) in a human way, from a human standpoint emphasizes the inferiority of human beings in comparison w. God; λαλεῖν 1 Cor 9:8; λέγειν Ro 3:5; Gal 3:15; περιπατεῖν 1 Cor 3:3. κ. ἄ. ἐθηριομάχησα perh. like an ordinary man (opp. as a Christian sure of the resurrection) 15:32. Of the gospel οὐκ ἔστιν κ. ἄ. Gal 1:11. Pl. κ. ἀνθρώπους (opp. κ. θεόν) 1 Pt 4:6.
    a male person, man
    adult male, man (Pla., Prot. 6, 314e, Phd. 66, 117e; Gen. 24:26ff; PsSol 17:17; TestAbr A 3 p. 79, 25 [Stone p. 6]; ParJer 5:20) Mt 11:8; Lk 7:25. σκληρὸς εἶ ἄ. Mt 25:24; cp. Lk 19:21f. In contrast to woman (Achilles Tat. 5, 22, 2; PGM 36, 225f; 1 Esdr 9:40; Tob 6:8) Mt 19:5; prob. Lk 13:19 (cp. vs. 21); Eph 5:31 (both Gen 2:24); 1 Cor 7:1; Ox 840, 39.
    married person husband Mt 19:10.
    an immediate descendant son, opp. father (Sir 3:11) Mt 10:35.
    a person owned and therefore under the control of another slave (X., Mem. 2, 1, 15, Vect. 4, 14; Herodas 5, 78; BGU 830, 4; POxy. 1067, 30; 1159, 16) Lk 12:36. οἱ τοῦ πυρὸς ἄ. the persons in charge of the fire MPol 15:1; ἄ. τοῦ μεγάλου βασιλέως AcPl Ha 9, 1 (Aa I 111, 10). Perh. J 6:7.
    practically equiv. to the indef. pron., w. the basic mng. of ἄ. greatly weakened (cp. 1c.) someone, one, a person.
    without the art.
    α. used w. τὶς: ἐὰν γένηταί τινι ἀνθρώπῳ Mt 18:12. ἄνθρωπός τις κατέβαινεν a man was going down Lk 10:30. ἀνθρώπου τινὸς πλουσίου 12:16. ἄ. τις ἦν ὑδρωπικός 14:2, cp. vs. 16; 15:11; 16:1, 19; 19:12. ἦν τις ἄ. ἐκεῖ J 5:5. τινῶν ἀ. αἱ ἁμαρτίαι 1 Ti 5:24.
    β. without τὶς, and somet. nearly equiv. to it (Paus. 5, 7, 3 ἐξ ἀνθρώπου=from someone) εἷς ἄ.=εἷς τις an individual J 11:50, cp. 18:14. εἶδεν ἄνθρωπον καθήμενον he saw someone sitting Mt 9:9. ἰδοὺ ἄ. χεῖρα ἔχων ξηράν there was someone with a shriveled hand 12:10. λαβὼν ἄ. a person took 13:31; cp. Mk 1:23; 3:1; 4:26; 5:2; 7:11; 10:7 (Gen 2:24); Lk 2:25; 4:33; 5:18; 6:48f; 13:19; J 3:4, 27 al. Used w. negatives ἄ. οὐκ ἔχω I have nobody J 5:7. οὐδέποτε ἐλάλησεν οὕτως ἄ. nobody has ever spoken like that 7:46.
    γ. in indef. and at the same time general sense, oft.= one (Ger. man, Fr. on) οὕτως ἡμᾶς λογιζέσθω ἄ. lit. this is how one or a person (i.e. you) should regard us 1 Cor 4:1; cp. Mt 16:26; Ro 3:28; 1 Cor 7:26; 11:28; Gal 2:16; 6:7; Js 2:24.
    δ. w. relative foll. δεῦτε ἴδετε ἄ. ὸ̔ς εἶπέν μοι come and see someone who (contrast w. ἀνήρ vss. 16–18) told me J 4:29. ἄ. ὸ̔ς τὴν ἀλήθειαν ὑμῖν λελάληκα 8:40. For Ac 19:16 s. 6 below.
    ε. used pleonastically w. a noun (cp. usage s.v. ἀνήρ 1dα) (Il. 16, 263; Lev 21:9; Sir 8:1; 1 Macc 7:14) ἄ. φάγος a glutton Mt 11:19; Lk 7:34; ἄ. ἔμπορος a merchant Mt 13:45; ἄ. οἰκοδεσπότης vs. 52; 21:33; ἄ. βασιλεύς (Horapollo 2, 85; Jos., Ant. 6, 142) 18:23; 22:2; ἄ. θηριομάχος AcPl Ha 5, 30.—Likew. w. names indicating local or national origin (X., An. 6, 4, 23; Ex 2:11 ἄ. Αἰγύπτιος) ἄ. Κυρηναῖος a Cyrenaean Mt 27:32; ἄ. Ἰουδαῖος Ac 21:39; ἄ. Ῥωμαῖος 16:37; 22:25. W. adj., giving them the character of nouns (Menand., Fgm. 518 Kö ἄ. φίλος; PFlor 61, 60; PAmh 78, 13 ἄ. αὐθάδης; PStras 41, 40 πρεσβύτης ἄ. εἰμι; Sir 8:2 al.) ἄ. τυφλός (EpJer 36) a blind person J 9:1; ἄ. ἁμαρτωλός (Sir 11:32; 32:17) vs. 16; ἄ. αἱρετικός Tit 3:10. Likew. w. ptc. ἄ. σπείρων a sower Mt 13:24.
    ζ. pleonastic are also the combinations τίς ἄ.; who? Mt 7:9; Lk 15:4; πᾶς ἄ. (PsSol 2:9; 17:27 [both times after οὐ]; ParJer 8:7; cp. Just., D. 3) everyone J 2:10; Js 1:19; πάντες ἄ. all people Ac 22:15, everyone 1 Cor 7:7; εἷς ἄ. J 11:50; δύο ἄ. Lk 18:10. Likew. the partitive gen. ἀνθρώπων w. οὐδείς (cp. Mimnermus 1, 15f Diehl2 οὐ δέ τίς ἐστιν ἀνθρώπων) Mk 11:2; Lk 19:30, μηδείς Ac 4:17, τίς 19:35; 1 Cor 2:11.—MBlack, An Aramaic Approach3, ’67, 106f.
    w. the generic art. (Wsd 2:23; 4 Macc 2:21; PsSol 5:16; Just., D. 20, 2) ὁ ἀγαθὸς ἄ. the good person, opp. ὁ πονηρὸς ἄ. the evil person Mt 12:35. οὐκ ἐπʼ ἄρτῳ ζήσεται ὁ ἄ. no one can live on bread (Dt 8:3) 4:4. κοινοῖ τὸν ἄ. defiles a person 15:11, 18; cp. Mk 7:15, 20; τὸ σάββατον διὰ τὸν ἄ. ἐγένετο 2:27; τί ἦν ἐν τῷ ἀ. J 2:25; κρίνειν τὸν ἄ. 7:51; ὁ νόμος κυριεύει τοῦ ἀ. Ro 7:1; ὁ ποιήσας ἄ. everyone who does it 10:5 (Lev 18:5; 2 Esdr 19:29); κακὸν τῷ ἀ. τῷ διὰ προσκόμματος ἐσθίοντι wrong for anyone who eats w. misgivings Ro 14:20 al.
    w. qualifying gen. ἄνθρωποι εὐδοκίας Lk 2:14 (εὐδοκία 1). ὁ ἄ. τῆς ἀνομίας (v.l. ἁμαρτίας) 2 Th 2:3. ἄ. (τοῦ) θεοῦ man of God 1 Ti 6:11; 2 Ti 3:17; 2 Pt 1:21 v.l. (3 Km 12:22; 13:1; 17:24; 4 Km 1:9ff; 2 Ch 8:14 al.; TestJob 53:4; EpArist 140; Philo, Gig. 61, Deus Imm. 138f. But also Sextus 2; 3; Herm. Wr. 1, 32; 13, 20; PGM 4, 1177, where no comma is needed betw. ἄ. and θ. Cp. Callim. 193, 37 [Pf.]).
    the two sides of human nature as ὁ ἔξω ἄ. the outer being, i.e. human beings in their material, transitory, and sinful aspects 2 Cor 4:16, and, on the other hand, ὁ ἔσω ἄ. the inner being, i.e. humans in their transcendent significance, striving toward God Ro 7:22; 2 Cor 4:16; Eph 3:16 (cp. Pla., Rep. 9, 589a ὁ ἐντὸς ἄνθρωπος; Plotinus, Enn. 5, 1, 10 ὁ εἴσω ἄ.; Philo, Plant. 42 ὁ ἐν ἡμῖν πρὸς ἀλήθειαν ἄ., τουτέστιν ὁ νοῦς, Congr. Erud. Grat. 97, Det. Pot. Insid. 23; Zosimus in Rtzst., Poim. 104 ἔσω αὐτοῦ ἄνθρωπος πνευματικός. Cp. Rtzst., Mysterienrel.3 354f; WGutbrod, D. paulin. Anthropologie ’34; KSchäfer, FTillmann Festschr. ’34, 25–35; RJewett, Paul’s Anthropological Terms, ’71, 391–401). Similar in mng. is ὁ κρυπτὸς τῆς καρδίας ἄ. the hidden person of the heart=ὁ ἔσω ἄ. 1 Pt 3:4.
    from another viewpoint, w. contrast of παλαιὸς and καινὸς (νέος) ἄ. Ro 6:6; Eph 4:22, 24; Col 3:9 (cp. Dg 2:1; Jesus as καινὸς ἄ. IEph 20:1 is the new being, who is really God), or of ὁ ψυχικὸς ἄ. and ὁ πνευματικὸς ἄ. 1 Cor 2:14f (s. πνευματικός 2aγ). τὸν τέλειον ἄ. GMary 463, 27.
    a person who has just been mentioned in a narrative, w. the art. the person (Diod S 37, 18 ὁ ἄ. εἶπε; Just., A II, 2, 12) Mt 12:13; Mk 3:5; 5:8; J 4:50; Ac 19:16 al.
    a pers. perceived to be contemptible, a certain person w. a connotation of contempt (Diogenianus Epicureus [II A.D.] in Eus., PE 6, 8, 30 calls Chrysippus, his opponent, contemptuously ὁ ἄ.; Artem. 5, 67 ἡ ἄνθρωπος of a prostitute; UPZ 72, 6 [152 B.C.]; BGU 1208 I, 25; Plut., Mor 870c.—ASvensson [ὁ, ἡ, τό beg.]; AWilhelm, Anzeiger der Ak. d. W. in Wien, phil.-Hist. Kl. ’37 [XXIII–XXVI 83–86]) οὐκ οἶδα τὸν ἄ. I don’t know the fellow (of Jesus, as oft. in these exx.) Mt 26:72, 74; Mk 14:71. προσηνέγκατέ μοι τὸν ἄ. τοῦτον Lk 23:14; ὁ ἄ. οὕτος AcPl Ox 6, 18 (= Aa I 242, 1). εἰ ὁ ἄ. Γαλιλαῖός ἐστιν Lk 23:6. τίς ἐστιν ὁ ἄ. J 5:12. ἰδοὺ ὁ ἄ. here’s the fellow! 19:5 (on the attempt to arouse pity, cp. Nicol. Dam.: 90 Fgm. 68, 4 Jac., Cyrus in connection w. the downfall of Croesus; Diog. L. 2:13 Pericles in the interest of Anaxagoras, his teacher; Jos., Ant. 19, 35f). μὴ οἰέσθω ὁ ἄ. ἐκεῖνος such a person must not expect Js 1:7.
    in address, varying from a familiar tone to one that is more formal ἄνθρωπε friend (X., Cyr. 2, 2, 7; Plut., Mor. 553e) indicating a close relationship between the speaker and the one addressed Lk 5:20; sir Ἄνθρωπε, ποῦ πορεύῃ; ‘Sir, where are you going?’ GJs 19:1 (not pap), the woman is a stranger to Joseph. W. a reproachful connotation, man! (Diogenes the Cynic in Diog. L. 6, 56; Diod S 33, 7, 4; Chariton 6, 7, 9; Ps.-Callisth. 1, 31, 1) Lk 12:14; 22:58, 60; Hm 10, 1, 2 (ἄνθρωπος Joly). Also in rhetorical address, in a letter Ro 2:1, 3; 9:20 (Pla., Gorg. 452b σὺ δὲ … τίς εἶ, ὦ ἄνθρωπε); Js 2:20. (Cp. Pla., Apol. 16 p. 28b; Epict. index Schenkl; Mi 6:8; Ps 54:14.—JWackernagel, Über einige antike Anredeformen: Progr. Gött. 1912.)
    a heavenly being that looked like a person, a human figure of GPt 11:44 (cp. Just., D. 58, 10 ἐν ἰδέᾳ ἀνθρώπου [on Gen 32:25]; Tat. 21, 1 θεὸν ἐν ἀνθρώπου μορφῇ γεγονέναι).—JNielen, D. Mensch in der Verkünd. der Ev.: FTillmann Festschr. ’34, 14–24; Gutbrod op. cit. 2cα; WKümmel, Man in the NT, tr. JVincent, ’63; also Vock and Seiler ἀνήρ end.—B. 80. EDNT (lit.). DELG. M-M. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἄνθρωπος

  • 188 ἄρτος

    ἄρτος, ου, ὁ (Hom.+)
    a baked product produced fr. a cereal grain, bread also loaf of bread
    gener. (Did., Gen. 190, 25) Mt 4:4 (Dt 8:3); 14:17, 19; 15:26, 33f; 16:8ff; Mk 6:38, 44, 52 (QQuesnell, The Mind of Mark, ’69); 7:27; 8:4ff, 14 (JManek, NovT 7, ’64, 10–14), 16f; Lk 4:4 (Dt 8:3); 9:13; 11:5; J 6:5, 23, 26; 21:9; 2 Cor 9:10 (Is 55:10). Opp. λίθος Mt 4:3 and Lk 4:3 (Ps.-Clem., Hom. 2, 32 Simon Mag. ἐκ λίθων ἄρτους ποιεῖ); Mt 7:9; Lk 11:11 v.l. W. water (Dt 9:9, 18; Sir 29:21; Hos 2:7) Hs 5, 3, 7. The father of the household opened a meal (s. Billerb. IV 620ff) by taking a loaf of bread, giving thanks, breaking it, and distributing it: λαμβάνειν τὸν ἄ., (κατα)κλάσαι τὸν ἄ. (Jer 16:7) Mt 14:19; 15:36; Mk 6:41; 8:19; Lk 9:16; 24:30; J 6:11; 21:13; Ac 20:11; 27:35. Cp. Lk 24:35; Ac 2:42, 46; 20:7. Usu. taken along on journeys Mk 6:8; Lk 9:3; cp. Mt 16:5, 7; Mk 8:14. W. gen. of price διακοσίων δηναρίων ἄρτοι J 6:7; Mk 6:37. ἄρτοι κρίθινοι (Judg 7:13; 4 Km 4:42) loaves of barley bread J 6:9, 13. The martyr’s body in the fire is compared to baking bread MPol 15:2.—Dalman, Arbeit IV: Brot, Öl u. Wein ’35.
    of a bread-offering ἄρτοι τῆς προθέσεως (Ex 40:23; 1 Km 21:7; 1 Ch 9:32; 23:29; 2 Ch 4:19; cp. 2 Ch 13:11; 2 Macc 10:3; Dssm. B 155f [BS 157]. Cp. OGI 56, 73; UPZ 149, 21 [III B.C.] πρόθεσις τ. ἄρτων in a temple ln. 31) consecrated bread (Billerb. III 719–33) Mt 12:4; Mk 2:26; Lk 6:4; Hb 9:2.—S. πρόθεσις.
    of the bread of the eucharist, which likew. was broken after giving thanks, and then eaten (Orig., C. Cels. 8, 33, 25) Mt 26:26; Mk 14:22; Lk 22:19; perh. Ac 2:42, 46; 20:7; 1 Cor 10:16f (the acc. τὸν ἄρτον vs. 16 is by attraction to the rel. ὅν; cp. Gen 31:16); 11:23, 26ff; D 14:1; IEph 20:2; AcPl Ha 4, 4 (s. κλάω, κατακλάω, εὐχαριστέω 2, εὐχαριστία 3 and Aberciusins. 16.—Diog. L. 8, 35: acc. to Pythagoras the εἷς ἄρτος [1 Cor 10:17] has served as a symbol of the union of the φίλοι from time immemorial to the present. Partaking of the same bread and wine [τ. αὐτὸν ἄρτον, οἶνον] as proof of the most intimate communion: Theodor. Prodr. 8, 400ff H.; Herodas 4, 93f: in the temple of Asclepius those who offer a sacrifice—in this case women—receive consecrated bread called ὑγιίη [ὑγίεια] to eat; Athen. 3, 115a ὑγίεια καλεῖται ἡ διδομένη ἐν ταῖς θυσίαις μᾶζα ἵνα ἀπογεύσωνται=the barley-cake that is given everyone to taste at the sacrifices is called Health; Anecd. Gr. 313, 13).—PdeBoer, Divine Bread, Studies in the Rel. of Anc. Israel, ’72, 27–36. S. καλάσις 2.
    any kind of food or nourishment, food gener. (since bread is the most important food; cp. לֶחֶם e.g. Is 65:25; Am 8:11; 4 [6] Esdr [POxy 1010]) περισσεύεσθαι ἄρτων have more than enough bread, i.e. plenty to eat Lk 15:17 (cp. Pr 20:13). διαθρύπτειν πεινῶσι τὸν ἄ. break bread for the hungry, i.e. give them someth. to eat B 3:3, cp. 5 (Is 58:7, 10). Hence ἄ. ἐσθίειν eat, dine, eat a meal (Gen 37:25; 2 Km 12:20; Eccl 9:7; Orig., C. Cels 7, 28, 43; cp. Did., Gen. 190, 12) Mt 15:2; Mk 3:20; 7:2, 5; Lk 14:1. δωρεὰν ἄ. φαγεῖν παρά τινος eat someone’s bread without paying 2 Th 3:8. Opp. τὸν ἑαυτοῦ ἄρτον ἐσθίειν vs. 12. Of an ascetic way of life μὴ ἐσθίων ἄρτον μήτε πίνων οἶνον neither eating bread nor drinking wine, i.e. fasting Lk 7:33 (cp. 1 Esdr 9:2). On ἄ. ἐπιούσιος Mt 6:11; Lk 11:3; D 8:2 s. ἐπιούσιος.—τρώγειν τινὸς τὸν ἄ. be the guest of someone J 13:18 (cp. Ps 40:10). Since according to a concept widespread among Israelites and gentiles, eternal bliss was to be enjoyed in the form of a banquet, φαγεῖν ἄ. ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τοῦ θεοῦ=share eternal bliss, or salvation Lk 14:15.—In J ἄ. ἐκ τ. οὐρανοῦ (after Ps 77:24; cp. Ex 16:4; 2 Esdr 19:15; Ps 104:40; Wsd 16:20; SibOr Fgm. 3, 49) is Christ and his body in the Eucharist J 6:31ff, 41, 50, 58 or simply Christ himself. For this ἄ. τῆς ζωῆς (JosAs 8:5; 15:4) vs. 35, 48; ὁ ἄ. ὁ ζῶν vs. 51. Sim. ἄ. τ. θεοῦ IEph 5:2; IRo 7:3; ἄ. τ. Χριστοῦ 4:1.—BGärtner, J 6 and the Jewish Passover: ConNeot 17, ’59; GVermes, MBlack Festschr., ’69, 256–63.
    means of support, support, livelihood τὸν ἄ. λαμβάνειν take his bread (i.e. support) D 11:6 (difft. Orig., C. Cels. 2, 68, 20: ‘take bread [from someone’s hand]’).
    reward for labor, reward, proceeds λαμβάνειν τὸν ἄ. τοῦ ἔργου receive the reward of (one’s) labor 1 Cl 34:1.—EBattaglia, ‘Artos’, il lessico della panificazione nei paperi greci ’89.—B. 357. DELG. EDNT. M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἄρτος

