Translation: from greek

buzzing crowd

  • 221 εἰμί

    εἰμί (Hom.+) impv. ἴσθι, ἔσο IPol 4:1, ἔστω—also colloq. ἤτω (BGU 276, 24; 419, 13; POxy 533, 9; Ps 103:31; 1 Macc 10:31) 1 Cor 16:22; Js 5:12; 1 Cl 48:5; Hv 3, 3, 4;—3 pers. pl. ἔστωσαν (ins since 200 B.C. Meisterhans3-Schw. 191; PPetr III, 2, 22 [237 B.C.]) Lk 12:35; 1 Ti 3:12; GJs 7:2. Inf. εἶναι. Impf. 1 pers. only mid. ἤμην (Jos., Bell. 1, 389; 631; s. further below); ἦν only Ac 20:18 D, 2 pers. ἦσθα (Jos., Ant. 6, 104) Mt 26:69; Mk 14:67 and ἦς (Lobeck, Phryn. 149 ‘say ἦσθα’; Jos., Ant. 17, 110 al.; Sb 6262, 16 [III A.D.]) Mt 25:21, 23 al., 3 sg. ἦν, 1 pl. ἦμεν. Beside this the mid. form ἤμην (pap since III B.C.; Job 29:16; Tob 12:13 BA), s. above, gives the pl. ἤμεθα (pap since III B.C.; Bar 1:19) Mt 23:30; Ac 27:37; Eph 2:3. Both forms in succession Gal. 4:3. Fut. ἔσομαι, ptc. ἐσόμενος. The mss. vary in choice of act. or mid., but like the edd. lean toward the mid. (W-S. §14, 1; Mlt-H. 201–3; Rob. index; B-D-F §98; Rdm.2 99; 101f; Helbing 108f; Reinhold 86f). Also s. ἔνι.
    be, exist, be on hand a pred. use (for other pred. use s. 3a, 4, 5, 6, 7): of God (Epicurus in Diog. L. 10, 123 θεοί εἰσιν; Zaleucus in Diod S 12, 20, 2 θεοὺς εἶναι; Wsd 12:13; Just., D. 128, 4 angels) ἔστιν ὁ θεός God exists Hb 11:6; cp. 1 Cor 8:5. ὁ ὢν καὶ ὁ ἦν the one who is and who was (cp. SibOr 3, 16; as amulet PMich 155, 3 [II A.D.] ὁ ὢν θεὸς ὁ Ἰάω κύριος παντοκράτωρ=the god … who exists.) Rv 11:17; 16:5. ὁ ὢν καὶ ὁ ἦν καὶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος, in this and the two preceding passages ἦν is treated as a ptc. (for the unusual use of ἦν cp. Simonides 74 D.: ἦν ἑκατὸν φιάλαι) 1:4; 4:8 (cp. Ex 3:14; Wsd 13:1; Paus. 10, 12, 10 Ζεὺς ἦν, Ζ. ἔστι, Ζ. ἔσσεται; cp. Theosophien 18. S. OWeinreich, ARW 19, 1919, 178f). οὐδʼ εἶναι θεὸν παντοκράτορα AcPlCor 1:11. ἐγώ εἰμι (ins in the Athena-Isis temple of Saïs in Plut., Is. et Os. 9, 354c: ἐγώ εἰμι πᾶν τὸ γεγονὸς κ. ὸ̓ν κ. ἐσόμενον. On the role of Isis in Gk. rel. s. IBergman, Ich bin Isis ’68; RMerkelbach, Isis Regina—Zeus Sarapis ’95; for further lit. s. MGustafson in: Prayer fr. Alexander to Constantine, ed. MKiley et al. ’97, 158.) Rv 1:8 (s. ἐγώ beg.). ὁ ὤν, … θεός Ro 9:5 is classed here and taken to mean Christ by JWordsworth ad loc. and HWarner, JTS 48, ’47, 203f. Of the λόγος: ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν ὁ λ. J 1:1 (for ἦν cp. Herm. Wr. 1, 4; 3, 1b ἦν σκότος, Fgm. IX 1 p. 422, 23 Sc. γέγονεν ἡ ὕλη καὶ ἦν).—Of Christ πρὶν Ἀβραὰμ γενέσθαι, ἐγὼ εἰμί before Abraham was born, I am 8:58 (on the pres. εἰμί cp. Parmenides 8, 5: of the Eternal we cannot say ἦν οὐδʼ ἔσται, only ἔστιν; Ammonius Hermiae [Comm. in Aristotl. IV 5 ed. ABusse 1897] 6 p. 172: in Timaeus we read that we must not say of the gods τὸ ἦν ἢ τὸ ἔσται μεταβολῆς τινος ὄντα σημαντικά, μόνον δὲ τὸ ἔστι=‘was’ or ‘will be’, suggesting change, but only ‘is’; Ps 89:2; DBall, ‘I Am’ in John’s Gospel [JSNT Suppl. 124] ’96).—Of the world πρὸ τοῦ τὸν κόσμον εἶναι before the world existed 17:5. Satirically, of the beast, who parodies the Lamb, ἦν καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν Rv 17:8. Of God’s temple: ἔστιν B 16:6f it exists. τὸ μὴ ὄν that which does not exist, the unreal (Sallust. 17 p. 32, 7 and 9; Philo, Aet. M. 5; 82) Hm 1:1. τὰ ὄντα that which exists contrasted w. τὰ μὴ ὄντα Ro 4:17; cp. 1 Cor 1:28; 2 Cl 1:8. Of God κτίσας ἐκ τοῦ μὴ ὄντος τὰ ὄντα what is out of what is not Hv 1, 1, 6 (on the contrast τὰ ὄντα and τὰ μὴ ὄντα cp. Ps.-Arist. on Xenophanes: Fgm. 21, 28; Artem. 1, 51 p. 49, 19 τὰ μὴ ὄντα ὡς ὄντα; Ocellus Luc. 12; Sallust. 17, 5 p. 30, 28–32, 12; Philo, Op. M. 81; PGM 4, 3077f ποιήσαντα τὰ πάντα ἐξ ὧν οὐκ ὄντων εἰς τὸ εἶναι; 13, 272f τὸν ἐκ μὴ ὄντων εἶναι ποιήσαντα καὶ ἐξ ὄντων μὴ εἶναι; Theoph. Ant. 1, 4 [p. 64, 21] τὰ πάντα ὁ θεὸς ἐποίησεν ἐξ οὐκ ὄντων εἰς τὸ εἶναι).—Of existing in the sense be present, available, provided πολλοῦ ὄχλου ὄντος since a large crowd was present Mk 8:1. ὄντων τῶν προσφερόντων those are provided who offer Hb 8:4. οὔπω ἦν πνεῦμα the Spirit had not yet come J 7:39. ἀκούσας ὄντα σιτία when he heard that grain was available Ac 7:12.—Freq. used to introduce parables and stories (once) there was: ἄνθρωπός τις ἦν πλούσιος there was (once) a rich man Lk 16:1, 19. ἦν ἄνθρωπος ἐκ τ. Φαρισαίων there was a man among the Pharisees J 3:1.There is, there are ὥσπερ εἰσὶν θεοὶ πολλοί as there are many gods 1 Cor 8:5. διαιρέσεις χαρισμάτων εἰσίν there are various kinds of spiritual gifts 12:4ff; 1J 5:16 al. Neg. οὐκ ἔστι there is (are) not, no (Ps 52:2; Simplicius in Epict. p. 95, 42 as a quot. from ‘tragedy’ οὐκ εἰσὶν θεοί) δίκαιος there is no righteous man Ro 3:10 (Eccl 7:20). ἀνάστασις νεκρῶν οὐκ ἔστιν there is no resurr. of the dead 1 Cor 15:12; οὐδʼ εἶναι ἀνάστασιν AcPlCor 1:12; 2:24; cp. Mt 22:23; Ac 23:8 (cp. 2 Macc 7:14). εἰσὶν οἵ, or οἵτινες there are people who (Hom. et al.; LXX; Just., D. 47, 2 εἰ μήτι εἰσὶν οἱ λέγοντες ὅτι etc.—W. sing. and pl. combined: Arrian, Ind. 24, 9 ἔστι δὲ οἳ διέφυγον=but there are some who escaped) Mt 16:28; 19:12; Mk 9:1; Lk 9:27; J 6:64; Ac 11:20. Neg. οὐδείς ἐστιν ὅς there is no one who Mk 9:39; 10:29; Lk 1:61; 18:29. As a question τίς ἐστιν ὅς; who is there that? Mt 12:11—In an unusual (perh. bureaucratic terminology) participial construction Ac 13:1 ἡ οὖσα ἐκκλησία the congregation there (cp. Ps.-Pla., Eryx. 6, 394c οἱ ὄντες ἄνθρωποι=the people with whom he has to deal; PLond III 1168, 5 p. 136 [18 A.D.] ἐπὶ ταῖς οὔσαις γειτνίαις=on the adjoining areas there; PGen 49; PSI 229, 11 τοῦ ὄντος μηνός of the current month); cp. 14:13.—αἱ οὖσαι (sc. ἐξουσίαι) those that exist Ro 13:1 (cp. UPZ 180a I, 4 [113 B.C.] ἐφʼ ἱερέων καὶ ἱερειῶν τῶν ὄντων καὶ οὐσῶν).
    to be in close connection (with), is, freq. in statements of identity or equation, as a copula, the equative function, uniting subject and predicate. On absence of the copula, Mlt-Turner 294–310.
    gener. πραΰς εἰμι I am gentle Mt 11:29. ἐγώ εἰμι Γαβριήλ Lk 1:19. σὺ εἶ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ Mk 3:11; J 1:49 and very oft. ἵνα … ὁ πονηρὸς … ἐλεγχθῇ [το? s. app. in Bodm.] μὴ ὢν θεός AcPlCor 2:15 (Just., D. 3, 3 φιλολόγος οὖν τις εἶ σύ).—The pred. can be supplied fr. the context: καὶ ἐσμέν and we are (really God’s children) 1J 3:1 (Eur., Ion 309 τ. θεοῦ καλοῦμαι δοῦλος εἰμί τε. Dio Chrys. 14 [31], 58 θεοφιλεῖς οἱ χρηστοὶ λέγονται καὶ εἰσίν; Epict. 2, 16, 44 Ἡρακλῆς ἐπιστεύθη Διὸς υἱὸς εἶναι καὶ ἦν.—The ptc. ὤν, οὖσα, ὄν used w. a noun or adj.and serving as an if-, since-, or although-clause sim. functions as a copula πονηροὶ ὄντες Mt 7:11; 12:34.—Lk 20:36; J 3:4; 4:9; Ac 16:21; Ro 5:10; 1 Cor 8:7; Gal 2:3 al.).—W. adv. of quality: οὕτως εἶναι be so preceded by ὥσπερ, καθώς or followed by ὡς, ὥσπερ Mt 13:40; 24:27, 37, 39; Mk 4:26; Lk 17:26. W. dat. of pers. οὕτως ἔσται ὁ υἱὸς τ. ἀ. τῇ γενεᾷ ταύτῃ so the Human One (Son of Man) will be for this generation 11:30. εἰμὶ ὡσ/ὥσπερ I am like Mt 6:5; Lk 18:11. W. dat. ἔστω σοι ὥσπερ τελώνης he shall be to you as a tax-collector Mt 18:17. εἰμὶ ὥς τις I am like someone of outward and inward similarity 28:3; Lk 6:40; 11:44; 22:27 al. καθώς εἰμι as I am Ac 22:3; 1J 3:2, 7; 4:17.—W. demonstr. pron. (Just., A I, 16, 1 ἃ ἔφη, ταῦτά ἐστι: foll. by a quotation; sim. 48, 5 ἔστι δὲ ταῦτα; and oft.) τὰ ὀνόματά ἐστιν ταῦτα Mt 10:2. αὕτη ἐστὶν ἡ μαρτυρία J 1:19. W. inf. foll. θρησκεία αὕτη ἐστίν, ἐπισκέπτεσθαι Js 1:27. W. ὅτι foll. αὕτη ἐστὶν ἡ κρίσις, ὅτι τὸ φῶς ἐλήλυθεν J 3:19; cp. 21:24; 1J 1:5; 3:11; 5:11. W. ἵνα foll. τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ ἔργον, ἵνα πιστεύητε J 6:29; cp. vs. 39f; 15:12; 17:3; 1J 3:11, 23; 5:3. W. τηλικοῦτος: τὰ πλοῖα, τηλικαῦτα ὄντα though they are so large Js 3:4. W. τοσοῦτος: τοσοῦτων ὄντων although there were so many J 21:11. W. τοιοῦτος: τοιοῦτος ὤν Phlm 9 (cp. Just., A I, 18, 4 ὅσα ἄλλα τοιαῦτά ἐστι).—W. interrog. pron. ὑμεῖς τίνα με λέγετε εἶναι; who do you say I am? Mt 16:15; cp. 21:10; Mk 1:24; 4:41; 8:27, 29; Lk 4:34 al.; σὺ τίς εἶ; J 1:19; 8:25; 21:12 al. (cp. JosAs 14:6 τίς εἶ συ tell me ‘who you are’). σὺ τίς εἶ ὁ κρίνων; (Pla., Gorg. 452b; Strabo 6, 2, 4 σὺ τίς εἶ ὁ τὸν Ὅμηρον ψέγων ὡς μυθογράφον;) Ro 14:4; ἐγὼ τίς ἤμην; (cp. Ex 3:11) Ac 11:17; τίς εἰμι ἐγὼ ὅτι who am I, that GJs 12:2 (Ex 3:11). W. πόσος: πόσος χρόνος ἐστίν; how long a time? Mk 9:21. W. ποταπός of what sort Lk 1:29.—W. relative pron. οἷος 2 Cor 10:11; ὁποῖος Ac 26:29; 1 Cor 3:13; Gal 2:6; ὅς Rv 1:19; ὅστις Gal 5:10, 19.—W. numerals ἦσαν οἱ φαγόντες πεντακισχίλιοι ἄνδρες 6:44 (cp. Polyaenus 7, 25 ἦσαν οἱ πεσόντες ἀνδρῶν μυριάδες δέκα); cp. Ac 19:7; 23:13. Λάζαρος εἷς ἦν ἐκ τῶν ἀνακειμένων L. was one of those at the table J 12:2; cp. Gal 3:20; Js 2:19. τῶν πιστευσάντων ἦν καρδία καὶ ψυχὴ μία Ac 4:32. εἷς εἶναι be one and the same Gal 3:28. ἓν εἶναι be one J 10:30; 17:11, 21ff; 1 Cor 3:8.—οὐδʼ εἶναι τὴν πλάσιν τὴν τῶν ἀνθρώπων τοῦ θεοῦ (that) the creation of humankind is not God’s doing AcPlCor 1:13.—To establish identity the formula ἐγώ εἰμι is oft. used in the gospels (corresp. to Hebr. אֲנִי הוּא Dt 32:39; Is 43:10), in such a way that the predicate must be understood fr. the context: Mt 14:27; Mk 6:50; 13:6; 14:62; Lk 22:70; J 4:26; 6:20; 8:24, 28; 13:19; 18:5f and oft.; s. on ἐγώ.—In a question μήτι ἐγώ εἰμι; surely it is not I? Mt 26:22, 25.
    to describe a special connection betw. the subject and a predicate noun ἡμεῖς ναὸς θεοῦ ἐσμεν ζῶντος we are a temple of the living God 2 Cor 6:16. ἡ ἐπιστολὴ ὑμεῖς ἐστε you are our letter (of recommendation) 3:2. σφραγίς μου τῆς ἀποστολῆς ὑμεῖς ἐστε you are the seal of my apostleship 1 Cor 9:2 and oft.
    in explanations:
    α. to show how someth. is to be understood is a representation of, is the equivalent of; εἰμί here, too, serves as copula; we usually translate mean, so in the formula τοῦτʼ ἔστιν this or that means, that is to say (Epict., Ench. 33, 10; Arrian, Tact. 29, 3; SIG 880, 50; PFlor 157, 4; PSI 298, 9; PMert 91, 9; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 16; ApcMos 19; Just., D. 56, 23; 78, 3 al.) Mk 7:2; Ac 19:4; Ro 7:18; 9:8; 10:6, 8; Phlm 12; Hb 7:5 al.; in the sense that is (when translated) (Polyaenus 8, 14, 1 Μάξιμος ἀνηγορεύθη• τοῦτο δʼ ἄν εἴη Μέγιστον) Mt 27:46; Ac 1:19. So also w. relative pron.: ὅ ἐστιν Mk 3:17; 7:11, 34; Hb 7:2. After verbs of asking, recognizing, knowing and not knowing (Antiphanes Com. 231, 1f τὸ ζῆν τί ἐστι;) μάθετε τί ἐστιν learn what (this) means Mt 9:13. εἰ ἐγνώκειτε τί ἐστιν 12:7; cp. Mk 1:27; 9:10; Lk 20:17; J 16:17f; Eph 4:9. W. an indir. question (Stephan. Byz. s.v. Ἀγύλλα: τὶς ἠρώτα τί ἂν εἴη τὸ ὄνομα) τί ἂν εἴη ταῦτα Lk 15:26; τί εἴη τοῦτο 18:36. τίνα θέλει ταῦτα εἶναι what this means Ac 17:20; cp. 2:12, where the question is not about the mng. of terms but the significance of what is happening.—Esp. in interpr. of the parables (Artem. 1, 51 p. 48, 26 ἄρουρα οὐδὲν ἄλλο ἐστὶν ἢ γυνή=field means nothing else than woman) ὁ ἀγρός ἐστιν ὁ κόσμος the field means the world Mt 13:38; cp. vss. 19f, 22f; Mk 4:15f, 18, 20; Lk 8:11ff (cp. Gen 41:26f; Ezk 37:11; Ath. 22, 4 [Stoic interpr. of myths]). On τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ σῶμά μου Mt 26:26; Mk 14:22; Lk 22:19 and its various interpretations, see lit. s.v. εὐχαριστία. Cp. Hipponax (VI B.C.) 45 Diehl αὕτη γάρ ἐστι συμφορή=this means misfortune.
    β. to be of relative significance, be of moment or importance, amount to someth. w. indef. pron. εἰδωλόθυτόν τί ἐστιν meat offered to idols means anything 1 Cor 10:19. Esp. εἰμί τι I mean someth. of pers. 1 Cor 3:7; Gal 2:6; 6:3; and of things vs. 15. εἰμί τις Ac 5:36.—Of no account ἐμοὶ εἰς ἐλάχιστόν ἐστιν (telescoped fr. ἐλάχ. ἐστιν and εἰς ἐλάχ. γίνεται, of which there are many exx. in Schmid, I 398; II 161, 237; III 281; IV 455) it is of little or no importance to me 1 Cor 4:3.
    be in reference to location, persons, condition, or time, be
    of various relations or positions involving a place or thing: w. ἀπό: εἶναι ἀπό τινος be or come from a certain place (X., An. 2, 4, 13) J 1:44.—W. ἐν: ἐν τοῖς τ. πατρός μου in my father’s house Lk 2:49 (cp. Jos., Ant. 16, 302 καταγωγὴ ἐν τοῖς Ἀντιπάτρου). ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ on the way Mk 10:32. ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ Mt 24:26. ἐν ἀγρῷ Lk 15:25. ἐν δεξιᾷ τ. θεοῦ at God’s right hand Ro 8:34; in heaven Eph 6:9.—W. εἰς: τὴν κοίτην Lk 11:7; τὸν κόλπον J1:18.—W. ἐπὶ w. gen. be on someth. of place, roof Lk 17:31; head J 20:7 (cp. 1 Macc 1:59); also fig., of one who is over someone (1 Macc 10:69; Jdth 14:13 ὁ ὢν ἐπὶ πάντων τῶν αὐτοῦ) Ro 9:5 (of the angel of death Mel., P. 20, 142 ἐπὶ τῶν πρωτοτόκων); also ἐπάνω τινός J 3:31.—W. dat. be at someth. the door Mt 24:33; Mk 13:29.—W. acc. be on someone: grace Lk 2:40; Ac 4:33; spirit (Is 61:1) Lk 2:25; εἶναι ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό be in the same place, together (Gen 29:2 v.l.) Ac 1:15; 2:1, 44; 1 Cor 7:5.—W. κατά w. acc. εἶναι κατὰ τὴν Ἰουδαίαν be in Judea Ac 11:1; εἶναι ἐν Ἀντιοχείᾳ κατὰ τὴν οὖσαν ἐκκλησίαν were at Antioch in the congregation there 13:1.—W. ὑπό w. acc. τι or τινα of place be under someth. J 1:48; 1 Cor 10:1.—W. παρά w. acc. παρὰ τὴν θάλασσαν by the sea- (i.e. lake-) shore Mk 5:21; Ac 10:6.—W. πρός τι be close to, facing someth. Mk 4:1.—W. adv. of place ἐγγύς τινι near someth. Ac 9:38; 27:8. μακρὰν (ἀπό) Mk 12:34; J 21:8; Eph 2:13; also πόρρω Lk 14:32. χωρίς τινος without someth. Hb 12:8. ἐνθάδε Ac 16:28. ἔσω J 20:26. ἀπέναντί τινος Ro 3:18 (Ps 35:2). ἐκτός τινος 1 Cor 6:18; ἀντίπερά τινος Lk 8:26; ὁμοῦ J 21:2; οὗ Mt 2:9; ὅπου Mk 2:4; 5:40. ὧδε Mt 17:4; Mk 9:5; Lk 9:33. Also w. fut. mng. (ESchwartz, GGN 1908, 161 n.; on the fut. use of the pres. cp. POxy 531, 22 [II A.D.] ἔστι δὲ τοῦ Τῦβι μηνὸς σοὶ ὸ̔ θέλεις) ὅπου εἰμί J 7:34, 36; 12:26; 14:3; 17:24. As pred., to denote a relatively long stay at a place, stay, reside ἴσθι ἐκεῖ stay there Mt 2:13, cp. vs. 15; ἐπʼ ἐρήμοις τόποις in lonely places Mk 1:45; ἦν παρὰ τὴν θάλασσαν he stayed by the lakeside 5:21.
