Translation: from greek

buzzing crowd

  • 241 προβιβάζω

    προβιβάζω (Aristoph., Soph., Pla. et al.; PBad 39 II, 4 [IV A.D.]; Just., D. 90, 1) fut. 2 sg. προβιβάσεις Dt 6:7; 1 aor. προεβίβασα; pass. ptc. προβιβασθείς cause to come forward (Soph., Oed. Col. 180; Kaibel 947, 1) ἐκ τοῦ ὄχλου προεβίβασαν Ἀλέξανδρον they made Alexander come out from the crowd Ac 19:33 v.l. ἡ δὲ προβιβασθεῖσα ὑπὸ τῆς μητρός but she, pushed forward by her mother Mt 14:8 (here many prefer the mng. ‘incite, urge on [beforehand], prompt’. But προβιβ. εἴς τι in places like X., Mem. 1, 5, 1 εἰς ἐγκράτειαν, Pla., Prot. 328b εἰς ἀρετήν, Musonius p. 60, 5 H. νέους εἰς φιλοσοφίαν means ‘lead on to’, ‘train in’. Even more compelling is usage in the LXX, where the word=‘instruct, teach, inculcate’: Ex 35:34; Dt 6:7; Just., D. 90, 1 ἡμᾶς … προβίβασον ἐκ τῶν γραφῶν). ‘Coached’ may best express the mng.—DELG s.v. βαίνω. M-M. Spicq.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > προβιβάζω

  • 242 σεμνότης

    σεμνότης, τητος, ἡ (s. σεμνός; Eur., X., Pla. et al.; SIG 807, 8; OGI 567, 19; EpArist 5; 171; Philo; Tat. 34, 2; μεγαλόνοια καὶ ς. θεολογίας Orig., C. Cels. 6, 18, 21) a manner or mode of behavior that indicates one is above what is ordinary and therefore worthy of special respect
    of a human being dignity, seriousness, probity, holiness=Lat. gravitas (Diod S 17, 34, 6; Philo; Jos., Vi. 258 μετὰ πάσης ς; Theoph. Ant. 3, 13 [p. 230, 16] περὶ ς. διδάσκειν; Did., Gen. 249, 14 ς. καὶ γνησιότης) 1 Ti 3:4; 1 Cl 41:1; Hm 4, 1, 3. W. εὐσέβεια 1 Ti 2:2. W. ἁγνεία Hm 4, 4, 3; Hs 5, 6, 5. W. ἁγνεία and other virtues m 6, 2, 3. W. ἁπλότης and ἀκακία v 3, 9, 1. W. other καλὰ ἔργα Tit 2:7. Loved by the Lord Hm 5, 2, 8; ἐνδύσασθαι τὴν ς. 2:4. Personified w. other virtues v 3, 8, 5; 7; 3, 9, 1.—Neg. reaction to ς. AcPl Ha 4, 14, prob. construed as arrogance by the crowd (cp. Soph., Ajax 1107 on neg. reaction to σέμνα ἔπη).
    of a deity holiness (cp. 2 Macc 3:12; Philo, Spec. Leg. 2, 7; Jos., C. Ap. 1, 225) πορεύεσθαι κατὰ τὴν ς. τοῦ θεοῦ walk in accordance with God’s holiness Hv 3, 5, 1.—DELG s.v. σέβομαι III. RAC XII 752–79 s.v. gravitas. M-M. TW. Spicq.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > σεμνότης

  • 243 στενοχωρέω

    στενοχωρέω (στενός, χῶρος ‘space’) 1 aor. 3 sg. ἐστενοχώρησεν Judg 16:16 B (since Machon [III B.C.] vs. 396; pap, though intr.)
    to confine or restrict to a narrow space, crowd, cramp, confine, restrict (Diod S 20, 29, 7; Lucian, Nigr. 13, Tox. 29 al.; LXX) fig., pass. be confined, restricted (Herm. Wr. 2, 11; schol. on Eur., Med. 57 στενοχωρεῖσθαι τῷ κακῷ; Is 28:20; Jos., Bell. 4, 163) οὐ στενοχωρεῖσθε ἐν ἡμῖν, στενοχωρεῖσθε δὲ ἐν τοῖς σπλάγχνοις ὑμῶν you are not restricted in us (i.e. they are not boxed off in a narrow area of Paul’s affection; s. vs. 11), but rather in your own hearts 2 Cor 6:12.
    to be in a circumstance that seems to offer no way out, be distressed fig. ext. of 1, pass., as the higher degree beside θλίβεσθαι (Epict. 1, 25, 28) θλιβόμενοι ἀλλʼ οὐ στενοχωρούμενοι hard pressed, but not distressed/crushed 2 Cor 4:8. In act. sense, of the Holy Spirit, when anger moves into a person whom he indwells: στενοχωρεῖται he is distressed Hm 5, 1, 3. Of the hardships that the slaves of God, in contrast to the unrighteous, must undergo 2 Cl 20:1.—DELG s.v. στενός. M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > στενοχωρέω

  • 244 συμπνίγω

    συμπνίγω impf. συνέπνιγον; 1 aor. συνέπνιξα (Jos., Ant. 12, 275 v.l.)
    to check the growth or well-being of someth. by pressure, choke of plants whose food and light is cut off by weeds that crowd together and choke (Theophr., CP 6, 11, 6 δένδρα συμπνιγόμενα) Mk 4:7. In imagery in the interpr. of the parable τὸν λόγον Mt 13:22; Mk 4:19. Pass. Lk 8:14.
    as a hyperbolic expr. for crowd around, press upon, someth. like almost crush (Goodsp.) οἱ ὄχλοι συνέπνιγον αὐτόν Lk 8:42. ἀλλήλους 12:1 D.—TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > συμπνίγω

  • 245 σύνειμι

    1
    I. σύνειμι (fr. εἰμί) impf. 3 sg. συνῆν (συνήμην ApcMos 42) be with (Hom.+) τινί someone (Trag., Thu. et al.; Jos., Ant. 3, 75) Ac 22:11; IEph 11:2 v.l. (s. συναινέω). συνῆσαν αὐτῷ joined him Lk 9:18.—M-M.
    2
    II. σύνειμι (fr. εἶμι) come together (Hom. et al.; ins; Jos., Ant. 4, 203; Tat. 23, 2; in late pap as an accounting expr.) συνιόντος ὄχλου εἶπεν when a crowd gathered, he said Lk 8:4 (cp. Jos., Vi. 9).—M-M.

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  • 246 συνέχω

    συνέχω fut. συνέξω; 2 aor. συνέσχον. Pass. impf. συνειχόμην; fut. 3 pl. συσχεθήσονται Job 36:8; En 21:10; aor. συνεσχέθην LXX, AcPl Ha (Hom.+).
    to hold together as a unit, hold together, sustain τὶ someth. (Ael. Aristid. 43, 16 K.=1 p. 6 D.: τὰ πάντα ς.; PTebt 410, 11. Cp. IG XIV, 1018 to Attis συνέχοντι τὸ πᾶν [s. CWeyman, BZ 14, 1917, 17f]; PGM 13, 843. Other exx. in Cumont3 230, 57; Wsd 1:7; Aristobulus in Eus., PE 13, 12, 12 [=Holladay p. 184, 78; s. p. 229 n. 139 for add. reff. and lit.]; Philo; Jos., C. Ap.2, 208) συνέχει αὐτὴ (i.e. ἡ ψυχή) τὸ σῶμα Dg 6:7. Pass. 1 Cl 20:5.
    to close by holding together, stop, shut (στόμα Ps 68:16; Is 52:15; PsSol 17:19 πηγαὶ συνεσχέθησαν. The heavens, so that there is no rain Dt 11:17; 3 Km 8:35) συνέσχον τὰ ὦτα αὐτῶν i.e. they refused to listen Ac 7:57.
    to press in and around so as to leave little room for movement, press hard, crowd τινά someone Lk 8:45. Of a city (2 Macc 9:2) οἱ ἐχθροί σου συνέξουσίν σε πάντοθεν 19:43.
    to hold in custody, guard (Lucian, Tox. 39; PMagd 42, 7; PLille 7, 15 [III B.C.]) Lk 22:63.
    to cause distress by force of circumstances, seize, attack, distress, torment τινά someone τὰ συνέχοντά με that which distresses me IRo 6:3. Mostly pass. (Aeschyl., Hdt. et al.) be tormented by, afflicted w., distressed by τινί someth., of sickness (Pla. et al.; ApcMos 5; Tat. 2, 1; 3; SIG 1169, 50 ἀγρυπνίαις συνεχόμενος; POxy 896, 34 πυραιτίοις συνεχόμενος) νόσοις καὶ βασάνοις Mt 4:24; πυρετῷ (Hippiatr. I 6, 23; Jos., Ant. 13, 398; s. also πυρετός) Lk 4:38; πυρετοῖς καὶ δυσεντερίῳ Ac 28:8. Of unpleasant emotional states (Diod S 29, 25 λύπῃ; TestAbr A 16, p. 96, 21 [Stone p. 40] δειλίᾳ πολλῇ; Aelian, VH 14, 22 ὀδυρμῷ; Ps.-Plut., De Fluv. 2, 1; 7, 5; 17, 3; 19, 1) φόβῳ μεγάλῳ συνείχοντο they were overcome by great fear Lk 8:37 (cp. Job 3:24). φόβῳ μεγάλῳ συσχεθεῖσα AcPl Ha 3, 34; cp. 11, 16.—Without the dat. (Leontios 16 p. 33, 13 συνεχόμενος=tormented) πῶς συνέχομαι how great is my distress, what vexation I must endure Lk 12:50. The apostle, torn betw. conflicting emotions, says συνέχομαι ἐκ τῶν δύο I am hard pressed (to choose) between the two Phil 1:23.
    to occupy someone’s attention intensely, συνέχομαί τινι I am occupied with or absorbed in someth. (Herodian 1, 17, 9 ἡδοναῖς; Diog. L. 7, 185 γέλωτι; Wsd 17:19) συνείχετο τῷ λόγῳ (Paul) was wholly absorbed in preaching Ac 18:5 (EHenschel, Theologia Viatorum 2, ’50, 213–15; cp. Arrian, Anab. 7, 21, 5 ἐν τῷδε τῷ πόνῳ ξυνείχοντο=they were intensively engaged in this difficult task) in contrast to the activity cited in vs. 3. Closely related is the sense
    to provide impulse for some activity, urge on, impel, τινά someone ἡ ἀγάπη συνέχει ἡμᾶς 2 Cor 5:14 (so Bachmann, Belser, Sickenberger, Lietzmann, Windisch, OHoltzmann, 20th Cent.; NRSV). Pass. συνείχετο τῷ πνεύματι ὁ Παῦλος Ac 18:5 v.l.
    to hold within bounds so as to manage or guide, direct, control. Many, including RSV and REB, offer this interp. for 2 Cor 5:14 (s. 7 above. Heinrici leaves the choice open betw. 7 and 8. GHendry, ET 59, ’47/48, 82 proposes ‘include, embrace.’).—M-M. TW. Spicq.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > συνέχω

  • 247 συνθλίβω

    συνθλίβω impf. συνέθλιβον; aor. pass. subj. 3 sg. συνθλίβῃ Eccl. 12:6 (Pla. et al.; Strabo, Plut.; Philo, Aet. M. 110; Joseph.; LXX) to crowd around so as to leave little room for movement, press together, press upon τινά someone, of a crowd of people Mk 5:24, 31 (cp. Appian, Mithrid. 81 §365 συνθλιβεὶς ἐν πλήθει; Jos., Bell. 3, 393 τ. πλήθους συνθλιβομένου περὶ τῷ στρατηγῷ).