  • 189 ἐγείρω

    ἐγείρω fut. ἐγερῶ; 1 aor. ἤγειρα. Pass.: pres. ἐγείρομαι, impv. 2 sg. ἐγείρου, pl. ἐγείρεσθε; 1 fut. ἐγερθήσομαι; 1 aor. ἠγέρθην; pf. ἐγήγερμαι (B-D-F §101 and 78; Rob. 1215) (Hom.+).
    to cause someone to wake from sleep, wake, rouse Mt 8:25; Mk 4:38; Ac 12:7.
    to cease sleeping, wake up, awaken fr. sleep, pass. intr. (PStras 100, 15 [II B.C.] ἐγερθεὶς ἐκάλουν βοηθούς) ἀπὸ τοῦ ὕπνου Mt 1:24 (cp. διεγείρω). Abs. 25:7; Mk 4:27; J 11:12 P75. Fig., ἐξ ὕπνου ἐγερθῆναι awaken fr. sleep (i.e. thoughtless indolence) Ro 13:11 (cp. Epict. 2, 20, 15 ἐ. ἐκ τῶν ὕπνων, fr. the sleep of carelessness); cp. AcPl Ha 4, 32.
    to cause to stand up from a position lower than that of the pers. rendering assistance, raise, help to rise, pers. sitting down Ac 3:7 (ἵνα σταθῶ). Lying down Mk 1:31; 9:27. Stretched out Ac 10:26 (En 14:25). Fallen Mt 12:11; 1 Cl 59:4; Hv 3, 2, 4.
    to move to a standing position, rise, get up, pass. intr. of those who have awakened Mt 2:13f, 20f; 8:26; Lk 11:8; who were sitting down (EpArist 94) Mt 9:19; Lk 13:25; J 11:29; Hv 1, 4, 1; AcPl Ox 6; kneeling Hv 2, 1, 3; of the sick Mt 8:15; 9:6f; Mk 2:12; of those called back to life (cp. 4 Km 4:31) Mt 9:25; Lk 7:14. ἐκ τοῦ δείπνου rise from the table J 13:4; of one who has fallen Mt 17:7; Ac 9:8 (on ἀπὸ τ. γῆς cp. 2 Km 12:17; Ps 112:7).
    to cause to come into existence, raise up, bring into being (Judg 2:16, 18 ἤγειρε αὐτοῖς κύριος κριτάς; 3:9, 15 σωτῆρα; Pr 10:12; TestLevi 18:2 ἱερέα; Jos., Ant. 8, 199) κέρας σωτηρίας a horn of salvation Lk 1:69; τέκνα τινί Mt 3:9; Lk 3:8. ἤγειρεν τὸν Δαυὶδ αὐτοῖς εἰς βασιλέα he gave them David as (their) king Ac 13:22 (cp. Jos., Ant. 19, 295). W. double acc. and dat. of advantage vs. 23 v.l.; τὶ someth. (Theognis 549 πόλεμον ἐ.; Appian, Hann. 41 §177 θόρυβον; Nicol. Dam.: 90 Fgm. 50 Jac. μάχην; Tat. 19, 3 στάσεις καὶ μάχας) cause θλῖψιν Phil 1:17 (Lucian, Syr. Dea 18 πένθος τινι).
    to cause to return to life, raise up (the ancients closely associated death with sleep; s., e.g., Kaibel 559, 7f; RLattimore, Themes in Greek and Latin Epitaphs ’62, 164f al.) (Apollodor. [II B.C.]: 244 Fgm. 138a Jac., of Asclepius. Similarly schol. on Lucian p. 55, 23 Rabe; Sir 48:5 ὁ ἐγείρας νεκρὸν ἐκ θανάτου; PGM 4, 195) Mt 10:8; J 5:21; Ac 26:8; 2 Cor 1:9; AcPt Ox 849 verso, 10; AcPl Ha 8, 35=BMM verso 9. Of the raising of Jesus Ac 5:30; 10:40; 13:37; 1 Cor 6:14; 15:15ff; 2 Cor 4:14. More fully ἐ. τινὰ ἐκ νεκρῶν (mostly of Jesus’ resurr.) J 12:1, 9, 17; Ac 3:15; 4:10; 13:30; Ro 4:24; 8:11; 10:9; Gal 1:1; Eph 1:20; Col 2:12; 1 Th 1:10; Hb 11:19; 1 Pt 1:21; IMg 9:3; Pol 2:1f; AcPlCor 2:6. ἀπὸ νεκρῶν ITr 9:2. Of the raising of Christ’s flesh ISm 7:1.
    to enter into or to be in a state of life as a result of being raised, be raised, rise, pass. intr., of one who has died (Is 26:19; TestJob 4:9; cp. 4 Km 4:31) approaches ἀναστῆναι in mng. (cp. mss. and synopt. parallels; s. ἀνίστημι 7) gen. νεκροὶ ἐγείρονται Mk 12:26; Lk 7:22; 20:37; 1 Cor 15:15f, 29, 32, 35, 52. Of Lazarus ἐγερθήσεται J 11:12 v.l. σώματα … ἠγέρθησαν Mt 27:52; ἐγείρεται σῶμα πνευμάτικον 1 Cor 15:44; cp. 15:42f; τὸ σῶμα ἐγείρεται AcPlCor 2:27; cp. 2:26 (in imagery after 1 Cor 15:37). ἐάν τις ἀπὸ νεκρῶν ἐγερθῇ Lk 16:30 v.l.; ἐάν τις ἐκ νεκρῶν ἐγερθῇ 16:31 P75.—Of John the Baptist ἀπὸ τῶν νεκρῶν Mt 14:2; cp. ἐκ νεκρῶν Mk 6:14; Lk 9:7.—Of Christ: ἐκ νεκρῶν Mt 17:9; J 2:22; 21:14; Ro 6:4, 9; 7:4; 1 Cor 15:12, 20 (cp. Just., D. 108, 2 ἐγηγέρθαι); 2 Ti 2:8. Also ἀπὸ τῶν νεκρῶν Mt 27:64; 28:7; ἀπὸ νεκρῶν ITr 9:2. Without this qualification τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ ἐγερθῆναι Mt 16:21; 17:23. καθῶς εἶπεν 28:6; ὄντως εἶπεν Mt 26:32; 26:34. διὰ τὴν δικαίωσιν ἡμῶν Ro 4:25; ὑπὲρ αὐτῶν (τῶν ζώντων) 2 Cor 5:15. Abs. Mt 26:32; Mk 14:28; 16:6; Lk 24:6, 14 (v.l. ἐκ νεκρῶν); Ro 8:34 (v.l. ἐκ ν.); 1 Cor 15:13f, 16f; AcPlCor 2:31.—For lit. s. on ἀνάστασις 2 end.
    to raise up from sickness, raise up=restore to health (the sick pers. is ordinarily recumbent) Js 5:15; AcPl BMM verso 11 (Did., Gen. 168, 17).
    to change to a previous good state or condition, restore, erect of buildings (Dio Chrys. 11 [12], 18; Aelian, NA 11, 10; Herodian 3, 15, 3; 8, 2, 5; Lucian, Alex. 19; Anth. Pal. 9, 696; OGI 677, 3; 1 Esdr 5:43; Sir 49:13; ἐ. τρόπαιον Hippol., Ref. 1, 24, 6; θυσιαστήριον Did., Gen. 223, 19) temple (ναόν: Appian, Bell. Civ. 1, 26 §120; Lucian, Sacr. 11; Jos., Ant. 15, 391; 20, 228) J 2:19f.
    to move someth. from its position by exerting effort in overcoming resistance, lift up ἔγειρον τ. λίθον lift up the stone, push the stone aside (Seleucus of Alex. [I A.D.]: 341 Fgm. 4 Jac. in buffoonery at a symposium, of a stone pushed out from under a participant who has put his head in a noose and has been given a small scimitar to cut the rope before it strangles him) (Ox 1 recto, 6 [=GTh 77]); LWright, JBL 65, ’46, 182; Unknown Sayings 95–98; AWalls, VigChr 16, ’62, 71–76.— Raise κονιορτόν (Polyaenus 4, 19; 7, 44, 1) Hv 4, 1, 5 (Jos. Bell. 5, 471 speaks in the pass. of the dust that ‘is raised’). Cp. Mt 12:11.
    to move against in hostility, rise up, pass. intr., of nations rising in arms (Jer 6:22 v.l.) ἐ. ἐπί τινα against someone one nation against another Mt 24:7; Mk 13:8; Lk 21:10 (for ἐπί τινα cp. Appian, Liby. 68 §307; Jer 27:9; Jos., Ant. 8, 199).
    to make an appearance, appear, pass. intr. of prophets Mt 11:11; Lk 7:16; J 7:52; of false prophets Mt 24:11, 24; Mk 13:22. Of accusers in court (w. ἐν τῇ κρίσει; s. ἀνίστημι 9) Mt 12:42; Lk 11:31 (on omission of ἐν τῇ κρίσει in ms. D, see MBlack, An Aramaic Approach3, ’67, 134).
    in a command to evoke movement from a fixed position ἔγειρε, ἐγείρου get up!, come! impv.
    act. intr. only in impv. (Eur., Iph. A. 624; Aristoph., Ran. 340; Aesop-mss. [Ursing 80]) Mt 9:5f; Mk 2:9 (v.l. ἐγείρου), 11; 3:3; 5:41; 10:49; Lk 5:23f; 6:8; 8:54 (v.l. ἐγείρου); J 5:8; Ac 3:6 ἔγειρε καὶ περιπάτει; Rv 11:1; AcPl Ha 7, 28. Awakening of the ‘dead’ (with καθεύδειν and ἐγείρειν associated in figurative use, as in Plut., Mor. 462) in Mk 5:41; Lk 8:54 (v.l. ἐγείρου); Eph 5:14 (MDibelius, Hdb. ad loc., but without Gnostic motif acc. to KKuhn, NTS 7, ’60/61, 341–46; cp. PsSol 16:1–4) parallels the aspect of motion in passages cited in 1, 3–10, and others here in a above.
    pass. intr. ἐγείρου get up! Mk 2:9 v.l.; Lk 8:54 v.l.; ἐγείρεσθε, ἄγωμεν get up! let us be going Mt 26:46; Mk 14:42; J 14:31.—B. 271; 670. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἐγείρω

  • 190 ἐκεῖνος

    ἐκεῖνος, η, ο demonstr. pron. (Hom.+) pert. to an entity mentioned or understood and viewed as relatively remote in the discourse setting, that person, that thing, that (‘that over there’; opp. οὗτος ‘this’)
    abs.
    α. denoting contrast to another entity Lk 18:14 (Just., A I, 43, 2, D. 85, 1). τοῦτο ἢ ἐκεῖνο this or that Js 4:15. ἡμῖν … ἐκείνοις Mt 13:11; Mk 4:11; cp. 2 Cor 8:14. ἐκεῖνον … ἐμέ J 3:30. ἐκεῖνοι … ἡμεῖς 1 Cor 9:25; Hb 12:25; 1J 4:17. ἄλλοι … ἐκεῖνος J 9:9. Opp. a certain pers.: Jesus Mk 16:19f; the Judeans J 2:20f et al.
    β. referring back to and resuming a word immediately preceding, oft. weakened to he, she, it (X., An. 4, 3, 20; Just., D. 1, 3 al.) Mk 16:10f. Esp. oft. so in J: 5:37; 8:44; 10:6; 11:29; 12:48; 13:6 v.l.; 14:21, 26; 16:14 al. Hence 19:35 perh. the eyewitness (just mentioned) is meant, who then, to be sure, would be vouching for his own credibility and love of the truth (s. aγ).—Interchanging w. αὐτός (cp. Thu. 1, 32, 5; X., Cyr. 4, 5, 20; Lysias 14, 28; Kühner-G. I 649) ἐζωγρημένοι ὑπʼ αὐτοῦ εἰς τὸ ἐκείνου θέλημα under the spell of his will 2 Ti 2:26. ἐκεῖνος for ἀυτός Lk 9:34 v.l.; 23:12 v.l. Used to produce greater emphasis: ἐκεῖνον λαβών take that one Mt 17:27; cp. J 5:43. τῇ ἐκείνου χάριτι by his grace Tit 3:7. Sim. after a participial subj. (X., Cyr. 6, 2, 33 ὁ γὰρ λόγχην ἀκονῶν, ἐκεῖνος καὶ τὴν ψυχήν τι παρακονᾷ=the one who sharpens his spear, he is the one who sharpens his inner self) τὸ ἐκπορευόμενον ἐκεῖνο κοινοῖ Mk 7:20. ὁ πέμψας ἐκεῖνος J 1:33; cp 5:37 v.l. (for αὐτός) ὁ ποιήσας με ὑγιῆ ἐκεῖνος 5:11. ὁ λαλῶν ἐκεῖνός ἐστιν 9:37. ὁ εἰσερχόμενος ἐκεῖνος κλέπτης ἐστίν 10:1. τῷ λογιζομένῳ … ἐκείνῳ κοινόν Ro 14:14 al.
    γ. w. ref. to well-known or notorious personalities (Just., A I, 4 ὡς ἐκεῖνος [Πλάτων] ἔφη; Kühner-G. I 650; Arrian, Periplus 1, 1 ὁ Ξενοφῶν ἐκεῖνος) Jesus (cp. Mel., P. 80, 593 σὺ ἐχόρευες, ἐκεῖνος δὲ ἐθάπτετο): J 7:11; 9:12, 28; 1J 2:6; 3:3, 5, 7, 16; 4:17. The ἐ. J 19:35 appears to refer to ὁ ἑωρακώς, the eyewitness mentioned at the beginning of the vs. (Some scholars refer to the Johannine writer [cp. Jos., Bell. 3, 7, 16–202], who allegedly seeks to corroborate another’s statement, and support has been offered in the use of ἐ. in indirect discourse in which speakers refer to themselves as ἐ. [Isaeus 8, 22a; Polyb. 3, 44, 10; 12, 16, 5] on the ground that the narrator of the 4th Gospel could no more use the I-form than could the speaker in indirect discourse. But contexts of the passages cited contain some indication of the referent. Some refer to Jesus [Erasmus, Zahn; ESchwartz, NGG 1907, 361; Lagrange; others cited RBrown, comm. ad loc.—Acc. to Iambl., Vi. Pyth. 35, 255, as well as Aristoxenus, Fgm. 33 p. 17, 3 οἱ Πυθαγόρειοι παρʼ ἐκείνου μαθόντες, the Pythagoreans called their master after his death simply ἐκεῖνος]. Yet how much more clearly this idea might have been conveyed in J by simply using ὁ κύριος!). S. FBlass, StKr 75, 1902, 128–33.—W. an unfavorable connotation (Themistocles, Ep. 16 p. 755, 14; 27; Lucian, Pereg. 13 of Jesus; Julian, Letter 60 p. 379a of the Christians; Just., D. 67, 2 of Jews by Hellenes) of the Jews B 2:9; 3:6; 4:6; 8:7 al.
    δ. w. relative foll. (cp. Just., D. 128, 4 ἀναλυόμενοι εἰς ἐκεῖνο ἐξ οὗπερ γεγόνασιν): ἐκεῖνός ἐστιν ᾧ ἐγὼ βάψω J 13:26. ἐκεῖνον … ὑπὲρ οὗ Ro 14:15. ἐκείνης ἀφʼ ἧς Hb 11:15. W. ὅτι foll. (Ael. Aristid. 39 p. 747 D.; Just., A I, 19, 5) Mt 24:43.
    used w. nouns
    α. to differentiate pers. or things already named, fr. others: τῇ οἰκίᾳ ἐκείνῃ that (particular) house Mt 7:25; cp. vs. 27. τῇ πόλει ἐκείνῃ that city (just mentioned) 10:15; 18:32; Mk 3:24f; Lk 6:48f; J 18:15; Ac 1:19; 3:23 (Dt 18:19); 8:8; 14:21; 16:3 and oft. (cp. Just., D. 4, 2 αὐτοῦ ἐκείνου τοῦ βασιλικοῦ νοῦ μέρος ‘a portion of that same governing mind’).
    β. of time
    א. of the past, when the time cannot (or is not to) be given w. exactness: ἐν τ. ἡμέραις ἐκείναις in those days (Ex 2:11; Judg 18:1; 1 Km 28:1; Jdth 1:5; PsSol 17:44; 18:6; AscIs 3, 20; 23; 27) Mt 3:1, cp. 24:38; Mk 1:9; 8:1; Lk 2:1. Of a definite period (1 Macc 1:11; 9:24; 11:20) Lk 4:2; 9:36.
    ב. of the future (ἐκείνη ἡ ἡμέρα; Plut., Gai. Marc. 231 [35, 6]; Epict. 3, 17, 4; Ael. Aristid. 19, 8 K.=41 p. 765 D.) Mt 24:22ab, 29; ἐν ἐκ. τ. ἡμέραις 24:19; Ac 2:18 (Jo 3:2); Rv 9:6. Also in sg. ἐν ἐκείνῃ τ. ἡμέρᾳ (Jdth 11:15) Lk 17:31; J 16:23, 26; AcPlCor 2:32; esp. of God’s climactic judgment day Mt 7:22; Lk 6:23; 10:12; 2 Th 1:10; 2 Ti 1:12, 18; cp. Rv 16:14 v.l. ὁ αἰὼν ἐ. (opp. αἰὼν οὗτος) the age to come Lk 20:35 (s. αἰών 2b).
    ג. of a period ascertainable fr. the context Mt 13:1; Mk 4:35; J 1:39 (Jos., Ant. 7, 134 μεῖναι τὴν ἡμέραν ἐκείνην) al. ἀπʼ ἐκείνης τ. ἡμέρας (Jos., Bell. 4, 318, Ant. 7, 382; Mel. HE 4, 26, 3 ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς ἡμέραις) Mt 22:46. κατὰ τὸν καιρὸν ἐ. at that time Ac 19:23. κατʼ ἐ. τὸν καιρόν (Jos., Ant. 1, 171 al.; Just., A I, 26, 3 al.: κατʼ ἐκεῖνο τοῦ καιροῦ, D. 103, 3 ἐκείνου τοῦ καιροῦ) 12:1. ἐν ἐ. τῇ ὥρᾳ Rv 11:13.
    For ἐκείνης, the adverbial gen. of ἐκεῖνος, s. the preceding entry.—IndogF 19, 1906, 83ff. S. κἀκεῖνος. M-M.