    involving humans or transcendent beings: w. adv. ἔμπροσθέν τινος Lk 14:2. ἔναντί τινος Ac 8:21; ἐνώπιόν τινος Lk 14:10; Ac 4:19; 1 Pt 3:4; Rv 7:15; ἐντός τινος Lk 17:21; ἐγγύς τινος J 11:18; 19:20; Ro 10:8 (Dt 30:14).—W. prep. ἐν τινί equiv. to ἔκ τινος εἶναι be among Mt 27:56; cp. Mk 15:40; Ro 1:6. Of God, who is among his people 1 Cor 14:25 (Is 45:14; Jer 14:9); of the Spirit J 14:17. Of persons under Christ’s direction: ἐν θεῷ 1J 2:5; 5:20 (s. Norden, Agn. Th. 23, 1). ἔν τινι rest upon, arise from someth. (Aristot., Pol. 7, 1, 3 [1323b, 1] ἐν ἀρετῇ; Sir 9:16) Ac 4:12; 1 Cor 2:5; Eph 5:18.—εἴς τινα be directed, inclined toward Ac 23:30; 2 Cor 7:15; 1 Pt 1:21.—κατά w. gen. be against someone (Sir 6:12) Mt 12:30; Mk 9:40 and Lk 9:50 (both opp. ὑπέρ); Gal 5:23.—σύν τινι be with someone (Jos., Ant. 7, 181) Lk 22:56; 24:44; Ac 13:7; accompany, associate w. someone Lk 8:38; Ac 4:13; 22:9; take sides with someone (X., Cyr. 5, 4, 37; 7, 5, 77; Jos., Ant. 11, 259 [of God]) Ac 14:4.—πρός τινα be with someone Mt 13:56; Mk 6:3; J 1:1f. I am to be compared w. IMg 12.—μετά and gen. be with someone (Judg 14:11) Mt 17:17; Mk 3:14; 5:18; J 3:26; 12:17; ἔστω μεθʼ ὑμῶν εἰρήνη AcPlCor 2:40; of God, who is with someone (Gen 21:20; Judg 6:13 al.; Philo, Det. Pot. Ins. 4; Jos., Ant. 6, 181; 15, 138) Lk 1:66; J 3:2; 8:29; Ac 10:38 al.; also be with in the sense be favorable to, in league with (Ex 23:2) Mt 12:30; Lk 11:23; of punishment attending a pers. τὸ πῦρ ἐστι μετʼ αὐτοῦ AcPlCor 2:37.—παρά and gen. come from someone (X., An. 2, 4, 15; Just., D. 8, 4 ἔλεος παρὰ θεοῦ) fr. God J 6:46; 7:29; w. dat. be with, among persons Mt 22:25; Ac 10:6. W. neg. be strange to someone, there is no … in someone Ro 2:11; 9:14; Eph 6:9.—ὑπέρ w. gen. be on one’s side Mk 9:4 and Lk 9:50 (both opp. κατά); w. acc. be superior to (Sir 25:10; 30:16) Lk 6:40.
    of condition or circumstance: κατά w. acc. live in accordance with (Sir 28:10; 43:8; 2 Macc 9:20) κατὰ σάκρα, πνεῦμα Ro 8:5. οὐκ ἔστιν κατὰ ἄνθρωπον not human (in origin) Gal 1:11.—Fig. ὑπό w. acc. be under (the power of) someth. Ro 3:9; 6:14f; Gal 3:10, 25.—W. ἐν of existing ἐν τῷ θεῷ εἶναι of humankind: have its basis of existence in God Ac 17:28. Of states of being: ἐν δόξῃ 2 Cor 3:8; ἐν εἰρήνῃ Lk 11:21; ἐν ἔχθρᾳ at enmity 23:12; ἐν κρίματι under condemnation vs. 40. ἐν ῥύσει αἵματος suffer from hemorrhages Mk 5:25; Lk 8:43 (cp. Soph., Aj. 271 ἦν ἐν τῇ νόσῳ; cp. TestJob 35:1 ἐν πληγαῖς πολλαῖς). Periphrastically for an adj. ἐν ἐξουσίᾳ authoritative Lk 4:32. ἐν βάρει important 1 Th 2:7. ἐν τῇ πίστει true believers, believing 2 Cor 13:5. Be involved in someth. ἐν ἑορτῇ be at the festival=take part in it J 2:23. ἐν τούτοις ἴσθι devote yourself to these things 1 Ti 4:15 (cp. X., Hell. 4, 8, 7 ἐν τοιούτοις ὄντες=occupied w. such things; Jos., Ant. 2, 346 ἐν ὕμνοις ἦσαν=they occupied themselves w. the singing of hymns).—Fig., live in the light 1J 2:9; cp. vs. 11; 1 Th 5:4; in the flesh Ro 7:5; 8:8; AcPlCor 1:6. ἐν οἷς εἰμι in the situation in which I find myself Phil 4:11 (X., Hell. 4, 2, 1; Diod S 12, 63, 5; 12, 66, 4; Appian, Hann. 55 §228 ἐν τούτοις ἦν=he was in this situation; Jos., Ant. 7, 232 ἐν τούτοις ἦσαν=found themselves in this sit.; TestJob 35:6 ἐν τίνι ἐστίν; s. ZPE VIII 170). ἐν πολλοῖς ὢν ἀστοχήμασι AcPlCor 2:1. Of characteristics, emotions, etc. ἔν τινί ἐστιν, e.g. ἀδικία J 7:18; ἄγνοια Eph 4:18; ἀλήθεια J 8:44; 2 Cor 11:10 (cp. 1 Macc 7:18); ἁμαρτία 1J 3:5.
    of time ἐγγύς of καιρός be near Mt 26:18; Mk 13:28. πρὸς ἑσπέραν ἐστίν it is toward evening Lk 24:29 (Just., D. 137, 4 πρὸς δυσμὰς … ὁ ἥλιός ἐστι).
    to be alive in a period of time, live, denoting temporal existence (Hom., Trag., Thu. et al.; Sir 42:21; En 102:5 Philo, De Jos. 17; Jos., Ant. 7, 254) εἰ ἤμεθα ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις τῶν πατέρων ἡμῶν if we had lived in the days of our fathers Mt 23:30. ὅτι οὐκ εἰσὶν because they were no more 2:18 (Jer 38:15). ἦσαν ἐπὶ χρόνον ἱκανόν (those who were healed and raised by Christ) remained alive for quite some time Qua.
    to be the time at which someth. takes place w. indications of specific moments or occasions, be (X., Hell. 4, 5, 1, An. 4, 3, 8; Sus 13 Theod.; 1 Macc 6:49; 2 Macc 8:26; Jos., Ant. 6, 235 νουμηνία δʼ ἦν; 11, 251): ἦν ὥρα ἕκτη it was the sixth hour (=noon acc. to Jewish reckoning) Lk 23:44; J 4:6; 19:14.—Mk 15:25; J 1:39. ἦν ἑσπέρα ἤδη it was already evening Ac 4:3. πρωί̈ J 18:28. ἦν παρασκευή Mk 15:42. ἦν ἑορτὴ τῶν Ἰουδαίων J 5:1. σάββατόν ἐστιν vs. 10 et al. Short clauses (as Polyaenus 4, 9, 2 νὺξ ἦν; 7, 44, 2 πόλεμος ἦν; exc. 36, 8 ἦν ἀρίστου ὥρα; Jos., Ant. 19, 248 ἔτι δὲ νὺξ ἦν) χειμὼν ἦν J 10:22; ἦν δὲ νύξ (sim. Jos., Bell. 4, 64) 13:30; ψύχος it was cold 18:18; καύσων ἔσται it will be hot Lk 12:55.
    to take place as a phenomenon or event, take place, occur, become, be, be in (Hom., Thu. et al.; LXX; En 104:5; 106:6.—Cp. Just., D. 82, 2 of Christ’s predictions ὅπερ καὶ ἔστι ‘which is in fact the case’.) ἔσται θόρυβος τοῦ λαοῦ a popular uprising Mk 14:2. γογγυσμὸς ἦν there was (much) muttering J 7:12. σχίσμα there was a division 9:16; 1 Cor 1:10; 12:25. ἔριδες … εἰσίν quarrels are going on 1:11. δεῖ αἱρέσεις εἶναι 11:19. θάνατος, πένθος, κραυγή, πόνος ἔσται Rv 21:4. ἔσονται λιμοὶ κ. σεισμοί Mt 24:7. Hence τὸ ἐσόμενον what was going to happen (Sir 48:25) Lk 22:49. πότε ταῦτα ἔσται; when will this happen? Mt 24:3. πῶς ἔσται τοῦτο; how can this be? Lk 1:34. Hebraistically (הָיָה; s. KBeyer, Semitische Syntax im NT, ’62, 63–65) καὶ ἔσται w. fut. of another verb foll. and it will come about that Ac 2:17 (Jo 3:1); 3:23 (w. δέ); Ro 9:26 (Hos 2:1).—W. dat. ἐστί τινι happen, be granted, come, to someone (X., An. 2, 1, 10; Jos., Ant. 11, 255; Just., D. 8, 4 σοὶ … ἔλεος ἔσται παρὰ θεοῦ) Mt 16:22; Mk 11:24; Lk 2:10; GJs 1:1; 4:3; 8:3; τί ἐστίν σοι τοῦτο, ὅτι what is the matter with you, that GJs 17:2.—Of becoming or turning into someth. become someth. εἰς χολὴν πικρίας εἶναι become bitter gall Ac 8:23. εἰς σάρκα μίαν Mt 19:5; Mk 10:8; 1 Cor 6:16; Eph 5:31 (all Gen 2:24. Cp. Syntipas p. 42, 24 οὐκ ἔτι ἔσομαι μετὰ σοῦ εἰς γυναῖκα); τὰ σκολιὰ εἰς εὐθείας Lk 3:5 (Is 40:4); εἰς πατέρα 2 Cor 6:18; Hb 1:5 (2 Km 7:14; 1 Ch 22:10; 28:6); εἰς τὸ ἕν 1J 5:8. Serve as someth. (IPriene 50, 39 [c. II B.C.] εἶναι εἰς φυλακὴν τ. πόλεως; Aesop., Fab. 28 H.=18 P.; 26 Ch.; 18 H-H. εἰς ὠφέλειαν; Gen 9:13; s. also εἰς 4d) 1 Cor 14:22; Col 2:22; Js 5:3.—Of something being ἀνεκτότερον ἔσται it will be more tolerable τινί for someone Lk 10:12, 14.
    to exist as possibility ἔστιν w. inf. foll. it is possible, one can (Περὶ ὕψους 6; Diog. L. 1, 110 ἔστιν εὑρεῖν=one can find; Just., A I, 59, 10 ἔστι ταῦτα ἀκοῦσαι καὶ μαθεῖν; D. 42, 3 ἰδεῖν al.; Mel., P. 19, 127); neg. οὐκ ἔστιν νῦν λέγειν it is not possible to speak at this time Hb 9:5. οὐκ ἔστιν φαγεῖν it is impossible to eat 1 Cor 11:20 (so Hom. et al.; UPZ 70, 23 [152/151 B.C.] οὐκ ἔστι ἀνακύψαι με πώποτε … ὑπὸ τῆς αἰσχύνης; 4 Macc 13:5; Wsd 5:10; Sir 14:16; 18:6; EpJer 49 al.; EpArist 163; Jos., Ant. 2, 335; Ath. 22, 3 ἔστιν εἰπεῖν).
    to have a point of derivation or origin, be,/come from somewhere ἐκ τῆς ἐξουσίας Ἡρῴδου from Herod’s jurisdiction Lk 23:7; ἐκ Ναζαρέτ (as an insignificant place) J 1:46; ἐκ τῆς γῆς 3:31; ἐκ γυναικός 1 Cor 11:8 al. ἐξ οὐρανοῦ, ἐξ ἀνθρώπων be of heavenly (divine), human descent Mt 21:25; Mk 11:30; Lk 20:4. Be generated by (cp. Sb 8141, 21f [ins I B.C.] οὐδʼ ἐκ βροτοῦ ἤεν ἄνακτος, ἀλλὰ θεοῦ μεγάλου ἔκγονος; En 106:6) Mt 1:20. Esp. in Johannine usage ἐκ τοῦ διαβόλου εἶναι originate from the devil J 8:44; 1J 3:8. ἐκ τοῦ πονηροῦ 3:12; ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου J 15:19; 17:14, 16; 1J 4:5. ἐκ τῆς ἀληθείας εἶναι 2:21; J 18:37 etc. Cp. 9 end.
    to belong to someone or someth. through association or genetic affiliation, be, belong w. simple gen. (X., Hell. 2, 4, 36; Iambl., Vi. Pyth. 33, 230 τῶν Πυθαγορείων) οἱ τῆς ὁδοῦ ὄντες those who belong to the Way Ac 9:2. εἰμὶ Παύλου I belong to Paul 1 Cor 1:12; 3:4; cp. Ro 8:9; 2 Cor 10:7; 1 Ti 1:20; Ac 23:6. ἡμέρας εἶναι belong to the day 1 Th 5:8, cp. vs. 5. W. ἔκ τινος 1 Cor 12:15f; Mt 26:73; Mk 14:69f; Lk 22:58 al. (cp. X., Mem. 3, 6, 17; oft LXX). ἐκ τοῦ ἀριθμοῦ τῶν δώδεκα belong to the twelve 22:3. ὅς ἐστιν ἐξ ὑμῶν who is a fellow-countryman of yours Col 4:9.—To belong through origin 2 Cor 4:7. Of Mary: ἦν τῆς φυλῆς τοῦ Δαυίδ was of David’s line GJs 10:1. Cp. 8 above.
    to have someth. to do with someth. or someone, be. To denote a close relationship ἐξ ἔργων νόμου εἶναι rely on legal performance Gal 3:10. ὁ νόμος οὐκ ἔστιν ἐκ πίστεως the law has nothing to do with faith vs. 12.—To denote a possessor Mt 5:3, 10; l9:14; Mk 12:7; Lk 18:16; 1 Cor 6:19. Esp. of God who owns the Christian Ac 27:23; 1 Cor 3:23; 2 Ti 2:19 (Num 16:5). οὐδʼ εἶναι τὸν κόσμον θεοῦ, ἀλλὰ ἀγγέλων AcPlCor 1:15 (cp. Just., A II, 13, 4 ὅσα … καλῶς εἴρηται, ἡμῶν τῶν χριστιανῶν ἐστι).—W. possess. pron. ὑμετέρα ἐστὶν ἡ βασιλεία Lk 6:20. οὐκ ἔστιν ἐμὸν δοῦναι Mk 10:40 (cp. Just., A I, 4, 2 ὑμέτερον ἀγωνιᾶσαί ἐστι ‘it is a matter for your concern’).—To denote function (X., An. 2, 1, 4) οὐχ ὑμῶν ἐστιν it is no concern of yours Ac 1:7—Of quality παιδεία οὐ δοκεῖ χαρᾶς εἶναι discipline does not seem to be (partake of) joy Hb 12:11.—10:39.
    as an auxiliary: very commonly the simple tense forms are replaced by the periphrasis εἶναι and the ptc. (B-D-F §352–55; Mlt. 225–27, 249; Mlt-H. 451f; Rdm.2 102, 105, 205; Kühner-G. I 38ff; Rob. 374–76, 1119f; CTurner, Marcan Usage: JTS 28, 1927 349–51; GKilpatrick, BT 7, ’56, 7f; very oft. LXX).
    (as in Hom et al.) w. the pf. ptc. to express the pf., plpf. and fut. pf. act. and pass. (s. Mayser 329; 377) ἦσαν ἐληλυθότες they had come Lk 5:17. ἦν αὐτῶν ἡ καρδία πεπωρωμένη their hearts were hardened Mk 6:52. ἠλπικότες ἐσμέν we have set our hope 1 Cor 15:19. ὁ καιρὸς συνεσταλμένος ἐστίν the time has become short 7:29. ἦν ἑστώς (En 12:3) he was standing (more exactly he took his stand) Lk 5:1.
    w. pres. ptc. (B-D-F §353).
    α. to express the pres. ἐστὶν προσαναπληροῦσα τὰ ὑστερήματα supplies the wants 2 Cor 9:12 (Just., A I, 26, 5 Μαρκίων … καὶ νῦν ἔτι ἐστὶ διδάσκων; Mel., P. 61, 441 ἐστὶν … κηρυσσόμενον).
    β. impf. or aor. ἦν καθεύδων he was sleeping Mk 4:38. ἦσαν ἀναβαίνοντες … ἦν προάγων 10:32; cp. Lk 1:22; 5:17; 11:14 al. (JosAs 1:3 ἦν συνάγων τὸν σίτον; Mel., P. 80, 580 ἦσθα εὐφραινόμενος). ἦν τὸ φῶς τὸ ἀλήθινόν … ἐρχόμενον εἰς τὸν κόσμον the true light entered the world J 1:9, w. ἦν introducing a statement in dramatic contrast to the initial phrase of vs. 8.—To denote age (Demetr.: 722 Fgm. 1, 2 al. Jac.; POxy 275, 9 [66 A.D.] οὐδέπω ὄντα τῶν ἐτῶν; Tob 14:11) Mk 5:42; Lk 3:23; Ac 4:22; GJs 12:3.—Mussies 304–6.
    γ. fut. ἔσῃ σιωπῶν you will be silent Lk 1:20; cp. 5:10; Mt 24:9; Mk 13:13; Lk 21:17, 24 al.; 2 Cl 17:7 Bihlm. (the child) shall serve him (God).
    w. aor. ptc. as plpf. (Aelian, NA 7, 11; Hippiatr. 34, 14, vol. I p. 185, 3 ἦν σκευάσας; ISyriaW 2070b ἦν κτίσας; AcThom 16; 27 [Aa II/2 p. 123, 2f; p. 142, 10]; B-D-F §355 m.—JVogeser, Z. Sprache d. griech. Heiligenlegenden, diss. Munich 1907, 14; JWittmann, Sprachl. Untersuchungen zu Cosmas Indicopleustes, diss. Munich 1913, 20; SPsaltes, Gramm. d. byzant. Chroniken 1913, 230; Björck [διδάσκω end] 75; B-D-F §355). ἦν βληθείς had been thrown Lk 23:19; J 18:30 v.l.—GPt 6:23; 12:51. (Cp. Just., A II, 10, 2 διʼ εὑρέσεως … ἐστὶ πονηθέντα αὐτοῖς ‘they achieved through investigation’).
    Notice esp. the impersonals δέον ἐστίν it is necessary (Pla. et al.; POxy 727, 19; Sir praef. ln. 3; 1 Macc 12:11 δέον ἐστὶν καὶ πρέπον) Ac 19:36; εἰ δέον ἐστίν if it must be 1 Pt 1:6 (s. δεῖ 2a); 1 Cl 34:2; πρέπον ἐστίν it is appropriate (Pla. et al.; POxy 120, 24; 3 Macc 7:13) Mt 3:15; 1 Cor 11:13.
    In many cases the usage w. the ptc. serves to emphasize the duration of an action or condition (BGU 183, 25 ἐφʼ ὸ̔ν χρόνον ζῶσα ᾖ Σαταβούς); JosAs 2:1 ἦν … ἐξουθενοῦσα καὶ καταπτύουσα πάντα ἄνδρα). ἦν διδάσκων he customarily taught Mk 1:22; Lk 4:31; 19:47. ἦν θέλων he cherished the wish 23:8. ἦσαν νηστεύοντες they were keeping the fast Mk 2:18. ἦσαν συλλαλοῦντες they were conversing for a while 9:4. ἦν προσδεχόμενος he was waiting for (the kgdm.) 15:43. ἦν συγκύπτουσα she was bent over Lk 13:11.
    to emphasize the adjectival idea inherent in the ptc. rather than the concept of action expressed by the finite verb ζῶν εἰμι I am alive Rv 1:18. ἦν ὑποτασσόμενος he was obedient Lk 2:51. ἦν ἔχων κτήματα πολλά he was very rich Mt 19:22; Mk 10:22. ἴσθι ἐξουσίαν ἔχων you shall have authority Lk 19:17 (Lucian, Tim. 35 ἴσθι εὐδαιμονῶν). ἦν καταλλάσσων (God) was reconciling 2 Cor 5:19 (cp. Mel., P. 83, 622 οὗτος ἦν ὁ ἐκλεξάμενός σε; Ath. 15, 2 οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ … καρπούμενος).—LMcGaughy, Toward a Descriptive Analysis of ΕΙΝΑΙ as a Linking Verb in the Gk. NT, diss. Vanderbilt, ’70 (s. esp. critique of treatment of εἰμί in previous edd. of this lexicon pp. 12–15).—Mlt. 228. B. 635. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > εἰμί