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > συνθλίβω

  • 248 φοβέω

    φοβέω (φέβομαι ‘flee in terror’; Hom. et al.; Wsd 17:9; Jos., Ant. 14, 456), in our lit. only pass. φοβέομαι (Hom.+; OGI 669, 59; SIG 1268 II, 17; pap, LXX, pseudepigr., Philo, Joseph., Just.; Mel., P. 98, 746 al.; Ath. 20, 2; R. 21 p. 75, 1) impf. ἐφοβούμην; 1 fut. φοβηθήσομαι; 1 aor. ἐφοβήθην (Plut., Brut. 1002 [40, 9]; M. Ant. 9, 1, 7; Jer 40:9; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 277; s. B-D-F §79).
    to be in an apprehensive state, be afraid, the aor. oft. in the sense become frightened
    intr., abs. (Iren. 1, 4, 2 [Harv. I 36, 4]) ἐφοβήθησαν σφόδρα they were terribly frightened (Ex 14:10; 1 Macc 12:52) Mt 17:6; 27:54. ἐπεστράφην φοβηθείς I turned around in terror Hv 4, 3, 7.—Mt 9:8; 14:30; 25:25; Mk 5:33; Ac 16:38. ἐφοβοῦντο γάρ for they were afraid Mk 16:8 (Mk 16:9–20 is now rarely considered a part of the original gospel of Mk, though many scholars doubt that the gosp. really ended w. the words ἐφ. γάρ. The original ending may have been lost; among the possible reasons given are the accidental loss of the last page of Mark’s own first copy [the same defect, at a very early stage, in the case of the 18th book of the Κεστοί of Jul. Africanus: WBauer, Orthodoxy etc. (Engl. tr. of 2d German ed. ’64) ’71, 159ff. S. also FKenyon, Papyrus Rolls and the Ending of St. Mk: JTS 40, ’39, 56f; CRoberts, The Ancient Book and the Ending of St. Mk: ibid. 253–57] or by purposeful suppression, perh. because it may have deviated fr. the other accounts of the resurrection [for the purposeful omission of the end of a document cp. Athen. 4, 61, 166d on the 10th book of Theopompus’ Philippica, ἀφʼ ἧς τινες τὸ τελευταῖον μέρος χωρίσαντες, ἐν ᾧ ἐστιν τὰ περὶ τῶν δημαγωγῶν. S. also Diog. L. 7, 34: a report of Isidorus of Pergamum on the systematic mutilation of books in the library there by Athenodorus the Stoic].—Those who conclude that nothing ever came after ἐφ. γάρ must either assume that the evangelist was prevented fr. finishing his work [Zahn et al.], or indeed intended to close the book w. these words [s. γάρ 1a]. For a short sentence, composed of a verb + γάρ s. also Epict. 3, 9, 19; 4, 8, 4; Artem. 4, 64; 1, 33 p. 35, 6; Plotinus, Ennead 5, 5, a treatise ending in γάρ [PvanderHorst, JTS 23, ’72, 121–24]; Musonius Rufus, Tr. XII; Oenomaus in Eus., PE 6, 7, 8; Libanius, Or. 53 p. 65, 20 F.; PMich 149 VI, 37 [II A.D.]. Among those favoring an ending w. γάρ: Wlh., Loisy, Lohmeyer ad loc.; ABauer, WienerStud 34, 1912, 306ff; LBrun, D. Auferst. Christi 1925, 10ff; OLinton, ThBl 8, 1929, 229–34; JCreed, JTS 31, 1930, 175–80; MGoguel, La foi à la résurr. de Jésus ’33, 176ff; HMosbech, Mkevangeliets Slutning: SEÅ 5, ’40, 56–73; WAllen, JTS 47, ’46, 46–49 [‘feel reverential awe’]; ibid. 48, ’47, 201–3. S. also EGoodspeed, Exp. 8th ser., 18, 1919, 155–60; reconstruction of the ‘lost’ ending, in Engl., by Goodsp. in his Introd. to the NT ’37, 156; HProbyn, Exp. 9th ser., 4, 1925, 120–25; RKevin, JBL 45, 1926, 81–103; MEnslin, ibid. 46, 1927, 62–68; HCadbury, ibid. 344f; MRist, ATR 14, ’32, 143–51; WKnox, HTR 35, ’42, 13ff; EHelzle, Der Schluss des Mk, ’59, diss. Tübingen; FDanker, CTM 38, ’67, 26f; JLuzarraga, Biblica 50, ’69, 497–510; KAland, MBlack Festschr., ’69, 157–80, NTEntwürfe, ’79, 246–83). φοβοῦμαι μᾶλλον I am all the more fearful IPhld 5:1. μὴ φοβηθῆτε do not be afraid Mt 10:31 v.l. (μή 1cεא). μὴ φοβοῦ, μὴ φοβεῖσθε you must no longer be afraid, stop being afraid (μή 1cγא) Mt 10:31; 14:27; 17:7; Mk 5:36; Lk 1:13, 30; 2:10; 5:10; 8:50; 12:7 al. LKöhler, D. Offenbarungsformel ‘Fürchte dich nicht!’: SchTZ 36, 1919, 33ff.—W. acc. of inner obj. (B-D-F §153; Rob. 468; Pla., Prot. 360b; Ael. Aristid. 30 p. 586 D.: φοβοῦμαι φόβον; Did., Gen. 230, 1; on LXX usage s. Johannessohn, Kasus 73) ὁ φόβος ὸ̔ν δεῖ σε φοβηθῆναι the fear which you must have Hm 7:1c. ἐφοβήθησαν φόβον μέγαν (Jon 1:10; 1 Macc 10:8; TestAbr. B 13 p. 117, 17f [Stone p. 82]; JosAs 6:1) they were very much afraid Mk 4:41; Lk 2:9. If the nouns are to be taken in the pass. sense, this is also the place for τὸν φόβον αὐτῶν (objective gen.) μὴ φοβηθῆτε 1 Pt 3:14 (cp. Is 8:12) and μὴ φοβούμεναι μηδεμίαν πτόησιν vs. 6 (πτόησις 2); s. 1bγ below.—A recognizable Hellenic expr. (cp. ὁ ἀπὸ τῶν πολεμίων φόβος=fear in the face of the enemy), though encouraged by OT usage (Lev 26:2; Dt 1:29; Jer 1:8, 17; Jdth 5:23; 1 Macc 2:62; 8:12; En 106:4; Helbing 29; B-D-F §149; Rob. 577) φοβ. ἀπό τινος be afraid of someone Mt 10:28a; Lk 12:4; 1 Cl 56:11 (Job 5:22).—Foll. by gen. absol. 56:10. Foll. by μή and the aor. subj. to denote that which one fears (Thu. 1, 36, 1; Aesop, Fab. 317 H.=356a P.; Alex. Aphr. 31, II/2 p. 203, 20 τὸν Ἀπόλλω φοβεῖσθαι μή τι παρελθῇ τούτων ἄπρακτον=Apollo is concerned [almost as much as ‘sees to it’] that nothing of this remains undone; Jos., Ant. 10, 8, Vi. 252) Ac 23:10; 27:17; ITr 5:1; Hs 9, 20, 2. Foll. by μήποτε (Phlegon: 257 Fgm. 36, 2, 4 Jac. p. 1172, 30 φοβοῦμαι περὶ ὑμῶν, μήποτε; JosAs 7:3; ApcMos 16 al.): Hm 12, 5, 3. φοβηθῶμεν μήποτε δοκῇ τις Hb 4:1; μήπου (v.l. μήπως; ParJer 5:5) Ac 27:29; 2 Cor 11:3; 12:20. A notable feature is the prolepsis of the obj. (cp. Soph., Oed. R. 767; Thu. 4, 8, 7) φοβοῦμαι ὑμᾶς μήπως εἰκῇ κεκοπίακα εἰς ὑμᾶς I am afraid my work with you may be wasted Gal 4:11 (B-D-F §476, 3; Rob. 423).—W. inf. foll. be afraid to do or shrink from doing someth. (B-D-F §392, 1b.—X., An. 1, 3, 17 al.; Gen 19:30; 26:7; ApcMos 10:18) Mt 1:20; 2:22; Mk 9:32; Lk 9:45; 2 Cl 5:1.—φοβεῖσθαι abs. in the sense take care (Just., D. 78, 4) πλέον φοβεῖσθαι be more careful than usually ITr 4:1.
    trans. fear someone or someth.
    α. pers. τινά someone (X., An. 3, 2, 19 al.; PGM 4, 2171; Num 21:34; Dt 3:2; Jos., Ant. 13, 26; Just., D. 83, 1) μὴ φοβηθῆτε αὐτούς Mt 10:26. Ἡρῴδης ἐφοβεῖτο τὸν Ἰωάννην Mt 6:20. τοὺς Ἰουδαίους J 9:22.—Gal 2:12; 2:5b (saying of Jesus). God (Did., Gen. 64, 15; Theoph. Ant. 1, 14 [p. 92, 11]) Mt 10:28b; Lk 12:5abc; 23:40; 2:5c (saying of Jesus). The crowd Mt 14:5; 21:26, 46; Mk 11:32; 12:12; Lk 20:19; 22:2; Ac 5:26 (foll. by μή). τὴν ἐξουσίαν (ἐξουσία 5a) Ro 13:3. The angel of repentance Hm 12, 4, 1; Hs 6, 2, 5. The Christian is to have no fear of the devil Hm 7:2a; 12, 4, 6f; 12, 5, 2.
    β. animals (in imagery) μὴ φοβείσθωσαν τὰ ἀρνία τοὺς λύκους 2:5a (saying of Jesus, fr. an unknown source).
    γ. things τὶ someth. (X., Hell. 4, 4, 8 al.; En 103:4; ApcEsdr 7:2 τὸν θάνατον; Just., D. 1, 5 κόλασιν; Ath., R. 21 p. 75, 1 οὐδέν; Jos., C. Ap. 1, 90; 2, 232) τὸ διάταγμα τοῦ βασιλέως Hb 11:23. τὸν θυμὸν τοῦ βασιλέως vs. 27. τὴν κρίσιν 2 Cl 18:2. τὸν ὄντως θάνατον Dg 10:7. φοβοῦμαι τὴν ὑμῶν ἀγάπην, μὴ … IRo 1:2. τὰ ὅπλα (in imagery) Hm 12, 2, 4.—1 Pt 3:14 and 6 belong here if the nouns in them are to be taken in an act. sense; s. 1a above.—Fear, avoid, shun τὶ someth. (Ps.-Callisth. 1, 41, 9 Δαρεῖος τὸ ἅρμα φοβηθείς) τὴν πλάνην τῶν ἁμαρτωλῶν B 12:10. τὰ ἔργα τοῦ διαβόλου Hm 7:3ac.—AVStröm, Der Hirt des Hermas, Allegorie oder Wirklichkeit? Ntl. Sem. Uppsala 3, ’36.
    to have a profound measure of respect for, (have) reverence, respect, w. special ref. to fear of offending
    God: fear (differently 1bα) in the sense reverence (Aeschyl., Suppl. 893 δαίμονας; Isocr. 1, 16 τοὺς μὲν θεοὺς φοβοῦ, τοὺς δὲ γονεῖς τίμα; Pla., Leg. 11, 927a; Lysias 9, 17; 32, 17; Plut., De Superstit. 2, 165b; LXX; PsSol 4:21; TestJob 43:9 [τὸν κύριον]; JosAs 2:5 [deities]; Philo, Migr. Abr. 21 [after Gen 42:18]. Cp. PTebt 59, 10 [II B.C.] φοβεῖσθαι καὶ σέβεσθαι τὸ ἱερόν) Lk 1:50 (anticipates the οἱ φοβούμενοι in Ac: H-JKlauck, NTS 43, ’97, 134–39); 18:2, 4 (was Ex 23:1–3 his motto: even God could not bribe him?); Ac 10:35; 1 Pt 2:17; Rv 14:7; 19:5; 1 Cl 21:7; 23:1; 28:1; 45:6; B 10:10f (τὸν κύριον); 19:2, 7; Hm 1:2; 7:1, 4f; Hs 5, 1, 5; 8, 11, 2; D 4:10. Also τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ θεοῦ (2 Esdr 11) Rv 11:18.—φοβούμενοι τὸν θεόν as a t.t.=σεβόμενοι τὸν θεόν (σέβω 1b; t.t. disputed by MWilcox, JSNT 13, ’81, 102–22; cp. TFinn, CBQ 47, ’85, 75–84; ILevinskaya, The Book of Acts in Its Diaspora Setting [BAFCS V] ’96, 51–126; BWander, Gottesfürchtige und Sympathisanten [WUNT 104] ’98, esp. 80–86; 180–203) Ac 13:16, 26 (Just., D. 10, 4 al.; sing. 10:2, 22).—τὸν κύριον (PsSol 2:33; 3:12 al.; JosAs 8:9) Christ: Col 3:22.—WAllen (s. 1a above) interprets Mk 16:8 to mean reverence for the divine.
    pers. who command respect (Plut., Galba 1054 [3, 4]; Herodian 3, 13, 2; Lev 19:3 φοβ. πατέρα καὶ μητέρα; Jos., Ant. 19, 345): of a wife ἵνα φοβῆται τὸν ἄνδρα Eph 5:33. τὸν ἐπίσκοπον IEph 6:1.—RAC VIII 661–99; TRE XI 756–59; Schmidt, Syn. III 507–36. DELG s.v. φέβομαι II. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