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  • 191 ἐκλεκτός

    ἐκλεκτός, ή, όν (ἐκ + λέγω; since Pla., Leg. 12, 946d+).
    pert. to being selected, chosen gener. of those whom God has chosen fr. the generality of mankind and drawn to himself Mt 20:16 v.l.; 22:14 (B 4:14; KStendahl, The Called and the Chosen: The Root of the Vine, ed. AFridrichsen ’53, 63–80). Hence of Christians in particular (as in the OT of the Israelites 1 Ch 16:13; Ps 88:4; 104:6, 43; Is 65:9, 15, 23 al.—PAltmann, Erwählungstheol. u. Universalismus im AT, Beih. 92, ZAW, ’64) chosen 24:22, 24, 31; Mk 13:20, 22, 27; 1 Pt 1:1; 2 Ti 2:10; 1 Cl 6:1; 58:2; Hv 2, 4, 2. ἐ. τοῦ θεοῦ (cp. En 1:8) Lk 18:7 (cp. 1QS 8:6; 1QH 2:13); Ro 8:33 (cp. the Qumran passages just cited); 16:13 (s. 3 below); Col 3:12; Tit 1:1; 1 Cl 1:1; 2:4; 46:3f, 8; 49:5; 59:2; 2 Cl 14:5; Hv 1, 3, 4; 2, 1, 3; 2, 2, 5; 2, 4, 2; 3, 5, 1; 3, 8, 3; 3, 9, 10; 4, 2, 5; 4, 3, 5; EpilMosq 5. W. κλητοί ApcPt Rainer 2 and 5. W. κλητοί and πιστοί (SibOr 3, 69 w. πιστοί) Rv 17:14. γένος ἐκλεκτόν 1 Pt 2:9 (Is 43:20; TestJob 1:5). Of a Christian assembly or congregation 2J 1, 13 (w. personification of the assembly); ITr ins. Opp. ἄπιστοι MPol 16:1; ἅγιοι ἐ. 22:1.
    pert. to being esp. distinguished, elect
    gener. of angels 1 Ti 5:21 (after En 39:1).
    of the Messiah ὁ ἐ. τοῦ θεοῦ (cp. En 39:6f; 40:5; 45:3–5; 49:2–4 al.) Lk 23:35 (cp. 9:35); J 1:34 v.l. (AvHarnack, SBBerlAk 1915, 552–56=Studien I ’31, 127–32; GDelling, Jüd. Lehre u. Frömmigkeit in den ParJer, Berlin ’67, 18f).
    of David 1 Cl 52:2 (Ps 88:20; cp. Sir 47:22).
    pert. to being considered best in the course of a selection, choice, excellent (PRein 43, 9; BGU 603, 18 and 38; Ps 17:27; Sir 24:15; Bar 3:30; Wsd 3:14) ἀνὴρ ἐ. (EpArist 13; SibOr 3, 521) IPhld 11:1. Perh. Ro 16:13 ὁ ἐ. ἐν κυρίῳ the outstanding Christian. In imagery of a picked or elite stone (cp. Strabo 1, 3, 18 after Ibycus [Fgm. 21 Diehl] λίθος, ὸ̔ν καλεῖ ἐκλεκτόν = λόγαιον ‘picked’; En 8:1) 1 Pt 2:4, 6; B 6:2 (both Is 28:16); here a connection w. sense 2 is readily perceived.—DELG s.v. λέγω. M-M. EDNT. TW.

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  • 192 ἐπιθυμία

    ἐπιθυμία, ας, ἡ (s. ἐπιθυμέω; Pre-Socr., Hdt.+)
    a great desire for someth., desire, longing, craving
    as a neutral term, in Hdt., Pla., Thu. et al. αἱ περὶ τὰ λοιπὰ ἐ. desires for other things Mk 4:19. ἐ. πράξεων πολλῶν desire for much business Hm 6, 2, 5 (but mng. 2 below is also poss.). ἐ. τῆς ψυχῆς desire of the soul Rv 18:14.
    of desire for good things (Diod S 11, 36, 5 ἐπιθ. τῆς ἐλευθερίας=for freedom; Pr 10:24 ἐ. δικαίου δεκτή; ἄνερ ἐπιθυμιῶν GrBar 1:3; Jos., C. Ap. 1, 111) ἐπιθυμίαν ἔχειν εἴς τι have a longing for someth. Phil 1:23 (ἐ. ἔχειν as Jos., C. Ap. 1, 255; ἐ. εἰς as Thu. 4, 81, 2). ἐπιθυμίᾳ ἐπιθυμεῖν (Gen 31:30) eagerly desire Lk 22:15 (s. on ἐπιθυμέω); ἐν πολλῇ ἐ. w. great longing 1 Th 2:17. ἐλπίζει μου ἡ ψυχὴ τῇ ἐπιθυμίᾳ μου μὴ παραλελοιπέναι τι I hope that, in accordance with my desire, nothing has been omitted B 17:1. ἡ ἐ. καὶ ἡ ἀγρυπνία 21:7. ε. ἀγαθὴν καὶ σεμνήν Hm 12, 1, 1.
    a desire for someth. forbidden or simply inordinate, craving, lust (as early as Plato, Phd. 83b ἡ τοῦ ὡς ἀληθῶς φιλοσόφου ψυχὴ οὕτως ἀπέχεται τ. ἡδονῶν τε καὶ ἐπιθυμιῶν κτλ.; Polystrat. p. 30; Duris [III B.C.]: 76 Fgm. 15 Jac.; then above all, the Stoics [EZeller, Philos. d. Griechen III/14, 1909, 235ff], e.g. Epict. 2, 16, 45; 2, 18, 8f; 3, 9, 21 al.; Maximus Tyr. 24, 4a μέγιστον ἀνθρώπῳ κακὸν ἐπιθυμία; Herm. Wr. 1, 23; 12, 4, also in Stob. p. 444, 10 Sc.; Wsd 4:12; Sir 23:5; 4 Macc 1:22; 3:2 al.; ApcMos 19 ἐ. … κεφαλὴ πάσης ἁμαρτίας; Philo, Spec. Leg. 4, 93, Leg. All. 2, 8, Vi. Cont. 74; Jos., Bell. 7, 261, Ant. 4, 143) Ro 7:7f; Js 1:14f; 2 Pt 1:4. ἐ. πονηρά (X., Mem. 1, 2, 64; Ar. 8, 4) Hv 1, 2, 4; 3, 7, 3; 3, 8, 4; m 8:5. ἐ. κακή (Pla., Leg. 9, 854a; Pr 12:12; 21:26; Just., A I, 10, 6) Col 3:5.—Of sexual desire (as early as Alcaeus [acc. to Plut., Mor. 525ab]; lead tablet fr. Hadrumetum 7 in Dssm., B 28 [BS 273ff] and IDefixWünsch no. 5 p. 23; PGM 17a, 9; 21; Sus Theod. 8; 11; 14 al., LXX 32; Jos., Ant. 4, 130; 132; Ath. 33, 1 μέτρον ἐπιθυμίας ἡ παιδοποιία; Did., Gen. 151, 27 ἄλογος ἐ.) D 3:3. πάθος ἐπιθυμίας 1 Th 4:5. κατʼ ἐπιθυμίαν (cp. Epict. 3, 15, 7; M. Ant. 2, 10, 1; 2; 3; Just., A II, 5, 4; Ath. 21, 1) in accordance with physical desire alone IPol 5:2. πρὸς ἐπιθυμίαν τ. ἀνθρώπων Ox 840, 38 (Ps.-Pla., Eryx. 21, 401e πρὸς τὰς ἐπιθυμίας τοῦ σώματος=to satisfy the desires of the body; cp. 405e: gambling, drunkenness and gluttony are called ἐπιθυμίαι.—In Ox 840, 38, since the ν in ἐπιθυμίαν is missing and restored, the word might also be ἐπιθυμίας.). ἐ. γυναικός (Da 11:37) Hm 6, 2, 5; 12, 2, 1. Pl. (oft. LXX; EpArist 256; Philo) w. παθήματα Gal 5:24. In a list of vices (cp. Philo, Congr. Erud. Grat. 172, Migr. Abr. 60, Vi. Cont. 2) 1 Pt 4:3; D 5:1. ἐ. πολλαὶ ἀνόητοι many foolish desires 1 Ti 6:9; νεωτερικαὶ ἐ. youthful desires 2 Ti 2:22 (WMetzger, TZ 33, ’77, 129–36); κατὰ τὰς ἰδίας ἐ. in accordance w. their own desires 4:3; cp. πρὸς τὰς ἰ. ἐ. Pol. 7:1; κατὰ τὰς ἐ. αὐτῶν AcPl Ha 8, 20 (for this: ἀνομίας AcPl BMM recto, 26, restored after Ox 1602, 27). αἱ πρότερον ἐν τῇ ἀγνοίᾳ ἐ. the desires that ruled over you formerly, when you were ignorant 1 Pt 1:14.—W. gen.: subjective gen. ἐ. ἀνθρώπων 1 Pt 4:2; τοῦ πατρὸς ὑμῶν J 8:44; gen. of quality ἐ. μιασμοῦ defiling passion 2 Pt 2:10; cp. μιαρὰς ἐ. 1 Cl 28:1; βδελυκτὰς ἐ. 30:1. ἐ. τῆς ἀπάτης deceptive desires Eph 4:22. τῶν ἐ. τῶν ματαίων 2 Cl 19:2; cp. Hm 11, 8. ἐ. τῶν ἀσεβειῶν Jd 18. ἐ. τῆς πονηρίας evil desire Hv 1, 1, 8. ἐ. τῆς ἀσελγείας 3, 7, 2; the gen. can also indicate the origin and seat of the desire ἐ. τῶν καρδιῶν of the hearts (Sir 5:2) Ro 1:24. τῆς καρδίας … τῆς πονηρᾶς 1 Cl 3:4. ἐ. τοῦ θνητοῦ σώματος Ro 6:12 (Ps.-Pla., Eryx. 21, 401e, s. above; Sextus 448 ἐπιθυμίαι τοῦ σώματος). τῆς σαρκός Eph 2:3; 1J 2:16; 2 Pt 2:18; B 10, 9. τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν 1J 2:16; to denote someth. to which desire belongs gener. vs. 17; σαρκικαὶ ἐ. (Hippol., Ref. 5, 9, 22; Did., Gen. 62, 3) 1 Pt 2:11; D 1:4; σωματικαὶ ἐ. (4 Macc 1:32) ibid.; κοσμικαὶ ἐ. worldly desires Tit 2:12; 2 Cl 17:3; ἐ. τῶν ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ Pol 5:3; εἰς ἐ. to arouse desires Ro 13:14; ποιεῖν τὰς ἐ. act in accordance w. the desires J 8:44. τελεῖν ἐ. σαρκός gratify the cravings of the flesh Gal 5:16; ὑπακούειν ταῖς ἐ. obey the desires Ro 6:12; δουλεύειν ἐ. be a slave to the desires Tit 3:3; cp. δοῦλος ἐπιθυμίας IPol 4:3. ἄγεσθαι ἐπιθυμίαις be led about by desires 2 Ti 3:6. πορεύεσθαι κατὰ τὰς ἐ. Jd 16; 18; 2 Pt 3:3; ἐν ἐπιθυμίαις (Sir 5:2) 1 Pt 4:3; ταῖς ἐ. τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου Hs 6, 2, 3; 6, 3, 3; 7:2; 8, 11, 3. ἀναστρέφεσθαι ἐν ταῖς ἐ. Eph 2:3.—BEaston, Pastoral Ep. ’47, 186f; RAC II 62–78. S. πόθος.—Schmidt, Syn. III 591–601. M-M. TW. Sv.

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  • 193 ἐπιστάτης

    ἐπιστάτης, ου, ὁ (s. prec. entry; Hom. et al., freq. as an administrative t.t.; used for var. officials in lit., ins, pap, LXX; Jos., Ant. 8, 59, C. Ap. 2, 177) in Lk six times in the voc. ἐπιστάτα as a title addressed to Jesus, nearly always by the disciples (the synopt. parallels have διδάσκαλε [cp. Ammonius, 100 A.D., p. 45 Valck. and Philo, Poster. Cai. 54 ἐπ. κ. διδάσκαλοι], κύριε, ῥαββί) master (cp. IG XII/1, 43, 21f ἐπιστάταν τῶν παιδῶν; IPriene 112, 73ff [after 84 B.C.] ἐ. τῶν ἐφήβων whose task was τὰς ψυχὰς πρὸς ἀρετὴν προάγεσθαι; Rouffiac p. 56f.—Diod S 3, 72, 1 Aristaeus the tutor of Dionysus; 3, 73, 4 Olympus the tutor of Zeus; and 10, 3, 4 Pherecydes the teacher of Pythagoras are all called ἐπιστάτης) Lk 5:5; 8:24, 45; 9:33, 49; 17:13.—OGlombitza, ZNW 49, ’58, 275–78.—DELG s.v. ἵστημι. M-M. TW.