  • 222 εἰσέρχομαι

    εἰσέρχομαι fut. εἰσελεύσομαι (En 25:6; TestJob 40:4; Just., A I, 35, 10; M. Ant. 10, 8); 2 aor. εἰσῆλθον (also εἰσῆλθα, B-D-F §81, 3; Mlt-H. 208; Mt 7:13; Lk 11:52; impv. εἰσελθάτω Mk 13:15); pf. εἰσελήλυθα LXX; ptc. εἰσεληλυθώς Hs 9, 12, 4; 9, 13, 4; plpf. εἰσεληλύθει 2 Macc 9:2 (Hom.+)
    to move into a space, enter
    of geographical and other types of localities and areas as goal
    α. cities and villages w. specific names (Jos., Ant. 9, 122): into Jerusalem Mt 21:10 (Just., D. 88, 6). εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα εἰς τὸ ἱερόν into Jerusalem and into the temple Mk 11:11. Caesarea Ac 10:24; 23:33. Capernaum Mt 8:5; Mk 2:1; Lk 7:1.
    β. the world gener. εἰς τὸν κόσμον come into the world (Philo, Op. M. 78) in var. mngs.: of first appearance, of sin and death Ro 5:12; 1 Cl 3:4 (cp. Wsd 2:24); of birth (M. Ant. 6, 56) 1 Cl 38:3; of the incarnation of Christ Hb 10:5.
    γ. structural areas and establishments: into the sanctuary Hb 9:12, 24f; temple (Jos., Ant. 3, 319) Lk 1:9; Rv 15:8; house Mt 10:12; 12:29; 17:25 v.l.; Mk 7:17; Lk 1:40; 8:41; Ac 11:12; 16:15; 21:8; synagogue (unless the sense ‘gathering’ applies in certain pass., s. συναγωγή 4) Mk 1:21; 3:1; Lk 4:16; 6:6; Ac 13:14; 14:1; 18:19; cp. Js 2:2; city Mt 10:11; 27:53; Mk 1:45; Lk 10:8, 10; 22:10; Ac 9:6; 14:20 al.; village Mk 8:26; Lk 9:52; 17:12; barracks Ac 23:16; praetorium J 18:28; 19:9; cp. Ac 25:23; Mt 6:6; J 18:1; Mk 16:5; J 20:6; 10:1; Mt 24:38; Lk 17:27; 1 Cl 9:4. εἰς τ. νεφέλην Lk 9:34 (cp. Ex 24:18).—W. indication of place from which, εἰ. ἔκ τινος: ἐξ ἀγροῦ come in from the field Lk 17:7 (cp. PEleph 13, 6 [223/22 B.C.] οὔπω εἰσελήλυθεν ἐξ ἀγροῦ; Gen 30:16).—W. indication of place through which, διά τινος (2 Ch 23:20; Jo 2:9; Jer 17:25; Jos., Ant. 13, 229 εἰ. διʼ ἄλλης πύλης) Mt 7:13; 19:24 v.l.; Lk 13:24; 18:25a; J 10:1, 2 (ἐρχόμενος P75), 9.—W. ὑπὸ: τὴν στέγην under the roof, i.e., enter the house (Gen 19:8 v.l.) Mt 8:8; Lk 7:6.—W. adv. εἰ. ἔσω go inside (2 Ch 29:18; Bel 19 Theod.) Mt 26:58; AcPl Ha 4, 3. ὧδε come in here (Zech 7:3; Ezk 40:4) 22:12. ὅπου ἐὰν εἰσέλθῃ wherever he goes in Mk 14:14; Hb 6:20.—Without emphasis on the preposition Mt 9:18 v.l. (s. on εἷς 3b; προσέρχομαι 1a).
    δ. Freq. the ‘place to which’ is not mentioned, but can be inferred fr. the context (Tob 5:9; 8:13; Jdth 14:14; 1 Macc 7:36; 2 Macc 1:15 al.; PTebt 418, 6ff): εἰσελθὼν διήρχετο τὴν Ἰεριχώ he entered Jericho and was passing through it Lk 19:1. καὶ ὅτε εἰσῆλθον (sc. εἰς τ. οἶκον) and when they had entered Ac 1:13. μὴ εἰσελθάτω (sc. εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν) Mk 13:15, also εἰσελθοῦσα 7:25 v.l.; εἰσελθών Mt 9:25; cp. Ac 5:7, 10; 10:25; 1 Cor 14:23f; AcPl Ha 3, 13. But the idea of destination can be so unimportant that εἰ. comes to mean simply come, go Lk 18:25a; cp. Mt 19:24 (s. 1aγ above).—Of things go (in, into), come (in, into), enter of food: into the mouth (Ezk 4:14; Da 10:3) Mt 15:11 (cp. Sextus 110; TestJob 38:3 διὰ στόματος τροφὴ εἰσέρχεται); Ac 11:8.
    of being(s) as goal
    α. to come or go to πρός τινα come or go to someone (X., Mem. 3, 10, 1; Cebes, Tab. 29; Jos., Ant. 8, 235; Gen 16:4; Ps 50:2; Jdth 12:13; 15:9) Mk 15:43; J 14:23 v.l.; Ac 10:3; 11:3; 16:40; Rv 3:20; 1 Cl 12:4.
    β. to come or go in among εἴς τινα come or go in among εἰς τὸν δῆμον the crowd Ac 19:30. εἰς ὑμᾶς 20:29. ἐπί τινα come to someone (cp. Ezk 44:25) ἐν παντὶ χρόνῳ ᾧ εἰσῆλθεν καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ἐφʼ ἡμᾶς went in and out among us = associated with us Ac 1:21 (on εἰ. καὶ ἐξέρχ. cp. Eur., Phoen. 534 ἐς οἴκους … εἰσῆλθε κἀξῆλθʼ [καὶ ἐξῆλθε]; Num 27:17; 2 Ch 1:10; J 10:9).
    γ. to enter into persons or animals enter into someone (Wsd 1:4 of wisdom; Jos., Ant. 4, 121 of the divine spirit entering into prophets) esp. of hostile spirits which take possession of someone’s body as their dwelling Mk 9:25; Lk 8:30 (Lucian, Philops. 16: the exorcist asks the spirits ὅθεν [οἱ δαίμονες] εἰσεληλύθασιν εἰς τὸ σῶμα; ApcSed 5:5 [διάβολος] ὡς καπνὸς εἰσέρχεται εἰς τὰς καρδίας τῶν ἀνθρώπων). Of hostile spirits: into the swine Mk 5:12f; Lk 8:32f. Of Satan: into Judas 22:3; J 13:27; into a person Hm 12, 5, 4. For this εἰ. ἔν τινι (s. ἐν 3) εἰσῆλθεν ἐν αὐτοῖς Rv 11:11; cp. Lk 9:46; 1 Cl 48:2 (Ps 117:19).
    to enter into an event or state, of pers.: come into someth. = share in someth., come to enjoy someth. (Jos., C. Ap. 2, 123 εἰς τοὺς ἡμετέρους νόμους) εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν τ. θεοῦ (τ. οὐρανῶν) Mt 5:20; 7:21; 19:24; Mk 9:47; 10:15, 23ff; Lk 18:17, 25; J 3:5; 2 Cl 6:9 al. (cp. Da 11:9). For this εἰς τὴν ζωήν enter into eternal life=attain it Mt 18:8f; 19:17; Mk 9:43, 45. HWindisch, D. Sprüche v. Eingehen in d. Reich Gs.: ZNW 27, 1928, 163–92.—εἰς τὴν κατάπαυσιν enter into rest Hb 3:11, 18; 4:1, 3, 5f, 10f (all Ps 94:11). μέχρι δουλείας εἰσελθεῖν even to the extent of slavery 1 Cl 4:9. Of Christ εἰ. εἰς τ. δόξαν αὐτοῦ into his glory Lk 24:26. Of temptations εἰ. εἰς πειρασμόν come into temptation Mt 26:41; Lk 22:40, 46; εἰς χαράν Mt 25:21, 23; Pol 1:3. εἰς τὸν κόπον τινός enter into someone’s labor, i.e. enjoy the fruit of another’s labor J 4:38 (cp. Pr 23:10).—W. this usage, too (s. 1aδ above), the goal need not be mentioned, but can be implied Mt 7:13; 23:13; Lk 11:52 (cp. 3 Macc 1:12); Ro 11:25.
    to happen, with focus on initial aspect, happen, develop, of thoughts: εἰσῆλθεν δὲ διαλογισμὸς ἐν αὐτοῖς an argument arose among them Lk 9:46. εἰς τὰ ὦτά τινος come to someone’s ears (Ps 17:7) Js 5:4; reach into Hb 6:19.—M-M. TW.