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  • 249 φωνή

    φωνή, ῆς, ἡ (s. prec. entry; Hom.+).
    an auditory effect, sound, tone, noise the source of which is added in the gen.: of musical instruments (Pla., Rep. 3, 397a ὀργάνων; Eur., Tro. 127 συρίγγων; Plut., Mor. 713c ψαλτηρίου καὶ αὐλοῦ; Aristoxenus, Fgm. 6; Paus. Attic. α, 169; Ex 19:16, Is 18:3 and PsSol 8:1 σάλπιγγος; cp. ParJer 3:2; Is 24:8 κιθάρας; Aristobul. in Eus., PE 8, 10, 13=p. 144, 94f Holladay) σάλπιγγος Mt 24:31 v.l.; D 16:6. φωναὶ τῆς σάλπιγγος blasts of the trumpet Rv 8:13b; or of those who play them κιθαρῳδῶν 14:2d; 18:22a; cp. 10:7. Of the noise made by a millstone 18:22b. Of a shout produced by a crowd of people φωνὴ ὄχλου πολλοῦ 19:1, 6a (cp. Da 10:6 Theod.; also λαοῦ πολλοῦ PsSol 8:2). Of the sound caused by spoken words (Da 10:9; Just., D. 131, 2 μηδὲ μέχρι φωνῆς) ἡ φωνὴ τοῦ ἀσπασμοῦ σου Lk 1:44. φωνὴ ῥημάτων sound of words Hb 12:19. Cp. 1 Cl 27:7 (Ps 18:4). ἔσομαι φωνή I will be just a meaningless sound (in contrast to Ignatius functioning as a λόγος θεοῦ [=meaningful expression of God] if his adherents abstain from pleas in his behalf) IRo 2:1 (s. ἠχώ). Abs. of the sound made by a wail of sorrow (cp. TestJob 40:9; TestIss 1:4) Mt 2:18 (Jer 38:15). μεγάλη φωνὴ ἐγένετο ἐν τ. οὐρανῷ GPt 9:35.—Of musical instruments it is said that they φωνὴν διδόναι produce sound (in ref. to mere sonant capability in contrast to distinguishable notes) 1 Cor 14:7f.—In Rv we have ἀστραπαὶ καὶ φωναὶ καὶ βρονταί (cp. Ex 19:16) 4:5; 8:5; 11:19; 16:18 (are certain other sounds in nature thought of here in addition to thunder, as e.g. the roar of the storm? In Ex 19:16 φωναὶ κ. ἀστραπαί are surely thunder and lightning. But in Ex 9:23, 28; 1 Km 12:18 the mng. of φωναί remains unclear. Cp. also Esth 1:1d φωναί, βρονταί).—Freq. in imagery: of wind sound J 3:8; cp. Ac 2:6. Of thunderclap (1 Km 7:10; GrBar 6:13) Rv 6:1; 14:2c; 19:6c. Of roar of water (Ezk 1:24b) 1:15b; 14:2b; 19:6b. Of whirring of wings (Ezk 1:24a) 9:9a. Of the clatter of chariots 9:9 b (cp. Ezk 3:13; 26:10).
    the faculty of utterance, voice (Tat. 15:3 προύχει τῶν θηρίων ὁ ἄνθρωπος κατὰ τὴν ἔναρθον φωνήν=humankind excels beasts in articulate utterance)
    gener. of sonant aspect: any form of speech or other utterance w. the voice can take place μετὰ φωνῆς μεγάλης Lk 17:15; ἐν φωνῇ μεγάλῃ Rv 5:2; 14:7, 9; mostly φωνῇ μεγάλῃ (TestAbr A 5 p. 82, 20f [Stone p. 12]; ParJer 2:2; Achilles Tat. 8, 1, 1; SibOr 3, 669; 5, 63) Mt 27:46, 50; Mk 1:26; 5:7; 15:34; Lk 1:42 v.l. (s. κραυγή 1b); 4:33; 8:28; 19:37; J 11:43; Ac 7:57, 60; 8:7; Rv 6:10; 7:2, 10 al.; IPhld 7:1a. μεγάλῃ τῇ φωνῃ (Diod S 1, 70, 5; 8, 23, 3; Lucian, Hist. Conscr. 1, Tim. 9; ParJer 9:8; Jos., Bell. 6, 188) Ac 14:10 v.l. 26:24; ἐν ἰσχυρᾷ φωνῇ Rv 18:2. ἐν φωνῇ μιᾷ IEph 4:2; μιᾷ φ. (Pla., Laws 1, 634e; Diod S 11, 9, 3; 11, 26, 6; 19, 81, 2; Ael. Aristid. 24, 4 K.=44 p. 825 D.; Lucian, Nigr. 14) ApcPt 5:19.—αἴρειν φωνήν (αἴρω 1b) Lk 17:13; πρός τινα Ac 4:24. ἐπαίρειν φωνήν (ParJer 9:14; s. ἐπαίρω 1) Lk 11:27; Ac 2:14; 14:11; 22:22; AcPl Ha 6, 33. ἀκούειν τῆς φωνῆς τινος hear someone speaking or calling (TestAbr B 3 p. 107, 10 [Stone p. 62]; TestJob 42:3; TestJos 9:4; ParJer 3:10) J 5:25, 28; 10:3; Hb 3:7, 15; 4:7 (the last three Ps 94:7); w. a neg. and acc. (φωνήν) Mt 12:19 (cp. Is 42:2); J 5:37. The same expr.=listen to someone’s speech or call, follow someone (Gen 3:17) 10:16, 27; 18:37; Rv 3:20; B 8:7; cp. 9:2 (s. Ex 15:26).—(ἡ) φωνὴ (τοῦ) νυμφίου (cp. Jer 25:10) J 3:29 (cp. Arrian, Cyneg. 17, 1 the dogs χαίρουσιν τὴν φωνὴν τοῦ δεσπότου γνωρίζουσαι); Rv 18:23.
    voice as it varies from individual to individual or fr. one mood to another (X., An. 2, 6, 9; Gen 27:22; Tat. 5:2) ἐπιγνοῦσα τὴν φωνὴν τοῦ Πέτρου Ac 12:14. Cp. J 10:4f (s. Ael. Aristid. 46 p. 320, horses). ἤθελον ἀλλάξαι τὴν φωνήν μου Gal 4:20 (ἀλλάσσω 1; φωνή=tone: Diod. S 8, 5, 4 πᾶσαν φωνήν=every variation in tone; Artem. 4, 56 p. 235, 15).
    that which the voice gives expression to: call, cry, outcry, loud or solemn declaration (Sb 7251, 21 [III/IV A.D.]=order, command) ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἀφεὶς φωνὴν μεγάλην Mk 15:37. φωνὴ ἐγένετο μία a single outcry arose Ac 19:34 (cp. Jos., Vi. 133). Cp. 22:14; 24:21. Pl. (Ael. Aristid. 52, 3 K.=28 p. 551 D.: ἦσαν φωναί; Jos., Vi. 231, Ant. 15, 52) φωναὶ μεγάλαι loud cries Lk 23:23a; cp. 23b. ἐλάλησαν αἱ βρονταὶ τὰς ἑαυτῶν φωνάς the thunders sounded forth their crashing peals Rv 10:3b. θεοῦ φωνὴ (D φωναί) καὶ οὐκ ἀνθρώπου (this is) the utterance of a god and not of a mere mortal Ac 12:22 (Just., D. 119, 6 τῇ φωνῇ τοῦ θεοῦ; cp. 21, 1 αἱ φωναὶ αὐτοῦ; Plut., Mor. 567f: a divine φωνή sounds forth fr. a φῶς μέγα that appears suddenly; Ael. Aristid. 45 p. 11 D.: Πυθίας φωνή; Epict. 3, 23, 20 ἰδοὺ φωναὶ φιλοσόφου; 3, 22, 50; Biogr. p. 454 people received sayings of Hippocr. ὡς θεοῦ φωνὰς κ. οὐκ ἀνθρωπίνου προελθούσας ἐκ στόματος). φωνὴ ἐνεχθεῖσα αὐτῷ a declaration (was) borne to him 2 Pt 1:17; cp. vs. 18. Also of sayings in scripture αἱ φωναὶ τῶν προφητῶν Ac 13:27 (Ath. 9, 1; cp. Diod S 19, 1, 4 ἡ Σόλωνος φωνή; 20, 30, 2 τῆς τοῦ μάντεως [=τοῦ δαιμονίου] φωνῆς; Diog. L. 8, 14 sayings of Pythagoras). Of apostolic tradition τὰ παρὰ ζώσης φωνῆς καὶ μενούσης Papias (2:4) (s. ζάω, end; on Papias’ ‘living voice’ s. ABaum, NTS 44, ’98, 144–51).
    In accordance w. OT and Jewish usage gener. (s. Bousset, Rel.3 315. The Socratic δαιμόνιον [=ὁ θεός Ep. 1, 7] is called ἡ φωνή: Socrat., Ep. 1, 9 [p. 222, 34 Malherbe] τὸ δαιμόνιόν μοι, ἡ φωνή, γέγονεν, cp. Pla., Apol. 31d) ‘the voice’ oft. speaks, though the (heavenly) speaker neither appears nor is mentioned (cp. PGM 3, 119 ἐξορκίζω σε κατὰ τῆς ἑβραικῆς φωνῆς.—In most cases the divine voice is differentiated fr. the divinity: Theopompus [IV B.C.]: 115 Fgm. 69 Jac. [in Diog. L. 1, 115] when Epimenides wishes to build τὸ τῶν Νυμφῶν ἱερόν: ῥαγῆναι φωνὴν ἐξ οὐρανοῦ ‘Ἐπιμενίδη, μὴ Νυμφῶν, ἀλλὰ Διός’=[when E. was building] a shrine for the Nymphs: a voice cried out from heaven, “Epimenides! Not for the Nymphs, but for Zeus!”; Plut., Mor. 355e; 775b; Oenomaus in Eus., PE 5, 28, 2 Lycurgus receives the laws ὑπὸ τῆς θεοῦ φωνῆς in Delphi; Artapanus; 726 Fgm. 3, 21 Jac. [in Eus., PE 9, 27, 21]; Jos., Ant. 1, 185 φ. θεία παρῆν; 3, 90 φ. ὑψόθεν; cp. 2, 267) ἰδοὺ φωνὴ ἐκ τῶν οὐρανῶν λέγουσα (on the voice fr. heaven s. the lit. s.v. βαπτίζω 2a; also JKosnetter, D. Taufe Jesu ’36, esp. 140–90, and FDölger, Ac V/3, ’36, 218–23) Mt 3:17; cp. 17:5. ἦλθεν φ. (ἐκ) Mk 9:7 v.l.; J 12:28; 30 v.l. (TestAbr A 10 p. 88, 15 [Stone p. 24] al.; cp. Ps. Callisth, 1, 45, 2f ἦλθεν φωνὴ ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀδύτου the divine saying follows in direct discourse). ἐξῆλθεν φ. Rv 16:17 (ἐκ); 19:5 (ἀπό τοῦ θρόνου). γίνεται (ἐγένετο) φ. (ἐκ: Plut., Agis et Cleom. 807 [28, 3]: φωνὴν ἐκ τοῦ ἱεροῦ γενέσθαι φράζουσαν; Ael. Aristid. 40, 22 K.=5 p. 62 D.: φωνῆς θείας γενομένης … ἐκ τοῦ μητρῴου [=temple of the Mother of the Gods]) Mk 1:11; 9:7; Lk 3:22; 9:35f; J 12:30 (v.l. ἦλθεν; s. above); Ac 10:13, 15 (both πρὸς αὐτόν); MPol 9:1a; GEb 18, 37 (verb of origin understood), cp. ibid. ln. 38; ἐγένετο φ. κυρίου Ac 7:31 (cp. Jos., Vi. 259 ἐγένοντο φωναί). ἀπεκρίθη φ. ἐκ τ. οὐρανοῦ 11:9; ἦχος φωνῆς μοι ἀπεκρίθη Hv 4, 1, 4. ἀκούειν φωνήν hear a voice (also w. such additions as λέγουσαν, ἐκ w. gen. of place, μεγάλην, gen. of the speaker) Ac 9:4; 22:9; 26:14; Rv 6:6f; 9:13; 10:4, 8; 12:10; 14:2; 18:4; MPol 9:1b; EpilMosq 4; φωνῆς w. the same mng. (w. corresp. additions) Ac 9:7; 11:7; 22:7 (MMeyer, The Light and Voice on the Damascus Road: Forum 2, ’86, 27–35 [Nag Hammadi pp. 30–32]); Rv 11:12; 14:13; 16:1; 21:3; GPt 10:41. Paul speaks διὰ φωνῆς πνεύματος ἁγίου AcPl Ha 11, 5.
    special cases: ἐπέστρεψα βλέπειν τὴν φωνὴν ἥτις ἐλάλει μετʼ ἐμοῦ I turned around to see (to whom) the voice that was speaking to me (belonged) Rv 1, 12 (cp. X., Hell. 5, 1, 22 σκεψόμενοι τίς ἡ κραυγή; Aesop 248b H.=141 P.=146 H-H. ἐπεστράφη πρὸς τὴν φ.). φ. βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ (it is) the voice of one calling out in the wilderness (Is 40:3; cp. En 9:2; Jos., Bell. 6, 301) Mt 3:3; Mk 1:3; Lk 3:4. Referring to Is 40:3, John the Baptist applies its words to himself J 1:23 the voice of one calling out in the wilderness (Ael. Aristid. 49, 5 K.=25 p. 489 D.: φ. λέγοντός του ‘τεθεράπευσαι’; Ps.-Pla., Axioch. 1 p. 364a φωνὴ βοῶντός του).—B 9:3.
    a verbal code shared by a community to express ideas and feelings, language (Aeschyl., Hdt. et al.; Cebes 33, 6; Aelian, VH 12, 48; Herodian 5, 3, 4; Diog. L. 8, 3; SEG VIII, 548, 17 [I B.C.]; PLond I, 77, 13 p. 232 [Christ. VIII A.D.]; PGM 12, 188 πᾶσα γλῶσσα κ. πᾶσα φωνή; Gen 11:1; Dt 28:49; 2 Macc 7:8, 21, 27; 4 Macc 12:7; Jos., C. Ap. 1, 1; 50; 73 al.; Just., A I, 31, 1; Tat. 37, 1; Mel., P. 29, 199) 1 Cor 14:10f; 2 Pt 2:16 (an animal w. ἀνθρώπου φ. as Appian, Bell. Civ. 4:4 §14 βοῦς φωνὴν ἀφῆκεν ἀνθρώπου; schol. on Appolon. Rhod. 2, 1146 ὁ κριὸς ἀνθρωπίνῃ χρησάμενος φωνῇ; sim. TestAbr A 3 p. 79, 19 [Stone p. 6]; sim. TestAbr B 3 p. 107, 10 [St. p. 62] a tree; ParJer 7:2 an eagle; Philo, Op. M. 156); Dg 5:1. ὁ λέων εἶπεν μιᾷ φωνῇ AcPlHa 5, 4 (on the probability that μια was misread for θεια s. the editor’s note, p. 41, 4).—B. 1248; 1260. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > φωνή

  • 250 χωρέω

    χωρέω fut. χωρήσω; 1 aor. ἐχώρησα; pf. κεχώρηκα (Just., Tat., Ath.) (Hom.+)
    to make movement from one place or position to another, go, go out/away, reach (Trag. et al.; pap)
    lit. (Just., A I, 19, 5 εἰς ἐκεῖνο χωρεῖν ἕκαστον ἐξ οὗπερ ἐγένετο) of food εἰς τὴν κοιλίαν χωρεῖ Mt 15:17 (=εἰσπορεύεται Mk 7:19.—Aristot., Probl. 1, 55 the drink εἰς τὰς σάρκας χωρεῖ). τοιαύτη διὰ τῆς σαρκὸς αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ἔκρυσις ἐχώρησεν so strong was the discharge from his (Judas’s) body that it affected an entire region Papias (3:3). Of pers. εἰς τὸν ἴδιον τόπον μέλλει χωρεῖν IMg 5:1; cp. IEph 16:2. οὗ μέλλουσι χωρήσειν, τοῦτο that, to which they are destined to go Dg 8:2. εἴς τινα to someone (Appian, Bell. Civ. 3, 95 §395 χ. ἐς τὸν ἀδελφόν; 5, 29 §114) of Christ, who has gone to the Father IMg 7:2. ἔτι κάτω χώρει go down still farther Mt 20:28 D. Of the head of a tall figure χωροῦσα μέχρι τοῦ οὐρανοῦ it reached up to the sky GPt 10:40 (like Eris: Il. 4, 443).
    fig., of a report (Pla., Ep. 7, 333a; 338b λόγος ἐχώρει) εἰς ἡμᾶς ἐχώρησεν it has reached us 1 Cl 47:7. εἰς μετάνοιαν χωρεῖν come to repentance 2 Pt 3:9 (cp. Appian, Bell. Civ. 5, 30 §115 ἐς ἀπόστασιν χ.=turned to revolt). εἴς τι ἀγαθὸν χωρεῖν lead to some good B 21:7 (Soph., El. 615 εἰς ἔργον; Aristoph., Ran. 641 ἐς τὸ δίκαιον).
    to make an advance in movement, be in motion, go forward, make progress (Pla., Cratyl. 19, 402a the saying of Heraclitus πάντα χωρεῖ καὶ οὐδὲν μένει; Hdt. 3, 42; 5, 89; 7, 10; 8, 68; Aristoph., Pax 472; 509, Nub. 907; Polyb. 10, 35, 4; 28, 15, 12; Dionys. Hal. 1, 64, 4; Plut., Galba 1057 [10, 1]; TestIss 1:11 v.l.; Jos., Ant. 12, 242; PTebt 27, 81 ἕκαστα χωρῆσαι κατὰ τὴν ἡμετέραν πρόθεσιν) ὁ λόγος ὁ ἐμὸς οὐ χωρεῖ ἐν ὑμῖν my word makes no headway among you J 8:37 (Moffatt; cp. Weymouth. Eunap., Vi. Soph. p. 103 χωρεῖ λόγος). Or perh. (as in 1b above) there is no place in you for my word (NRSV; cp. Goodsp. and 20th Cent.; Field, Notes 94f, w. ref. to Alciphron, Ep. 3, 7; Bultmann; DTabachovitz, Till betydelsen av χωρεῖν Joh. 8:37: Eranos 31, ’33, 71f.—Perh. also=χώραν ἔχειν Appian, Bell. Civ. 2, 70 §289 ὀλίγην ἐν αὐτοῖς χώραν ἔχειν; Alex. Aphr., Fat. 6 p. 169, 31 Br. χώραν ἐν αὐτοῖς ἔχει τὸ παρὰ φύσιν ‘even that which is contrary to nature has room [to be practiced] among them’; Ath., R. 20 p. 73, 18 οὐδʼ οὕτως ἕξει χώραν ἡ κατʼ αὐτῆς κρίσις not even so would any judgment of [the soul] take place).
    to have room for, hold, contain
    lit., of vessels that hold a certain quantity (Hdt. et al.; Diod S 13, 83, 3 of stone πίθοι: χ. ἀμφορεῖς χιλίους; 3 Km 7:24; 2 Ch 4:5 χ. μετρητάς; EpArist 76 χωροῦντες ὑπὲρ δύο μετρητάς; TestNapht 2:2) J 2:6; cp. Hs 9, 2, 1. In a hyperbolic expr. οὐδʼ αὐτὸν τὸν κόσμον χωρῆσαι (v.l. χωρήσειν) τὰ γραφόμενα βιβλία J 21:25 (Philo, Ebr. 32 οὐδὲ τῶν δωρεῶν ἱκανὸς οὐδεὶς χωρῆσαι τὸ ἄφθονον πλῆθος, ἴσως δὲ οὐδʼ ὁ κόσμος ‘no one, probably not even the world, is capable of containing the inexhaustible multitude of their gifts’. On this subj. cp. Pind., O. 2, 98–100, N. 4, 71f; s. also ELucius, Die Anfänge des Heiligenkults 1904, 200, 1; OWeinreich, Antike Heilungswunder 1909, 199–201). Of a space that holds people (Thu. 2, 17, 3; Diod S 13, 61, 6 μὴ δυναμένων χωρῆσαι τῶν τριήρων τὸν ὄχλον=be able to hold the crowd; Plut., Mor. 804b; of theater capacity PSI 186, 4 χωρήσει τὸ θέαδρον [sic]; Gen 13:6; Jos., Bell, 6, 131) without an obj. (cp. οὐ χάρτης χωρεῖ in late pap = the sheet of paper is not large enough) ὥστε μηκέτι χωρεῖν μηδὲ τὰ πρὸς τὴν θύραν so that there was no longer any room, even around the door Mk 2:2. Cp. Hm 5, 2, 5. Of God πάντα χωρῶν, μόνος δὲ ἀχώρητος ὤν containing everything, but the only one uncontained Hm 1:1; quite sim. PtK 2 p. 13, 24 (Mel., P. 5, 38 Χριστός, ὸ̔ς κεχώρηκεν τὰ πάντα).
    fig.
    α. of open-heartedness, having a ‘big heart’ χωρήσατε ἡμᾶς make room for us in your hearts 2 Cor 7:2 (cp. 6:12; Field, Notes 184; PDuff, Apostolic Suffering and the Language of Procession in 2 Cor 4:7–10: BTB 21, ’91, 158–65).
    β. grasp in the mental sense, accept, comprehend, understand (Περὶ ὕψους 9, 9 τὴν τοῦ θεοῦ δύναμιν; Plut., Cato Min. 791 [64, 5] τὸ Κάτωνος φρόνημα χωρεῖν; Synes., Kingship 29 p. 31d φιλοσοφία has her abode παρὰ τῷ θεῷ … καὶ ὅταν αὐτὴν μὴ χωρῇ κατιοῦσαν ὁ χθόνιος χῶρος, μένει παρὰ τῷ πατρί=and if she comes down and the region of the earth cannot contain her, she remains with the Father; SIG 814, 11 [67 A.D.]; Mitt-Wilck. I/2, 238, 8; PGM 4, 729; Ps.-Phocyl. 89; Philo; Jos., C. Ap. 1, 225) τὸν λόγον Mt 19:11. Pass. Dg 12:7. W. acc. to be supplied Mt 19:12ab=ISm 6:1; cp. ITr 5:1.
    γ. of a native condition permit, allow for ἃ οὐ χωρεῖ ἡ φύσις αὐτῆς=(Mary has had a child) something that her present native (virginal) condition does not allow for GJs 19:3 (s. φύσις 2). DELG s.v. χώρα. M-M. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > χωρέω