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  • 194 ἔρχομαι

    ἔρχομαι impv. ἔρχου, ἔρχεσθε; impf. ἠρχόμην; fut. ἐλεύσομαι; 2 aor. ἦλθον, and the mixed forms ἦλθα (W-S. §13, 13; B-D-F §81, 3; Mlt-H. 208f), ἤλθοσαν (LXX; TestAbr A 20 p. 103, 12 [Stone p. 54]), ἤλθωσαν (GJs 21:1; ἤλθωσιν17:3; s. deStrycker p. 246f); pf. ἐλήλυθα; plpf. 3 sg. ἐληλύθει 3 Km 10:10, 12 (Hom.+). This multipurpose marker is not readily susceptible to precise classification, but the following outline of usage covers the principal lines:
    of movement from one point to another, with focus on approach from the narrator’s perspective, come
    of movement itself
    α. abs. ἔρχου καὶ ἔρχεται Mt 8:9; Lk 7:8; cp. Mt 22:3; Lk 14:17; J 5:7; Ac 10:29; 1 Cor 11:34; Rv 8:3 al. κραυγὴ γέγονεν• ἰδοὺ ὁ νυμφίος ἔρχεται Mt 25:6 v.l. (Jos., Bell. 5, 272 βοῶντες• ὁ υἱὸς ἔρχεται). οἱ ἐρχόμενοι καὶ οἱ ὑπάγοντες Mk 6:31. ἦλθε δρομέως came on the run AcPl Ha 4, 30 (TestAbr A 5 p. 82, 24 [Stone p. 12] ἦλθεν δρομαία ἐπʼ αὐτούς=Sarah came to them on the run). Also w. the specif. mng. come back, return (Hom. et al.; Bar 4:37; 1 Esdr 5:8; Tob 2:3 BA) J 4:27; 9:7; Ro 9:9; of Joseph GJs 16:2 (foll. by κατέβη of Mary; both Joseph and Mary ‘return’ from an uninhabited area). Come before the judgment-seat of God 2 Cl 9:4. Come in a hostile sense Lk 11:22 P75 et al. (cp. X., Hellenica 6, 5, 43).
    β. used w. prepositions: ἀπό w. gen. of place (Herodian 1, 17, 8 ἀ. τοῦ λουτροῦ; ἀ. βορρᾶς PsSol 11:3; ἀ. τῆς μεγάλης πόλεως TestAbr A 2 p. 78, 30 [Stone p. 4]) Mk 7:1; 15:21; Ac 18:2; 2 Cor 11:9; w. gen. of pers. Mk 5:35; J 3:2b; Gal 2:12.—ἐκ w. gen. of place Lk 5:17; J 3:31b.—εἰς w. acc. of place into Mt 2:11; 8:14; 9:1; Mk 1:29; 5:38; Lk 23:42 (cp. 1bα below, end); J 11:30; εἰς Κόρινθον AcPl Ha 6, 2 (εἰς τὸν παράδεισον TestAbr A 11 p. 90, 1 [Stone p. 28]). to, toward J 11:38; 20:3. εἰς τὸ πέραν Mt 8:28; 16:5. εἰς τ. ἑορτήν to the festival, i.e. to celebrate it J 4:45b; 11:56. ἐκ … εἰς J 4:54.—διά w. gen. of place and εἰς Mk 7:31; ὁ … ἐρχόμενος διᾶ τῆς θύρας one who enters by the gate 10:2 (P75).—μετά w. gen. of pers. ἵνα ἔλθῶ μετʼ αὐτοῦ ἐν τῇ δόξη τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ so that I might return with him in the glory of his Father AcPl Ha 10, 8. ἐν w. dat. of the thing w. which one comes Ro 15:29. ἐν ῥάβδῳ 1 Cor 4:21, also to denote the state of being in which one comes ἐν πνεύματι Lk 2:27; cp. Ro 15:32; w. dat. of the pers. who accompanies someone Jd 14.—ἐπί w. acc. of place over Mt 14:28, to (JosAs 26:5; ParJer 8:4; Jos., Ant. 7, 16; Just., D. 88, 3) Lk 19:5; Ac 12:10, 12; w. acc. of thing to (PTor I, 1; II, 29 [116 B.C.] ἔρχεσθαι ἐπὶ τὸ κριτήριον; Jos., Ant. 12, 395) Mt 3:7; Mk 11:13b; w. acc. of pers. to (ἐπὶ γυναῖκα Just., A I, 33, 3) J 19:33; Ac 24:8 v.l.; against Lk 14:31 (1 Macc 5:39 ἔρχ. ἐπί τινα εἰς πόλεμον; Jos., Ant. 7, 233; Mel., P. 17, 114).—κατά w. acc. of place to Lk 10:33; Ac 16:7; AcPl Ha 2, 5.—παρά w. acc. of place to Mt 15:29; w. gen. of pers. from Lk 8:49.—πρός w. acc. of pers. to (X., Mem. 1, 2, 27; En 106:4; JosAs 3:6; Jos., Ant. 2, 106; 11, 243; Just., D. 77, 4) Mt 3:14; 7:15; Mk 9:14; Lk 1:43; J 1:29, 47; 2 Cor 13:1 and oft. ἀπό τινος (gen. of pers.) πρός τινα 1 Th 3:6.
    γ. w. an adverb of place ἄνωθεν ἔ. J 3:31. ἐκεῖ 18:3. ἐνθάδε 4:16. ὄπισθεν Mk 5:27. πόθεν (Jdth 10:12) J 3:8; 8:14; Rv 7:13. ποῦ Hb 11:8. ὧδε Mt 8:29; Ac 9:21 (ApcEsdr 5:10; ApcSed 9:4; cp. ParJer 7:16 ἐνταῦθα. The adv. w. a case funct. as prep. ἄχρι τινός Ac 11:5. ἐγγύς τινος Hv 4, 1, 9. ἕως τινός Lk 4:42 (ApcMos 34 ἐλθὲ ἕως ἐμοῦ).
    δ. w. a case, without a prep.: dat. of pers. come to someone (Aeschyl., Prom. 358; Thu. 1, 13, 3; X., An. 7, 7, 30; BGU 1041, 16 [II A.D.] ὅτι ἔρχομαί σοι) Mt 21:5 (Zech 9:9); Rv 2:5, 16.
    ε. The purpose of coming is expressed by an inf. (Eur., Med. 1270, also Palaeph. p. 62, 12; 1 Macc 16:22; Bel 40 Theod.; 1 Esdr 1:23; 5:63; TestSol 5 D ἦλθε θεάσασθαι; TestAbr B 5 p. 109, 21 [Stone p. 66] ἔρχομαι … κοιμηθῆναι; Just., D. 78, 7 ὸ̔ν ἐληλύθεισαν προσκυνῆσαι) Mt 2:2; 12:42; Mk 15:36; Lk 1:59; 3:12 al.; by a fut. ptc. (Hom. et al.) Mt 27:49; Ac 8:27; by a pres. ptc. Lk 13:6 (TestJob 9:8 αἰτοῦντες); by ἵνα J 10:10; 12:9b (TestJob 34:5; ApcMos 29); εἰς τοῦτο ἵνα Ac 9:21; διά τινα J 12:9a.
    ζ. Single forms of ἔ. are used w. other verbs to denote that a person, in order to do someth., must first come to a certain place: in parataxis ἔρχεται καί, ἦλθεν καί etc. (Ex 19:7; 2 Km 13:36; 2 Esdr 5:16; JosAs 10:6; TestJob 8:3; ApcMos 37) Mt 13:19, 25; Mk 2:18; 4:15; 5:33; 6:29; 12:9; 14:37; Lk 8:12, 47; J 6:15; 11:48; 12:22; 19:38; 20:19, 26; 21:13; 3J 3; Rv 5:7; 17:1; 21:9. ἔρχου καὶ ἴδε J 1:46; 11:34. ἔρχεσθε καὶ ὄψεσθε 1:39. A ptc. of ἔ. followed by a finite verb ἐλθών (Hdt. 2, 115; LXX; TestJob 7:1; Just., D. 8, 4 al.) Mt 2:8; 8:7; 9:10, 18 (cp. εἷς 3b; προσέρχομαι 1a); 12:44; 14:12; 18:31; 27:64; 28:13; Mk 7:25; 12:14, 42; 14:45; 16:1; Ac 16:37, 39. ἐρχόμενος Lk 13:14; 16:21; 18:5. The participial constr. is best transl. come and. In some pass. ἐλθών is to be rendered when (someone) has come J 16:8; 2 Cor 12:20; Phil 1:27 (opp. ἀπών).—Instead of the transcription ]λη λυθεισα POxy 1081, 3, read after the Coptic SJCh 88, 19–89, 1: ἐ]ληλύθεισαν.
    of making an appearance come before the public, appear (cp. ἦλθον εἰς τόνδε τὸν κόσμον ‘I was born’ Ar. 1, 1).
    α. of Jesus as Messiah Lk 3:16; J 4:25; 7:27, 31, who for this reason (on the basis of pass. like Ps 117:26; Hab 2:3; Da 7:13 Theod.) is called ὁ ἐρχόμενος Mt 11:3; Lk 7:19f; Hb 10:37 (Hab 2:3), or ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀνόματι κυρίου Mt 21:9; 23:39; Mk 11:9; Lk 13:35; 19:38; J 12:13 (in all cases Ps 117:26); also in John, in whose writings the idea of Jesus having come heaven-sent to the earth is of considerable importance J 16:28: (ὁ προφήτης) ὁ ἐρχόμενος εἰς τ. κόσμον J 6:14; 11:27 (cp. ἐρχόμενος εἰς τ. κόσμον ἐπὶ τὸ ὄρος τῶν ἐλαιῶν ParJer 9:20). Of the appearance of Jesus among humans (s. Harnack, ‘Ich bin gekommen’: ZTK 22, 1912, 1–30; AFrövig, D. Sendungsbewusstsein Jesu u. d. Geist 1924, 129ff) Mt 11:19; Lk 7:34; J 5:43; 7:28; 8:42. Foll. by the inf. of purpose Mt 5:17; 10:34f; Lk 19:10. W. ἵνα foll. J 10:10b (ἦλθον, as here, Herm. Wr. 1, 30). W. εἰς τ. κόσμον and ἵνα foll. 12:46; 18:37; εἰς κρίμα, ἵνα 9:39; w. inf. foll. 1 Ti 1:15. ἔ. ἐν σαρκί come in the flesh 1J 4:2; 2J 7; B 5:10f. εἰς σάρκα AcPlCor 1:14. ἔ διʼ ὕδατος καὶ αἵματος 1J 5:6 w. the continuation ἐν τ. ὕδατι καὶ ἐν τ. αἵματι (on the mng. of the prep. s. B-D-F §223, 3; 198, 4). ὀπίσω w. gen. come after of Christ in relation to his forerunner Mt 3:11; Mk 1:7; J 1:15, 27, 30. The idea of coming is even plainer in connection w. the coming of the Human One (Son of Man), the return of Jesus fr. his heavenly home Mt 10:23; Ac 1:11 (opp. πορεύεσθαι); 1 Cor 4:5; 11:26; 2 Th 1:10 (Just., D. 28, 2 al.). W. ἐν τῇ δόξῃ Mt 16:27; 25:31; Mk 8:38; Lk 9:26 (cp. ἔνδοξος … ἐλεύσεται Just., D. 49, 2). ἐπὶ τ. νεφελῶν μετὰ δυνάμεως καὶ δόξης Mt 24:30 (Just., D. 31, 1). ἐν νεφέλαις, νεφέλῃ etc. Mk 13:26; Lk 21:27. ἐν τ. βασιλείᾳ αὐτοῦ in his kingdom Mt 16:28; Lk 23:42 v.l.
    β. of forerunners of the Messiah and those who identify themselves as such: Elijah Mt 11:14; 17:10, 11, 12; Mk 9:11, 12, 13 (Just., D. 49, 1); John the Baptist Mt 11:18; Lk 7:33; J 1:31; w. εἰς μαρτυρίαν for testimony 1:7. Others, including false messiahs, false teachers, and an antichrist Mt 24:5; Mk 13:6; Lk 21:8 (ἐπὶ τ. ὀνόματί μου calling on my name); J 10:8; 2 Cor 11:4; 2 Pt 3:3; 1J 2:18.
    to proceed on a course, with destination in view, go (Hom. et al.; LXX) ὀπίσω τινός go with (lit. ‘after’) someone fig., of a disciple Mt 16:24; Mk 8:34 v.l.; Lk 9:23; 14:27. ἐπί τι go to someth. Mt 21:19; Mk 11:13a (w. indir. quest. foll.). πρός τινα Lk 15:20. σύν τινι J 21:3. ἔ. ὁδόν go on a journey (Hom. et al.) Lk 2:44. S. also 1bα above.
    to change place or position, with implication of being brought, be brought (Hom. et al.; Thu. 6, 71, 2 χρήματα; Arrian, Anab. 2, 13, 5 ἀγγελία et al.) ὁ λύχνος the lamp is brought Mk 4:21. Sim. ἐλθούσης τ. ἐντολῆς when the commandment came Ro 7:9.
    to take place, come
    of time
    α. of temporal increments ἔρχονται ἡμέραι in future sense (1 Km 2:31; Am 8:11) Lk 23:29; Hb 8:8 (Jer 38:31); ἐλεύσονται ἡμ. Mt 9:15; Mk 2:20; Lk 5:35; 17:22; 21:6 (TestSol 13:7 C; Just., D. 40, 2). ἦλθεν ἡ ἡμέρα 22:7; Rv 6:17.—ἔρχεται ὥρα ὅτε the time is coming when J 4:21, 23; 5:25; 16:25; also ἔ. ὥρα ἐν ᾗ J 5:28; ἔ. ὥρα ἵνα 16:2, 32. ἦλθεν ἡ ὥρα the hour has come = the hour is here Mk 14:41b; J 16:4; Rv 14:7, 15; w. ἵνα foll. J 13:1 (ἥκω P66). ἐλήλυθεν ἡ ὥ. ἵνα 12:23; 16:32; without ἵνα 17:1; cp. 7:30; 8:20.—ἔρχεται νύξ 9:4 (Appian, Bell. Civ. 2, 40 §159 νυκτὸς ἐρχομένης). ἡμέρα κυρίου 1 Th 5:2. καιροί Ac 3:20 (GrBar 8:1 ὁ καιρός). τὸ πλήρωμα τ. χρόνου Gal 4:4.
    β. of events and situations that are connected w. a certain time ὁ θερισμός J 4:35. ὁ γάμος τ. ἀρνίου Rv 19:7. ἡ κρίσις 18:10. So also the ptc. ἐρχόμενος coming, future, imminent: αἰὼν ἐ. (=הָעוֹלָם הַבָּא) the age to come Mk 10:30; Lk 18:30; ἑορτὴ ἐ. the coming festival Ac 18:21 v.l.; σάββατον ἐ. 13:44; ὀργὴ ἐ. the wrath which will be revealed (at the Judgment) 1 Th 1:10. τὰ ἐρχόμενα what is to come (Is 44:7 τὰ ἐπερχόμενα) J 16:13. Of God in Rv ὁ ὢν κ. ὁ ἦν κ. ὁ ἐρχόμενος 1:4, 8; 4:8.
    of events and circumstances
    α. of natural or sensory phenomena (Hom. et al.; also TestAbr A 19 p. 102, 10 [Stone p. 52]; βροντῆς … καὶ ἀστραπῆς ἐλθούσης; ApcEsdr 5:7 νεφέλη) ποταμοί Mt 7:25, 27. κατακλυσμός Lk 17:27. λιμός Ac 7:11. Of rain ἔ. ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς come upon the earth Hb 6:7. Sim. of the coming down of birds fr. the air Mt 13:4, 32; Mk 4:4; of a voice resounding fr. heaven ἦλθεν φωνὴ ἐκ τ. οὐρανοῦ J 12:28 (Test Abr A 10 p. 88, 15 and 14 p. 94, 25 [Stone p. 24; p. 36]; Just., D. 88, 8; cp. Il. 10, 139; En 13:8; TestSol 1:3 VW; TestJob 3:1; ParJer 9:12; ApcEsdr 7:13).
    β. of transcendent and moral-spiritual phenomena: of spiritual coming of God come, appear J 14:23; of Christ ibid. and vss. 3, 18, 28; of the Paraclete 15:26; 16:7, 13.—ἡ ἀποστασία 2 Th 2:3. ἡ βασιλεία τ. θεοῦ Mt 6:10; Lk 11:2 (MBurrows, JBL 74, ’55, 1–8); 17:20; 22:18 al.; 1 Cl 42:3.—τ. σκάνδαλα Mt 18:7; Lk 17:1. τὰ ἀγαθά Ro 3:8 (cp. Jer. 17:6). τὸ τέλειον 1 Cor 13:10. ἡ πίστις Gal 3:23, 25.
    ἐ. in var. prepositional combinations ἔ. ἐκ τ. θλίψεως have suffered persecution Rv 7:14. ἔ. εἰς τὸ χεῖρον Mk 5:26 (Witkowski no. 36, 12=White no. 35 τοῦ παιδίου εἰς τὰ ἔσχατα ἐληλυθότος of a child in desperate circumstances; TestAbr A 20 p. 102, 27 [Stone p. 52] εἰς θάνατον ἔρχονται). εἰς τοσαύτην ἀπόνοιαν, ὥστε 1 Cl 46:7 (Hyperid. 2, 5 εἰς τοῦτο ἀπονοίας ἔ., ὥστε). εἰς πειρασμόν Mk 14:38 (cp. Himerius, Or. 48 [Or. 14], 19 εἰς ἐπιθυμίαν ἐλθεῖν). εἰς ἀπελεγμόν Ac 19:27. εἰς τὴν ὥραν ταύτην J 12:27. ἔ. εἰς κρίσιν submit to judgment (letter of Philip in Demosth. 12, 11; 16; ApcEsdr 2:26 ἔλθωμεν ὁμοῦ εἰς κρίσιν) 5:24. εἰς ἐπίγνωσιν 1 Ti 2:4; 2 Ti 3:7 (Polyb. 6, 9, 12; Appian, Mithr. 31 §123 ἔρχεσθαι ἐς γνῶσίν τινος; Cebes 12, 3 εἰς τὴν ἀληθινὴν παιδείαν ἐλθεῖν; TestSol 20:5 εἰς ἔννοιαν ἐλθεῖν; Just., D. 90, 1 οὐδʼ εἰς ἔννοιαν τούτου ἐλθεῖν). ἵνα ἔλθω εἰς τὴν ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀνάστασιν so that I might realize the resurrection of the dead (cp. ApcMos 10 εἰς τὴν ἡμέραν τῆς ἀναστάσεως) AcPlCor 2:35. εἰς φανερόν come to light Mk 4:22; Lk 8:17. εἰς προκοπήν result in furthering Phil 1:12 (cp. Wsd 15:5). ἔ. εἴς τι of the writer of a letter come to, i.e. deal with someth. (a new subject) 2 Cor 12:1 (cp. w. ἐπὶ Ar. 2:1 al.; Just., D. 42 ἐπὶ τὸν λόγον). εἰς ἑαυτόν come to oneself (=to one’s senses) (Diod S 13, 95, 2; Epict. 3, 1, 15; TestJos 3:9; GrBar 17:3; Sb 5763, 35) Lk 15:17. ἐπί τινα of serious misfortunes come over someone (Dt 28:15; Jos., Ant. 4, 128) J 18:4 (cp. PIand 21, 2 ἡμῶν τὰ ἐρχόμενα οὐκ οἶδα); tortures IRo 5:3; blood upon the murderers Mt 23:35; the Holy Spirit comes down upon someone (cp. Ezk 2:2; Just., D. 49, 7; 88, 1 ἐλεύσεσθαι ἐπʼ αὐτὸν τὰς δυνάμεις) Mt 3:16; Lk 11:2 v.l.; Ac 19:6; peace Mt 10:13; the wrath of God Eph 5:6; cp. Col 3:6; ἡ βασιλεία Lk 11:2 D; ἔ. πρὸς τ. Ἰησοῦν come to Jesus = become disciples of Jesus J 5:40; 6:35, 37, 44f, 65; πρὸς τ. πατέρα 14:6. ἔ. ὑπὸ τὸν ζυγόν 1 Cl 16:17 (cp. PsSol 18, 7f. ὑπὸ ῥάβδον παιδείας Χριστοῦ).—Not infreq. the pres. ἔρχομαι has the mng. of the fut.: Mt 17:11; Lk 12:54 (corresp. to καύσων ἔσται vs. 55); 19:13; J 14:3. Esp. also ἕως ἔρχομαι until I shall come J 21:22f; 1 Ti 4:13; Hs 5, 2, 2; 9, 10, 5; 6; 9, 11, 1. S. B-D-F §323; 383, 1; Rob. 869. S. also 4aα above.—B. 696. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW.