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  • 223 θέλημα

    θέλημα, ατος, τό (s. two next entries; Antiphon Soph. 58; Aristot., De Plant. 1, 1 p. 815b, 21; Aeneas Tact. 2, 8; 18, 19; POxy 924, 8 [IV A.D.]; LXX; PsSol 7:3; OdeSol 11:21; TestSol, Test12Patr, JosAs; ParJer 1:7; ApcEsdr 4:24 p. 28, 2 Tdf.; ApcSed, Just., Tat., Mel., P. 76, 552)
    what one wishes to happen, objective sense, what is willed
    gener. ἐὰν θ. ᾖ if it is his (God’s or Christ’s) will IEph 20:1; IRo 1:1 (θέλημα abs.=God’s will also ISm 11:1; IPol 8:1 and in Paul Ro 2:18; s. also b below). γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου Mt 6:10; 26:42; Lk 11:2 v.l.; D. 8:2; τὸ θ. τοῦ θεοῦ γενέσθω MPol 7:1. τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ θ. τ. πέμψαντός με J 6:39f. μὴ τὸ θ. μου ἀλλὰ τὸ σὸν γινέσθω Lk 22:42. Cp. Ac 21:14; Col 4:12; Hb 10:10 (only here in the NT w. ἐν; cp. AcPlCor 2:26). οὕτως οὐκ ἔστιν θέλημα ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ πατρὸς ἵνα so it is not the Father’s will that Mt 18:14 (οὐκ ἔστιν θ. as Mal 1:10; Eccl 5:3; 12:1).
    what one wishes to bring about by one’s own action, since one has undertaken to do what one has willed οὐ ζητῶ τὸ θ. τὸ ἐμόν I do not aspire (to do) my own will J 5:30a; 6:38. τὸ μυστήριον τοῦ θελήματος αὐτοῦ the secret purpose of God’s will, i.e. the carrying out of God’s plan of salvation Eph 1:9. οὐκ ἦν θ., ἵνα ἔλθῃ he was not willing to come 1 Cor 16:12 (but this passage could also belong under the abs. use of 1a).
    what one wishes to bring about by the activity of others, to whom one assigns a task.
    α. of persons ὁ δοῦλος ὁ γνοὺς τὸ θ. τοῦ κυρίου αὐτοῦ what his master wants Lk 12:47 (in a parable). τὸ θ. τοῦ πατρός Mt 21:31.
    β. of the devil εἰς τὸ ἐκείνου θ. to do his will 2 Ti 2:26.
    γ. predom. of God (or Christ) τὸ θέλημα τοῦ θεοῦ (cp. Herm. Wr. 5, 7; 13, 2; Philo, Leg. All. 3, 197; TestIss 4:3, TestNapht 3:1; Just., A I, 63, 10 al.) Ro 12:2; Eph 5:17; 1 Th 4:3; 5:18; 1 Pt 2:15; 4:2; cp. J 5:30b; 1 Cl 40:3; 56:2. θελήματι τοῦ κελεύοντος λόγου Dg 11:8. γινώσκειν τὸ θέλημα know the will Ro 2:18; Ac 22:14. ἡ ἐπίγνωσις τοῦ θ. αὐτοῦ Col 1:9; ποιεῖν τὸ θ. (1 Esdr 9:9; 4 Macc 18:16; JosAs 12:3) Mt 7:21; 12:50; Mk 3:35; J 4:34; 6:38b; 7:17; 9:31; Eph 6:6; Hb 10:7, 9 (both Ps 39:9), 36; 13:21; 1J 2:17; 2 Cl 5:1; 6:7; 8:4; 9:11; 10:1; 14:1; Pol 2:2. Also ποιεῖν τὰ θελήματα (Ps 102:21; Is 44:28; 2 Macc 1:3) GEb121, 34; Mk 3:35 v.l.; Ac 13:22. μὴ λειποτακτεῖν (q.v.) ἀπὸ τοῦ θελήματος αὐτοῦ 1 Cl 21:4. προσέλθωμεν τῷ θ. αὐτοῦ let us heed the (Lord’s) will 33:8. ὑποτασσώμεθα τῷ θ. αὐτοῦ 34:5 (opp. ἀντιτασσόμενος 36:6; ἐναντιουμένους 61:1). εἶξαι … τῷ θ. τοῦ θεοῦ 56:1.
    δ. ποιεῖν τὰ θελήματα τ. σαρκός do what the flesh desires Eph 2:3.
    the act of willing or desiring, subjective sense, will
    of the human will (Ps 1:2) θελήματι ἀνθρώπου by an act of the human will 2 Pt 1:21. ἐὰν … ἐπιδῶμεν ἑαυτοὺς τοῖς θελήμασιν τῶν ἀνθρώπων 1 Cl 14:2 if we heedlessly permit ourselves to be controlled by the will of humans ἐξουσίαν ἔχειν περὶ τ. ἰδίου θ. have control over one’s desire 1 Cor 7:37; here θ. acc. to many has the connotation of sexual desire, as J 1:13 (θ. σαρκός, θ. ἀνδρός; cp. PGM 4, 1430; 1521; 1533). Of the will of an assembled crowd, directed toward the death of Jesus Lk 23:25.
    as a rule of the will of God (or Christ) ἡ βουλὴ τοῦ θ. Eph 1:11; ἡ εὐδοκία τοῦ θ. vs. 5 (cp. CD 3, 15). εἰ θέλοι τὸ θ. τοῦ θεοῦ if the will of God should so decree 1 Pt 3:17 (cp. Just., D. 119, 1 θελήματι τοῦ θελήσαντος). θελήματι θεοῦ by God’s will ITr 1:1; Pol 1:3. Also διὰ θελήματος θεοῦ Ro 15:32; 1 Cor 1:1; 2 Cor 1:1; 8:5; Eph 1:1; Col 1:1; 2 Ti 1:1; 1 Cl 32:3f; Χριστοῦ AcPl Ha 5, 35; also διὰ τὸ θέλημα Rv 4:11 or ἐν τ. θελήματι τ. θεοῦ Ro 1:10; ἐν θ. θεοῦ 1 Cl 49:6; AcPl Ha 7, 13; AcPlCor 2:26; cp. 1 Cl ins; IEph ins, or ἐκ θελήματος θεοῦ (cp. Ps 27:7) 1 Cl 42:2; πρὸς τὸ θ. according to (the master’s) will Hs 9, 5, 2. Also κατὰ τὸ θ. (1 Esdr 8:16) Gal 1:4; 1J 5:14; 1 Pt 4:19; IPhld ins; ISm 1:1; 1 Cl 20:4; Hm 12, 6, 2; MPol 2:1 (Just., D. 85, 4 al.).—DELG s.v. ἐθέλω. M-M. TW.

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  • 224 θλίβω

    θλίβω fut. θλίψω; 1 aor. ἔθλιψα. Pass.: fut. 3 sg. θλιβήσεται Job 20:22; 2 aor. ἐθλίβην; pf. ptc. τεθλιμμένος (s. next entry; Hom.+; ins, pap, LXX, pseudepigr.; Philo; Jos., Bell. 3, 330, Ant. 20, 111; SibOr; Mel., P. 80, 587).
    to press or crowd close against, press upon, crowd τινά someone (Sir 16:28 v.l.; JosAs 23:8 τὸν πόδα) Mk 3:9 (cp. Appian, Bell. Civ. 4, 45, §194 ἐπιθλίβω τινά=crowd around someone).
    to cause someth. to be constricted or narrow, press together, compress, make narrow (Dionys. Hal. 8, 73 βίοι τεθλιμμένοι, provisions that have become scarce; ὁ θεὸς ἔθλιψεν τὴν σελήνην GrBar 9:7); pass. of space that is limited (of small living quarters Theocr. 21, 18 θλιβομένα καλύβα= tight quarters; Lucian, Alex. 49 τ. πόλεως θλιβομένης ὑπὸ τ. πλήθους =the city jammed full w. a multitude) ἔν τινι τόπῳ τεθλιμμένῳ καὶ πεπληρωμένῳ ἑρπετῶν πονηρῶν a tight place and full of bad snakes = a place jammed full with bad snakes ApcPt 10:25 (the misery is twofold: tight quarters to begin with and being totally surrounded by snakes). Of a road (w. a corresp. στενὴ πύλη) ὁδὸς τεθλιμμένη a narrow, confined road and therefore a source of trouble or difficulty to those using it Mt 7:14 (TestAbr A 11 p. 88, 30 [Stone p. 24]; s. KBornhäuser, Die Bergpredigt 1923, 177ff); on the imagery s. AMattill, JBL 98, ’79, 531–46; Betz, SM 527: “The chances of failure are greater than the chances of success, a sobering message.”
    to cause to be troubled, oppress, afflict τινά someone (Dt 28:53; Lev 19:33; SibOr 3, 630) 2 Th 1:6. τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον oppress the Holy Spirit Hm 10, 2, 5; χρεώστας θ. oppress debtors 8:10.—Pass. be afflicted, distressed (UPZ 42, 22 [162 B.C.]; PsSol 1:1 al.) 2 Cor 1:6; 4:8; 7:5; Hb 11:37; Hm 2:5. θλιβείς by suffering B 7:11. θλιβεὶς τῇ γνώμῃ τινός distressed by someone’s scheming IPhld 6:2. ψυχὴ θλιβομένη distressed soul Hs 1:8 (PGM 1, 213 θλίβεταί[?] μου ἡ ψυχή; TestSol 1:4 θλιβομένης μου τῆς ψυχῆς; Mel., P. 80, 587; Proclus on Pla., Crat., 72, 3 Pasqu. δαίμονες θλίβουσι τ. ψυχάς; Nicetas Eugen. 2, 27 H. ψυχὴ τεθλιμμένη; cp. Philo, De Ios. 179). On Hs 8, 10, 4 s. Bonner 113 note.—Subst. ὁ θλιβόμενος the oppressed (one) (TestSol D 4, 11 παραμυθία των θ.; JosAs 12:11 τῶν θλιβομένων βοηθός; Diod S 13, 109, 5 οἱ θλιβόμενοι=those who were hard pressed) 1 Ti 5:10; ISm 6:2; B 20:2; D 5:2. Esp., as in some of the aforementioned pass., of the persecution of Christians 1 Th 3:4; 2 Th 1:7. θλιβῆναι πάσῃ θλίψει suffer every kind of affliction Hs 6, 3, 6; cp. 7:1ff; 8, 10, 4. ὑπὲρ τοῦ νόμου θλιβέντες persecuted for the law (i.e., for the way of life that is in accordance with the instructions of Jesus) 8, 3, 7.—DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW.

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  • 225 θόρυβος

    θόρυβος, ου, ὁ (s. prec. two entries; Pind., Hdt. et al.; OGI 48, 9; IMagnMai 114, 3; pap, LXX, Philo, Joseph.; loanw. in rabb.).
    a raising of voices that contributes to lack of understanding, noise, clamor Ac 21:34; MPol 8:3; 9:1 (for the expr. μέγας θ. s. Hs 9, 3, 1 in 3a below; Jos., Ant. 17, 184); AcPl Ha 1, 28 (sc.).
    a state of confusion, confusion, unrest 1 Cl 57:4 (Pr 1:27).
    a state or condition of varying degrees of commotion, turmoil, excitement, uproar (X., An. 3, 4, 35; Appian, Bell. Civ. 2, 118, §494)
    of the milling about of a throng: of mourners Mk 5:38 (though mngs. 1 and 2 are also poss.); of a crowd of workers Hs 9, 3, 1
    of the noise and confusion of excited crowds (Philo, In Flacc. 120; Jos., Bell. 1, 201; 2, 611) Mk 14:2; Ac 20:1; γίνεται θ. (cp. PTebt 15, 3 [114 B.C.] θορύβου γενομένου ἐν τῇ κώμῃ) Mt 26:5; 27:24; GJs 21:1, foll. by ἕως παύσηται ὁ θ. in 25:1. μετὰ θορύβου (Polyaenus 6, 41, 1; Ezk 7:11; Jos., Ant. 5, 216) with a disturbance Ac 24:18.—DELG. M-M. TW.