  • 251 ἀγαθός

    ἀγαθός, ή, όν (Hom.+) Comp. ἀμείνων (not in NT, but e.g. PGM 5, 50; 6, 2; Jos., Bell. 5, 19, Ant. 11, 296) 1 Cl 57:2; IEph 13:2; 15:1; βελτίων, also κρείσσων, colloq. ἀγαθώτερος (Diod S 8 Fgm. 12, 8; Judg 11:25 B; 15:2 B) Hm 8:9, 11. Superl. ἄριστος (Jos., C. Ap. 2, 156, Ant. 16, 142; Ath., R. 72, 8); colloq. ἀγαθώτατος (Diod S 16, 85, 7; Philo Bybl. [c. 100 A.D.] s. below 2aα; Heliod. 5, 15, 2; Synes., Ep. 143; Jos., Bell. 2, 277) Hv 1, 2, 3.—Ael. Dion. α, 10 rejects the forms ἀγαθώτερος, -τατος as wholly foreign to Greek (B-D-F §61, 1). When used of pers., freq. in ref. to good citizenship or acceptance of communal responsibility (cp. the def. in Cleanthes 3 [Coll. Alex. p. 229]).
    pert. to meeting a relatively high standard of quality, of things.
    adj. useful, beneficial καρποί (Procop. Soph., Ep. 27; Sir 6:19; Da 4:12 LXX) Js 3:17. δένδρον Mt 7:17f. γῆ productive, fertile soil (X., Oec. 16, 7 γῆ ἀ.—γῆ κακή; Diod S 5, 41, 6; Arrian, Anab. 4, 28, 3; Jos., Ant. 5, 178) Lk 8:8; B 6:8, 10. δόματα beneficial (Sir 18:17) Mt 7:11; Lk 11:13. δόσις Js 1:17; λόγος ἀ. πρὸς οἰκοδομήν useful for edification Eph 4:29 (cp. X., Mem. 4, 6, 11; Chion, Ep. 3, 6 πρὸς ἀνδρείαν ἀμείνους; Isocr. 15, 284 ἄριστα πρὸς ἀρετήν); γνώμη ἀ. a gracious declaration 1 Cl 8:2; ἡμέραι ἀ. happy (Cass. Dio 51, 19; PGen 61, 10; Sir 14:14; 1 Macc 10:55) 1 Pt 3:10; 1 Cl 22:2 (both Ps 33:13; 34:12); cp. 50:4.
    used as a pure subst.: sg. (Hom. et al.; ins, pap, LXX), ἀγαθόν, οῦ, τό the good (Diog. L. 1, 105 ἀγαθόν τε καὶ φαῦλον=a good and bad thing at the same time. TestAbr A 4, p. 80, 32 [Stone p. 8] of food); opp. (τὸ) κακόν Did., Gen. 21, 5; pl. ἀγαθά, ῶν, τά good things, possessions.
    α. quite gener. τὰ ἀγαθά σου Lk 16:25 (cp. Job 21:13; En 103:3; PsSol 1:6, 5, 18; 17:44; 18:6; the opp. of τὰ κακά as Ephorus of Cyme [IV B.C.] περὶ ἀγαθῶν κ. κακῶν: 70 test. 1 Jac.; Diod S 18, 53, 1 ἀγαθῶν τε καὶ κακῶν μεταλαμβάνων; Job 2:10; s. SAalen NTS 13, ’66, 5 on En 98:9); τοιαῦτα ἀ. such fine things Hs 9, 10, 1.—ποιήσαι ταῦτα κ. περισσότερα ἀ. μεθʼ ἡμῶν to do these and far better things for us 1 Cl 61:3.
    β. possessions, treasures (Hdt. 2, 172 et al.; PRyl 28, 182 δεσπότης πολλῶν ἀγαθῶν κ. κτημάτων; Sir 14:4; Wsd 7:11; TestJob 4:8; SibOr 3, 660; 750) Lk 1:53 (Ps 106:9.—Amphis Com. Fgm. 28 [IV B.C.], in Athen. 3, 56, 100a, χορτάζομαι ἐν ἅπασιν ἀγαθοῖς; Sb 7517, 4 [211/12 A.D.] ἀγαθῶν πεπληρῶσθαι); Gal 6:6; Hv 3, 9, 6; τὰ ἀ. τῆς γῆς 1 Cl 8:4 (Is 1:19; cp. TestAbr A 4 p. 81, 18 [Stone p. 10] ἀ. τῶν ἐπιγείων); esp. of crops (Diod S 3, 46, 1 τὰ ἀ.=‘the good gifts’, specifically ‘products of nature’; likewise 19, 26, 3. Even more generally Synes., Kingship 16 p. 17d τὰ ἀ.=food; Philo, Op. M. 16, Mos. 1, 6) Lk 12:18f.
    γ. possessions of a higher order (Dio Chrys. 64 [14], 1 ἐλευθερία as μέγιστον τ. ἀγαθῶν; Ael. Aristid. 24, 4 K.=44 p. 825 D.: ὁμόνοια as μέγ. τῶν ἀ.; 45, 18 K.=8 p. 89 D.: τὰ τῆς ψυχῆς ἀγ. Diog. L. 6, 4 the priest promises the initiate into the Orphic mysteries πολλὰ ἐν ᾅδου ἀγαθά) Ro 3:8; 10:15 (Is 52:7).—Hb 9:11; 10:1; 2 Cl 6:6; 15:5.
    pert. to meeting a high standard of worth and merit, good
    as adj.
    α. of humans and deities (the primary focus is on usefulness to humans and society in general, so Pind.+, s. AAdkins Merit and Responsibility ’60, 189f) beneficent, of God (Dio Chrys. 80 [30], 26 οἱ θεοί; Zoroaster in Philo Bybl.: 790 Fgm. 4, 52 Jac. [Eus. PE 1, 10, 52] God is ἀγαθῶν ἀγαθώτατος. Sallust. 1 πᾶς θεὸς ἀγαθός; contrast Did., Gen. 109, 3 ὁ διάβολος οὐ φύσει κακός … ἐστίν, ἀλλὰ … ἀγαθὸς γέγονεν.—Cp. IKosPH 92, 6f which calls Nero ἀ. θεός, ἀγαθὸς δαίμων [OGI 666, 3; POxy 1021, 8, both referring to Nero; POxy 1449, 4; s. also JKroll, D. Lehren d. Hermes Trismeg. 1914, 90; Rtzst., Erlösungsmyst. 189; 191ff] and Sb 349 θεῷ ἀγαθῷ Διὶ Ἡλίῳ; Philo, Leg. All. 1, 47 al.; Celsus 4, 14) Mt 19:17b (in Cleanthes, Stoic. I 127, 3ff [Eus. PE 13, 13, 37], a description of God follows the question τἀγαθὸν ἐρωτᾷς μʼ οἷόν ἐστʼ; cp. Orig., C.Cels. 3, 70, 9; Did., Gen. 98, 28); Mk 10:18b (Unknown Sayings 33–36); Lk 18:19b; Dg 8:8 (on these passages cp. Simonid., Fgm. 4, 6f χαλεπὸν ἐσθλὸν [=ἀγαθός ln. 10] ἔμμεναι; 7 θεὸς ἂν μόνος τοῦτʼ ἔχοι γέρας); μόνος ἀ. ἐστιν ibid.; πατὴρ ἀ. 1 Cl 56:16 (Philo, Op. M. 21 ἀ. εἶναι τὸν πατέρα κ. ποιητήν); ἀ. ἐν τ. ὁρωμένοις good in the visible world 60:1.—Of Christ Mk 10:17, 18a (DomGMurray, Downside Review 103, ’85, 144–46, w. ref. to Pirke Aboth 6, 3); Lk 18:18, 19a (WWagner, ZNW 8, 1907, 143–61; FSpitta, ibid. 9, 1908, 12–20; BWarfield, PTR 12, 1914, 177–228; WCaspari, Christent. u. Wissensch. 8, ’32, 218–31.—Cp. also the saying of Pythagoras in Diog. L., Prooem. 12, who does not wish to be called σοφός because μηδένα εἶναι σοφὸν ἀλλʼ ἢ θεόν); J 7:12.—Of humans, other than Jesus Mt 12:35; Ro 5:7; D 3:8; νομοθέται B 21:4; πονηροί τε καὶ ἀ. good and bad designating a motley crowd Mt 22:10. Same contrast 5:45 (cp. Jos., Ant. 8, 314). βελτίονα ποιεῖν make better 1 Cl 19:1; βελτίω γενέσθαι become better Dg 1; kind, generous (X., Cyr. 3, 3, 4; CIG 37, 49) Mt 20:15 (in Mk 10:17f=Lk 18:18 [s. above] it is understood as kind by JWellhausen, EKlostermann, Billerb., Wagner, Spitta, Dalman [Worte 277], EHirsch [D. Werden des Mk ’41, 246]); δεσπόται benevolent 1 Pt 2:18 (cp. PLips 40 II, 19, where a slave says ὁ ἀγαθὸς δεσπότης μου). δοῦλος (Heraclitus, Ep. 9, 3 [p. 212, 4 Malherbe]) Mt 25:21, 23; Lk 19:17. ἀνήρ (Teles p. 16, 6; Diod S 20, 58, 1; Epict. 3, 24, 51 al.; PLond I, 113/1, 8 p. 201; 2 Macc 15:12; 4 Macc 4:1; Jos., Bell. 5, 413, Ant. 18, 117; JGerlach, ΑΝΗΡ ΑΓΑΘΟΣ, diss. Munich ’32) Lk 23:50; Ac 11:24; νέαι Tit 2:5. ἀπόστολοι superb 1 Cl 5:3.
    β. of things characterized esp. in terms of social significance and worth, πνεῦμα Lk 11:13 v.l.; ἐντολή Ro 7:12 (Ps.-Archytas [IV B.C.] in Stob., Ecl. 4, 138, IV 85, 17 H. νόμος ἀ. καὶ καλός); ἀγγελία (Pr 25:25) Hv 3, 13, 2; παιδεία Hs 6, 3, 6; μνεία ἀ. kindly remembrance 1 Th 3:6 (2 Macc 7:20 μνήμη ἀ.); ἐλπίς dependable (Pla., Rep. 331a; Chariton 7, 5, 10; Jos., Ant. 14, 96) 2 Th 2:16; μερὶς ἀ. the better part Lk 10:42; πρᾶξις (Democr. 177 πρῆξις; Did., Gen. 69, 7) 1 Cl 30:7; συνείδησις clear Ac 23:1; 1 Ti 1:5, 19; 1 Pt 2:19 v.l.; 3:16, 21; 1 Cl 41:1; διάνοια Hm 5, 2, 7; ἐπιθυμία (Pr 11:23; 13:12) pure (i.e. directed toward pure things) desire m 12, 1, 1f; 2:4f; 3:1; γνώμη ἀ. good intention B 21:2; ἀ. ἐν Χριστῷ ἀναστροφή admirable Christian conduct 1 Pt 3:16; ἀ. θησαυρός Mt 12:35; Lk 6:45; καρδία καλὴ καὶ ἀ. 8:15; ἔργον (Thu. 5, 63, 3; PCairMasp 151, 237) a good deed 2 Cor 9:8; Col 1:10; 1 Ti 5:10; 2 Ti 2:21; 3:17; Tit 1:16; 3:1; 1 Cl 2:7; 33:1; 34:4. Pl. ἔργα ἀ. (Empedocles [V B.C.] 112, 2) 1 Ti 2:10; also specif. of benefactions (w. ἐλεημοσύναι) Ac 9:36; 1 Cl 33:7; ἐν παντὶ ἔργῳ κ. λόγῳ ἀ. (for this Hellenic formulation cp. Lk 24:19; Ac 7:22; for the simple λόγος ἀ. s. 3Km 8:56; 4 Km 20:19; Is 39:8) 2 Th 2:17; ὑπομονὴ ἔργου ἀ. persistency in doing right Ro 2:7.
    as subst., sg. (s. 1b). Opp. (τὸ) κακόν Did., Gen. 21, 5; 27, 5.
    α. that which is beneficial or helpful ἐργάζεσθαι τὸ ἀ. do what is good Ro 2:10; Hm 4, 2, 2; 7:4; also specif. of benefaction Gal 6:10 and of socially acceptable work Eph 4:28; Hm 2:4; τὸ ἀ. ποιεῖν (cp. Jos., Bell. 1, 392) Ro 13:3b; Hm 8:12; cp. 6, 2, 8.—Mt 19:17a; Ro 7:13; 12:9; 16:19; 1 Th 5:15; 1 Pt 3:13; 1 Cl 21:6; 2 Cl 13:1; Hm 8:2, 7.
    β. τὰ ἀ. (ἀληθινὰ ἀ. Orig., C. Cels 7, 21, 10) good deeds J 5:29; cp. Hm 10, 3, 1 (TestAbr A 9 p. 87, 28 [Stone p. 22] ἀγαθά τε καὶ πονηρά).—B. 1176. DELG. M-M. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἀγαθός