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  • 195 Ἡρῴδης

    Ἡρῴδης, ου, ὁ (freq.; also in ins [OGI index I] and pap [Preisigke, Namenbuch], where it is not infrequently found in the correct [B-D-F §26; Mlt-H. 84] spelling with ι; s. Schürer I 294, 20) Herod, name of Idumaean princes forming a dynasty, whose rule in Palestine was established through the favor of Mark Antony and Octavian toward 1; the dynasty continued to rule, though in varied forms, until after the death of 3.—WOtto, Herodes. Beiträge z. Gesch. d. letzten jüd. Königshauses 1913; HWillrich, D. Haus des H. zwischen Jerusalem u. Rom 1929; MStern, in CRINT I/1 216–307; Pauly-W. Suppl. II 1–191. BHHW II 696–763.
    Herod I, the Great (41 [37]–4 B.C.) Mt 2:1–22; Lk 1:5; GJs 21:2; 22:1; 23:1f; 25:1 (Just., A I, 31, 2 al.). A palace built by him and named after him is mentioned Ac 23:35.—Schürer I 287–329; EMeyer II 322–27; ASchalit, König Herodes ’69 (transl. by JAmir from the Hebr. of ’60).; MGrant, Herod the Great ’71; EncJud VIII 375–87; ABD III 161–69.
    the son of 1, Herod Antipas (4 B.C.–39 A.D.), tetrarch of Galilee and Perea (Jos., Ant. 17, 318), mentioned in the NT because of (among other things) his clash w. John the Baptist, whom he had executed (s. Ἰωάννης 1). The synoptics state that John raised objections to the tetrarch’s marriage to Herodias (q.v.), who forsook one of his brothers to marry him. Acc. to Lk (and GPt) this Herod played a role in the passion story (AVerrall, JTS 10, 1909, 322–53; MDibelius, ZNW 16, 1915, 113–26; KBornhäuser, NKZ 40, 1929, 714–18; JBlinzler, Her. Ant. u. Jes. Chr. ’47; VHarlow, The Destroyer of Jesus. The Story of Herod Antipas ’54; HHoehner, Herod Antipas ’72). Mt 14:1, 3, 6; Mk 6:14–22; 8:15; Lk 3:1, 19; 8:3; 9:7, 9; 13:31; 23:7–15; Ac 4:27; 13:1; ISm 1:2; GEb 13, 74; GPt 1:1f; 2:4f. Called βασιλεύς Mk 6:14; cp. Mt 14:9; GEb 13, 74; GPt 1:2 (ApcEsdr 4:11 p. 28, 11 Tdf.; Just., D. 103, 3f al.; Mel., P. 93, 704).—Schürer I 340–53.
    Herod Agrippa I (s. Ἀγρίππας 1) Ac 12:1, 6, 11, 19, 21.
    a police magistrate in Smyrna (s. εἰρήναρχος) MPol 6:2; 8:2; 17:2, 21.—SPerowne, The Later Herods ’58.—ISBE II 688–98. M-M. EDNT.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > Ἡρῴδης

  • 196 Ἰσραήλ

    Ἰσραήλ, ὁ indecl. (יִשְׂרָאֵל. For the sp. Ἰστραήλ s. B-D-F 39, 5; on the mng. Just., D. 125, 1ff; Mel., P. 82, 603 w. note p. 185 Perler) (LXX, pseudepigr., Philo, Just., Mel.; PGM 4, 3034; 3055 al.—Jos., Ant. 1, 333 Ἰσράηλος).
    the patriarch Jacob, Israel; οἱ ἐξ Ἰ. the descendants of Israel Ro 9:6a. Also ἐκ γένους Ἰ. Phil 3:5 (cp. 1 Esdr 1:30; Jdth 6:2); οἶκος Ἰ. the house of Israel=all the descendants of the patr. (cp. Jdth 14:5; 3 Macc 2:10) Mt 10:6; 15:24; Ac 2:36; 7:42 (Am 5:25); Hb 8:10 (Jer 38:33); 1 Cl 8:3 (quot. of unknown orig.; AcPlCor 2:10). Also υἱοὶ Ἰ. (Mi 5:2; Sir 46:10; 47:2 and oft.) Mt 27:9; Lk 1:16; Ac 5:21; 7:23, 37; 9:15; 10:36; Ro 9:27b; 2 Cor 3:7, 13; Hb 11:22; Rv 2:14; 7:4; 21:12; AcPlCor 2:32 (also in sense of 2). On the other hand, ὁ οἶκος Ἰ. Hb 8:8 in contrast to οἶκος Ἰούδα (after Jer 38:31) means the people of the Northern Kingdom. Some of the pass. mentioned here may belong under
    the people/nation of Israel, Israel (Just., A I, 53, 4 τὸ δὲ Ἰουδαικὸν καὶ Σαμαρειτικὸν φῦλον Ἰ. κέκληνται ‘the Judean and Samaritan peoples are called Israel’) τὸν λαόν μου τὸν Ἰ. Mt 2:6; ἄκουε Ἰ. Mk 12:29 (Dt 6:4).—Lk 1:54; Ro 9:27a, 31; 10:19; 11:7, 25f; 1 Cl 29:2 (Dt 32:9); 43:5; ἐν τῷ Ἰ. Mt 8:10; 9:33; Lk 2:34; 4:25, 27; 7:9; 1 Cl 43:6; B 4:14; κατὰ τοῦ Ἰ. Ro 11:2; πρὸς τὸν Ἰ. Lk 1:80; Ro 10:21; B 5:2; τὶς τοῦ Ἰ. PtK 3; βασιλεὺς τοῦ Ἰ. Mt 27:42; Mk 15:32; J 1:49; 12:13; GPt 3:7; 4:11; 1 Cl 4:13; βασιλείαν τοῦ Ἰ. Ac 1:6; διδάσκαλος τοῦ Ἰ. J 3:10; πολιτεία τοῦ Ἰ. Eph 2:12; πόλεις τοῦ Ἰ. Mt 10:23. ὁ θεὸς (τοῦ) Ἰ. 15:31; Lk 1:68 (TestSol); ὁ θεὸς τοῦ λαοῦ τούτου Ἰ. Ac 13:17; γῆ Ἰ. Mt 2:20f; ὁ λαὸς Ἰ. Lk 2:32; Ac 4:10; 13:24. The pl. λαοὶ Ἰ. vs. 27 because of the quot. Ps 2:1 in vs. 25. πρεσβύτεροι τοῦ Ἰ. Ac 4:8 v.l. αἱ φυλαὶ τοῦ Ἰ. the tribes of Israel (CIG IV 9270 [Iconium; prob. Judean] ὁ θεὸς τ. φυλῶν τοῦ Ἰσραήλ) Mt 19:28; Lk 22:30; cp. Rv 7:4; 21:12. τὸ δωδεκάφυλον τοῦ Ἰ. the twelve tribes of Israel 1 Cl 55:6. τὸ δωδεκάσκηπτρον τοῦ Ἰ. 31:4; ἡ ἐλπὶς τοῦ Ἰ. Ac 28:20; παράκλησιν τοῦ Ἰ. Lk 2:25; λύτρωσιν Ἰ. vs. 28 v.l.; cp. λυτροῦσθαι τὸν Ἰ. 24:21; ἐρύσατο τὸν Ἰ. AcPl Ha 8, 10. ἵνα φανερωθῇ τῷ Ἰ. J 1:31. δοῦναι μετάοιαν τῷ Ἰ. Ac 5:31. ἤγαγεν τῷ Ἰ. σωτῆρα Ἰησοῦν 13:23.—Ἰ. is the main self-designation of God’s ancient people; fr. this as a starting-point it is also used of
    Christians as entitled to the term Israel, Israel (e.g. Just., D. 123, 7 Trypho asks ὑμεῖς Ἰ. ἐστε; 135, 3 Justin’s answer καὶ ἡμεῖς ἐκ τῆς κοιλίας τοῦ Χριστοῦ λατομηθέντες Ἰσραηλιτικὸν τὸ ἀληθινόν ἐσμεν γένος; cp. Plut., Mor. 352c Ἰσιακός ἐστιν ὡς ἀληθῶς of a genuine worshiper of Isis) in contrast to ὁ Ἰ. κατὰ σάρκα Israel in the physical sense 1 Cor 10:18. ὁ Ἰ. τοῦ θεοῦ the (true) divine Israel Gal 6:16. οὐ γὰρ πάντες οἱ ἐξ Ἰ. οὗτοι Ἰ. not all who are descended fr. Israel (=Jacob), or who belong to the Israelite nation, are really Israelites Ro 9:6.—FMaier, I. in d. Heilsgesch. nach Rö 9–11, 1929.—JJocz, A Theology of Election: Israel and the Church ’58; JMunck, Paul and the Salvation of Mankind (tr. GClarke) ’59; WTrilling, Das Wahre Israel (Mt)3 ’64; JvanGoudoever, NovT 8, ’66, 111–23 (Lk); GStrecker, D. Weg d. Gerechtigkeit, ’66, esp. 99–118.—EDNT. TW.

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  • 197 Ἰωσήφ

    Ἰωσήφ, ὁ indecl. (יוֹסֵף; Apollonius Molon [I B.C.]: 728 Fgm. 1, 3 Jac. [in Eus., PE 9, 19, 3]; Sb II 250, word-list; LXX; Test12Patr; JosAs; ApcEsdr p. 7, 10 and p. 32, 24 Tdf.; Philo; Just.; Mel., P. 59, 432.—EpArist: Ἰώσηφος; Jos. Ant. 2, 17; also C. Ap. 1, 92 Ἰώσηπος, ου) Joseph.
    the patriarch (Gen 30:24 and oft.; Test12Patr; JosAs; Demetr.: 722 Fgm. 1, 5 al. Jac; Philo, Mut. Nom. 90f and oft.; Just., D. 100, 1 al.; Mel., P. 59, 432) J 4:5; Ac 7:9, 13f, 18; Hb 11:21f; 1 Cl 4:9; B 13:4f; φυλὴ Ἰ. in Rv 7:8 stands for the half-tribe Ephraim which, w. its other half Manasseh vs. 6 brings the number of the tribes to twelve once more, after the loss of the tribe of Dan, to which acc. to tradition the Antichrist belongs (WBousset, Der Antichrist 1895, 112f).
    son of Jonam, in the genealogy of Jesus Lk 3:30.
    son of Mattathias Lk 3:24.
    husband of Mary the mother of Jesus (Just., D. 102, 2f; 103, 3) Mt 1:16 (BHHW II 886–89 [lit.]; PSchmiedel, PM 6, 1902, 88–93, SchTZ 31, 1914, 69–82; ibid. 32, 1915, 16–30; ERiggenbach, ibid. 31, 1914, 241–49; GKuhn, NKZ 34, 1923, 362–85; UHolzmeister, De S. Jos. Quaestiones Biblicae ’45), 18–20, 24; 2:13, 19; Lk 1:27; 2:4, 16, 33 v.l.; 3:23 (a genealogy in which the first name is given without the article, and all subsequent names have the article, as Theopomp. [IV B.C.]: 115 Fgm. 393 Jac.: in ascending order to Heracles; Diod S 5, 81, 6 Λέσβος ὁ Λαπίθου τοῦ Αἰόλου τοῦ Ἱππότου; Nicol. Dam.: 90 Fgm. 30 p. 343, 30 Jac. Δηιφόντῃ τῷ Ἀντιμάχου τοῦ Θρασυάνορος τοῦ Κτησίππου τοῦ Ἡρακλέους. Other exx. in Klostermann ad loc.; B-D-F §162, 2); 4:22; J 1:45; 6:42 (PMenoud, RTP 63, 1930, 275–84). GJs 9:1ff; 13:1ff; 14:1f; 15:1f, 4; 16:1ff; 17:1ff; 18:1; 19:1 (not pap); 21:1.
    a brother of Jesus Mt 13:55. Cp. Ἰωσῆς 1.
    Joseph of Arimathaea, member of the Sanhedrin, in whose tomb Jesus was buried Mt 27:57, 59; Mk 15:43, 45; Lk 23:50; J 19:38; GPt 6:23. Acc. to GPt 2:3 he was a friend of Pilate.—EvDobschütz, ZKG 23, 1902, 1–17.
    Joseph, surnamed Barnabas Ac 4:36. S. Ἰωσῆς 3.
    Joseph, surnamed Barsabbas (s. Βαρσαβ[β]ᾶς 1), also called Justus (s. Ἰοῦστος 1) Ac 1:23.
    son of a certain Mary Mt 27:56 (s. Ἰωσῆς 2).
    son of Joda Lk 3:26 v.l. (s. Ἰωσήχ).—M-M.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > Ἰωσήφ