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  • 226 καταπατέω

    καταπατέω fut. καταπατήσω; 1 aor. κατεπάτησα. Pass.: fut. 3 sg. καταπατηθήσεται Is 25:10; 28:3; aor. κατεπατήθην; pf. 3 pl. καταπεπάτηνται 1 Macc 3:51 (s. πατέω; Hom., Hdt., Thu.+; SIG 1169, 115; pap, LXX; TestZeb 3:3; JosAs 29:3; SyrBar 13:11 [?]; Joseph.; Ar. 4, 3; Just., D. 76, 6 [for πατεῖν Lk 10:19]; Mel., P. 102, 782)
    to tread so heavily as to injure, trample under foot.
    trample τὶ ἔν τινι someth. with (under) someth. Mt 7:6 (of swine πατέω: Ananius Lyricus [VI B.C.]: Fgm. 5, 4 AnthLG Diehl3 [in Athen. 7, 282b]).—Pass. (Diod S 25, 3, 1) be trampled under foot Mt 5:13; Lk 8:5.
    tread upon of a milling crowd (Arrian, Anab. 2, 11, 3 ἀπʼ ἀλλήλων καταπατούμενοι=hard-pressed by each other, getting in each other’s way; Polyaenus 4, 3, 21 ὑπʼ ἀλλήλων καταπατούμενοι) ὥστε καταπατεῖν ἀλλήλους so that they stepped on one another Lk 12:1.
    to look on with scorn, trample under foot, treat with disdain fig. extension of mng. 1 (Il. 4, 157 [in tmesis]; Pla., Leg. 4, 714a τοὺς νόμους, Gorg. 484a; Epict. 1, 8, 10; Lucian, Lexiph. 23; 2 Macc 8:2; Hos 5:11; Jos., Bell. 4, 386.—Cp. the underlying reality in Diod S 33, 5, 3 τὰ τῶν θεῶν ἀγάλματα ὑβριστικῶς κατεπάτησαν) τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ θεοῦ Hb 10:29 (Artem. 4, 66 ἀνὴρ κατεπατήθη).—M-M. TW.

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  • 227 κατέναντι

    κατέναντι adv. (JWackernagel, Hellenistica 1907, 3–6; JWaldis, Präpositionsadverbien mit d. Bedeutung ‘vor’ in d. LXX 1922; B-D-F §214, 4; Rob. 643) gener. ‘opposite’.
    marker of a position relative to someone who is viewed as having jurisdiction, whether visibly present or not, in the sight of someone, before someone, funct. as prep. w. gen. (Sir 28:26; Jdth 12:15, 19) κ. θεοῦ ἐν Χριστῷ λαλοῦμεν before God (Sir 50:19; SibOr 3, 499) 2 Cor 2:17; 12:19 (both v.l. κατενώπιον). κ. οὗ ἐπίστευσεν θεοῦ (=κ. τοῦ θεοῦ ᾧ ἐπίστευσεν, W-S. §24, 4d; B-D-F §294, 2; Rob. 717) before the God in whom he believed Ro 4:17. GJs 1:2 v.l. (for κατενώπιον).
    marker of position over against someth., opposite
    funct. as adv. εἰς τ. κατέναντι κώμην into the village opposite (us) Lk 19:30 (cp. 2 Ch 4:10; Ezk 11:1; 40:10; AcPh 98: Aa II/2, 38, 23; s. also the formulation κατέναντι πρὸς ἀνατολάς eastward AcPlMart 5 [Aa I 115, 13; for which ἀπέν[αντι … ] AcPl Ha 10, 21, with cod. A of AcPlMart]).
    funct. as prep. w. gen. of place or position (Lucian, Fug. 1; IPriene 37, 170 [II B.C.] κ. τοῦ ὄρευς; UPZ 79, 11 [159 B.C.]; LXX; En 14:5; Test12Patr; JosAs 28:3, 5; ParJer 7:15; Just., D. 62, 5 [for ἐναντίον Josh 5:13]) of place (En 14:15) κ. τοῦ ἱεροῦ opposite the temple Mk 13:3. κ. τοῦ γαζοφυλακείου 12:41. κ. μου opposite or before me Hv 1, 2, 2 (Joly: κατενώπιον); cp. 3, 2, 4; 3, 9, 10. κ. αὐτῶν before them Mk 6:41 D (MBlack, An Aramaic Approach3, ’67, 116). εἰς τὴν κώμην τὴν κ. ὑμῶν into the village lying before you Mt 21:2; Mk 11:2. κ. τοῦ ὄχλου in the presence of the crowd Mt 27:24 v.l. (for ἀπέναντι).—DELG s.v. ἄντα, 2 ἀντί. M-M.

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  • 228 κράζω

    κράζω (Aeschyl.+; also Aesop, Fab. 252 P. a rooster) neut. ptc. κρᾶζον (B-D-F §13; W-S. §6, 2; Rob. 231); impf. ἔκραζον; fut. κράξω and κεκράξομαι (B-D-F §77; W-S. §13, 2; Mlt. 154; Rob. 361); 1 aor. ἔκραξα and ἐκέκραξα (Ac 24:21, s. B-D-F §75; W-S. §13, 2; 10 note 10; Mlt. 147; cp. Mlt-H. 244); pf. κέκραγα; plpf. 3 sg. ἐκεκράγει (3 Macc 5:23 v.l.).
    to make a vehement outcry, cry out, scream, shriek, when one utters loud cries, without words capable of being understood (cp. Hippol., Ref. 4, 28, 3 and 6): of mentally disturbed persons, epileptics, or the evil spirits living in them Mk 5:5; 9:26; Lk 4:41 v.l.; 9:39. Of the death-cry of Jesus on the cross Mk 15:39 v.l. Of the cry of a woman in childbirth Rv 12:2. ἀπὸ τοῦ φόβου cry out in fear Mt 14:26. φωνῇ μεγάλῃ cry out in a loud voice 27:50; Mk 1:26 v.l. (for φωνῆσαν); Ac 7:57; Rv 10:3a, cp. 3b.
    to communicate someth. in a loud voice, call, call out, cry
    lit. κράζει ὄπισθεν ἡμῶν she is calling out after us Mt 15:23. τὶ someth. of a crowd Ac 19:32. φωνὴν κ. call out a thing loudly 24:21. W. direct discourse foll. (B-D-F §397, 3) Mk 10:48; 11:9; 15:13f; Lk 18:39; J 12:13 v.l. (s. κραυγάζω); Ac 19:34; 21:28, 36; 23:6. W. φωνῇ μεγάλῃ and direct discourse foll. Mk 5:7; Ac 7:60. Also ἐν φωνῇ μεγάλῃ Rv 14:15. Used w. λέγειν (B-D-F §420, 2 app.) of loud speaking κράζω λέγων I say loudly (Ex 5:8; TestAbr B 6 p. 110, 5 [Stone p. 68]) Mt 8:29; 14:30; 15:22 (s. κραυγάζω); 20:30f; 21:9; 27:23; Mk 3:11; J 7:37; 19:12 v.l. (for ἐκραύγασαν); Ac 16:17; Rv 18:18f. Also pleonast. κ. φωνῇ μεγάλῃ λέγων I call out w. a loud voice and say 6:10; 7:10. κ. ἐν φωνῇ μεγάλῃ λέγων 19:17; cp. 18:2. κράξας ἔλεγε Mk 9:24. κ. καὶ λέγειν Mt 9:27; 21:15; Mk 10:47; Lk 4:41 v.l.; Ac 14:14f. ἔκραξεν καὶ εἶπεν J 12:44. ἔκραξεν διδάσκων καὶ λέγων he cried out as he was teaching, and said 7:28. The pf. κέκραγα has present mng. (Hippocr., Περὶ ἱερ. νούς. 15 vol. VI 388 Littré βοᾷ καὶ κέκραγεν; Menand., Sam. 226; 239 S. [11; 24 Kö.]; Plut., Cato Min. 58, 1 μαρτυρόμενος καὶ κεκραγώς; Lucian, Demon. 48 κεκραγότα κ. λέγοντα; Ex 5:8; 2 Km 19:29; Is 15:4; Job 30:20, 28; 34:20; Ps 4:4; 140:1) Ἰωάννης μαρτυρεῖ περὶ αὐτοῦ καὶ κέκραγεν λέγων J 1:15. κ. τινὶ (ἐν) φωνῇ μεγάλῃ (λέγων) call out to someone in a loud voice Rv 7:2; 14:15.—Of angel choirs 1 Cl 34:6 (Is 6:3).
    fig.
    α. of the urgent speech of the prophet (Jos., Ant. 10, 117: Jeremiah) or what his book says (Ammonius Herm. in Aristot. Lib. De Interpret. p. 183, 30 Busse: ἀκουέτω τοῦ Ἀριστοτέλους κεκραγότος ὅτι … ; Just., D. 70, 5 αἱ γραφαὶ κεκράγασιν) Ἠσαί̈ας κράζει ὑπὲρ τοῦ Ἰσραήλ Ro 9:27. Of prayer, rather fervent than loud 8:15. ἐκέκραξεν ὁ δίκαιος 1 Cl 22:7 (Ps 33:18). Of the divine Spirit in the heart Gal 4:6.
    β. of things (Epict 1, 16, 11 κέκραγεν ἡ φύσις; Achilles Tat. 5, 17, 4 κέκραγέ σου ἡ μορφὴ τ. εὐγένειαν): stones, that cry out if the disciples were to hold back with their confession of Jesus’ messiahship Lk 19:40. The laborers’ wages, held back, κράζει Js 5:4 (cp. Gen 4:10; 18:20; Philo, Ebr. 98 κ. ἐν ἡμῖν αἱ ἄλογοι ὁρμαί; Jos., Bell. 1, 197. On the topic s. KBerger, Die Gesetzesauslegung Jesu I, ’72, 382–84; other reff. PvanderHorst, The Sentences of Pseudo-Phocylides ’78, 126.).—B. 1250. DELG. M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > κράζω

  • 229 λαός

    λαός, οῦ, ὁ (Hom.+; ins; pap [here the pl. λαοί, Mayser 27; 29]; LXX, pseudepigr, Philo, Joseph., apolog.)
    people, in a general sense
    distributively, populace Mt 27:64. ἐν τῷ λαῷ among the people Mt 4:23; Ac 6:8.
    a close gathering of people crowd Lk 1:21; 3:15, 18; 7:1; 20:1; Ac 3:12; 4:1f; 13:15; 21:30. πᾶς ὁ λ. the whole crowd, all the people (TestSim 6:4; Jos., Ant. 13, 201) Mt 27:25; Lk 8:47; 9:13; 18:43; 21:38; J 8:2; Ac 3:9, 11. Also ἅπας ὁ λ. (Jos., Ant. 7, 63; 211) Lk 3:21. ὁ λ. ἅπας (Jos., Ant. 6, 199; 8, 101) 19:48; GPt 8:28. λ. ἱκανός Ac 5:37 v.l. πᾶν τὸ πλῆθος τ. λαοῦ Lk 1:10; cp. Ac 21:36. πλῆθος πολὺ τοῦ λαοῦ a large crowd of people Lk 6:17; 23:27 (PsSol. 8:2 λαοῦ πολλοῦ; TestJud 3:1 λ. πολύς).
    the mass of a community as distinguished from special interest groups (OGI 90, 12 [II B.C. priests, civil officials, and soldiers]) people
    in contrast to their leaders Mt 26:5; Mk 11:18 v.l., 32 v.l.; 14:2; Lk 19:48; 20:6, 19, 26; 23:13; Ac 2:47; 4:17, 21; 5:26; 6:12; 12:4.
    in contrast to Pharisees and legal experts Lk 7:29.
    in contrast to priests Hb 2:17; 5:3; 7:5, 27 (a Christian congregation in liturgical response Just., A I, 65, 3 al.).—RMeyer, Der ˓Am hā-˒Āreṣ, Judaica 3, ’47, 169–99.
    a body of people with common cultural bonds and ties to a specific territory, people-group, people as nation (w. φυλή, ἔθνος, γλῶσσα; cp. Da 3:4) Rv 5:9; 13:7; 14:6. Pl. (a Sibylline oracle in Appian, Maced. 2; En 10:21; PsSol 5:11; 17:30 λαοὶ τῶν ἐθνῶν; Just., A I, 49, 1) 7:9; 10:11; 11:9; 17:15.—Lk 2:31. Of a monstrous animal θηρίον δυνάμενον λαοὺς διαφθεῖραι a beast capable of destroying (whole) peoples Hv 4, 2, 3.
    people of God, people
    of the people of Israel ὁ λαός (s. also Jewish inscriptions in SIG 1247; GKittel, TLZ 69, ’44, 13; En 20:5; PsSol 17:20; ParJer 2:2 [throughout w. art.]; Just.; Mel., P.; Iren., Orig., Did.—λαός of the native Egyptian population since III B.C. at least: UWilcken on UPZ 110, 100f) Ac 3:23; 7:17; 28:17; 2 Pt 2:1; AcPl Ha 8, 19. Without the art. (Sir 46:7; Wsd 18:13; PsSol [throughout, exc. 17:20]) Jd 5; οὗτος ὁ λ. Mt 15:8; Mk 7:6 (both Is 29:13); Lk 21:23; B 9:3; 10:2; πᾶς ὁ λ. (ParJer 5:17) Lk 2:10 all the people (prob., as the involvement of the shepherds suggests, without cultic restrictions, namely to ‘everyone’); B 12:8. πᾶς ὁ λ. Ἰσραήλ Ac 4:10. οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς τοῦ λ. Mt 2:4; 26:47; 27:1; οἱ πρεσβύτεροι τοῦ λ. 21:23; τὸ πρεσβυτέριον τοῦ λ. Lk 22:66; οἱ ἄρχοντες τοῦ λ. Ac 4:8; B 9:3; PEg2, 6; οἱ πρῶτοι τοῦ λ. Lk 19:47. Opp. τὰ ἔθνη the nations, non-Israelites (gentiles) (s. ἔθνος 2 and cp. Appian, Bell. Civ. 5, 67 §283 the contrast τὰ ἔθνη … τὴν Ἰταλίαν) Ac 26:17, 23; Ro 15:10 (Dt 32:43).—W. a gen. that denotes the possessor ([τοῦ] θεοῦ, αὐτοῦ, μοῦ etc.; cp. TestJud 25:3; ParJer 3:15; ApcrEzk P 1 verso 3; Jos., Ant. 10, 12; Just., D. 110, 4): λ. τοῦ θεοῦ Lk 1:68; Hb 11:25. ὁ λαός μου Ac 7:34 (Ex 3:7). Rv 18:4 (pl. verb with λαός in sing. as Περὶ ὕψους 23, 2 after a poet λαὸς … κελάδησαν).—Lk 7:16. λ. σου Ἰσραήλ Lk 2:32. ὁ λ. μου ὁ Ἰσραήλ Mt 2:6. ὁ λ. Ἰσραήλ B 16:5 (cp. ὁ λ. τῶν Ἰουδαίων Orig., C. Cels. 2, 1, 6). Pl. of the tribes of Israel (Jos., C. Ap. 2, 159, unless the pl. here means ‘the people’, as Hes., Op. 763f πολλοὶ λαοί; Aristoph., Equ. 163, Ran. 216; 677 πολὺν λαῶν ὄχλον; Callim., Epigr. 47; Isyllus E 1 [IG IV, 950=Coll. Alex. p. 133, 37=D 1 in Diehl2 II, 6 p. 115, s. Anth LG] θεὸν ἀείσατε, λαοί = ἐνναέται Ἐπιδαύρου [inhabitants of Epidaurus]; Diod S 1, 45, 1; 3, 45, 6 διὰ τὴν τῶν λαῶν ἀπειρίαν=because of the inexperience of the people; 4, 67, 6; 5, 7, 6; 5, 48, 1 συναγαγεῖν τ. λαοὺς σποράδην οἰκοῦντας=gather the people who live in scattered places; 5, 59, 5 al.; Orphica 34, 10 Q.; Herm. Wr. 1, 27; PRev 42, 17 [258 B.C.] γραφέτωσαν οἱ λαοί=the people are to submit a written statement; Jos., Ant. 18, 352; Just., A I, 47, 1 al; Ath.; Basilius, epistle 92, 2 ln. 44 [=MPG XXXII 481a] οἱ λαοί; Theophanes, Chron. 172, 7 de Boor ἀπέθανον λαοὶ πολλοί) Ac 4:25 (Ps 2:1), 27; Ro 15:11 (Ps 116:1).
    of Christians Ac 15:14; 18:10; Ro 9:25 (Hos 2:25); Hb 4:9; 1 Pt 2:10; Rv 18:4 (Jer 28:45 SAQ); 1 Cl 59:4; 2 Cl 2:3; B 13:1ff. Prepared by Christ B 3:6; cp. Hs 5, 5, 2. Protected by angels 5, 5, 3; specif. entrusted to Michael 8, 3, 3; cp. 8, 1, 2.—Also in pl. (s. 3 end) λαοὶ αὐτοῦ Rv 21:3; cp. Hs 8, 3, 2.—λ. εἰς περιποίησιν a people (made God’s) own possession 1 Pt 2:9. Also λ. περιούσιος (Ex 19:5) Tit 2:14; 1 Cl 64. λ. κατεσκευασμένος a people made ready Lk 1:17. λ. καινός B 5:7; 7:5.—OKern, ARW 30, ’33, 205–17; EKäsemann, D. wandernde Gottesvolk ’39; N Dahl, D. Volk Gottes: E. Untersuchg. z. Kirchenbewusstsein des Urchristent. ’41; HSahlin, D. Messias u. d. Gottesvolk ’45; AOepke, D. neue Gottesvolk ’50; CVandersleyen, Le mot λαός dans la langue des papyrus: Chronique d’ Égypte 48, ’73, 339–49; OMontevecchi, PapBrux XIX (in Actes du XVe Congrès International de Papyrologie ’78–79), pp. 51–67.—B. 1313; 1315. Schmidt, Syn. IV 570–75. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW. Spicq. Sv. S. also LfgrE s.v. col. 1634 (lit.).