  • 252 ἀγοραῖος

    ἀγοραῖος, ον (Aeschyl., Hdt.+; ins, pap) ‘pertaining to a market’, in our lit. used only as subst.
    οἱ ἀ. market people, specif. the crowd in the market place, and so rabble (Gramm. Ammonius ἀγοραῖος σημαίνει τ. πονηρόν, τὸν ἐν ἀγορᾷ τεθραμμένον, cp. Aristoph., Ran. 1015; Pla., Prot. 347c; Theophr., Char. 6, 2; Dio Chrys. 49 [66], 25; Plut., Aemil. Paul. 38, 4 ἀνθρώπους ἀγεννεῖς καὶ δεδουλευκότας, ἀγοραίους δὲ καὶ δυναμένους ὄχλον συναγαγεῖν al.) Ac 17:5.
    αἱ ἀγοραῖοι (sc. ἡμέραι or σύνοδοι) court days/sessions ἀ. ἄγονται the courts are in session Ac 19:38 (Jos., Ant. 14, 245 ἄγειν τὴν ἀγοραῖον; EphemEpigr VII 436, no. 44, 10 [II A.D.] ἡ ἀγοραῖος ἤχθη; Strabo 13, 4, 12 τὰς ἀ. ποιεῖσθαι=Lat. conventus forenses agere; B-D-F §5, 3b).—DELG s.v. ἀγορά 12. M-M.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἀγοραῖος

  • 253 ἀκολουθέω

    ἀκολουθέω impv. ἀκολούθει; impf. ἠκολούθουν; fut. ἀκολουθήσω; 1 aor. ἠκολούθησα; pf. ἠκολούθηκα Mk 10:28 (denom. fr. ἀκόλουθος; Thu., Aristoph.+; Did., Gen. 49, 17 restored) prim. ‘follow’.
    lit. to move behind someone in the same direction, come after abs. (Diod S 13, 75, 7) οἱ προάγοντες κ. οἱ ἀκολουθοῦντες Mt 21:9; Mk 11:9; cp. J 21:20; Ac 21:36; 1 Cor 10:4; Rv 14:8. W. dat. of pers. (X., Hell. 5, 2, 26; Herodian 6, 7, 8; PEnteux 48, 3 [III B.C.]) Mt 9:19; 26:58; Mk 14:13; Lk 22:10; J 10:4f; 11:31; IPhld 11:1; Hv 3, 8, 4; 7. ἠκολούθει τῷ Ἰησοῦ Σίμων Πέτρος κ. ἄλλος μαθητής J 18:15 (more than one subject with a verb in the sing. as Appian, Bell. Civ. 3, 72 §296 ὑπερόψεταί με Λέπιδος κ. Πλάγκος).
    to follow or accompany someone who takes the lead, accompany, go along with, oft. of the crowd following Jesus ἠκολούθησαν αὐτῷ ὄχλοι πολλοί (s. ὄχλος 1a) Mt 4:25; 8:1; 12:15; 14:13; Mk 5:24; Lk 7:9; 9:11; J 6:2. μετά τινος someone (Thu. 7, 57, 9; Phryn. 353 Lob.; B-D-F §193, 1) Rv 6:8 (Lk 9:49 οὐκ ἀκολουθεῖ [sc. σοι] μεθʼ ἡμῶν is different, he does not follow as your disciple with us). For this we have Hebraistically ὀπίσω τινός (3 Km 19:20; Is 45:14; Ezk 29:16) Mt 10:38; Mk 8:34.—Of the deeds that follow one into the next world Rv 14:13 τὰ ἔργα αὐτῶν ἀκολουθεῖ μετʼ αὐτῶν the record of their deeds goes with them (REB) (cp. Diod S 13, 105 νομίσαντες … ἑαυτοῖς τὴν μέμψιν ἀκολουθήσειν).
    w. transition to the fig. mng. to follow someone as a disciple, be a disciple, follow (Diog. L. 9, 21 of Parmenides: ἀκούσας Ξενοφάνους οὐκ ἠκολούθησεν αὐτῷ; Palaeph. 2 p. 6, 16; Just., D. 8, 3 ἀνθρώποις ἀκολουθῆσαι οὐδενὸς ἀξίοις) ἀκολούθει μοι follow me = be my disciple Mt 9:9 (in Diog. L. 2, 48 Socrates stops Xenophon at their first meeting and says: “ἕπου καὶ μάνθανε”. καὶ τοὐντεῦθεν ἀκροατὴς Σωκράτους ἦν); cp. 8:19; 19:21 (Aristoxenus, Fgm. 17: Simichos the tyrant hears Pythagoras, divests himself of his kingly power, disposes of his χρήματα [Mt 19:22 v.l.], and attaches himself to him; Sextus 264a ἀφεὶς ἃ κέκτησαι ἀκολούθει τῷ ὀρθῷ λόγῳ); 27f; Mk 1:18 (on the call of a disciple directly fr. his work s. Jos., Ant. 8, 354 εὐθέως … καταλιπὼν τ. βόας ἠκολούθησεν Ἠλίᾳ … μαθητής [after 3 Km 19:20f ]); Mk 2:14; 8:34; Lk 5:11, 27f al. The transition may be observed in J 1, where ἀ. has sense 2 in vss. 37f, but sense 3 in vss. 40, 43 (OCullmann, TZ 4, ’48, 367).—TArvedson, SvTK 7, ’31, 134–61; ESchweizer, Lordship and Discipleship, ’60; ASchulz, Nachfolgen u. Nachahmen, ’62; GKilpatrick, BT 7, ’56, 5f; RThysman, L’ethique de l’imitation du Christ dans le NT: ETL 42, ’66, 138–75; TAerts, Suivre Jésus, ibid., 475–512.
    gener. to comply with, follow, obey (Thu. 3, 38, 6 γνώμῃ; Ps.-Andoc. 4, 19; Demosth. 26, 5; CPJ II, 152 [=BGU 1079], 10f ἀκολούθει Πτολλαρίωνι πᾶσαν ὥραν; μᾶλλον ἀκολουθῶν αὐτῷ ln. 26f; 2 Macc 8:36 νόμοις; cp. Jdth 2:3.—M. Ant. 7, 31 θεῷ; Jdth 5:7 τοῖς θεοῖς. Just., A I, 3, 2 εὐσεβείᾳ καὶ φιλοσοφίᾳ) τοῖς ἔθεσιν customs Dg 5:4. τοῖς νομίμοις τ. δεσπότου obey the statutes of the Master 1 Cl 40:4. τῇ ὁδῷ τῆς ἀληθείας 35:5 (cp. TestAsh 6:1 ἀ. τῇ ἀληθείᾳ); the bishop ISm 8:1; a schismatic IPhld 3:3.—Hm 6, 2, 9.
    to come after someth. else in sequence, follow, of things τῶν λοιπῶν τῶν ἀκολουθούντων πάντων all other persons and things that follow (in the parable) Hs 5, 5, 1; τινί Mk 16:17 v.l. (s. παρακολουθέω 2).—B. 699. DELG s.v. ἀκόλουθος. EDNT. M-M. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἀκολουθέω

  • 254 ἀπέναντι

    ἀπέναντι (s. ἔναντι; Polyb. 1, 86, 3+; pap since III B.C. [PPetr II, 17 (3), 3; s. Mayser 242; 457]; ins since II B.C. [Priene]; LXX; TestJob 34:5; JosAs 24:19; ApcMos 29; JWackernagel, Hellenistica 1907, 3ff).
    in a position that faces against an object or other position, opposite
    as adv. σταθεὶς … ἀπέν[αντι πρὸς ἀνατολάς προσηύ]ξατο Paul stood facing east and prayed AcPl Ha 10, 21 (κατέναντι Aa I 115, 13); [καὶ ἀπέ]ναντι ἱστήκει = εἱστήκει (the light-bearer) stood opposite 3, 30.
    used as prep. w. gen. opposite someone or someth.
    α. strictly of place (Diod S 18, 34, 6 ἀ. τῆς Μέμφεως) καθήμεναι ἀ. τοῦ τάφου opposite the tomb Mt 27:61; cp. Mk 12:41 v.l. and Mt 21:2 v.l. (SIG 756, 17f ἀ. τῆς εἰσόδου; PGrenf I, 21, 14; Jdth 3:9; 7:3, 18); before, in the presence of someone (cp. 1 Macc 6:32) ἀ. τοῦ ὄχλου before the crowd Mt 27:24 v.l. (for κατέναντι); ἀ. πάντων ὑμῶν Ac 3:16. ἀ. Ἀρτεμύλλας AcPl Ha 3, 11. βλέπω ἀ. μου I see before me Hv 2, 1, 3.
    β. fig. ἀ. τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν αὐτῶν before their eyes (לְנֶגֶד עֵנָיו)=with them Ro 3:18 (Ps 13:3; 35:2). ἀ. τ. ὀ. μου (cp. Sir 27:23)=so that I see it 1 Cl 8:4 (Is 1:16); cp. Pol 6:2.
    marker of hostility or strong opposition, against, contrary to (Sir 37:4) ἀ. τῶν δογμάτων Καίσαρος πράσσειν act contrary to the decrees of Caesar Ac 17:7.—DELG s.v. ἄντα 2. M-M.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἀπέναντι

  • 255 ἀπό

    ἀπό (Hom.+) prep. w. gen. (see the lit. on ἀνά, beg., also for ἀπό: KDieterich, IndogF 24, 1909, 93–158; LfgrE s.v.). Basic sense ‘separation from’ someone or someth., fr. which the other uses have developed. In the NT it has encroached on the domain of Att. ἐκ, ὑπό, παρά, and the gen. of separation; s. Mlt. 102; 246; Mlt-Turner 258f.
    a marker to indicate separation from a place, whether person or thing, from, away from
    w. all verbs denoting motion, esp. those compounded w. ἀπό: ἀπάγεσθαι, ἀπαλλάσσεσθαι, ἀπελαύνειν, ἀπέρχεσθαι, ἀπολύεσθαι, ἀποπλανᾶσθαι, ἀποστέλλειν, ἀποφεύγειν, ἀποχωρεῖν, ἀποχωρίζεσθαι; but also w. ἀνίστασθαι, διαστῆναι, διέρχεσθαι, ἐκδημεῖν, ἐκκινεῖν, ἐκπλεῖν, ἐκπορεύεσθαι, ἐξέρχεσθαι, ἐξωθεῖν, ἐπιδιδόναι, μεταβαίνειν, μετατίθεσθαι, νοσφίζειν, παραγίνεσθαι, πλανᾶσθαι, πορεύεσθαι, ὑπάγειν, ὑποστρέφειν, φεύγειν; s. the entries in question.
    w. all verbs expressing the idea of separation ἐκβάλλειν τὸ κάρφος ἀ. τοῦ ὀφθαλμοῦ remove the splinter fr. the eye Mt 7:4 v.l. (for ἐκ). ἐξέβαλον ἀπὸ τῆς πήρας αὐτῶν δῶρα they set forth gifts out of their travel bags GJs 21:3. ἀπολύεσθαι ἀ. ἀνδρός be divorced fr. her husband Lk 16:18, cp. Ac 15:33. ἀποκυλίειν, ἀπολαμβάνεσθαι, ἀποστρέφειν, ἐπιστρέφεσθαι, ἐπανάγειν, αἴρειν, ἀφαιρεῖν, ἀπολέσθαι, μερίζειν et al., s. the pertinent entries. So also κενὸς ἀ. τινος Hs 9, 19, 2. ἔρημος ἀ. τινος (Jer 51:2) 2 Cl 2:3. W. verbs which express the concept of separation in the wider sense, like loose, free, acquit et al. ἀπορφανίζειν, ἀποσπᾶν, διεγείρεσθαι, δικαιοῦν, ἐκδικοῦν, ἐλευθεροῦν, λούειν, λύειν, λυτροῦν, ῥαντίζειν, σαλεύειν, στέλλειν, σῴζειν, φθείρειν, s. the entries; hence also ἀθῷος (Sus 46 Theod. v.l.) Mt 27:24. καθαρὸς ἀ. τινος (Tob 3:14; but s. Dssm. NB 24 [BS 196; 216]) Ac 20:26; cp. Kuhring 54.
    verbs meaning be on guard, be ashamed, etc., take ἀπό to express the occasion or object of their caution, shame, or fear; so αἰσχύνεσθαι, βλέπειν, μετανοεῖν, προσέχειν, φοβεῖσθαι, φυλάσσειν, φυλάσσεσθαι; s. 5 below.
    w. verbs of concealing, hiding, hindering, the pers. from whom someth. is concealed is found w. ἀπό; so κρύπτειν τι ἀπό τινος, παρακαλύπτειν τι ἀπό τινος, κωλύειν τι ἀπό τινος; s. the entries.
    in pregnant constr. like ἀνάθεμα εἶναι ἀ. τοῦ Χριστοῦ be separated fr. Christ by a curse Ro 9:3. μετανοεῖν ἀ. τ. κακίας (Jer 8:6) Ac 8:22. ἀποθνῄσκειν ἀ. τινος through death become free from Col 2:20. φθείρεσθαι ἀ. τ. ἁπλότητος be ruinously diverted from wholehearted commitment 2 Cor 11:3. Cp. Hs 6, 2, 4.
    as a substitute for the partitive gen. (Hdt. 6, 27, 2; Thu. 7, 87, 6; PPetr III, 11, 20; PIand 8, 6; Kuhring 20; Rossberg 22; Johannessohn, Präp. 17) τίνα ἀ. τῶν δύο; Mt 27:21, cp. Lk 9:38; 19:39 (like PTebt 299, 13; 1 Macc 1:13; 3:24; Sir 6:6; 46:8). τὰ ἀ. τοῦ πλοίου pieces of the ship Ac 27:44. ἐκχεῶ ἀ. τοῦ πνεύματός μου Ac 2:17f (Jo 3:1f). λαμβάνειν ἀ. τ. καρπῶν get a share of the vintage Mk 12:2 (cp. Just., A I, 65, 5 μεταλαβεῖν ἀπὸ τοῦ … ἄρτου).—Of foods (as in Da 1:13, 4:33a; 2 Macc 7:1) ἐσθίειν ἀ. τ. ψιχίων eat some of the crumbs Mt 15:27; Mk 7:28. χορτάζεσθαι ἀ. τινος eat one’s fill of someth. Lk 16:21. αἴρειν ἀ. τῶν ἰχθύων pick up the remnants of the fish Mk 6:43. ἐνέγκατε ἀ. τ. ὀψαρίων bring some of the fish J 21:10 (the only instance of this usage in J; s. M-EBoismard, Le chapitre 21 de Saint Jean: RB 54 [’47] 492).—Of drink (cp. Sir 26:12) πίνειν ἀπὸ τ. γενήματος τῆς ἀμπέλου drink the product of the vine Lk 22:18.
    to indicate the point from which someth. begins, whether lit. or fig.
    of place from, out from (Just., D. 86, 1 ἀπὸ τῆς πέτρας ὕδωρ ἀναβλύσαν ‘gushing out of the rock’) σημεῖον ἀ. τ. οὐρανοῦ a sign fr. heaven Mk 8:11. ἀ. πόλεως εἰς πόλιν from one city to another Mt 23:34. ἀπʼ ἄκρων οὐρανῶν ἕως ἄκρων αὐτῶν (Dt 30:4; Ps 18:7) from one end of heaven to the other 24:31, cp. Mk 13:27. ἀπʼ ἄνωθεν ἕως κάτω from top to bottom Mt 27:51. ἀρξάμενοι ἀ. Ἰερουσαλήμ beginning in Jerusalem Lk 24:47 (s. also Lk 23:5; Ac 1:22; 10:37). ἀφʼ ὑμῶν ἐξήχηται ὁ λόγος τ. κυρίου the word of the Lord has gone out from you and sounded forth 1 Th 1:8. ἀπὸ βορρᾶ, ἀπὸ νότου in the north, in the south (PCairGoodsp 6, 5 [129 B.C.] ἐν τῷ ἀπὸ νότου πεδίῳ; Mitt-Wilck. I/2, 11A col. 1, 12f [123 B.C.] τὸ ἀπὸ νότου τῆς πόλεως χῶμα; ln. 7 ἀπὸ βορρᾶ τῆς πόλεως; 70, 16 al.; Josh 18:5; 19:34; 1 Km 14:5) Rv 21:13.
    of time from … (on), since (POxy 523, 4; Mel., HE 4, 26, 8; s. Kuhring 54ff).
    α. ἀ. τῶν ἡμερῶν Ἰωάννου from the days of John Mt 11:12. ἀ. τῆς ὥρας ἐκείνης 9:22. ἀπʼ ἐκείνης τ. ἡμέρας (Jos., Bell. 4, 318, Ant. 7, 382) Mt 22:46; J 11:53. ἔτη ἑπτὰ ἀ. τῆς παρθενίας αὐτῆς for seven years fr. the time she was a virgin Lk 2:36. ἀ. ἐτῶν δώδεκα for 12 years 8:43. ἀ. τρίτης ὥρας τῆς νυκτός Ac 23:23. ἀ. κτίσεως κόσμου Ro 1:20. ἀ. πέρυσι since last year, a year ago 2 Cor 8:10; 9:2.—ἀπʼ αἰῶνος, ἀπʼ ἀρχῆς, ἀπʼ ἄρτι (also ἀπαρτί and ἄρτι), ἀπὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου, ἀπὸ τότε, ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν; s. the pertinent entries.
    β. w. the limits defined, forward and backward: ἀπὸ … ἕως (Jos., Ant. 6, 364) Mt 27:45. ἀπὸ … ἄχρι Phil 1:5. ἀπὸ … μέχρι Ac 10:30; Ro 5:14; 15:19.
    γ. ἀφʼ ἧς (sc. ὥρας or ἡμέρας, which is found Col 1:6, 9; but ἀφʼ ἧς became a fixed formula: ParJer 7:28; Plut., Pelop. [285] 15, 5; s. B-D-F §241, 2) since Lk 7:45 (Renehan ’75, 36f); Ac 24:11; 2 Pt 3:4 (cp. X., Hell. 4, 6, 6; 1 Macc 1:11). ἀφʼ οὗ (sc.—as in X., Cyr. 1, 2, 13—χρόνου; Att. ins in Meisterhans.3-Schw. and s. Witkowski, index 163; ἀφʼ οὗ is also a formula) since, when once (X., Symp. 4, 62; Demetr.: 722 Fgm. 1, 16 Jac.; Lucian, Dial. Mar. 15, 1; Ex 5:23 GrBar 3:6) Lk 13:25; 24:21; Rv 16:18 (cp. Da 12:1; 1 Macc 9:29; 16:24; 2 Macc 1:7; TestAbr B 13 p. 117, 23; GrBar; Jos., Ant. 4, 78). τρία ἔτη ἀφʼ οὗ (cp. Tob 5:35 S) Lk 13:7. ἀφότε s. ὅτε 1aγ end.
    the beg. of a series from … (on).
    α. ἀρξάμενος ἀ. Μωϋσέως καὶ ἀ. πάντων τ. προφητῶν beginning w. Moses and all the prophets Lk 24:27. ἕβδομος ἀ. Ἀδάμ Jd 14 (Diod S 1, 50, 3 ὄγδοος ὁ ἀπὸ τοῦ πατρός [ancestor]; Appian, Mithrid. 9 §29 τὸν ἕκτον ἀπὸ τοῦ πρώτου Μιθριδάτην; Arrian, Anab. 7, 12, 4; Diog. L. 3, 1: Plato in the line of descent was ἕκτος ἀπὸ Σόλωνος; Biogr. p. 31: Homer δέκατος ἀπὸ Μουσαίου). ἀ. διετοῦς καὶ κατωτέρω Mt 2:16 (cp. Num 1:20; 2 Esdr 3:8).
    β. w. both beg. and end given ἀπὸ … ἕως (Sir 18:26; 1 Macc 9:13) Mt 1:17; 23:35; Ac 8:10. Sim., ἀ. δόξης εἰς δόξαν fr. glory to glory 2 Cor 3:18.
    to indicate origin or source, from
    lit., with verbs of motion
    α. down from πίπτειν ἀ. τραπέζης Mt 15:27. καθεῖλεν δυνάστας ἀ. θρόνων God has dethroned rulers Lk 1:52.
    β. from ἔρχεσθαι ἀ. θεοῦ J 3:2; cp. 13:3; 16:30. παραγίνεται ἀ. τῆς Γαλιλαίας Mt 3:13; ἀ. ἀνατολῶν ἥξουσιν 8:11 (Is 49:12; 59:19); ἀ. τοῦ ἱεροῦ ἐπορεύετο 24:1; ἀ. Παμφυλίας Ac 15:38. ἐγείρεσθαι ἀ. τ. νεκρῶν be raised from the dead Mt 14:2.
    lit., to indicate someone’s local origin from (Hom. et al.; Soph., El. 701; Hdt. 8, 114; ins [RevArch 4 sér. IV 1904 p. 9 ἀπὸ Θεσσαλονίκης]; pap [HBraunert, Binnenwanderung ’64, 384, s.v.; PFlor 14, 2; 15, 5; 17, 4; 22, 13 al.]; Judg 12:8; 13:2; 17:1 [all three acc. to B]; 2 Km 23:20 al.; Jos., Bell. 3, 422, Vi. 217; Just., A I, 1 τῶν ἀπὸ Φλαουί̈ας Νέας πόλεως; s. B-D-F §209, 3; Rob. 578) ἦν ἀ. Βηθσαϊδά he was from B. J 1:44; cp. 12:21. ὄχλοι ἀ. τῆς Γαλιλαίας crowds fr. Galilee Mt 4:25. ἄνδρες ἀ. παντὸς ἔθνους Ac 2:5. ἀνὴρ ἀ. τοῦ ὄχλου a man fr. the crowd Lk 9:38. ὁ προφήτης ὁ ἀ. Ναζαρέθ Mt 21:11. οἱ ἀ. Κιλικίας the Cilicians Ac 6:9. οἱ ἀδελφοὶ οἱ ἀ. Ἰόππης 10:23 (Musaeus 153 παρθένος ἀπʼ Ἀρκαδίας; Just., A I, 58, 1 Μακρίωνα … τὸν ἀπὸ Πόντου). οἱ ἀ. Θεσσαλονίκης Ἰουδαῖοι 17:13. οἱ ἀ. τῆς Ἰταλίας the Italians Hb 13:24, who could be inside as well as outside Italy (cp. Dssm., Her. 33, 1898, 344, LO 167, 1 [LAE 200, 3]; Mlt. 237; B-D-F §437).—Rather denoting close association οἱ ἀ. τῆς ἐκκλησίας members of the church Ac 12:1; likew. 15:5 (cp. Plut., Cato Min. 4, 2 οἱ ἀπὸ τ. στοᾶς φιλόσοφοι; Ps.-Demetr. c. 68 οἱ ἀπʼ αὐτοῦ=his [Isocrates’] pupils; Synes., Ep. 4 p. 162b; 66 p. 206c; PTebt 33, 3 [112 B.C.], Ῥωμαῖος τῶν ἀπὸ συγκλήτου; Ar. 15, 1 Χριστιανοὶ γενεαλογοῦνται ἀπὸ … Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ; Ath.).—To indicate origin in the sense of material fr. which someth. is made (Hdt. 7, 65; Theocr. 15, 117; IPriene 117, 72 ἀπὸ χρυσοῦ; 1 Esdr 8:56; Sir 43:20 v.l.) ἔνδυμα ἀ. τριχῶν καμήλου clothing made of camel’s hair Mt 3:4.
    fig., w. verbs of asking, desiring, to denote the pers. of or from whom a thing is asked (Ar. 11, 3): δανίσασθαι ἀπό τινος borrow fr. someone Mt 5:42. ἐκζητεῖν ἀ. τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης Lk 11:51. ἀπαιτεῖν τι ἀπό τινος Lk 12:20. ζητεῖν τι ἀπό τινος 1 Th 2:6. λαμβάνειν τι ἀπό τινος Mt 17:25f; 3J 7.
    fig., w. verbs of perceiving, to indicate source of the perception (Lysias, Andoc. 6; Ps.-Aristot., De Mundo 6, 399b ἀπʼ αὐτῶν τῶν ἔργων θεωρεῖται ὁ θεός; Appian, Liby. 104 §493 ἀπὸ τῆς σφραγῖδος=[recognize a corpse] by the seal-ring; Demetr.: 722 Fgm. 2, 1 στοχάζεσθαι ἀπὸ τῶν ὀνομάτων; Just., D. 60, 1 τοῦτο νοοῦμεν ἀπὸ τῶν λόγων τῶν προλελεγμένων; 100, 2 ἀπὸ τῶν γραφῶν): ἀ. τῶν καρπῶν αὐτῶν ἐπιγνώσεσθε αὐτούς by their fruits you will know them Mt 7:16, 20. μανθάνειν παραβολὴν ἀ. τῆς συκῆς learn a lesson from the fig tree 24:32; Mk 13:28. ἀπὸ τῶν σπερμάτων μὴ ποιεῖσθαι τὴν παραβολήν if we are not to derive our parable solely from reference to seeds (cp. 1 Cor 15:37) AcPlCor 2:28.—Also μανθάνειν τι ἀπό τινος learn someth. fr. someone Gal 3:2; Col 1:7.
    γράψαι ἀφʼ ὧν ἠδυνήθην, lit., write from what I was able, i.e. as well as I could B 21:9 (cp. Tat. 12, 5 οὐκ ἀπὸ γλώττης οὐδὲ ἀπὸ τῶν εἰκότων οὐδὲ ἀπʼ ἐννοιῶν etc.).
    to indicate distance fr. a point, away from, for μακρὰν ἀ. τινος far fr. someone, ἀπὸ μακρόθεν fr. a great distance s. μακράν, μακρόθεν. ἀπέχειν ἀπό τινος s. ἀπέχω 4. W. detailed measurements (corresp. to Lat. ‘a’, s. B-D-F §161, 1; Rob. 575; WSchulze, Graeca Latina 1901, 15ff; Hdb. on J 11:18; Appian, Bell. Civ. 3, 12 §42; CB I/2, 390 no. 248) ἦν Βηθανία ἐγγὺς τῶν Ἱεροσολύμων ὡς ἀπὸ σταδίων δεκατέντε Bethany was near Jerusalem, about 15 stades (less than 3 km.) away J 11:18. ὡς ἀπὸ πηχῶν διακοσίων about 200 cubits (c. 90 meters) 21:8. ἀπὸ σταδίων χιλίων ἑξακοσίων about 1600 stades (c. 320 km.) Rv 14:20; cp. Hv 4, 1, 5 (for other examples of this usage, s. Rydbeck 68).—Hebraistically ἀπὸ προσώπου τινός (Gen 16:6; Jer 4:26; Jdth 2:14; Sir 21:2; 1 Macc 5:34; En 103:4; Just., A I, 37, 1 ἀπὸ προσώπου τοῦ πατρὸς ἐλέχθησαν διὰ Ἠσαίου … οἵδε οἱ λόγοι ‘in the name of the father … through Isaiah’; 38, 1 al.)=מִפְּנֵי פ׳ ( away) from the presence of someone 2 Th 1:9 (Is 2:10, 19, 21); Rv 12:14 (B-D-F §140; 217, 1; Mlt-H. 466).
    to indicate cause, means, or outcome
    gener., to show the reason for someth. because of, as a result of, for (numerous ref. in FBleek on Hb 5:7; PFay 111, 4; POxy 3314, 7 [from falling off a horse]; Jdth 2:20; 4 [6] Esdr [POxy 1010]; AscIs 3:13; Jos., Ant. 9, 56) οὐκ ἠδύνατο ἀ. τοῦ ὄχλου he could not because of the crowd Lk 19:3; cp. Mk 2:4 D. οὐκ ἐνέβλεπον ἀπὸ τῆς δόξης τοῦ φωτός I could not see because of the brilliance of the light Ac 22:11. ἀ. τοῦ πλήθους τ. ἰχθύων J 21:6 (M-EBoismard, ad loc.: s. 1f end). ἀ. τοῦ ὕδατος for the water Hs 8, 2, 8. ἀ. τῆς θλίψεως because of the persecution Ac 11:19. οὐαὶ τῷ κόσμῳ ἀ. τ. σκανδάλων Mt 18:7 (s. B-D-F §176, 1; Mlt. 246). εἰσακουσθεὶς ἀ. τῆς εὐλαβείας heard because of his piety Hb 5:7 (but the text may be corrupt; at any rate it is obscure and variously interpr.; besides the comm. s. KRomaniuk, Die Gottesfürchtigen im NT: Aegyptus 44, ’64, 84; B-D-F §211; Rob. 580; s. on εὐλάβεια).
    to indicate means with the help of, with (Hdt. et al.; Ael. Aristid. 37, 23 K.=2 p. 25 D.; PGM 4, 2128f σφράγιζε ἀπὸ ῥύπου=seal with dirt; En 97:8) γεμίσαι τὴν κοιλίαν ἀ. τ. κερατίων fill one’s stomach w. the husks Lk 15:16 v.l. (s. ἐκ 4aζ; cp. Pr 18:20). οἱ πλουτήσαντες ἀπʼ αὐτῆς Rv 18:15 (cp. Sir 11:18).
    to indicate motive or reason for, from, with (Appian, Bell. Civ. 5, 13 §52 ἀπʼ εὐνοίας=with goodwill; 1 Macc 6:10; pap exx. in Kuhring 35) κοιμᾶσθαι ἀ. τῆς λύπης sleep from sorrow Lk 22:45. ἀ. τῆς χαρᾶς αὐτοῦ Mt 13:44; cp. Lk 24:41; Ac 12:14. ἀ. τοῦ φόβου κράζειν Mt 14:26, ἀ. φόβου καὶ προσδοκίας with fear and expectation Lk 21:26. Hence verbs of fearing, etc., take ἀ. to show the cause of the fear (s. above 1c) μὴ φοβεῖσθαι ἀ. τ. ἀποκτεννόντων τὸ σῶμα not be afraid of those who kill only the body Mt 10:28; Lk 12:4 (cp. Jdth 5:23; 1 Macc 2:62; 3:22; 8:12; En 106:4).
    to indicate the originator of the action denoted by the verb from (Trag., Hdt. et al.) ἀ. σοῦ σημεῖον ἰδεῖν Mt 12:38. γινώσκειν ἀπό τινος learn fr. someone Mk 15:45. ἀκούειν ἀ. τοῦ στόματός τινος hear fr. someone’s mouth, i.e. fr. him personally Lk 22:71 (Dionys. Hal. 3, 8 ἀ. στόματος ἤκουσεν); cp. Ac 9:13; 1J 1:5. τὴν ἀ. σοῦ ἐπαγγελίαν a promise given by you Ac 23:21 (cp. Ath. 2, 3 ταῖς ἀπὸ τῶν κατηγόρων αἰτίαις ‘the charges made by the accusers’). ἀφʼ ἑνὸς ἐγενήθησαν Hb 11:12. Prob. παραλαμβάνειν ἀ. τοῦ κυρίου 1 Cor 11:23 is to be understood in the same way: Paul is convinced that he is taught by the Lord himself (for direct teaching s. EBröse, Die Präp. ἀπό 1 Cor 11:23: StKr 71, 1898, 351–60; Dssm.; BWeiss; Ltzm.; H-DWendland. But for indirect communication: Zahn et al.). παραλαβὼν ἀπὸ τῶν θυγατέρων Φιλίππου, ὅτι Papias (11:2); opp. παρειληφέναι ὑπὸ τῶν θ. Φ. (2:9).—Of the more remote cause ἀπʼ ἀνθρώπων from human beings (as opposed to transcendent revelation; w. διʼ ἀνθρώπου; cp. Artem. 1, 73 p. 66, 11 ἀπὸ γυναικῶν ἢ διὰ γυναικῶν; 2, 36 p. 135, 26) Gal 1:1. ἀ. κυρίου πνεύματος fr. the Lord, who is the Spirit 2 Cor 3:18. ἔχειν τι ἀπό τινος have (received) someth. fr. someone 1 Cor 6:19; 1 Ti 3:7; 1J 2:20; 4:21.—In salutation formulas εἰρήνη ἀ. θεοῦ πατρός ἡμῶν peace that comes from God, our father Ro 1:7; 1 Cor 1:3; 2 Cor 1:2; Gal 1:3; Eph 1:2; cp. 6:23; Phil 1:2; Col 1:2; 1 Th 1:1 v.l.; 2 Th 1:2; 1 Ti 1:2; 2 Ti 1:2; Tit 1:4; Phlm 3. σοφία ἀ. θεοῦ wisdom that comes fr. God 1 Cor 1:30. ἔπαινος ἀ. θεοῦ praise fr. God 4:5. καὶ τοῦτο ἀ. θεοῦ and that brought about by God Phil 1:28. The expr. εἰρήνη ἀπὸ ‘ὁ ὢν καὶ ὁ ἦν καὶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος’ Rv 1:4 is quite extraordinary. It may be an interpretation of the name Yahweh already current, or an attempt to show reverence for the divine name by preserving it unchanged, or simply one more of the grammatical peculiarities so frequent in Rv (Meyer6-Bousset 1906, 159ff; Mlt. 9, note 1; cp. PParis 51, 33 ἀπὸ ἀπηλιότης; Mussies 93f, 328).
    to indicate responsible agents for someth., from, of
    α. the self, st. Gk. usage (Thu. 5, 60, 1; X., Mem. 2, 10, 3; Andoc., Orat. 2, 4 οὗτοι οὐκ ἀφʼ αὑτῶν ταῦτα πράττουσιν; Diod S 17, 56; Num 16:28; 4 Macc 11:3; En 98:4; TestAbr A 15 p. 95, 26 [Stone p. 38]; 18 p. 101, 6 [Stone p. 50]; Just., A I, 43, 8) the expr. ἀφʼ ἑαυτοῦ (pl. ἀφʼ ἑαυτῶν) of himself and ἀπʼ ἐμαυτοῦ of myself are common Lk 12:57; 21:30; 2 Cor 3:5, esp. so in J: 5:19, 30; 8:28; 10:18; 15:4.—7:17f; 11:51; 14:10; 16:13; 18:34. So also ἀπʼ ἐμαυτοῦ οὐκ ἐλήλυθα I did not come of myself (opp. the Father sent me) 7:28; 8:42.
    β. fr. others. W. verbs in the pass. voice or pass. mng. ὑπό is somet. replaced by ἀπό (in isolated cases in older Gk. e.g. Thu. 1, 17 et al. [Kühner-G. II/1 p. 457f]; freq. in later Gk.: Polyb. 1, 79, 14; Hero I 152, 6; 388, 11; Nicol. Dam.: 90 Fgm. 130, 130 Jac.; IG XII/5, 29, 1; SIG 820, 9; PLond III, 1173, 12 p. 208; BGU 1185, 26; PFlor 150, 6 ἀ. τῶν μυῶν κατεσθιόμενα; PGM 4, 256; Kuhring 36f; 1 Macc 15:17; Sir 16:4; ParJer 1:1 ᾐχμαλωτεύθησαν … ἀπὸ τοῦ βασιλέως; Philo, Leg. All. 3, 62; Just., A I, 68, 6 ἐπιστολὴν … γραφεῖσάν μοι ἀπὸ Σερήνου, D. 121, 3 ἀπὸ παντὸς [γένους] μετάνοιαν πεποιῆσθαι. See B-D-F §210; Rob. 820; GHatzidakis, Einl. in d. neugriech. Gramm. 1892, 211; AJannaris, An Histor. Gk. Grammar 1897, §1507). Yet just at this point the textual tradition varies considerably, and the choice of prep. is prob. at times influenced by the wish to express special nuances of mng. Lk 8:29b v.l. (ὑπό text); 43b (ὑπό v.l.); 10:22 D; ἀποδεδειγμένος ἀ. τ. θεοῦ attested by God Ac 2:22. ἐπικληθεὶς Βαρναβᾶς ἀ. (ὑπό v.l.) τ. ἀποστόλων named B. by the apostles 4:36. κατενεχθεὶς ἀ. τοῦ ὕπνου overcome by sleep 20:9. ἀθετούμενος ἀπὸ τῶν παραχαρασσόντων τὰ λόγια αὐτοῦ inasmuch as (Jesus) is being rejected by those who falsify his words AcPlCor 2:3. νεκροῦ βληθέντος ἀπὸ τῶν υἱῶν Ἰσραὴλ ἐπʼ αὐτά when a corpse was cast upon them (the bones of Elisha) 2:32. In such cases ἀπό freq. denotes the one who indirectly originates an action, and can be transl. at the hands of, by command of: πολλὰ παθεῖν ἀ. τ. πρεσβυτέρων suffer much at the hands of the elders Mt 16:21; cp. Lk 9:22; 17:25, where the emphasis is to be placed on παθεῖν, not on ἀποδοκιμασθῆναι. In ἀ. θεοῦ πειράζομαι the thought is that the temptation is caused by God, though not actually carried out by God Js 1:13. ἡτοιμασμένος ἀ. τοῦ θεοῦ prepared by God’s command, not by God in person Rv 12:6.
    In a few expr. ἀπό helps to take the place of an adverb. ἀπὸ μέρους, s. μέρος 1c.—ἡμέρᾳ ἀφʼ ἡμέρας day by day GJs 12:3.—ἀπὸ μιᾶς (acc. to Wlh., Einl.2 26, an Aramaism, min ḥădā˒=at once [s. MBlack, An Aramaic Approach3, ’67, 113]; but this does not explain the fem. gender, found also in the formulaic ἐπὶ μιᾶς Maxim. Tyr. 6, 3f En 99:9 [s. SAalen, NTS 13, ’67, 3] and in Mod. Gk. μὲ μιᾶς at once [Thumb §162 note 2]. PSI 286, 22 uses ἀπὸ μιᾶς of a payment made ‘at once’; on the phrase s. New Docs 2, 189. Orig. γνώμης might have been a part of the expr. [Philo, Spec. Leg. 3, 73], or ὁρμῆς [Thu. 7, 71, 6], or γλώσσης [Cass. Dio 44, 36, 2], or φωνῆς [Herodian 1, 4, 8]; cp. ἀπὸ μιᾶς φωνῆς Plut., Mor. 502d of an echo; s. B-D-F §241, 6) unanimously, alike, in concert Lk 14:18. Sim. ἀπὸ τ. καρδιῶν fr. (your) hearts, sincerely Mt 18:35.—Himerius, Or. 39 [=Or. 5], 6 has as a formula διὰ μιᾶς, probably = continuously, uninterruptedly, Or. 44 [=Or. 8], 2 fuller διὰ μιᾶς τῆς σπουδῆς=with one and the same, or with quite similar zeal.—M-M.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἀπό

  • 256 ἀποθλίβω

    ἀποθλίβω 1 aor. 3 sg. ἀπέθλιψεν Num 22:25 (s. θλίβω; Eur. et al. in var. senses, but esp. of someth., such as a grape, which loses its contents when squeezed; pap [Mayser 381]; Num 22:25; Jos., Ant. 2, 64; 6, 118) to apply squeezing pressure, press upon, crowd (UPZ 162 II, 13 [117 B.C.]) τινά someone, of a throng (w. συνέχειν) Lk 8:45.—DELG s.v. θλίβω. M-M.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἀποθλίβω

  • 257 ἀπολαμβάνω

    ἀπολαμβάνω fut. ἀπολή(μ)ψομαι; 2 aor. ἀπέλαβον; pf. ptc. ἀπειληφότες 4 Macc 18:23. Mid.: 2 aor. ptc. ἀπολαβόμενος; pf. ptc. ἀπειλημμένων Is. 5:17 (s. λαμβάνω; Eur., Hdt.+).
    to obtain someth. from a source, receive τὶ: τ. υἱοθεσίαν adoption Gal 4:5. τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν B 15:7; pl. Hv 2, 2, 6, cp. 5:7. πάντα Hm 9:4. τ. ἐκκλησίαν 2 Cl 14:3. τ. αἰώνιον ζωήν 8:6.—As commercial t.t. (s. ἀπέχω) receive (UPZ 162 VIII, 28 [117 B.C.] τ. τιμὴν ἀπολαβεῖν) τὰ ἀγαθά σου you have already received your good things Lk 16:25 (difft. KBornhäuser, NKZ 39, 1928, 838f); cp. 2 Cl 11:4. Esp. of wages (since Hdt. 8, 137 μισθόν; Sb 7438, 13 [VI A.D.]; GrBar 15:3 μισθόν) ἀ. πολλαπλασίονα receive many times more Lk 18:30; ἄξια ἀ. 23:41; τ. μισθόν 2 Cl 9:5; Hs 5, 6, 7; μισθὸν πλήρη 2J 8; ἀντιμισθίαν ἀ. Ro 1:27; ἀπὸ κυρίου ἀ. τ. ἀνταπόδοσιν Col 3:24; τ. κλῆρον ἀ. obtain one’s lot IRo 1:2; τ. μέλλοντα αἰῶνα the future age (w. its glory) Pol 5:2; τ. τῆς ἀφθαρσίας στέφανον MPol 19:2 (cp. τὴν δόξαν TestJob 43:15). It appears to be used abs. οὐ γὰρ | ἐν τοῖς ζωοῖς μόνοις ἀπολαμβάνουσιν οἱ κακοῦργοι τῶν ἀν(θρώπ)ων ἀλλὰ [κ]αὶ| κόλασιν ὑπομένουσιν καὶ πολ[λ]ὴν| βάσανον Ox 840, 4–7, but the primary obj. is probably κόλασις which does duty for the two clauses, w. β. being an additional feature in the endtime: not only among the living do human evildoers receive punishment, but they also await it and much torment as well.—EPreuschen, ZNW 9, 1908, 4.
    to receive back someth. that one previously possessed, recover, get back (Jos., Ant. 5, 19; Just., A I, 18, 6 τὰ … ἑαυτῶν σώματα) τὰ ἴσα the same amount Lk 6:34 (a commercial term as Sb 7516, 24 [II A.D.] τὰ ὀφειλόμενα). ὑγιαίνοντα αὐτὸν ἀπέλαβεν he has gotten him back safe and sound 15:27. Fig. τ. λαὸν καθαρόν take his people back pure Hs 9, 18, 4. τὸ ἴδιον μέγεθος ISm 11:2.
    to lead or take away from a particular point, take away of persons (so since Hdt. 1, 209; Aristoph., Ran. 78 αὐτὸν μόνον; PLond I, 42, 13 p. 30; Witkowski 32, 13 p. 62; sim. 36, 10f p. 65 for confinement; Jos., Bell. 2, 109 ἀπολαβόμενος αὐτὸν κατʼ ἰδίαν; 2 Macc 6:21) mid. ἀπολαβόμενος αὐτὸν ἀπὸ τ. ὄχλου κατʼ ἰδίαν he took him aside, away fr. the crowd, by himself Mk 7:33.
    to accept someone’s presence with friendliness, welcome (PLips 110, 6; PIand 13, 17f ἵνα μετὰ χαρᾶς σε ἀπολάβωμεν) 3J 8 v.l.; τὴν πολυπληθίαν ὑμῶν your entire congregation IEph 1:3. ὸ̔ν ἐξεμπλάριον τ. ἀφʼ ὑμῶν ἀγάπης ἀπέλαβον whom I have welcomed as a living example of your love 2:1.—M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἀπολαμβάνω

  • 258 ἀπολύω

    ἀπολύω impf. ἀπέλυον; fut. ἀπολύσω; 1 aor. ἀπέλυσα, inf. ἀπολῦσαι; pf. 1 pl. ἀπολελύκαμεν 3 Macc 7:7. Pass.: 1 fut. ἀπολυθήσομαι; 1 aor. ἀπελύθην; pf. ἀπολέλυμαι (Hom. et al.; ins, pap, LXX, EpArist, Joseph.).
    As legal term, to grant acquittal, set free, release, pardon τινά a prisoner (PGiss 65a, 4; 66, 11; POxy1271, 5; 2 Macc 4:47; 12:25; 4 Macc 8:2; Jos., Bell. 2, 4; Just., D. 4, 5 [ψυχὴ] ἀπολυθεῖσα τοῦ σώματος al.) ἀ. ἕνα τῷ ὄχλῳ δέσμιον release a prisoner for the crowd (JMerkel, D. Begnadigung am Passahfeste: ZNW 6, 1905, 293–316; RMerritt, JBL 104, ’85, 57–68; —ἀπολύω=pardon: Diod S 3, 71, 5; Appian, Bell. Civ. 5, 4 §15; OGI 90, 14 [196 B.C.]; UPZ 111, 2 [163 B.C.]; Just., A I, 7, 4 ἀπολύηται ὡς Χριστιανός; Mel., P. 101, 775 τὸν κατάδικον) Mt 27:15–26; cp. Mk 15:6–15; Lk 23:16–25; J 18:39; 19:10, 12; Ac 3:13; 5:40; 16:35f; 26:32; 28:18; AcPl Ha 10, 4; on GJs 16:3 cp. 3 below, on Lk 22:68 see JDuplacy in: Neutest. Aufsätze, Festchr. JSchmid, ’63, 42–52 (for genuineness); release from threat of being sold Mt 18:27.—Abs. ἀπολύετε καὶ ἀπολυθήσεσθε pardon (your debtors) and you will be pardoned Lk 6:37.
    to release from a painful condition, free, pass. be freed (Tob 3:6; 2 Macc 12:45; Jos., Ant. 2, 65 τ. δεσμῶν) of diseases (Diog. L. 3, 6; Jos., Ant. 3, 264 τ. νόσου) ἀπολέλυσαι (v.l.+ ἀπὸ) τῆς ἀσθενείας σου Lk 13:12.
    to permit or cause someone to leave a particular location let go, send away, dismiss (X., Hell. 6, 5, 21; UPZ 62, 18 [161 B.C.]; Tob 10:12 S; 1 Macc 11:38; 2 Macc 14:23; Jos., Ant. 5, 97) of a crowd (Jos., Ant. 11, 337 ἀ. τὸ πλῆθος) Mt 14:15, 22; 15:32, 39; Mk 6:36, 45; 8:9 al.; ἀ. τὴν ἐκκλησίαν dismiss the assembly Ac 19:40. Also of individuals (Ps 33 ins; ParJer 3:22) Mt 15:23; Lk 8:38; 14:4; GJs 21:2 (not pap); Lk 22:68 v.l. Perh. GJs 16:3 (s. 1 above). W. the goal indicated (Jos., Vi. 271 εἰς) εἰς οἶκον (send them away) to their homes Mk 8:3. εἰς τὰ τείχη let (them) go into the building Hs 8, 2, 5; cp. 8, 2, 1. πρὸς … τὸν ἄνδρα αὔτῆς AcPl Ha 4, 5. Pass. be dismissed, take leave, depart (Philo, In Flacc. 96; Jos., Ant. 5, 99) Ac 4:23; 15:30, 33, also Hb 13:23, unless the ref. is to a release fr. imprisonment (s. 1 above) or simply mng. 6 (s. WWrede, D. Literar. Rätsel d. Hb. 1906, 57ff).—Euphem. for let die (Ps.-Plut., Consol. ad Apoll. 13 p. 108c ἕως ἂν ὁ θεὸς ἀπολύσῃ ἡμᾶς; M. Ant. 12, 36, 2 and 5; a veteran’s gravestone [Sb 2477] Ἡλιόδωρε ἐντείμως ἀπολελυμένε, εὐψύχει; Gen 15:2; Num 20:29; Tob 3:6; 2 Macc 7:9) νῦν ἀπολύεις τὸν δοῦλόν σου Lk 2:29 (some interpret this as modal now mayest thou … JKleist, Mk. ’36, 147–50 and AFridrichsen, ConNeot 7, ’42, 5f; s. also Goodsp., Probs. 77–79). Perh. discharge fr. Simeon’s long vigil (vs. 26); cp. POxy 2760, 2f (179/80 A.D.), of a cavalryman’s discharge (on the desire for departure cp. TestAbr A 9 p. 87, 5f [Stone p. 22]). Mt 15:23 is semantically dense: as the context indicates, the riddance is to be expedited by granting the woman’s request (s. 4).
    to grant a request and so be rid of a pers., satisfy Mt 15:23 (cp. 3).
    to dissolve a marriage relationship, to divorce τὴν γυναῖκα one’s wife, or betrothed (1 Esdr 9:36; cp. Dt 24:1ff; the expr. ἀ. τ. γυν. Dionys. Hal. 2, 25, 7) Mt 1:19; 5:31f (Just., A I, 15, 3); 19:3, 7–9 (BWitherington, Matthew 5:32 and 19:9—Exception or Exceptional Situation?: NTS 31, ’85, 571–76); Mk 10:2, 4, 11 (GDelling, NovT 1, ’56, 263–74); Lk 16:18; Hm 4, 1, 6; ἀπʼ ἐμοῦ GJs 14:1. Of the woman ἀ. τὸν ἄνδρα divorce her husband (Diod S 12, 18, 1) Mk 10:12. This is in accord not w. Jewish (Jos., Ant. 15, 259), but w. Gr-Rom. custom (D has simply ἐξελθεῖν ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀνδρός; on Roman custom relating to women s. MMcDonnell, American Journal of Ancient History 8, ’83, 54–80). See on divorce TEngert, Ehe-u. Familienrecht d. Hebräer 1905; AOtt, D. Auslegung d. ntl. Texte über d. Ehescheidung 1910; HNordin, D. ehel. Ethik d. Juden z. Zt. Jesu 1911; AEberharter, D. Ehe-u. Familienrecht d. Hebräer 1914; LBlau, D. jüd. Ehescheidung u. d. jüd. Scheidebrief 1911/12; RCharles, The Teaching of the NT on Divorce 1921; Billerb. I 303–21 al.; SJohnson, Jesus’ Teaching on Divorce ’45; FCirlot, Christ and Divorce ’45; JDerrett, Law in the NT, ’70; HCronzel, 363–88, L’Église primitive face au divorce, ’71; JFitzmyer, The Matthean Divorce Texts and Some New Palestinian Evidence: TS 37, ’76, 197–226; BVawter, CBQ 39, ’77, 528–42.
    mid. to make a departure from a locality, go away (Thu., Polyb.; PHal 1, 174 [III B.C.]; Ex 33:11; EpArist 304; Anz 285. ἀπολυόμενος τὰς διαβολάς ‘refuting the calumnies’ Ath. 2, 3) Ac 28:25; perh. Hb 13:23.—B. 768. EDNT. DELG s.v. λύω. M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἀπολύω

  • 259 ἄλλος

    ἄλλος, η, ο (Hom.+) adj. and subst.
    pert. to that which is other than some other entity, other
    distinguished fr. the subject who is speaking or who is logically understood μήπως ἄλλοις κηρύξας αὐτὸς ἀδόκιμος γένωμαι lest after preaching to others I myself should be disqualified 1 Cor 9:27. ἄ. ἐστὶν ὁ μαρτυρῶν J 5:32 (ἄλλος of God as Epict. 3, 13, 13). ἄλλη συνείδησις (=ἄλλου συν.) another’s conscientious scruples 1 Cor 10:29. ἄλλους ἔσωσεν, ἑαυτὸν οὐ δύναται σῶσαι others he saved, himself he cannot save Mt 27:42; Mk 15:31, cp. Lk 23:35.
    distinguished fr.
    α. a previously mentioned subj. or obj. ἄλλα δὲ ἔπεσεν ἐπὶ κτλ. Mt 13:5, 7f. ἄλλην παραβολήν vss. 24, 31, 33; 21:33. ἄλλους ἑστῶτας 20:3, 6.—Freq. the subj. or obj. is not expressly mentioned, but can be supplied fr. what precedes διʼ ἄλλης ὁδοῦ ἀνεχώρησαν 2:12 (cp. 3 Km 13:10) al.
    β. different fr. the subj. in a following contrasting phrase ἄλλοι κεκοπιάκασιν, καὶ ὑμεῖς εἰς τὸν κόπον αὐτῶν εἰσεληλύθατε J 4:38 (JATRobinson, TU 73, ’59, 510–15 [identity]).
    used correlatively in contrast οἱ μὲν … ἄλλοι (δέ) some … others J 7:12. Indefinite τινὲς … ἄλλοι 9:16. Also ὁ ὄχλος … ἄλλοι the crowd … others 12:29. ὁ πλεῖστος ὄχλος … ἄλλοι δέ Mt 21:8. With no mention of the first part, and the other parts introd. by ἄλλοι … ἄλλοι Mk 6:15; 8:28; Lk 9:19; J 9:9.—In enumerations, w. ὁ μέν in the first part, continued by ἄλλος δέ (somet. ἕτερος takes the place of ἄλλος Libanius, Or. 32, p. 155, 18 F. ἄλλοι … ἕτεροι; Ath. 26, 2; Ps.-Clem., Hom. 19, 9; UPZ 42, 32f [162 B.C.]; s. 2 below) 1 Cor 12:8ff. οἱ πέντε … ὁ εἷς … ὁ ἄλλος= the last one Rv 17:10. οἱ ἄλλοι w. a noun expressed or understood (X., Cyr. 3, 3, 4; Herodian 2, 4, 4) the other(s), the rest (Ps.-Callisth. 3, 35 τὰ ἄλλα λ´ [ἔτη]=the rest of the thirty years) J 20:25; 21:8; 1 Cor 14:29; AcPlCor 1:4; τὰ ἄλλα θηρία AcPl Ha 5, 9; τῶν ἄλλων σπερμάτων AcPlCor 2:26.—Various cases of ἄ. in juxtapos. (Epictetus index Schenkl; Hippocr., Ep. 17, 31 ἀλλὰ ἄλλος ἄλλου; Maximus Tyr., 3, 1d ἀλλὰ ἄλλον ἄλλο; 21, 7b; Sallust. 4 p. 6, 19; Jos., Bell. 7, 389; 396, Ant. 7, 325; Ath. 1, 1 al) ἄ. πρὸς ἄ. λέγοντες one said to the other Ac 2:12. ἄλλοι μὲν οὖν ἄλλο τι ἔκραζον now some were shouting one thing, some another (X., An. 2, 1, 15 ἄλλος ἄλλα λέγει; Nicol. Dam.: 90 Fgm. 130, 25 p. 409, 25 Jac. ἄλλοι δὲ ἄλλα ὑπελάμβανον) 19:32; cp. 21:34.
    ἄλλος τις some other, any other μήτε ἄλλον τινὰ ὅρκον Js 5:12. ἄ. τις διϊσχυρίζετο another man maintained Lk 22:59. εἰ δέ τι ἄλλο παραδέχεσθε AcPlCor 2:34. Esp. εἴ τις ἄ. (1 Macc 13:39) 1 Cor 1:16; Phil 3:4.—οὐδεὶς ἄλλος no one else (cp. Jos., Vi. 196) J 15:24.
    pert. to that which is different in type or kind from other entities in comparisons another, different (from, compared with).
    different in kind 1 Cor 15:39ff; 2 Cor 11:4 (interchanging w. ἕτερος; s. b, below Gal 1:7 and 1c, above; cp. B-D-F §306).
    another (except, besides) οὐκ ἔστιν ἄ. πλὴν αὐτοῦ there is none (i.e. no other God) but (the Lord your God) Mk 12:32 (cp. Ex 8:6; Is 45:21; Pr 7:1a). ὅτι … εἷς Χριστὸς Ἰησοῦς καὶ ἄ. οὐχ ὑπάρχει that … there is only one Messiah, Jesus, and there will be no other AcPl Ha 1, 18. W. ἀλλά foll. 1 Cl 51:5; ἀλλʼ ἤ 2 Cor 1:13; εἰ μή J 6:22; παρά w. acc. (Philostrat., Vi. Apoll. 5, 30 p. 188, 30; Just., A I, 19, 5; 58, 1) 1 Cor 3:11. Gal 1:6, 7 (B-D-F §306, 4; Mlt. 80 n. 1; 246; EBurton, ICC Gal., 420–22) belongs in this section (s. ἕτερος 1bγ).
    ἄλλος ἐστὶν ὁ σπείρων καὶ ἄλλος ὁ θερίζων one sows, another reaps J 4:37.
    ἄλλος καὶ ἄλλος each one a different, or simply different (Appian, Iber. 62 §260) Hs 9, 1, 4; 10; 9, 17, 1; 2; 9, 28, 1.
    pert. to being in addition, more (Pla., Leg. 5, 745a ἄλλο τοσοῦτον μέρος) w. cardinal numerals (Stephan. Byz. s.v. Ἐορδαῖαι: ἄλλαι δύο χῶραι; Diog. L. 1, 115 Ἐπιμενίδαι ἄλλοι δύο; Gen 41:3, 6, 23; Jos., Ant. 1, 92) ἄ. δύο ἀδελφούς two more brothers Mt 4:21; ἄ. πέντε τάλαντα (cp. SIG 201, 17 [356 B.C.] ἄλλας τριάκοντα μνᾶς; PBour 23, 7 [II A.D.]; 1 Esdr 4:52; 1 Macc 15:31) 25:20, cp. vs. 22. μετʼ αὐτοῦ ἄ. δύο J 19:18.
    w. art. pert. to being the remaining one of two or more, the other of the two (Soph., El. 739; Eur., Iph. T. 962f; Pla., Leg. 1, 629d; SIG 736, 91 [92 B.C.]; UPZ 162 VIII, 34 [117 B.C.]; BGU 456, 10ff; CPR 22, 15 [II A.D.] τὸ ἄλλο ἥμισυ, also Tob 8:21 S; cp. also 1 Km 14:4. The strictly correct word would be ἕτερος. TestJob 9:8): the healed hand is ὑγιὴς ὡς ἡ ἄλλη Mt 12:13. ἡ ἄ. Μαρία (to differentiate her fr. Mary Magdalene, as Appian, Basil. 1a §4 Αἰνείας ἄλλος; Arrian, Anab. 5, 21, 3; 5 ὁ ἄλλος Πῶρος) 27:61; 28:1. στρέψον αὐτῷ καὶ τὴν ἄ. turn the other (i.e. the left cheek) to him, too Mt 5:39; cp. Lk 6:29. ὁ μαθητὴς ὁ ἄλλος J 18:16 (cp. 20:2ff); τοῦ ἄ. τοῦ συσταυρωθέντος 19:32.—S. adv. ἄλλως. DELG. M-M. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἄλλος

  • 260 ἄτερ

    ἄτερ prep. w. gen. without (Hom.+, but in prose first IPriene 109, 106 [c. 120 B.C.], then in imperial times [B-D-F §216, 2]: Dionys. Hal. 3, 10; Plut., Num. 14, 7, Cato Min. 5, 6; Vett. Val. 136, 9; 271, 9; 341, 3; perh. PLond III, 1171 verso c, 3 p. 107 [42 A.D.], ed.: ἄν̣ε̣υ̣[?]; POxy 936, 18; PHolm η 4; PGM 13, 56; 2 Macc 12:15; Ath. 1:3) ἄ. ὄχλου apart fr. the crowd, perh. without a disturbance Lk 22:6; ἄ. βαλλαντίου without a purse vs. 35; ἄ. γραφῆς PtK 4 p. 16, 6; ἄ. θεοῦ without God, apart fr. God’s will D 3:10 (Polyaenus 6, 53 θεῶν ἄτερ); ἄ. ἀλλήλων Hs 5, 7, 4; cp. 5, 4, 5; 5, 6, 2; 9, 12, 8; 9, 27, 2; ἄ. ζυγοῦ ἀνάγκης B 2:6 v.l.—DELG. M-M.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἄτερ

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