  • 198 ὄνομα

    ὄνομα, ατος, τό (Hom.+).
    proper name of an entity, name
    gener. τῶν ἀποστόλων τὰ ὀνόματα ἐστιν ταῦτα Mt 10:2; cp. Rv 21:14. τῶν παρθένων τὰ ὀν. Hs 9, 15, 1. τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ πατρός Lk 1:59. ὄν. μοι, sc. ἐστίν, my name is (Od. 9, 366) Mk 5:9b. τί ὄν. σοι; what is your name? vs. 9a; w. copula Lk 8:30.—The expressions ᾧ (ᾗ) ὄν., οὗ τὸ ὄν., καὶ τὸ ὄν. αὐτοῦ (αὐτῆς), ὄν. αὐτῷ (parenthetic) are almost always without the copula (B-D-F §128, 3; Rob. 395): ᾧ (ᾗ) ὄν. (Sb 7573, 13 [116 A.D.]; Demetr.: 722 Fgm. 1, 5 Jac.; Just., A I, 53, 8 ᾧ ὄν. Λώτ) Lk 1:26, 27a; 2:25; 8:41; 24:13, 18 v.l.; Ac 13:6.—οὗ τὸ ὄν. (without a verb as BGU 344, 1) Mk 14:32. Cp. ὧν τὰ ὀνόματα ἐν βίβλῳ ζωῆς Phil 4:3 (ὧν τὰ ὀν. is a formula [Dssm., LO 95=LAE 121]. S. esp. BGU 432 II, 3 ὧν τὰ ὀν. τῷ βιβλιδίῳ δεδήλωται).—καὶ τὸ ὄν. αὐτῆς Lk 1:5b. καὶ τὸ ὄν. τῆς παρθένου Μαριάμ vs. 27b.—ὄν. αὐτῷ (Demosth. 32, 11 Ἀριστοφῶν ὄνομʼ αὐτῷ; Dionys. Hal. 8, 89, 4; Aelian, NA 8, 2 γυνὴ … Ἡρακληὶς ὄν. αὐτῇ; LXX) J 1:6; 3:1. ὁ καθήμενος ἐπάνω αὐτοῦ (i.e. τοῦ ἵππου), ὄν. αὐτῷ (ὁ) θάνατος Rv 6:8; cp. 9:11a.—W. the copula ἦν δὲ ὄν. τῷ δούλῳ Μάλχος J 18:10 (POxy 465, 12 ὁ δὲ κραταιὸς αὐτοῦ, ὄν. αὐτῷ ἐστιν Νεβύ, μηνύει; Jos., Ant. 19, 332). ἄγγελος …, οὗ τὸ ὄν. ἐστιν Θεγρί Hv 4, 2, 4.—The dat. is quite freq. ὀνόματι named, by name (X., Hell. 1, 6, 29 Σάμιος ὀνόματι Ἱππεύς; Tob 6:11 BA; 4 Macc 5:4; Just., D. 85, 6; 115, 3; B-D-F §160; 197; Rob. 487) ἄνθρωπον ὀν. Σίμωνα Mt 27:32; cp. Mk 5:22; Lk 1:5a; 5:27; 10:38; 16:20; 23:50; 24:18; Ac 5:1, 34; 8:9; 9:10–12, 33, 36; 10:1; 11:28; 12:13; 16:1, 14; 17:34; 18:2, 7, 24; 19:24; 20:9; 21:10; 27:1; 28:7; MPol 4. Also the acc. τοὔνομα (on the crasis s. B-D-F §18; Mlt-H. 63; FPreisigke, Griech. Urkunden des ägypt. Mus. zu Kairo [1911] 2, 6 γυνὴ Ταμοῦνις τοὔνομα; Diod S 2, 45, 4 πόλιν τοὔνομα Θ.; Lucian, Dial. Deor. 3; Philo, Leg. All. 1, 68; Jos., Ant. 7, 344, Vi. 382) named, by name (the acc. as X. et al., also 2 Macc 12:13; Demetr.: 722 Fgm. 1, 5 Jac. υἱὸν ὄ. Δάν.—B-D-F §160; Rob. 487) Mt 27:57. (Cp. ὄν. gener. as ‘mode of expression’ εἰ καὶ διάφορα ὀνόματα ἐστιν, ἀλλʼ … οἰκείαν … δέχεται τὴν νόησιν although there are various ways of expressing it, it nevertheless has a definite sense Did., Gen. 86, 22 [of various metaphors and images for the soul].)
    used w. verbs
    α. as their obj.: ὄν. ἔχειν Did., Gen. 29, 6 bear the name or as name, be named ὄν. ἔχει Ἀπολλύων Rv 9:11b (in this case the name Ἀ. stands independently in the nom.; B-D-F §143; Rob. 458). καλεῖν τὸ ὄν. τινος w. the name foll. in the acc. (after the Hb.; B-D-F §157, 2; Rob. 459) καλέσεις τὸ ὄν. αὐτοῦ Ἰησοῦν you are to name him Jesus Mt 1:21; Lk 1:31.—Mt 1:25. καλέσεις τὸ ὄν. αὐτοῦ Ἰωάννην Lk 1:13. καλέσουσιν τὸ ὄν. αὐτοῦ Ἐμμανουήλ Mt 1:23 (Is 7:14). διδόναι GJs 6:2. Pass. w. the name in the nom. (cp. GrBar 6:10 Φοῖνιξ καλεῖται τὸ ὄν. μου) ἐκλήθη τὸ ὄν. αὐτοῦ Ἰησοῦς Lk 2:21; cp. Rv 19:13. Also τὸ ὄν. τοῦ ἀστέρος λέγεται ὁ ῎ Αψινθος Rv 8:11.—ἐπιθεῖναι ὄν. τινι w. acc. of the name Mk 3:16f; cp. 12:8f; κληρονομεῖν ὄν. receive a name Hb 1:4=1 Cl 36:2. κληροῦσθαι τὸ αὐτὸ ὄν. obtain the same name (s. κληρόω 2) MPol 6:2.—τὰ ὀν. ὑμῶν ἐγγέγραπται ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς Lk 10:20.—Rv 13:8; 17:8. ἐξαλείψω τὸ ὄν. αὐτῶν 1 Cl 53:3 (Dt 9:14); Rv 3:5a (perh. to be placed in 4 below); s. ἐξαλείφω.
    β. in another way (εἰ δέ τις ὀνόματι καλέσει but if anyone is so named Hippol., Ref. 6, 20, 2): ὸ̔ς καλεῖται τῷ ὀνόματι τούτῳ who is so named Lk 1:61. ἀνὴρ ὀνόματι καλούμενος Ζακχαῖος a man whose name was Zacchaeus 19:2. καλεῖν τι (i.e. παιδίον) ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματί τινος name someone after someone 1:59. Cp. IMg 10:1. This leads to
    used w. prepositions: ἐξ ὀνόματος (Ctesias, Ind. p. 105 M.: Diod S 13, 15, 1; 37, 15, 2; Appian, Mithrid. 59, §243, Bell. Civ. 3, 21 §77; 4, 73 §310; PGM 4, 2973; Jos., Ant. 2, 275) by name, individually, one by one (so that no one is lost in the crowd) ἐξ ὀν. πάντας ζήτει IPol 4:2. ἀσπάζομαι πάντας ἐξ ὀνόματος 8:2. πάντες ἐξ ὀν. συνέρχεσθε (parallel to κατʼ ἄνδρα) IEph 20:2.—κατʼ ὄν. by name, individually (Diod S 16, 44, 2; Gen 25:13; EpArist 247; Jos., Bell. 7, 14) J 10:3 (New Docs 3, 77f; animals called individually by name: Ps.-Aristot., Mirabil. 118.—HAlmqvist, Plut. u. das NT ’46, 74). Esp. in greetings (BGU 27, 18 [II A.D.] ἀσπάζομαι πάντας τοὺς φιλοῦντάς σε κατʼ ὄν.; POxy 1070, 46; pap in Dssm., LO 160/1, ln. 14f [LAE 193, ln. 15, note 21]; New Docs 3, 77f) 3J 15; ISm 13:2b. ῥάβδους ἐπιγεγραμμένας ἑκάστης φυλῆς κατʼ ὄν. staffs, each one inscribed with the name of a tribe 1 Cl 43:2b.
    used in combination with God and Jesus. On the significance of the Divine Name in history of religions s. FGiesebrecht, Die atl. Schätzung des Gottesnamens 1901; Bousset, Rel.3 309ff; ADieterich, Eine Mithrasliturgie 1903, 110ff; FConybeare, JQR 8, 1896; 9, 1897, esp. 9, 581ff; JBoehmer, Das bibl. ‘im Namen’ 1898, BFCT V 6, 1901, 49ff, Studierstube 2, 1904, 324ff; 388ff; 452ff; 516ff; 580ff; BJacob, Im Namen Gottes 1903;WHeitmüller, ‘Im Namen Jesu’ 1903; WBrandt, TT 25, 1891, 565ff; 26, 1892, 193ff; 38, 1904, 355ff; RHirzel, Der Name: ASG 36, 2, 1918; Schürer III4 409–11; HObbink, De magische betekenis van den naam inzonderheid in het oude Egypte 1925; OGrether, Name u. Wort Gottes im AT ’34; HHuffman, Name: 1148–52.—The belief in the efficacy of the name is extremely old; its origin goes back to the most ancient times and the most primitive forms of intellectual and religious life. It has exhibited an extraordinary vitality. The period of our lit. also sees—within as well as without the new community of believers—in the name someth. real, a piece of the very nature of the personality whom it designates, expressing the person’s qualities and powers. Accordingly, names, esp. holy names, are revered and used in customary practices and ritual (σέβεσθαι θεῶν ὀνόματα Theoph. Ant., 1, 9 [p. 76, 7]), including magic. In Israelite tradition the greatest reverence was paid to the holy name of God and to its numerous paraphrases or substitutes; the names of angels and patriarchs occupied a secondary place. The syncretistic practices of the period revered the names of gods, daemons, and heroes, or even magic words that made no sense at all, but had a mysterious sound. The Judeo-Christians revere and use the name of God and, of course, the name of Jesus. On magic in Jewish circles, s. Schürer III 342–79; for the NT period in general s. MSmith, Clement of Alexandria and a Secret Gospel of Mark ’73, 195–230.—The names of God and Jesus
    α. in combination w. attributes: διαφορώτερον ὄν. a more excellent name Hb 1:4=1 Cl 36:2 (διάφορος 2). ἅγιον τὸ ὄν. αὐτοῦ Lk 1:49 (cp. Ps 110:9; Lev 18:21; 22:2; PGM 3, 570; 627; 4, 1005; 3071; 5, 77; 13, 561 μέγα κ. ἅγιον). τὸ μεγαλοπρεπὲς καὶ ἅγιον ὄν. αὐτοῦ 1 Cl 64; τὸ μέγα καὶ ἔνδοξον ὄν. Hv 4, 1, 3; 4, 2, 4 (on ἔνδοξον ὄν., cp. EPeterson, Εἷ θεός 1926, 282.—ὄν. μέγα κ. ἅγ. κ. ἔνδ.: PGM 13, 183f; 504f). τὸ μέγα καὶ θαυμαστὸν καὶ ἔνδοξον ὄν. Hs 9, 18, 5; τὸ πανάγιον καὶ ἔνδοξον ὄν. 1 Cl 58:1a; τοῦ παντοκράτορος καὶ ἐνδόξου ὄν. Hv 3, 3, 5; τὸ πανάρετον ὄν. 1 Cl 45:7; τῷ παντοκράτορι καὶ ἐνδόξῳ ὀνόματι 60:4; τὸ ὁσιώτατον τῆς μεγαλωσύνης αὐτοῦ ὄν. 58:1b. τὸ ὄν. μου θαυμαστὸν ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσι D 14:3 (cp. Mal 1:14). The words ὄν. θεοπρεπέστατον IMg 1:2 are difficult to interpret (s. Hdb. ad loc.; θεοπρεπής b).
    β. in combination w. verbs: ἁγιάζειν τὸ ὄν. Mt 6:9 (AFridrichsen, Helligt vorde dit naun: DTT 8, 1917, 1–16). Lk 11:2; D 8:2 (ἁγιάζω 3). βλασφημεῖν (q.v. bγ) τὸ ὄν. Rv 13:6; 16:9; pass. βλασφημεῖται τὸ ὄν. (Is 52:5) Ro 2:24; 2 Cl 13:1f, 4; ITr 8:2. βλασφημίας ἐπιφέρεσθαι τῷ ὀν. κυρίου bring blasphemy upon the name of the Lord 1 Cl 47:7. πφοσέθηκαν κατὰ ὄν. τοῦ κυρίου βλασφημίαν Hs 6, 2, 3; βεβηλοῦν τὸ ὄν. 8, 6, 2 (s. βεβηλόω). ἀπαγγελῶ τὸ ὄν. τ. ἀδελφοῖς μου Hb 2:12 (cp. Ps 21:23). ὅπως διαγγελῇ τὸ ὄν. μου ἐν πάσῃ τῇ γῇ Ro 9:17 (Ex 9:16). δοξάζειν τὸ ὄν. (σου, τοῦ κυρίου, τοῦ θεοῦ etc.) Rv 15:4; 1 Cl 43:6; IPhld 10:1; Hv 2, 1, 2; 3, 4, 3; 4, 1, 3; Hs 9, 18, 5 (s. δοξάζω 1; cp. GJs 7:2; 12:1[w. ref. to name of Mary]). ὅπως ἐνδοξασθῇ τὸ ὄν. τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ 2 Th 1:12. ἐλπίζειν τῷ ὀν. Mt 12:21 (vv.ll. ἐν or ἐπὶ τῷ ὀν.; the pass. on which it is based, Is 42:4, has ἐπὶ τῷ ὀν.). ἐπικαλεῖσθαι τὸ ὄν. κυρίου (as PsSol 6:1) or αὐτοῦ, σου etc. (w. ref. to God or Christ) call on the name of the Lord Ac 2:21 (Jo 3:5); 9:14, 21; 22:16; Ro 10:13 (Jo 3:5); 1 Cor 1:2. ψυχὴ ἐπικεκλημένη τὸ μεγαλοπρεπὲς καὶ ἅγιον ὄν. αὐτοῦ a person who calls upon his exalted and holy name 1 Cl 64.—Pass. πάντα τὰ ἔθνη ἐφʼ οὓς ἐπικέκληται τὸ ὄν. μου ἐπʼ αὐτούς Ac 15:17 (Am 9:12). τὸ καλὸν ὄν. τὸ ἐπικληθὲν ἐφʼ ὑμᾶς Js 2:7 (on καλὸν ὄν. cp. Sb 343, 9 and the Pompeian graffito in Dssm., LO 237 [LAE 276]). πάντες οἱ ἐπικαλούμενοι τῷ ὀν. αὐτοῦ all those who are called by (the Lord’s) name Hs 9, 14, 3; cp. οἱ κεκλημένοι τῷ ὀν. κυρίου those who are called by the name of the Lord 8, 1, 1. ἐπαισχύνεσθαι τὸ ὄν. κυρίου τὸ ἐπικληθὲν ἐπʼ αὐτούς be ashamed of the name that is named over them 8, 6, 4. ὁμολογεῖν τῷ ὀν. αὐτοῦ praise his name Hb 13:15 (cp. PsSol 15:2 ἐξομολογήσασθαι τῷ ὀνόματι σου). ὀνομάζειν τὸ ὄν. κυρίου 2 Ti 2:19 (Is 26:13). ψάλλειν τῷ ὀν. σου Ro 15:9 (Ps 17:50). οὐ μὴ λάβῃς ἐπὶ ματαίῳ τὸ ὄν. κυρίου 19:5 (Ex 20:7; Dt 5:11).—Although in the preceding examples the name is oft. practically inseparable fr. the being that bears it, this is perh. even more true of the foll. cases, in which the name appears almost as the representation of the Godhead, as a tangible manifestation of the divine nature (Quint. Smyrn. 9, 465 Polidarius, when healing, calls on οὔνομα πατρὸς ἑοῖο ‘the name of his father’ [Asclepius]; τοσοῦτον … δύναται τὸ ὄ. τοῦ Ἰησοῦ κατὰ τῶν δαιμόνων Orig., C. Cels. 1, 56, 11; Dt 18:7; 3 Km 8:16; Ps 68:37; Zech 13:2 ἐξολεθρεύσω τὰ ὀν. τῶν εἰδώλων; Zeph 1:4; PsSol 7:6; Just., D. 121, 3 ὑποτάσσεσθαι αὐτοῦ ὀν.): the ‘name’ of God is ἀρχέγονον πάσης κτίσεως 1 Cl 59:3. Sim. τὸ ὄν. τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ μέγα ἐστὶ καὶ τὸν κόσμον ὅλον βαστάζει Hs 9, 14, 5. λατρεύειν τῷ παναρέτῳ ὀν. αὐτοῦ worship the most excellent name (of the Most High) 1 Cl 45:7. ὑπακούειν τῷ παναγίῳ καὶ ἐνδόξῳ ὀν. αὐτοῦ be obedient to his most holy and glorious name 58:1a. ὑπήκοον γενέσθαι τῷ παντοκρατορικῷ καὶ παναρέτῳ ὀν. 60:4. κηρύσσειν τὸ ὄν. τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ Hs 9, 16, 5. ἐπιγινώσκειν τὸ ὄν. τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ 9, 16, 7. φοβεῖσθαι τὸ ὄν. σου Rv 11:18. φανεροῦν τινι τὸ ὄν. σου J 17:6. γνωρίζειν τινὶ τὸ ὄν. σου vs. 26. πιστεύειν τῷ ὀν. τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ believe in the name of (God’s) son 1J 3:23. Also πιστεύειν εἰς τὸ ὄν. (s. γב below and s. πιστεύω 2aβ).—Of the name borne by followers of Jesus Christ (cp. Theoph. Ant. 1, 1 [p. 58, 13]): κρατεῖς τὸ ὄν. μου you cling to my name Rv 2:13. The same mng. also holds for the expressions: λαμβάνειν τὸ ὄν. τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ Hs 9, 12, 4; 8; 9, 13, 2a; 7. τοῦ βαστάσαι τὸ ὄν. μου ἐνώπιον ἐθνῶν to bear my name before (the) Gentiles Ac 9:15. τὸ ὄν. ἡδέως βαστάζειν bear the name gladly Hs 8, 10, 3; cp. 9, 28, 5b. τὸ ὄν. τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ φορεῖν 9, 13, 3; 9, 14, 5f; 9, 15, 2; cp. 9, 13, 2b. Christians receive this name at their baptism: πρὶν φορέσαι τὸν ἄνθρωπον τὸ ὄν. τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ νεκρός ἐστιν before a person bears the name of God’s Son (which is given the candidate at baptism), he is dead 9, 16, 3. Of dissemblers and false teachers ὄν. μὲν ἔχουσιν, ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς πίστεως κενοί εἰσιν they have the (Christian) name, but are devoid of faith 9, 19, 2. Of Christians in appearance only ἐν ὑποκρίσει φέροντες τὸ ὄν. τοῦ κυρίου who bear the Lord’s name in pretense Pol 6:3. δόλῳ πονηρῷ τὸ ὄν. περιφέρειν carry the name about in wicked deceit (evidently of wandering preachers) IEph 7:1. τὸ ὄν. ἐπαισχύνονται τοῦ κυρίου αὐτῶν they are ashamed of their Lord’s name Hs 9, 21, 3. More fully: ἐπαισχύνονται τὸ ὄν. αὐτοῦ φορεῖν 9, 14, 6.
    γ. used w. prepositions
    א. w. διά and the gen. διὰ τοῦ ὀνόματός μου πιστεύειν PtK 3 p. 15 ln. 12; σωθῆναι διὰ τοῦ μεγάλου καὶ ἐνδόξου ὀν. be saved through the great and glorious name Hv 4, 2, 4. εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ εἰσελθεῖν διὰ τοῦ ὀν. τοῦ υἱοῦ (τοῦ θεοῦ) Hs 9, 12, 5. ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν λαβεῖν διὰ τοῦ ὀν. αὐτοῦ Ac 10:43 (cp. Just., D. 11, 4 al.). σημεῖα … γίνεσθαι διὰ τοῦ ὀν. … Ἰησοῦ by the power of the name 4:30. Differently παρακαλεῖν τινα διὰ τοῦ ὀν. τοῦ κυρίου appeal to someone by the name (= while calling on the name) of the Lord 1 Cor 1:10.—W. διά and the acc. μισούμενοι … διὰ τὸ ὄν. μου hated on account of my name (i.e., because you bear it) Mt 10:22; 24:9; Mk 13:13; Lk 21:17 (Just., A I, 4, 2 al.). ποιεῖν τι εἴς τινα διὰ τὸ ὄν. μου J 15:21. ἀφέωνται ὑμῖν αἱ ἁμαρτίαι διὰ τὸ ὄν. αὐτοῦ your sins are forgiven on account of (Jesus’) name 1J 2:12. βαστάζειν διὰ τὸ ὄν. μου bear (hardship) for my name’s sake Rv 2:3 (s. βαστάζω 2bβ). πάσχειν διὰ τὸ ὄν. (also w. a gen. like αὐτοῦ) Pol 8:2; Hv 3, 2, 1b; Hs 9, 28, 3.
    ב. w. εἰς: somet. evidently as rendering of rabb. לְשֵׁם with regard to, in thinking of δέχεσθαί τινα εἰς ὄν. Ἰ. Χρ. receive someone in deference to Jesus Christ IRo 9:3. δύο ἢ τρεῖς συνηγμένοι εἰς τὸ ἐμὸν ὄν. two or three gathered and thinking of me, i.e., so that I am the reason for their assembling Mt 18:20; but here the other mng. (s. ג below) has had some influence: ‘while naming’ or ‘calling on my name’. τῆς ἀγάπης ἧς ἐνεδείξασθε εἰς τὸ ὄν. αὐτοῦ (i.e. θεοῦ) Hb 6:10 is either the love that you have shown with regard to him, i.e. for his sake, or we have here the frequently attested formula of Hellenistic legal and commercial language (s. Mayser II/2 p. 415; Dssm. B 143ff, NB 25, LO 97f [BS 146f; 197; LAE 121]; Heitmüller, op. cit. 100ff; FPreisigke, Girowesen im griech. Ägypt. 1910, 149ff. On the LXX s. Heitmüller 110f; JPsichari, Essai sur le Grec de la Septante 1908, 202f): εἰς (τὸ) ὄν. τινος to the name=to the account (over which the name stands). Then the deeds of love, although shown to humans, are dedicated to God.—The concept of dedication is also highly significant, in all probability, for the understanding of the expr. βαπτίζειν εἰς (τὸ) ὄν. τινος. Through baptism εἰς (τὸ) ὄν. τ. those who are baptized become the possession of and come under the dedicated protection of the one whose name they bear. An additional factor, to a degree, may be the sense of εἰς τὸ ὄν.=‘with mention of the name’ (cp. Herodian 2, 2, 10; 2, 13, 2 ὀμνύναι εἰς τὸ ὄν. τινος; Cyranides p. 57, 1 εἰς ὄν. τινος; 60, 18=εἰς τὸ ὄν. τ.; 62, 13. Another ex. in Heitmüller 107): Mt 28:19; Ac 8:16; 19:5; D 7:1, (3); 9:5; Hv 3, 7, 3; cp. 1 Cor 1:13, 15. S. βαπτίζω 2c and Silva New, Beginn. I/5, ’33, 121–40.—πιστεύειν εἰς τὸ ὄν. τινος believe in the name of someone i.e. have confidence that the person’s name (rather in the sense of a title, cp. Phil 2:9) is rightfully borne and encodes what the person really is J 1:12; 2:23; 3:18; 1J 5:13.
    ג. with ἐν: ἐν ὀνόματι of God or Jesus means in the great majority of cases with mention of the name, while naming or calling on the name (PsSol 11:8; JosAs 9:1; Just., D. 35, 2 al.; no corresponding use has been found in gener. Gk. lit.; but cp. ἐν ὀν. τοῦ μεγάλου καὶ ὑψίστου θεοῦ Hippol., Ref. 9, 15, 6.—Heitmüller p. 13ff, esp. 44; 49). In many pass. it seems to be a formula. ἐν τῷ ὀν. Ἰησοῦ ἐκβάλλειν δαιμόνια Mk 9:38; 16:17; Lk 9:49. τὰ δαιμόνια ὑποτάσσεται ἡμῖν ἐν τῷ ὀν. σου the demons are subject to us at the mention of your name 10:17. ποιεῖν τι ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι Ac 4:7; cp. Col 3:17. Perh. J 10:25 (but s. below). ἐν τῷ ὀν. Ἰησοῦ … οὗτος παρέστηκεν ὑγιής Ac 4:10. ὄν. … ἐν ᾧ δεῖ σωθῆναι ἡμᾶς vs. 12. παραγγέλλω σοι ἐν ὀν. Ἰ. Χρ. 16:18; cp. 2 Th 3:6; IPol 5:1. σοὶ λέγω ἐν τῷ ὀν. τοῦ κυρίου Ac 14:10 D. Peter, in performing a healing, says ἐν τῷ ὀν. Ἰησοῦ Χρ. περιπάτει 3:6 (s. Heitmüller 60). The elders are to anoint the sick w. oil ἐν τῷ ὀν. τοῦ κυρίου while calling on the name of the Lord Js 5:14.—Of prophets λαλεῖν ἐν τῷ ὀν. κυρίου 5:10. παρρησιάζεσθαι ἐν τῷ ὀν. Ἰησοῦ speak out boldly in proclaiming the name of Jesus Ac 9:27f. βαπτίζεσθαι ἐν τῷ ὀν. Ἰ. Χ. be baptized or have oneself baptized while naming the name of Jesus Christ Ac 2:38 v.l.; 10:48. At a baptism ἐν ὀν. χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ AcPl Ha 3, 32. αἰτεῖν τὸν πατέρα ἐν τῷ ὀν. μου (=Ἰησοῦ) ask the Father, using my name J 15:16; cp. 14:13, 14; 16:24, 26. W. the latter pass. belongs vs. 23 (ὁ πατὴρ) δώσει ὑμῖν ἐν τῷ ὀν. μου (the Father) will give you, when you mention my name. τὸ πνεῦμα ὸ̔ πέμψει ὁ πατὴρ ἐν τῷ ὀν. μου the Spirit, whom the Father will send when my name is used 14:26. To thank God ἐν ὀν. Ἰησοῦ Χρ. while naming the name of Jesus Christ Eph 5:20. ἵνα ἐν τῷ ὀν. Ἰησοῦ πᾶν γόνυ κάμψῃ that when the name of Jesus is mentioned every knee should bow Phil 2:10. χαίρετε, υἱοί, ἐν ὀν. κυρίου greetings, my sons, as we call on the Lord’s name 1:1. ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀν. κυρίου whoever comes, naming the Lord’s name (in order thereby to give evidence of being a Christian) D 12:1. ἀσπάζεσθαι ἐν ὀν. Ἰ. Χρ. greet, while naming the name of J. Chr. w. acc. of pers. or thing greeted IRo ins; ISm 12:2. Receive a congregation ἐν ὀν. θεοῦ IEph 1:3. συναχθῆναι ἐν τῷ ὀν. τοῦ κυρίου Ἰ. meet and call on the name of the Lord Jesus=as a Christian congregation 1 Cor 5:4. μόνον ἐν τῷ ὀν. Ἰ. Χρ. only (it is to be) while calling on the name of J. Chr. ISm 4:2.—Not far removed fr. these are the places where we render ἐν τῷ ὀν. with through or by the name (s. ἐν 4c); the effect brought about by the name is caused by its utterance ἀπελούσασθε, ἡγιάσθητε, ἐδικαιώθητε ἐν τῷ ὀν. τοῦ κυρίου Ἰ. Χρ. 1 Cor 6:11. ζωὴν ἔχειν ἐν τῷ ὀν. αὐτοῦ (=Ἰησοῦ) J 20:31. τηρεῖν τινα ἐν τῷ ὀν. (θεοῦ) 17:11f.—ἐν τῷ ὀν. at the command (of), commissioned by ἔργα ποιεῖν ἐν τῷ ὀν. τοῦ πατρός J 10:25 (but s. above). ἔρχεσθαι ἐν τῷ ὀν. τοῦ πατρός 5:43a; in contrast ἔρχ. ἐν τῷ ὀν. τῷ ἰδίῳ vs. 43b. εὐλογημένος ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀν. κυρίου 12:13 (Ps 117:26). The Ps-passage prob. has the same sense (despite Heitmüller 53f) in Mt 21:9; 23:39; Mk 11:9; Lk 13:35; 19:38.—OMerlier, Ὄνομα et ἐν ὀνόματι dans le quatr. Év.: RevÉtGr 47, ’34, 180–204; RBratcher, BT 14, ’63, 72–80.
    ד. w. ἕνεκα (and the other forms of this word; s. ἕνεκα 1): of persecutions for one’s Christian faith ἀπάγεσθαι ἐπὶ βασιλεῖς ἕνεκεν τοῦ ὀν. μου Lk 21:12. πάσχειν or ὑποφέρειν εἵνεκα τοῦ ὀνόματος Hv 3, 1, 9; 3, 2, 1; Hs 9, 28, 5. ἕνεκεν τοῦ ὀν. (τοῦ) κυρίου v 3, 5, 2; Hs 9, 28, 6. ἀφιέναι οἰκίας … ἕνεκεν τοῦ ἐμοῦ ὀν. for my name’s sake Mt 19:29. ἔκτισας τὰ πάντα ἕνεκεν τοῦ ὀν. σου you created all things for your name’s sake, i.e. that God’s name might be praised for the benefits which the works of creation bring to humankind D 10:3.
    ה. w. ἐπί and the dat.: ἐπὶ τῷ ὀν. τινος when someone’s name is mentioned or called upon, or mentioning someone’s name (LXX; En 10:2; Just., D. 39, 6; Ath. 23, 1; s. Heitmüller 19ff; 43ff; s. also 47ff; 52ff; 87ff) in the NT only of the name of Jesus, and only in the synoptics and Ac. ἐλεύσονται ἐπὶ τῷ ὀν. μου they will come using my name Mt 24:5; Mk 13:6; Lk 21:8. κηρύσσειν ἐπὶ τῷ ὀν. αὐτοῦ μετάνοιαν 24:47. λαλεῖν ἐπὶ τῷ ὀν. τούτῳ to speak using this name Ac 4:17; 5:40. διδάσκειν 4:18; 5:28. ποιεῖν δύναμιν ἐπὶ τῷ ὀν. μου Mk 9:39. ἐπὶ τῷ ὀν. σου ἐκβάλλειν δαιμόνια Lk 9:49 v.l. ἐπὶ τῷ σῷ ὀν. τὰς θεραπείας ἐπετέλουν GJs 20:2 (codd.). Of the (spiritual) temple of God: οἰκοδομηθήσεται ναὸς θεοῦ ἐνδόξως ἐπὶ τῷ ὀν. κυρίου the temple of God will be gloriously built with the use of the Lord’s name 16:6f, 8 (quot. of uncertain orig.). βαπτίζεσθαι ἐπὶ τῷ ὀν. Ἰ. Χρ. Ac 2:38. Baptism is also referred to in καλεῖσθαι ἐπὶ τῷ ὀν. τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ receive a name when the name of God’s son is named Hs 9, 17, 4. The words δέχεσθαι (παιδίον) ἐπὶ τῷ ὀν. μου can also be classed here receive (a child) when my name is confessed, when I am called upon Mt 18:5; Mk 9:37; Lk 9:48 (s. Heitmüller 64); but s. also 3 below.—ἐπί w. acc.: πεποιθέναι ἐπὶ τὸ ὁσιώτατον τῆς μεγαλωσύνης αὐτοῦ ὄν. have confidence in (the Lord’s) most sacred and majestic name 1 Cl 58:1b; ἐλπίζειν ἐπὶ τὸ ὄν. hope in the name (of the Lord) 16:8b.
    ו. w. περί and the gen.: εὐαγγελίζεσθαι περὶ τοῦ ὀν. Ἰ. Χ. bring the good news about the name of J. Chr. Ac 8:12.—(W. acc.: ἔχομεν δέος τὸ ὄ. τοῦ θεοῦ Orig., C. Cels. 4, 48, 34).
    ז. w. πρός and acc.: πρὸς τὸ ὄν. Ἰησοῦ … πολλὰ ἐναντία πρᾶξαι do many things in opposing the name of Jesus Ac 26:9.
    ח. w. ὑπέρ and gen.: ὑπὲρ τοῦ ὀν. (Ἰησοῦ) ἀτιμασθῆναι Ac 5:41. πάσχειν 9:16; Hs 9, 28, 2. Cp. Ac 15:26; 21:13. The activity of the apostles takes place ὑπὲρ τοῦ ὀν. αὐτοῦ to the honor of (Jesus’) name Ro 1:5. Cp. 3J 7. Of thankful praying at the Lord’s Supper εὐχαριστοῦμεν σοι … ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἁγίου ὀν. σου, οὗ κατεσκήνωσας ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ἡμῶν we thank you … for your holy name, which you caused to dwell in our hearts D 10:2.
    δ. ὄν. w. ref. to God or Christ not infreq. stands quite alone, simply the Name: Ac 5:41; Phil 2:9 (cp. Diod S 3, 61, 6); 3J 7; 2 Cl 13:1, 4; IEph 3:1; 7:1; IPhld 10:1; Hv 3, 2, 1; Hs 8, 10, 3; 9, 13, 2; 9, 28, 3; 5.
    a person (Phalaris, Ep. 128; POxy 1188, 8 [13 A.D.]; BGU 113, 11; Jos., Ant. 14, 22; other exx. in Dssm., NB 24f [BS 196f]; LXX) τὸ ποθητόν μοι ὄν. my dear friend: Alce ISm 13:2; IPol 8:3; Crocus IRo 10:1. Pl. (PThéad 41, 10; PSI 27, 22; Num 1:18 al.) people Ac 1:15; Rv 3:4. ὀνόματα ἀνθρώπων 11:13 (cp. Ael. Aristid. 50, 72 K.=26 p. 523 D.: ὀνόματα δέκα ἀνδρῶν). This is prob. the place for περὶ λόγου καὶ ὀνομάτων καὶ νόμου about teaching and persons and (the) law Ac 18:15.
    the classification under which one belongs, noted by a name or category, title, category (cp. Cass. Dio 38, 44; 42, 24 καὶ ὅτι πολλῷ πλείω ἔν τε τῷ σχήματι καὶ ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι τῷ τῆς στρατηγίας ὢν καταπράξειν ἤλπιζε=he hoped to effect much more by taking advantage of his praetorial apparel and title; ins: Sb 7541, 5 [II A.D.] Νύμφη ὄνομʼ ἐστί σοι; POxy 37 I, 17 [49 A.D.] βούλεται ὀνόματι ἐλευθέρου τὸ σωμάτιον ἀπενέγκασθαι=she claims to have carried off the infant on the basis of its being free-born; Jos., Ant. 12, 154 φερνῆς ὀνόματι; 11, 40; Just., A II, 6, 4 καὶ ἀνθρώπου καὶ σωτῆρος ὄνομα. Other exx. in Heitmüller 50); the possibility of understanding ὄν. as category made it easier for Greeks to take over rabb. לְשֵׁם (s. 1dγב above) in the sense with regard to a particular characteristic, then simply with regard to, for the sake of ὁ δεχόμενος προφήτην εἰς ὄν. προφήτου whoever receives a prophet within the category ‘prophet’, i.e. because he is a prophet, as a prophet Mt 10:41a; cp. vss. 41b, 42.—ὸ̔ς ἂν ποτίσῃ ὑμᾶς ἐν ὀνόματι, ὄτι Χριστοῦ ἐστε whoever gives you a drink under the category that you belong to Christ, i.e. in your capacity as a follower of Christ Mk 9:41. εἰ ὀνειδίζεσθε ἐν ὀν. Χριστοῦ if you are reviled for the sake of Christ 1 Pt 4:14. δοξαζέτω τὸν θεὸν ἐν τῷ ὀν. τούτῳ let the person praise God in this capacity (=ὡς Χριστιανός) vs. 16. δέδεμαι ἐν τῷ ὀν. I am imprisoned for the sake of the Name IEph 3:1.—δέχεσθαι (παιδίον) ἐπὶ τῷ ὀν. μου for my (name’s) sake Mt 18:5; Mk 9:37; Lk 9:48 (cp. Heitmüller 113. But s. 1dγה above).
    recognition accorded a person on the basis of performance, (well-known) name, reputation, fame (Hom. et al.; 1 Ch 14:17; 1 Macc 8:12) φανερὸν ἐγένετο τὸ ὄν. αὐτοῦ his fame was widespread Mk 6:14. ὄν. ἔχειν (Pla., Apol. 38c, Ep. 2, 312c) w. ὅτι foll. have the reputation of Rv 3:1 perh. also 3:5 (s. 1bα; JFuller, JETS 26, ’83, 297–306).
    name in terms of office held, office (POxy 58, 6) στασιαζουσῶν τ. φυλῶν, ὁποία αὐτῶν εἴη τῷ ἐνδόξῳ ὀνόματι κεκοσμημένη when the tribes were quarreling as to which one of them was to be adorned with that glorious office 1 Cl 43:2. τὸ ὄν. τῆς ἐπισκοπῆς the office of supervision 44:1.—B. 1263f. OEANE IV 91–96 on Mesopotamian practices. Schmidt, Syn. I 113–24. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ὄνομα