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > λαός

  • 230 μαθητής

    μαθητής, οῦ, ὁ (s. μανθάνω; Hdt.+; ins; BGU 1125, 9 [I B.C.]; POxy 1029, 25. In LXX only in two places in Jer [13:21; 20:11], and then as v.l. of codex A; AscIs 3:17, 21; Philo, Joseph., apolog. exc. Ar.) gener. ‘learner, pupil, disciple’
    one who engages in learning through instruction from another, pupil, apprentice (in contrast to the teacher [Ath. 17, 3 μ. Δαιδάλου]; Did., Gen. 66, 25) Mt 10:24f; Lk 6:40 (TManson, The Teaching of Jesus, ’55, 237–40).
    one who is rather constantly associated with someone who has a pedagogical reputation or a particular set of views, disciple, adherent (Pla., Apol. 33a; X., Mem. 1, 6, 3; Dio Chrys. 11 [12], 5; Lucian, M. Peregr. 28 al.; Diog. L. 7, 7, 179; 8, 1, 3; 10, 11, 22; Iambl., Vi. Pyth. 35, 254 οἱ μ.; SIG 1094, 5f αὐτὸς καὶ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ; Jos., Ant. 9, 68; 13, 289), oft. w. an indication of the pers. whose disciple one is, mostly in the gen. (Jos., C. Ap. 1, 176 Ἀριστοτέλους μ., Ant. 9, 33; 15, 3; Just., A I, 26, 4 τοῦ Σίμωνος; Tat. 39, 3 Ὀρφέως; Iren. 1, prologue 2 [Harv. I 4, 7] Οὐαλεντίνου; Theosophien 66 Φορφυρίου μ.).
    μ. Ἰωάννου Mt 9:14a; 11:2; 14:12; Mk 2:18ab; 6:29; Lk 5:33; 7:18f; 11:1; J 1:35, 37; 3:25. τ. Μωϋσέως 9:28b τῶν Φαρισαίων Mt 22:16; Mk 2:18c τοῦ Πολυκάρπου MPol 22:2; EpilMosq 1.
    esp. of the disciples of Jesus (of Paul: Orig., C. Cels. 1, 48, 70)
    α. of the Twelve οἱ δώδεκα μ. αὐτοῦ his twelve disciples Mt 10:1; 11:1; οἱ ἕνδεκα μ. 28:16. οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ (or w. another gen. of similar mng.; cp. Just., A I, 67, 7 τοῖς ἀποστόλοις αὐτοῦ καὶ μαθηταῖς; Just., D. 53, 1 al.; Did., Gen. 38, 21; Orig., C. Cels. 2, 2, 10.—Yet it is somet. doubtful whether a particular pass. really means the Twelve and not a larger [s. β below] or smaller circle; EMartinez, CBQ 23, ’61, 281–92 [restricted to the 12, even in Mt 18]) Mt 8:21; 12:1; 15:2; Mk 5:31; 6:1, 35, 45; 8:27; Lk 8:9; J 2:2; 3:22 and oft. Also without a gen. (but freq. vv.ll. + αὐτοῦ) οἱ μ. Mt 13:10; 14:19; 16:5; Mk 8:1; 9:14; 10:24; Lk 9:16; J 4:31; 11:7f and oft.—LBrun, D. Berufung der ersten Jünger Jesu: SymbOsl 11, ’32, 35–54; SvanTilborg, The Jewish Leaders in Mt, ’72, 99–141; ULuz, Die Jünger im Mt, ZNW 62, ’71, 141–47; on the ‘beloved disciple’ of J 13:23 al. s. FFilson, JBL 68, ’49, 83–88; ETitus, ibid. ’50, 323–28; FNeirynck, The Anonymous Disciple in John 1: ETL 66, ’90, 5–37.
    β. of Jesus’ disciples, male and female, gener. ὄχλος πολὺς μ. αὐτοῦ a large crowd of his adherents Lk 6:17; ἅπαν τὸ πλῆθος τῶν μ. the whole crowd of the disciples 19:37. οἱ μ. αὐτοῦ ἱκανοί a large number of his disciples 7:11 v.l. πολλοὶ ἐκ (v.l. om.) τῶν μ. αὐτοῦ J 6:66.—Papias (2:4).
    γ. Even after Jesus’ resurrection those who followed him were called μ. (generations later, as Socrates is called the μ. of Homer: Dio Chrys. 38 [55], 3ff) οἱ μ. τοῦ κυρίου Ac 9:1; μ. Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ IMg 9:2 (opp. ὁ μόνος διδάσκαλος, who also had the prophets as his μαθηταί vs. 3; 10:1). Ac uses μ. almost exclusively to denote the members of the new community of believers (Just., D. 35, 2; s. Rtzst., Erlösungsmyst. 127f), so that it almost= Christian (cp. 11:26) 6:1f, 7; 9:19; 11:26, 29; 13:52; 15:10 al. τῶν μαθητῶν (without τινές) some Christians 21:16 (cp. X., Cyr. 1, 4, 20, An. 3, 5, 16; Herodas 2, 36 τῶν πορνέων; Polyaenus 5, 17, 2 καὶ ἦσαν τῶν Μακεδόνων).—καλοὶ μαθηταί IPol 2:1. Individuals (Aberciusins. 3: Ἀ., ὁ μ. ποιμένος ἁγνοῦ): Ananias Ac 9:10; Mnason 21:16b; Timothy 16:1.
    δ. The martyrs (s. on μάρτυς 3) are specif. called μ. κυρίου MPol 17:3. Also absol. μ. IEph 1:2; ITr 5:2; IRo 5:3; IPol 7:1. As long as a Christian’s blood has not been shed, the person is only a beginner in discipleship (IRo 5:3), not a μαθητὴς ἀληθῶς Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ IRo 4:2.—For lit. s. on ἀπόστολος and s. also JWach, Meister and Jünger 1925; ESchweizer, Lordship and Discipleship, ’60, 464–66; GBornkamm, Bultmann Festschr., ’64, 171–91 (Mt 28:16–20)—B. 1225. DELG s.v. μανθάνω. M-M. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > μαθητής

  • 231 ναί

    ναί particle denoting affirmation, agreement, or emphasis (Hom.+; POxy 1413, 7 al. in pap; LXX, TestSol, TestAbr; JosAs17:1 cod. A; ApcSed 3:2; ApcMos 17:1; EpArist 201 ναί, βασιλεῦ; Jos., Ant. 17, 169; Just.) yes, certainly, indeed, it’s true that
    in answer to a question
    α. asked by another pers., yes (Ael. Aristid. 34 p. 663 D.; Lucian, Dial. Deor. 4, 1 al.; Alexander Numenianus [time of Hadrian]: Rhet. Gr. ed. LSpengel III 1856 p. 24f: the answer to a question should be ναὶ ἢ οὔ; Ammonius Phil., In Int. p. 199, 21 ἀποκρίν. τὸ ναὶ ἢ τὸ οὔ; Sb 7696, 57 [250 A.D.]) Mt 9:28; 13:51; 17:25; 21:16; J 11:27; 21:15f; Ac 5:8; 22:27; GPt 10:42; Hs 9, 11, 8; GJs 19:1 codd.; AcPl Ha 5, 2 (restored).
    β. asked by one who answers: yes, indeed ναὶ λέγω ὑμῖν Mt 11:9; Lk 7:26 gives an affirmative answer to the question directed to the crowd, thereby confirming the correctness of the crowd’s opinion; the people are ‘on the right track’, but need further instruction.—If the question is put in negative form, the answer may be of course Ro 3:29 (cp. after negative assertion TestAbr A 17 p. 99, 9 [Stone p. 46]; ApcMos 17).
    in declarations of agreement to the statements of others: certainly, indeed, quite so (Gen 42:21; Epict. 2, 7, 9 ναί, κύριε; Diod S 13, 26, 1 ναί, ἀλλά=indeed, but; Lucian, Jupp. Tr. 6 and 9 ναί. ἀλλὰ …) ναί, κύριε• καὶ γάρ certainly, Lord (or sir); and yet Mt 15:27; Mk 7:28 v.l. (but it may also mean an urgent repetition of the request: B-D-F §441, 1; AFridrichsen, ConNeot 1, ’36, 10–13; Athen. Tafel Elderkin 2 [III A.D.]: Hesperia 6, ’37, 383ff, ln. 7 a fervent invocation in prayer: ναὶ κύριε Τυφώς, ἐκδίκησον … καὶ βοήθησον αὐτῷ; PGM 1, 216 ναί, κύριε; cp. 36, 227); Hv 3, 3, 1; 4, 3, 1; m 6, 1, 1. Prob. Rv 14:13; 16:7; 22:20b v.l. belong here.
    in emphatic repetition of one’s own statement yes (indeed) Mt 11:26; Lk 10:21; 11:51. ναὶ λέγω ὑμῖν, τοῦτον φοβήθητε yes, indeed, that’s the one to fear, I tell you 12:5.— Phlm 20; 14:1. The repetition can consist in the fact that one request preceded and a similar one follows ναὶ ἐρωτῶ καὶ σέ yes, and I ask you Phil 4:3.—1 Cl 60:3.
    in solemn assurance (Herodas 1, 86 ναὶ Δήμητρα = by Demeter) ναὶ ἔρχομαι ταχύ surely I am coming soon Rv 22:20. ναί, ἀμήν so it is to be, assuredly so 1:7.
    In wordplay ναί is used w. οὔ: ἤτω ὑμῶν τὸ ναὶ ναί, καὶ τὸ οὒ οὔ let your ‘yes’ be yes, and your ‘no’ no i.e., the absolute dependability of your statements should make an oath unnecessary Js 5:12. But Mt 5:37 reads ἔστω ὁ λόγος ὑμῶν ναὶ ναί, οὒ οὔ i.e., a clear ‘yes’, a clear ‘no’ and nothing more (ναί doubled also Archilochus [VII B.C.] 99 Diehl3; Alciphron 4, 13, 8; Theodor. Prodr. 8, 321 Hercher; PGM 1, 90; PMinear, NovT 13, ’71, 1–13). Yet many (B-D-F §432, 1; Wlh., EKlostermann, M‘Neile on Mt 5:37; CTorrey, The Four Gospels ’33, 291; ELittmann, ZNW 34, ’35, 23f) assume that Mt 5:37 has the same sense as Js 5:12; the Koridethi gosp. (ms. Θ) assimilates the text of the Mt pass. to the one in Js.—Paul denies that, in forming his plans, he has proceeded in such a way ἵνα ᾖ παρʼ ἐμοὶ τὸ ναὶ ναὶ καὶ τὸ οὒ οὔ that my ‘yes’ should at the same time be ‘no’ 2 Cor 1:17; cp. vs. 18. This is just as impossible as that in the gospel ναὶ καὶ οὔ ‘yes’ and ‘no’ are preached at the same time vs. 19a. Rather, in Jesus Christ there is only ‘yes’ vs. 19b to all the promises of God vs. 20.—EKutsch, Eure Rede aber sei ja ja, nein nein: EvTh ’60, 206–18.—DELG. M-M.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ναί