  • 199 ὅσιος

    ὅσιος, ία, ον (Aeschyl., Hdt.+ [the noun ὁσίη is found as early as Hom.]. Mostly of three endings, but-ος, ον Pla., Leg. 8, 831d; Dionys. Hal. 5, 71; 1 Ti 2:8. B-D-F §59, 2; W-S. §11, 1; Mlt-H. 157). Superl. ὁσιώτατος (Pla.; OGI 718, 1; Philo; 1 Cl 58:1). In the Gr-Rom. world this term for the most part described that which helps maintain the delicate balance between the interests of society and the expectations of the transcendent realm. For example, the ὅσιος pers. prays and sacrifices to the gods (Pl., Euthyph. 14b), is conscious of basic taboos (hence wary of pollution because of bloodshed [ibid. 4de; cp. Od. 16, 423]), and observes traditions of hospitality (on Zeus as protector of the stranger, s. Od. 9, 270f). For contrast of τὸ ὅσιον and τὸ δίκαιον s. Pla., Gorgias 507b, Polit. 301d; X., Hell. 4, 1, 33 al.
    pert. to being without fault relative to deity, devout, pious, pleasing to God, holy
    of ordinary human beings: w. δίκαιος (cp. Pla., Leg. 2, 663b, Gorg. 507b; Polyb. 22, 10, 8 παραβῆναι καὶ τὰ πρὸς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους δίκαια καὶ τὰ πρὸς τ. θεοὺς ὅσια; SIG 800, 20f: ἀναστρέφεται πρός τε θεοὺς καὶ πάντας ἀνθρώπους ὁσίως κ. δικαίως; En 104:12; TestGad 5:4; TestBenj 3:1 and 5:4; Jos., Ant. 9, 35; Just., D. 96, 3 [after Mt 5:45]; Theoph. Ant. 2, 9 [p. 120, 3]) 1 Cl 45:3; 2 Cl 15:3; and still other virtues Tit 1:8. ἔργα ὅσια κ. δίκαια (Jos., Ant. 8, 245) 2 Cl 6:9. δίκαιον κ. ὅσιον w. acc. and inf. foll. (Dicaearchus. p. 408, line 2 fr. bottom, Fuhr; cp. ὅσιον εἶναι w. acc. and inf., Orig., C. Cels. 5, 26, 13) 1 Cl 14:1. ὀφείλομεν ὅσια 2 Cl 1:3. (W. ἄμωμος) ἐν ὁς. κ. ἀμώμῳ προθέσει δουλεύειν τῷ θεῷ serve God with a holy and blameless purpose 1 Cl 45:7. ἄνδρες 45:3. ὁς. βουλή 2:3.—ὅσιοι χεῖρες (Aeschyl., Choëph. 378; Soph., Oed. Col. 470: ‘consecrated’, ‘ceremonially pure’) 1 Ti 2:8 transferred to the religio-ethical field (Philip of Perg. [II A.D.]: 95 Fgm. 1 Jac. writes ὁσίῃ χειρί).—The word was prob. used in a cultic sense in the mysteries (ERohde, Psyche9/10, 1925 I 288, 1): Aristoph., Ran. 335 ὅσιοι μύσται. The mystae of the Orphic Mysteries are called οἱ ὅσιοι: Pla., Rep. 2, 363c; Orph., Hymn. 84, 3 Qu.; cp. Ps.-Pla., Axioch. 371d. Sim. the Essenes are called ὅσιοι in Philo, Omn. Prob. Liber 91; cp. 75 ὁσιότης; PParis 68c, 14 ὅσιοι Ἰουδαῖοι (s. Dssm., B 62, 4 [BS 68, 2]); PGM 5, 417 of a worshiper of Hermes.
    of Christ, the Heavenly High Priest (w. ἄκακος; cp. the opposition Od. 16, 423) Hb 7:26. As subst. ὁ ὅσιός σου (after Ps 15:10) Ac 2:27; 13:35 (cp. ὁ ὅσιος of Abraham Did., Gen. 228, 8).
    pert. to being the standard for what constitutes holiness, holy of God (rarely of deities outside our lit.: Orph., Hymn. 77, 2 Qu.; Arg. 27; CIG 3594; 3830).
    as adj., of God (Dt 32:4; Ps 144:17) holy μόνος ὅσιος Rv 15:4. ἡ ὁς. παιδεία holy (i.e. divine) discipline 1 Cl 56:16. τὸ ὁσιώτατον ὄνομα most holy name 58:1.
    as subst. ὁ ὅσιος Rv 16:5.
    The ref. to ὅς. in δώσω ὑμῖν τὰ ὅς. Δαυὶδ τὰ πιστά I will grant to you (pl.) the unfailing divine assurances or decrees relating to David Ac 13:34 is of special interest (for τὰ ὅς. in the sense of divine decrees or ordinances s. Wsd 6:10; Jos., Ant. 8, 115—). This quot. fr. Is 55:3 is evidently meant to show that the quot. fr. Ps 15:10, which follows immediately, could not refer to the Psalmist David, but to Christ alone (cp. a sim. line of argument relating to a referent Hb 2:6–9). The promises to David have solemnly been transferred to ‘you’. But David himself served not you, but his own generation (vs. 36). So the promises of God refer not to him, but to his Messianic descendant.—Lit. s.v. ἅγιος. JBolkestein, Ὅσιος en Εὐσεβής, diss. Amsterdam ’36; WTerstegen, Εὐσεβής en Ὅσιος in het Grieksch taalgebruik na de 4e eeuw, diss. Utrecht ’41; JMontgomery, HTR 32, ’39, 97–102; MvanderValk, Z. Worte ὅσιος: Mnemosyne 10, ’41; Dodd 62–64.—B. 1475. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ὅσιος

  • 200 ὑπέρ

    ὑπέρ (Hom.+) prep. w. gen. and acc. (lit. s.v. ἀνά, beg. In addition to this, for ὑπέρ: LWenger, Die Stellvertretung im Rechte der Papyri 1896; ARobertson, The Use of ὑπέρ in Business Documents in the Papyri: Exp. 8th ser., 28, 1919, 321–27). The loc. sense ‘over, above’ is not found in our lit. (not in the LXX either, but in JosAs 14:4; ApcEsdr 1:9; Just., Tat., Ath.) but does appear in nonliteral senses. The mss. oft. fluctuate between ὑπέρ and περί; see A3 below.
    A. w. gen.
    a marker indicating that an activity or event is in some entity’s interest, for, in behalf of, for the sake of someone/someth.
    w. gen. of pers. or human collective
    α. after words that express a request, prayer, etc. After the verbs δέομαι (q.v. b), εὔχομαι (q.v. 1), προσεύχομαι (q.v.), ἐντυγχάνω (q.v. 1a; cp. b), ὑπερεντυγχάνω (q.v.), λιτανεύω (q.v.) etc. After the nouns δέησις (q.v., end) and προσευχή (q.v. 1). S. also 1 Ti 2:1f.
    β. after words and expressions that denote working, caring, concerning oneself about. After the verbs ἀγρυπνέω (q.v. 2), ἀγωνίζομαι (q.v. 2b), μεριμνάω (q.v. 2), πρεσβεύω (q.v.) etc. After the nouns ζῆλος (q.v. 1), σπουδή (q.v. 2), ἔχειν πόνον (πόνος 1). ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν διάκονος Col 1:7.
    γ. after expressions having to do w. sacrifice: ἁγιάζω (q.v. 2), ἁγνίζομαι (s. ἁγνίζω 3). τὸ πάσχα ἡμῶν ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν ἑτύθη Χριστός 1 Cor 5:7 v.l. ἕως οὗ προσηνέχθη ὑπὲρ ἑνὸς ἑκάστου αὐτῶν ἡ προσφορά Ac 21:26 (προσφέρω 2a).—Eph 5:2; Hb 9:7.
    δ. gener. εἶναι ὑπέρ τινος be for someone, be on someone’s side (PIand 16, 8 τὸ νόμιμον ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν ἐστιν.—Opp. εἶναι κατά τινος) Mk 9:40; Lk 9:50; Ro 8:31.—ἐπιτρέπεταί σοι ὑπὲρ σεαυτοῦ λέγειν Ac 26:1 v.l. (for περί). ἵνα μὴ εἷς ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἑνὸς φυσιοῦσθε κατὰ τοῦ ἑτέρου 1 Cor 4:6b. Cp. 2 Cor 1:11ab; 5:20b (δεόμεθα ὑπὲρ Χριστοῦ=as helpers of Christ we beg you. Also prob. is we beg you by or in the name of Christ [Apollon. Rhod. 3, 701 λίσσομʼ ὑπὲρ μακάρων=by the gods, in imitation of Il. 22, 338.—Theaetetus, III B.C.: Anth. Pal. 7, 499, 2]). τοῦτο φρονεῖν ὑπὲρ πάντων ὑμῶν to be thus minded in behalf of you all Phil 1:7 (perh. simply=about; s. 3 below); cp. 4:10 (think of me = care for, be interested in me).
    ε. after expressions of suffering, dying, devoting oneself, etc. (JosAs 28:1 κύριος πολεμεῖ καθʼ ἡμῶν ὑπὲρ Ἀσενεθ ‘against us in behalf of Aseneth’; ApcEsdr 6:18 p. 31, 28 Tdf. δικάζεσθαι ὑπὲρ τοῦ γένους τῶν ἀνθρώπων) ἀποθνῄσκειν ὑπέρ τινος die for someone or someth. (ἀποθνῄσκω 1aα; also Jos., Ant. 13, 6) J 11:50–52; 18:14; Ro 5:7ab. τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ τίθησιν ὑπὲρ τινος (cp. Jos., Bell. 2, 201; Sir 29:15; ApcSed 1:5; Ar. 15, 10; Mel., P. 103, 791) J 10:11, 15; 13:37f; 15:13; 1J 3:16b.—Ro 16:4; 2 Cor 12:15; Eph 3:1, 13; Col 1:24a.—So esp. of the death of Christ (already referred to at least in part in some of the passages already mentioned. S. also above 1aγ and below 1c) for, in behalf of humanity, the world, etc.: Mk 14:24; Lk 22:19f; Ro 5:6, 8; 8:32; 14:15; 1 Cor 1:13 (where the hypothetical question μὴ Παῦλος ἐσταυρώθη ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν; was chosen for no other reason than its ref. to the redeeming death of Christ); 11:24; 15:3; Gal 2:20; 3:13; Eph 5:25; 1 Th 5:10 (v.l. περί); 1 Ti 2:6; Tit 2:14; Hb 2:9; 6:20; 1 Pt 2:21 (v.l. περί); 3:18a v.l.; 18b; 1J 3:16a; MPol 17:2ab (Just., A I, 50, 1 ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν γενόμενος ἄνθρωπος).—AMetzinger, Die Substitutionstheorie u. das atl. Opfer, Biblica 21, ’40, 159–87, 247–72, 353–77; EBlakeney, ET 55, ’43/44, 306.
    w. gen. of thing, in which case it must be variously translated ὑπὲρ (τῶν) ἁμαρτιῶν in order to atone for (the) sins or to remove them 1 Cor 15:3; Gal 1:4; Hb 5:1b; 7:27; 9:7 (here ὑπὲρ … τῶν ἀγνοημάτων); 10:12; B 7:3, 4 (prophetic saying of unknown origin), 5f.—ὑπὲρ τῆς τοῦ κόσμου ζωῆς to bring life to the world J 6:51. ὑπὲρ τῆς δόξης τοῦ θεοῦ to reveal the glory of God 11:4. ὑπὲρ τοῦ ὀνόματος αὐτοῦ (cp. Sb 7681, 7 [312 A.D.] ὑπὲρ τοῦ ὀνόματός μου=in behalf of) to spread his name Ro 1:5; cp. 3J 7. ὑπὲρ ἀληθείας θεοῦ=in order to show that God’s promises are true Ro 15:8. ὑπὲρ τῆς ὑμῶν παρακλήσεως in order to comfort you 2 Cor 1:6ab. Cp. 12:19. ὑπὲρ τῆς πίστεως ὑμῶν for the strengthening of your faith 1 Th 3:2.
    in place of, instead of, in the name of (Eur.; Polyb. 3, 67, 7; ApcEsdr 1:11 p. 25, 3 Tdf.; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 142; Just., D. 95, 2.—In pap very oft. ὑπὲρ αὐτοῦ to explain that the writer is writing ‘as the representative of’ an illiterate pers.; Dssm. LO 285, 2 [LAE 335, 4]; other exx. of pap in DWallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics ’96, 384–86) ἵνα ὑπὲρ σοῦ μοι διακονῇ Phlm 13. Somet. the mng. in place of merges w. on behalf of, for the sake of Ro 9:3. οἱ βαπτιζόμενοι ὑπὲρ τῶν νεκρῶν 1 Cor 15:29a is debated; cp. 29b (s. the lit. s.v. βαπτίζω 2c; also KBornhäuser, Die Furche 21, ’34, 184–87; JWhite, JBL 116, ’97, 487–99 [esp. 497f] favors a causal sense). εἷς ὑπὲρ πάντων ἀπέθανεν 2 Cor 5:14; cp. 15ab, 21 (Eur., Alc. 701 κατθανεῖν ὑπέρ σου).
    marker of the moving cause or reason, because of, for the sake of, for (Diod S 10, 21, 2 τὴν ὑπὲρ τῶν ἁμαρτημάτων τιμωρίαν; schol. on Pind., O. 6, 154b [=OxfT 91]), w. verbs of suffering, giving the reason for it ὑπὲρ τοῦ ὀνόματος Ac 5:41; 9:16; 21:13; ὑπὲρ Χριστοῦ Phil 1:29ab; cp. 2 Th 1:5; ὑπὲρ θεοῦ ἀποθνῄσκω IRo 4:1. Likew. used w. nouns that denote suffering ὑπὲρ Χριστοῦ for Christ’s sake 2 Cor 12:10.—εὐχαριστεῖν ὑπέρ τινος give thanks for someth. 1 Cor 10:30; Eph 5:20; D 9:2; 10:2 (cp. Sb 3926, 12 [I B.C.] τὸ κατεσκευασμένον ὑπὲρ [=in gratefulness for] τῆς ἡμετέρας σωτηρίας Ἰσιδεῖον; Just., A I, 65, 3). δοξάζειν τὸν θεὸν ὑπέρ τινος praise God for someth. Ro 15:9.—ὑπὲρ τούτου with reference to someth. (Synes., Ep. 67 p. 209c) 2 Cor 12:8.—This is prob. the place for ὑπὲρ τῆς εὐδοκίας with (God’s) good pleasure in view Phil 2:13 (εὐδοκία 1).
    marker of general content, whether of a discourse or mental activity, about, concerning (about equivalent to περί [τινος], w. which it is freq. interchanged in the mss.; s. Kühner-G. I p. 487 [w. exx. fr. Hom., Pla. et al.]. Also quite common in Polyb., Diod S, Dionys. Hal., Joseph., ins [e.g. ISardGauthier 2, 3 ‘write about’] and pap [Schmidt 396]; but Ath. differentiates between λόγος ὑπὲρ [in defense of] τῆς ἀληθείας and λόγος περὶ [about] τῆς ἀληθείας R 1 p. 48, 19; Mlt. 105; Rdm.2 p. 140; Johannessohn, Präp 216–21; LDeubner, Bemerkungen z. Text der Vita Pyth. des Iamblichos: SBBerlAk ’35, XIX 27; 71), oft. at the same time in the sense ‘in the interest of’ or ‘in behalf of’ οὗτός ἐστιν ὑπὲρ οὗ ἐγὼ εἶπον J 1:30 (v.l. περί). Ἠσαί̈ας κράζει ὑπὲρ τοῦ Ἰσραήλ Ro 9:27 (v.l. περί). Cp. 2 Cor 1:8 (v.l. περί); 5:12; 7:4, 14; 8:24; 9:2f; 12:5ab (in all the passages in 2 Cor except the first dependent on καυχάομαι, καύχημα, καύχησις); 2 Th 1:4 (ἐγκαυχᾶσθαι). With reference to (Demosth. 21, 121) 2 Cor 8:23; 2 Th 2:1. ἡ ἐλπὶς ἡμῶν βεβαία ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν our hope with reference to you is unshaken 2 Cor 1:7 (ἐλπὶς ὑ. τινος ‘for someth.’ Socrat., Ep. 6, 5 [p. 234, 28 Malherbe]).
    B. w. acc. marker of a degree beyond that of a compared scale of extent, in the sense of excelling, surpassing, over and above, beyond, more than (so always PsSol; TestAbr A 4 p. 81, 29 [Stone p. 10] al.; TestJob 38:6 τὰ ὑπὲρ ἡμᾶς; JosAs 1:6 al.; Ath. 17, 1; 32, 1) κεφαλὴ ὑπὲρ πάντα the supreme Head Eph 1:22 (Appian, Bell. Civ. 5, 74 §314 ὑπὲρ ἅπαντα). ὑπὲρ δύναμιν beyond one’s strength 2 Cor 1:8; cp. 8:3 v.l. (OGI 767, 19f ὑπὲρ δύναμιν; Cyranides p. 63, 22 ὑπὲρ λόγον). Also ὑπὲρ ὸ̔ δύνασθε 1 Cor 10:13. μὴ ὑπὲρ ἃ γέγραπται not (to go) beyond what is written 1 Cor 4:6a (s. WLütgert, Freiheitspredigt u. Schwarmgeister in Korinth 1908, 97ff; ASchlatter, Die korinth. Theologie 1914, 7ff; OLinton, StKr 102, 1930, 425–37; LBrun, ibid. 103, ’31, 453–56; PWallis, TLZ 75, ’50, 506–8; ALegault, NTS 18, ’71/72, 227–31; PMarshall, Hybrists Not Gnostics in Corinth: SBLSP 23, 84, 275–87; on the prob. imagery of a school exercise in which children learn to stay between the lines, s. RTyler, CBQ 60, ’98, 97–103; a public foundational document containing bylaws, JHanges, JBL 117, ’98, 275–98 [pap and ins]). ὑπὲρ ἃ λέγω ποιήσεις you will do even more than I ask Phlm 21. ὑπέρ τι καὶ καθʼ ὑπερβολὴν ὑπερευφραίνομαι I feel an exceeding and overwhelming joy B 1:2.—After an adj. in comp. or superl. for ἤ than: mostly so after the comp. (Judg 11:25 B; 15:2 B; 18:26 B; 3 Km 19:4; Ps 18:11; Hab 1:8) τομώτερος ὑπὲρ πᾶσαν μάχαιραν Hb 4:12. Cp. Lk 16:8; J 12:43 v.l.; MPol 18:2. In an unusually compressed statement: τοὺς ἀποστόλους ὄντας ὑπὲρ πᾶσαν ἁμαρτίαν ἀνομωτέρους the apostles, who were more lawless than (people who commit) any and every sin B 5:9; rarely after the superl. (TestAbr A 2 p. 78, 25 [Stone p. 4]) γλυκυτάτη ὑπὲρ τὸ μέλι Hm 5, 1, 6. Likew. after verbs that express the idea of comparison ἡσσώθητε (=ἐγένεσθε ἥσσονες) ὑπὲρ τὰς λοιπὰς ἐκκλησίας, were you treated worse than the other churches? 2 Cor 12:13.—‘More than’ also takes on the sense more exalted or excellent or glorious than; as the timeless one (ἄχρονος), Christ is called ὁ ὑπὲρ καιρόν the one who is exalted beyond time IPol 3:2. ὑπὲρ θάνατον exalted above death ISm 3:2. οὐκ ἔστιν μαθητὴς ὑπὲρ τὸν διδάσκαλον a disciple is not superior to his teacher Mt 10:24a; Lk 6:40.—Mt 10:24b; Ac 26:13; Phil 2:9. οὐκέτι ὡς δοῦλον ἀλλὰ ὑπὲρ δοῦλον no longer as a slave, but as someth. better than a slave Phlm 16. τῷ δυναμένῳ ὑπὲρ πάντα ποιῆσαι to (God) who is able to do greater things than all (we can ask or imagine) Eph 3:20. More than (PsSol 17:43; TestGad 7:1) ἀγαπᾶν ὑμᾶς ὑπὲρ τὴν ψυχήν μου (JosAs 13:11) B 1:4; cp. 4:6; 19:5; D 2:7. φιλεῖν Mt 10:37ab. ἀρέσει αὐτῷ ὑπὲρ μόσχον 1 Cl 52:2 (Ps 68:32). λάμπειν IEph 19:2. προκόπτειν Gal 1:14. στίλβειν Hs 9, 2, 2.
    C. adv. use even more. The adv. use of ὑπέρ is, so far, almost unknown outside the NT (but s. L-S-J-M s.v. ὑπέρ E; Schwyzer II 518; Ursing 49 cites fr. an Aesop-ms. ὅπερ ἔτι ὑπὲρ ἀπεδέξατο, where all the other mss. have μᾶλλον [Phil 3:4 ἐγὼ μᾶλλον]. On the adv. use of other prepositions s. Kühner-G. I p. 526f). διάκονοι Χριστοῦ εἰσιν; ὑπὲρ ἐγώ are they assistants of of Christ? I am so even more (than they) 2 Cor 11:23 (W-H. accent ὕπερ; s. Mlt-Turner 250). Wallis (s. B above) classes 1 Cor 4:6 here.—RBieringer: The Four Gospels, Festschr. FNeirynck, ed. FvanSegbroeck et al. ’92, I 219–48. On ὑπὲρ ἄγαν, ὑπὲρ ἐκεῖνα, ὑπὲρ ἐκπερισσοῦ, ὑπὲρ λίαν s. ὑπεράγαν, ὑπερέκεινα, ὑπερεκπερισσοῦ (-ῶς), ὑπερλίαν.—DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ὑπέρ

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