  • 232 οὕτω

    οὕτω/οὕτως adv. of οὗτος (Hom.+ gener. ‘so’); the form οὕτως is most used, before consonants as well as before vowels; the form οὕτω (En 98:3 before a vowel; EpArist only before consonants) in the NT only Ac 23:11; Phil 3:17; Hb 12:21; Rv 16:18 w. really outstanding attestation and taken into the text by most edd.; by others, with t.r., also Mt 3:15; 7:17; Mk 2:7; Ac 13:47; Ro 1:15; 6:19 (B-D-F §21; W-S. §5, 28b; Mlt-H. 112f; W-H. appendix 146f. Also in ins [s. Nachmanson 112], pap [Mayser 242f; Crönert 142] and LXX [Thackeray p. 136] οὕτως predominates)
    referring to what precedes, in this manner, thus, so
    w. a correlative word καθάπερ … οὕτως (s. καθάπερ) (just) as … so Ro 12:4f; 1 Cor 12:12; 2 Cor 8:11. καθὼς … οὕτως (just) as … so Lk 11:30; 17:26; J 3:14; 12:50; 14:31; 15:4; 2 Cor 1:5; 10:7; Col 3:13; 1 Th 2:4. ὡς … οὕτως as … so Ac 8:32 (Is 53:7); 23:11 (οὕτω); Ro 5:15, 18; 1 Cor 7:17a; 2 Cor 7:14. ὥσπερ … οὕτως (ParJer 7:26f; GrBar 4:16; ApcEsdr 1:14; Jos., Vi. 1; Just., D. 6, 2; Tat. 5, 2 [οὕτω]) Mt 12:40; 13:40; Lk 17:24; J 5:21, 26; Ro 5:12, 19, 21; 6:4; GJs 13:1 (end). καθʼ ὅσον … οὕτως as … so Hb 9:27f. ὸ̔ν τρόπον … οὕτως 2 Ti 3:8 (TestJob 27:3ff; Just., A I, 7, 3 al.).
    w. ref. to what precedes, abs. Mt 5:19; 6:30; Ro 11:5; 1 Cor 8:12 al. τὸν οὕτως (namely ἐν σαρκί) ἀναστάντα AcPlCor 2:25. ταῦτα οὕτως so much for that 17:2. οὐδὲ οὕτως not even thus Mk 14:59 (Just., D. 12, 2; 46, 6). Pointing the moral after figures of speech, parables, and examples (Aristot., Rhet. 1393b [II, 20]) Mt 5:16; 12:45; 13:49; 18:14; 20:16; Lk 12:21; 15:7, 10; J 3:8.—οὕτως can take on a specif. mng. fr. what precedes: οὕτως ἀποκρίνῃ τῷ ἀρχιερεῖ; is that the way (= so shamelessly) you answer the high priest? J 18:22; so basely 1 Cor 5:3; so intensely (of love) Dg 10:3; unmarried 1 Cor 7:26, 40. ἐὰν ἀφῶμεν αὐτὸν οὕτως if we let him (go on) this way (performing miracle after miracle) J 11:48. Cp. Ro 9:20. οὕτως προοδοιπορούντων those who thus precede AcPlCor 2:37 (restored).—οὕτως καί Mt 17:12; 18:35; 24:33; Mk 13:29; Lk 17:10. οὐχ οὕτως ἐστὶν ἐν ὑμῖν it is not so among you Mt 20:26; Mk 10:43. Elliptically (B-D-F §480, 5) ὑμεῖς οὐχ οὕτως you (are) not (to act) in this way Lk 22:26 (ὑμεῖς δὲ μὴ οὕτως [v.l. οὕτως μὴ ποιεῖτε] TestNapht 3:4). οὐχ οὕτως, Μαρία (you are not to conceive a child) in that way i.e. the normal way of women GJs 11:3. Summarizing a thought expressed in what precedes: Mt 11:26; Ac 7:8; 1 Cor 14:25; 1 Th 4:17; 2 Pt 1:11.—Drawing an inference fr. what precedes so, hence (Horapollo 1, 34 οὕτω ὀνομασθήσεται; En 98:3) Ro 1:15; 6:11. οὕτως ὅτι as it is, since Rv 3:16.—Introducing a question so: Mt 26:40 οὕτως οὐκ ἰσχύσατε μίαν ὥραν γρηγορῆσαι μετʼ ἐμοῦ; so, you were not able to remain awake with me for only one hour?; Mk 7:18 οὕτως καὶ ὑμεῖς ἀσύνετοί ἐστε; are you so dense, too? (i.e. like the crowd); 1 Cor 6:5 οὕτως οὐκ ἔνι ἐν ὑμῖν οὐδεὶς σοφός is it so (=our colloq. ‘do you mean to tell me’), that there’s not one person among you wise enough to settle a dispute between members?—Summarizing the content of a preceding participial constr. (Att.: Lysias 2, 79; also Jos., Bell. 2, 129, Ant. 8, 270; B-D-F §425, 6) Ac 20:11; 27:17.—ὁ μὲν οὕτως, ὁ δὲ οὕτως the one in one way, the other in another 1 Cor 7:7.
    pert. to what follows in discourse material, in this way, as follows J 21:1. Of spoken or written words: what is so introduced follows immediately after οὕτως γέγραπται Mt 2:5. Cp. 6:9; Ac 7:6; 13:34, 47; Ro 10:6; Hb 4:4; GJs 21:2 (codd.); w. ὅτι recitative Lk 19:31; Ac 7:6; 13:34 (TestAbr A 8 p. 85, 15 [Stone p. 18]). W. inf. foll. (Gen 29:26) 1 Pt 2:15. Correlatively: οὕτως … καθώς Lk 24:24; Ro 11:26; Phil 3:17. οὕτως … ὸ̔ν τρόπον Ac 1:11; cp. 27:25. οὕτως … ὡς thus … as (Jos., Ant. 12, 304; Just., A I, 12, 10; 66, 1 al.) Mk 4:26 (‘it’s like when … ’); J 7:46; 1 Cor 3:15; 4:1; 9:26ab; Eph 5:33; Js 2:12. οὕτως … ὥστε (Hdt. 7, 174; Epict. 1, 11, 4; 4, 11, 19; SIG 1169, 57f ἔμπυος ἦς οὕτω σφόδρως, ὥστε … ἐνέπλησε πύους=he was suffering to such an extent from a suppurating wound, that … he was filled with matter; Jos., Ant. 8, 206; 9, 255) J 3:16 (s. B-D-F §391, 2; Mlt. 209; Rob. 1000); Ac 14:1. οὕτως … ἵνα: οὕτως τρέχετε ἵνα καταλάβητε 1 Cor 9:24.—Functions as an adj. (B-D-F) §434, 1; HLjungvik, Eranos 62, ’64, 26–31) ἡ γένεσις οὕτως ἦν (=τοιαύτη ἦν) Mt 1:18.—19:10; Ro 4:18 (Gen 15:5). Cp. Rv 9:17.—Also as subst. something like this: as subj. Mt 9:33; as obj. Mk 2:12. οὕτως ποιεῖν τινι do thus and so to/for someone Lk 1:25; 2:48.
    marker of a relatively high degree, so, before adj. and adv. (Soph., Aristoph. et al.) σεισμὸς οὕτω μέγας an earthquake so great Rv 16:18. οὕτως ἀνόητοί ἐστε; Gal 3:3 (s. ἀνόητος a). οὕτως φοβερόν Hb 12:21.—οὕτως ταχέως (Jos., Vi. 92; cp. οὕτω δρομαίως TestAbr A 7 p. 83, 33 [Stone p. 14]) Gal 1:6; AcPlCor 2:2.—Before a verb so intensely (X., Cyr. 1, 3, 11; TestAbr B 4 p. 108, 11 [Stone p. 64]; Tat. 19, 1) 1J 4:11.
    to the exclusion of other considerations, without further ado, just, simply: οὕτως (Soph., Phil. 1067 ἀλλʼ οὕτως ἄπει; ‘then will you go away without further ado?’; Ael. Aristid. 51, 49 K.=27 p. 546 D.; Aesop, Fab. 308 P.=Babr. 48 Cr./48 L-P.; Jos., Ant. 14, 438) Ἰησοῦς … ἐκαθέζετο οὕτως ἐπὶ τῇ πηγῇ J 4:6 (cp. Ammonius, Catena in ev. S. Ioa. p. 216, 21 Cramer τὸ δὲ ‘οὕτως’ ἀντὶ τοῦ ‘ὡς ἁπλῶς’ καὶ ‘ὡς ἔτυχε’). Likew. 8:59 v.l. and prob. ἀναπεσὼν ἐκεῖνος οὕτως ἐπὶ τὸ στῆθος τοῦ Ἰησοῦ J 13:25 (but here οὕτως can also refer to what precedes accordingly=following Peter’s nod).—DELG s.v. οὗτος. M-M.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > οὕτω

  • 233 οὕτως

    οὕτω/οὕτως adv. of οὗτος (Hom.+ gener. ‘so’); the form οὕτως is most used, before consonants as well as before vowels; the form οὕτω (En 98:3 before a vowel; EpArist only before consonants) in the NT only Ac 23:11; Phil 3:17; Hb 12:21; Rv 16:18 w. really outstanding attestation and taken into the text by most edd.; by others, with t.r., also Mt 3:15; 7:17; Mk 2:7; Ac 13:47; Ro 1:15; 6:19 (B-D-F §21; W-S. §5, 28b; Mlt-H. 112f; W-H. appendix 146f. Also in ins [s. Nachmanson 112], pap [Mayser 242f; Crönert 142] and LXX [Thackeray p. 136] οὕτως predominates)
    referring to what precedes, in this manner, thus, so
    w. a correlative word καθάπερ … οὕτως (s. καθάπερ) (just) as … so Ro 12:4f; 1 Cor 12:12; 2 Cor 8:11. καθὼς … οὕτως (just) as … so Lk 11:30; 17:26; J 3:14; 12:50; 14:31; 15:4; 2 Cor 1:5; 10:7; Col 3:13; 1 Th 2:4. ὡς … οὕτως as … so Ac 8:32 (Is 53:7); 23:11 (οὕτω); Ro 5:15, 18; 1 Cor 7:17a; 2 Cor 7:14. ὥσπερ … οὕτως (ParJer 7:26f; GrBar 4:16; ApcEsdr 1:14; Jos., Vi. 1; Just., D. 6, 2; Tat. 5, 2 [οὕτω]) Mt 12:40; 13:40; Lk 17:24; J 5:21, 26; Ro 5:12, 19, 21; 6:4; GJs 13:1 (end). καθʼ ὅσον … οὕτως as … so Hb 9:27f. ὸ̔ν τρόπον … οὕτως 2 Ti 3:8 (TestJob 27:3ff; Just., A I, 7, 3 al.).
    w. ref. to what precedes, abs. Mt 5:19; 6:30; Ro 11:5; 1 Cor 8:12 al. τὸν οὕτως (namely ἐν σαρκί) ἀναστάντα AcPlCor 2:25. ταῦτα οὕτως so much for that 17:2. οὐδὲ οὕτως not even thus Mk 14:59 (Just., D. 12, 2; 46, 6). Pointing the moral after figures of speech, parables, and examples (Aristot., Rhet. 1393b [II, 20]) Mt 5:16; 12:45; 13:49; 18:14; 20:16; Lk 12:21; 15:7, 10; J 3:8.—οὕτως can take on a specif. mng. fr. what precedes: οὕτως ἀποκρίνῃ τῷ ἀρχιερεῖ; is that the way (= so shamelessly) you answer the high priest? J 18:22; so basely 1 Cor 5:3; so intensely (of love) Dg 10:3; unmarried 1 Cor 7:26, 40. ἐὰν ἀφῶμεν αὐτὸν οὕτως if we let him (go on) this way (performing miracle after miracle) J 11:48. Cp. Ro 9:20. οὕτως προοδοιπορούντων those who thus precede AcPlCor 2:37 (restored).—οὕτως καί Mt 17:12; 18:35; 24:33; Mk 13:29; Lk 17:10. οὐχ οὕτως ἐστὶν ἐν ὑμῖν it is not so among you Mt 20:26; Mk 10:43. Elliptically (B-D-F §480, 5) ὑμεῖς οὐχ οὕτως you (are) not (to act) in this way Lk 22:26 (ὑμεῖς δὲ μὴ οὕτως [v.l. οὕτως μὴ ποιεῖτε] TestNapht 3:4). οὐχ οὕτως, Μαρία (you are not to conceive a child) in that way i.e. the normal way of women GJs 11:3. Summarizing a thought expressed in what precedes: Mt 11:26; Ac 7:8; 1 Cor 14:25; 1 Th 4:17; 2 Pt 1:11.—Drawing an inference fr. what precedes so, hence (Horapollo 1, 34 οὕτω ὀνομασθήσεται; En 98:3) Ro 1:15; 6:11. οὕτως ὅτι as it is, since Rv 3:16.—Introducing a question so: Mt 26:40 οὕτως οὐκ ἰσχύσατε μίαν ὥραν γρηγορῆσαι μετʼ ἐμοῦ; so, you were not able to remain awake with me for only one hour?; Mk 7:18 οὕτως καὶ ὑμεῖς ἀσύνετοί ἐστε; are you so dense, too? (i.e. like the crowd); 1 Cor 6:5 οὕτως οὐκ ἔνι ἐν ὑμῖν οὐδεὶς σοφός is it so (=our colloq. ‘do you mean to tell me’), that there’s not one person among you wise enough to settle a dispute between members?—Summarizing the content of a preceding participial constr. (Att.: Lysias 2, 79; also Jos., Bell. 2, 129, Ant. 8, 270; B-D-F §425, 6) Ac 20:11; 27:17.—ὁ μὲν οὕτως, ὁ δὲ οὕτως the one in one way, the other in another 1 Cor 7:7.
    pert. to what follows in discourse material, in this way, as follows J 21:1. Of spoken or written words: what is so introduced follows immediately after οὕτως γέγραπται Mt 2:5. Cp. 6:9; Ac 7:6; 13:34, 47; Ro 10:6; Hb 4:4; GJs 21:2 (codd.); w. ὅτι recitative Lk 19:31; Ac 7:6; 13:34 (TestAbr A 8 p. 85, 15 [Stone p. 18]). W. inf. foll. (Gen 29:26) 1 Pt 2:15. Correlatively: οὕτως … καθώς Lk 24:24; Ro 11:26; Phil 3:17. οὕτως … ὸ̔ν τρόπον Ac 1:11; cp. 27:25. οὕτως … ὡς thus … as (Jos., Ant. 12, 304; Just., A I, 12, 10; 66, 1 al.) Mk 4:26 (‘it’s like when … ’); J 7:46; 1 Cor 3:15; 4:1; 9:26ab; Eph 5:33; Js 2:12. οὕτως … ὥστε (Hdt. 7, 174; Epict. 1, 11, 4; 4, 11, 19; SIG 1169, 57f ἔμπυος ἦς οὕτω σφόδρως, ὥστε … ἐνέπλησε πύους=he was suffering to such an extent from a suppurating wound, that … he was filled with matter; Jos., Ant. 8, 206; 9, 255) J 3:16 (s. B-D-F §391, 2; Mlt. 209; Rob. 1000); Ac 14:1. οὕτως … ἵνα: οὕτως τρέχετε ἵνα καταλάβητε 1 Cor 9:24.—Functions as an adj. (B-D-F) §434, 1; HLjungvik, Eranos 62, ’64, 26–31) ἡ γένεσις οὕτως ἦν (=τοιαύτη ἦν) Mt 1:18.—19:10; Ro 4:18 (Gen 15:5). Cp. Rv 9:17.—Also as subst. something like this: as subj. Mt 9:33; as obj. Mk 2:12. οὕτως ποιεῖν τινι do thus and so to/for someone Lk 1:25; 2:48.
    marker of a relatively high degree, so, before adj. and adv. (Soph., Aristoph. et al.) σεισμὸς οὕτω μέγας an earthquake so great Rv 16:18. οὕτως ἀνόητοί ἐστε; Gal 3:3 (s. ἀνόητος a). οὕτως φοβερόν Hb 12:21.—οὕτως ταχέως (Jos., Vi. 92; cp. οὕτω δρομαίως TestAbr A 7 p. 83, 33 [Stone p. 14]) Gal 1:6; AcPlCor 2:2.—Before a verb so intensely (X., Cyr. 1, 3, 11; TestAbr B 4 p. 108, 11 [Stone p. 64]; Tat. 19, 1) 1J 4:11.
    to the exclusion of other considerations, without further ado, just, simply: οὕτως (Soph., Phil. 1067 ἀλλʼ οὕτως ἄπει; ‘then will you go away without further ado?’; Ael. Aristid. 51, 49 K.=27 p. 546 D.; Aesop, Fab. 308 P.=Babr. 48 Cr./48 L-P.; Jos., Ant. 14, 438) Ἰησοῦς … ἐκαθέζετο οὕτως ἐπὶ τῇ πηγῇ J 4:6 (cp. Ammonius, Catena in ev. S. Ioa. p. 216, 21 Cramer τὸ δὲ ‘οὕτως’ ἀντὶ τοῦ ‘ὡς ἁπλῶς’ καὶ ‘ὡς ἔτυχε’). Likew. 8:59 v.l. and prob. ἀναπεσὼν ἐκεῖνος οὕτως ἐπὶ τὸ στῆθος τοῦ Ἰησοῦ J 13:25 (but here οὕτως can also refer to what precedes accordingly=following Peter’s nod).—DELG s.v. οὗτος. M-M.

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  • 234 πάλιν

    πάλιν adv. (Hom.+). On the spelling s. B-D-F §20, end; Mlt-H. 113).
    pert. to return to a position or state, back
    w. verbs of going, sending, turning, calling etc. πάλιν ἄγειν go back, return J 11:7. ἀναβαίνειν Gal 2:1. ἀναχωρεῖν J 6:15. ἀποστέλλειν send back Mk 11:3. διαπερᾶν 5:21. ἔρχεσθαι (Jos., Ant. 2, 106; 11, 243) Mt 26:43; Mk 11:27; J 4:46; 2 Cor 1:16. ἀπέρχεσθαι Mk 14:39; J 4:3. εἰσέρχεσθαι Mk 2:1 (ParJer 7:22). ἐξέρχεσθαι 7:31 (ParJer 9:12). ἐπιστρέφειν turn back Gal 4:9a. παραγίνεσθαι J 8:2, etc. πάλιν λαβεῖν take back (X., An. 4, 2, 13) 10:17f. παραλαβὼν πάλιν τοὺς δώδεκα he brought the twelve back (after he had been separated fr. them for a time, and had preceded them) Mk 10:32. ἀνεσπάσθη πάλιν ἅπαντα εἰς τ. οὐρανόν everything was drawn back into heaven Ac 11:10.—ἡ ἐμὴ παρουσία πάλιν πρὸς ὑμᾶς my return to you Phil 1:26.—Also pleonastically w. verbs that express the component ‘back’ (Eur., Ep. 1, 1 ἀναπέμπω πάλιν) πάλιν ἀνακάμπτειν (Bacchylides 17, 81f πάλιν ἀνεκάμπτετʼ; Synes., Kingship p. 29b) Ac 18:21. πάλιν ὑποστρέφειν Gal 1:17 (s. B-D-F §484; cp. Rob. 1205).
    in expressions that denote a falling back into a previous state or a return to a previous activity (TestAbr A 6 p. 89, 13 [Stone p. 14] ἠγέρθη πάλιν ὁ μόσχος; ApcMos 41 πάλιν τὴν ἀνάστασιν ἐπαγγέλομαί σοι; Just., A I, 18, 6; Tat. 11, 2). In Engl. mostly again. εἰ ἃ κατέλυσα ταῦτα πάλιν οἰκοδομῶ Gal 2:18. ἵνα πάλιν ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ ἦτε 1 Cor 7:5. διψήσει πάλιν J 4:13. πάλιν εἰς φόβον Ro 8:15. Cp. 11:23; Gal 5:1; Phil 2:28; Hb 5:12; 6:6; 2 Pt 2:20.
    pert. to repetition in the same (or similar) manner, again, once more, anew of someth. a pers. has already done (TestAbr A 15 p. 96, 7 [Stone p. 40, 7]; TestJob 15:9; 44:2; JosAs 10:19; ParJer 9:21; Jos., Ant. 12, 109; Just., D. 3, 5 al.), of an event, or of a state or circumstance (Dicaearch., Fgm. 34 W. Pythagoras flees first to Καυλωνία … ἐκεῖθεν δὲ πάλιν εἰς Λοκρούς; ApcEsdr 4:13 κατήγαγόν με … καὶ πάλιν κατήγαγόν με βαθμοὺς τριάκοντα). πάλιν παραλαμβάνει αὐτὸν ὁ διάβολος εἰς ὄρος Mt 4:8 (cp. vs. 5). πάλιν ἐξελθών 20:5 (cp. vs. 3). πότε πάλιν ὄψονται αὐτόν when they would see (Paul) again AcPl Ha 6, 17. ἵνα παρά σου πάλιν ἀκούσωμεν AcPlCor 1:6.—Mt 21:36 (cp. vs. 34); 26:44 (cp. vs. 42), 72; 27:50; Mk 2:13; 3:1; 4:1. πάλιν πολλοῦ ὄχλου ὄντος 8:1 (cp. 6:34).—8:25; 10:1, 24; Lk 23:20 (cp. vs. 13); J 1:35 (cp. vs. 29); 8:8; 20:26; Ac 17:32; Gal 1:9; Phil 4:4; Js 5:18; Hv 3, 1, 5 al.; GJs 17:2; 23:2; AcPl Ha 4, 1.—Somet. w. additions which, in part, define πάλιν more exactly: πάλ. δεύτερον (cp. P. Argentor. Gr. 53, 5: Kl. T. 135 p. 47 τὸ δεύτερον πάλιν) J 21:16. πάλ. ἐκ δευτέρου (Ctesias: 688 Fgm. 14, 31 Jac.; 4 [6] Esdr [POxy 1010]; PCairMasp 24, 12) Mt 26:42; Ac 10:15. Also pleonastically πάλ. ἄνωθεν Gal 4:9b (s. ἄνωθεν 4). αὖ πάλιν Papias (2:9) (cp. Just., A I, 20, 2). πάλιν ἐξ ἀρχῆς (Mnesimachus Com. [IV B.C.] 4, 24; Diod S 17, 37, 5) B 16:8.—εἰς τὸ πάλιν= πάλιν 2 Cor 13:2 (on this s. WSchmid, Der Attizismus 1887–97, I 167; II 129; III 282; IV 455; 625).
    marker of a discourse or narrative item added to items of a related nature, also, again, furthermore, thereupon (Ps.-Pla., Eryx. 11, 397a καὶ π. with a series of examples): very oft. in a series of quotations fr. scripture (cp. Diod S 37, 30, 2 καὶ πάλιν … καὶ … followed both times by a poetic quotation; a third one had preceded these. All three deal with riches as the highest good and probably come from a collection of quotations; Ps.-Demetr. c. 184 καὶ πάλιν … καὶ π. with one quotation each. Cp. also Diod S 1, 96, 6; Diog. L. 2, 18; 3, 16; Athen. 4, 17, 140c; 14, 634d; Plut., Mor. 361a καὶ πάλιν … καὶ … ; a quotation follows both times; Just., A I, 35, 5; 38, 2 al.; Ath. 9, 1 al.) J 12:39; 19:37; Ro 15:10–12; 1 Cor 3:20; Hb 1:5; 2:13ab; 4:5; 10:30; 1 Cl 10:4; 15:3f; 16:15; 17:6; 26:3; B 2:7; B 3:1; B 6:2, B 4, B 6, B 14, B 16 and oft. In a series of parables (Simplicius, In Epict. p. 111, 13–34 connects by means of π. two stories that are along the same lines as the Good Samaritan and the Pharisee and the publican; Kephal. I 76, 34; 77, 8 [a series of proverbs]) Lk 13:20 (cp. vs. 18). Also a favorite expr. when a speaker takes up a formula previously used and continues: πάλιν ἠκούσατε Mt 5:33 (cp. vs. 27). πάλιν ὁμοία ἐστὶν ἡ βασιλεία 13:45 (cp. vs. 44), 47.—18:19 (cp. vs. 18); 19:24 (cp. vs. 23).
    marker of contrast or an alternative aspect, on the other hand, in turn (Pla., Gorg. 482d; Theocr. 12, 14; Polyb. 10, 9, 1; Diod S 4, 46, 3; Chariton 7, 6, 9; Wsd 13:8; 16:23; 2 Macc 15:39; TestJob 26:4; GrBar 4:15; Just., D. 41, 4 al.) πάλιν γέγραπται on the other hand, it is written Mt 4:7. πάλ. Ἀνδρέας Andrew in turn J 12:22 v.l.—1 Cor 12:21. τοῦτο λογιζέσθω πάλ. ἐφʼ ἐαυτοῦ let him remind himself, on the other hand 2 Cor 10:7; on the other hand Lk 6:43; 1J 2:8.
    A special difficulty is presented by Mk 15:13, where the first outcry of the crowd is reported w. the words οἱ δὲ πάλιν ἔκραξεν. Is it simply a connective (so δὲ πάλιν Ps.-Callisth. 2, 21, 22; POxy 1676, 20 ἀλλὰ καὶ λυποῦμαι πάλιν ὅτι ἐκτός μου εἶ)? Is it because a different source is here used? Or is the meaning they shouted back? (so Goodsp.); s. 1a. Or is this really a second outcry, and is the first one hidden behind vs. 8 or 11? Acc. to the parallel Mt 27:21f, which actually mentions several outcries, one after the other, the first one may have been: τὸν Βαραββᾶν. The πάλιν of J 18:40 is also hard to explain (Bultmann 502; 509, 3). Could there be a connection here betw. Mk and J?—Another possibility would be to classify Mk 15:13 and J 18:40 under 4 above, with the meaning in turn (Aristoph., Acharn. 342 et al.; s. L-S-J-M). On a poss. Aram. background s. JHudson, ET 53, ’41/42, 267f; Mlt-H. 446; Mlt-Turner 229; MBlack, An Aramaic Approach3, ’67, 112f.—B. 989. DELG. M-M.

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  • 235 παραιτέομαι

    παραιτέομαι mid. dep.; impv. παραιτοῦ; impf. παρῃτούμην; 1 aor. παρῃτησάμην. Pass.: pf. 3 sg. παρῄτηται 1 Km 20:28; ptc. παρῃτημένος (Pind., Hdt.+).
    to make a request, ask for, request (for oneself).
    to ask for someth. in behalf of another intercede for τινά someone (Polyb. 4, 51, 1; Plut., Demetr. 893a [9, 8], Thes. 8 [19, 9]. Cp. BGU 625, 7) δέσμιον Mk 15:6 (Appian, Bell. Civ. 2, 24 §91 Σκαῦρον τοῦ πλήθους παραιτουμένου=the crowd interceded for Scaurus).
    foll. by inf. w. the neg. μή (Thu. 5, 63, 3; s. B-D-F §429; Rob. 1094) παρῃτήσαντο μὴ προστεθῆναι αὐτοῖς λόγον they begged that no further message be given them Hb 12:19 (the v.l. lacks μή). Although the net effect is a refusal, the focus of π. is on the request, which is not the case in 2, below.
    to avert someth. by request or entreaty
    If π. is used in connection w. an invitation, it becomes a euphemism in the sense excuse (Polyb. 5, 27, 3) pass. ἔχε με παρῃτημένον consider me excused (s. ἔχω 6) Lk 14:18b, 19; as a reflexive excuse oneself (Jos., Ant. 7, 175; 12, 197) vs. 18a (for the various excuses used for declining an invitation, s. Aristot., Fgm. 554 [VRose 1886]=Paus. Att., τ. 37:1: my wife is sick; 2: the ship is not ready to sail).
    decline, refuse, avoid, reject (CMRDM I, 164, 16f a wrestler is declared the victor when his opponents decline to engage him upon seeing his unclothed physique; Diod S 13, 80, 2 abs.)
    α. w. acc. of pers. reject, refuse someone or refuse to do someth. to someone (EpArist 184; Philo, Det. Pot. Ins. 38; Jos., Ant. 7, 167) Hb 12:25ab (to hear someone). νεωτέρας χήρας παραιτοῦ refuse (to enroll) widows who are younger (than 60 years of age), when they apply for help 1 Ti 5:11. αἱρετικὸν ἄνθρωπον παραιτοῦ Tit 3:10; but here the word prob. has the sense discharge, dismiss, drive out (cp. Diog. L. 6, 82 οἰκέτην; Plut., Mor. 206a γυναῖκα).
    β. w. acc. of thing reject, avoid (Pind., Nem. 10, 30 χάριν; Epict. 2, 16, 42; PLond 1231, 3 [II A.D.]; Philo, Poster. Cai. 2 τὴν Ἐπικούρειον ἀσέβειαν; Jos., Ant. 3, 212; 5, 237) Dg 4:2; 6:10. γραώδεις μύθους παραιτοῦ 1 Ti 4:7. ζητήσεις παραιτοῦ 2 Ti 2:23 (cp. Herm. Wr. in Stob. I 277, 21 W.= p. 432, 20 Sc. τὰς πρὸς τοὺς πολλοὺς ὁμιλίας παραιτοῦ).—οὐ παραιτοῦμαι τὸ ἀποθανεῖν I am not trying to escape death Ac 25:11 (cp. Jos., Vi. 141).—New Docs 3, 78. DELG s.v. αἰτέω. M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > παραιτέομαι

  • 236 περιίστημι

    περιίστημι 1 aor. subj. 3 pl. περιστήσωσιν; EpJer 36; 2 aor. περιέστην; pf. ptc. περιεστηκώ (1 Km 4:15; TestSol 6:11 D) and περιεστώς; pres. mid. impv. 2 sg. περιίστασο (W-S. §15; B-D-F §93; Mlt-H. 207) (Hom. et al.; ins, pap, LXX; pseudepigr.).
    to encircle by standing around some entity, stand around act. (cp. act. ‘cause to stand around, place around’ of cavalry posted for action Jos., Bell. 3, 148)
    2 aor. stand around abs. Ac 25:7 v.l. W. acc. of pers. (Appian, Hann. 28 §118 περιστάντες τὸ βουλευτήριον=they stood about the senate-house; Jos., Ant. 7, 16; 13, 169) περιέστησαν αὐτὸν οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι the Judeans stood around him 25:7.
    pf. stand around (2 Km 13:31; Jdth 5:22; TestSol 6:11 D; Jos., Vi. 109) ὁ ὄχλος ὁ περιεστώς the crowd standing by (Appian, Hann. 19 §84 ἡ στρατιὰ περιεστῶσα) J 11:42. οἱ π. the bystanders MPol 2:2.
    to go around so as to avoid, avoid, shun mid. (Philod., Rhet. I 384 S. τὰς ἁμαρτίας; M. Ant. 3, 4, 2; Sext. Emp., Math. 11, 93; Lucian, Herm. 86 κύνας; Diog. L. 9, 14; Iambl., Vi. Pyth. 31, 189 τὸ παράνομον; Philo, Ebr. 205; Jos., Bell. 2, 135, Ant. 1, 45; 10, 210) τὶ someth. τὰς κενοφωνίας 2 Ti 2:16. μάχας νομικάς Tit 3:9.—M-M.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > περιίστημι

  • 237 περίκειμαι

    περίκειμαι mid. dep. (Hom.+; ins, pap, LXX; TestSol 4:13 D; TestAbr A; JosAs ch. 18 cod. A [p. 68, 19 Bat.]; Philo, Mos. 2, 182; Just., Mel.)
    to be positioned around some object or area, be around, surround.
    lit., lie or be placed around περίκειται μύλος ὀνικὸς περὶ τὸν τράχηλον αὐτοῦ a millstone is hung about his neck Mk 9:42; cp. Lk 17:2.
    fig., of a crowd of people surrounding someone (Herodian 7, 9, 1 τὸ περικείμενον πλῆθος) τοσοῦτον ἔχοντες περικείμενον ἡμῖν νέφος μαρτύρων Hb 12:1 (s. νέφος).
    to put someth. around, wear someth., have someth. on περίκειμαί τι (for περιτέθειμαί τι as pass. of περιτίθημί τινί τι put someth. on someone)
    lit. (Hdt. 1, 171, 4; Dionys. Hal. 2, 19; Strabo 15, 3, 15; Plut., Arat. 1034 [17, 6]; Polyaenus 1, 20, 2; Herodian 2, 13, 8 ἐσθῆτας στρατιωτικάς; OGI 56, 66; EpJer 23; TestAbr A 17 p. 99, 14 [Stone p. 46]; Jos., Ant. 14, 173, Vi. 334; Just., D. 1, 2.—B-D-F §159, 4; Rob. 485) δέρμα λευκόν wear a white (goat) skin Hv 5:1; cp. Hs 6, 2, 5. Of fetters (4 Macc 12:2 τὰ δεσμά) τὴν ἄλυσιν ταύτην περίκειμαι I am bearing this chain Ac 28:20.
    fig. (SibOr 5, 228) νέφος be clothed in or surrounded by a cloud 2 Cl 1:6b.—ἀσθένειαν be beset by weakness, perh. with suggestion of various kinds Hb 5:2 (cp. Theocr. 23, 14 ὕβριν ‘clad in insolence’, but the text may be corrupt, s. app.). ἀμαύρωσιν blanketed in darkness 2 Cl 1:6a.
    In τοῦ κλήρου, οὗ περίκειμαι ἐπιτυχεῖν ITr 12:3 the text can hardly be in good order, and it is only w. reservations that the transl. the lot which is incumbent upon me to obtain (Goodsp.) is suggested (s. Hdb. ad loc.; IHeikel, StKr 106, ’35, 317), but s. CStory, VigChrist 33, ’79, 319–23 (οὗ πέρι κεῖμαι [to obtain the lot] for which I am appointed).—M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > περίκειμαι

  • 238 πλῆθος

    πλῆθος, ους, τό (πίμπλημι; Hom.+.—In our lit. it is lacking in Mt, the Pauline epp., the catholic epp. [except Js and 1 Pt], Rv, and D [B has it only in a quot. fr. the OT]; in the NT the large majority of occurrences are in Lk and Ac).
    the fact or condition of being many, quantity/number καθὼς τὰ ἄστρα τοῦ οὐρανοῦ τῷ πλήθει Hb 11:12 (cp. Josh 11:4; Da 3:36 v.l.; TestJob 13:2.—S. also Hdt. 6, 44 al.).
    a large amount, large number, multitude, in concrete sense
    of things, w. gen. (Diod S 15, 3, 3 σίτου; 15, 9, 3; Polyaenus 8, 28, Exc. 15, 9; TestJob 18:4 τῶν ὠδίνων; JosAs 5:7 καρποῦ; SEG VIII, 467, 15f [217 B.C.] πολὺ πλ. χρυσίου κτλ.) πλ. ἰχθύων (Eparchides [III B.C.]: 437 Fgm. 1 Jac.; Diod S 3, 44, 8; 5, 19, 4) πολύ Lk 5:6; cp. J 21:6. πλ. ἁμαρτιῶν a host of sins (cp. Sir 5:6; Ezk 28:17f; ParJer 1:1, 8; Jos., Ant. 12, 167) Js 5:20; 1 Pt 4:8; 1 Cl 49:5; 2 Cl 16:4. φρυγάνων πλ. a bundle of sticks Ac 28:3. πλ. αἵματος a great quantity of blood MPol 16:1. πλ. τῆς χαλάζης density of the hail AcPl Ha 5, 10. πλ. τῶν θυσίων B 2:5 (Is 1:11). τὸ πλ. τῶν οἰκτιρμῶν σου the abundance of your compassion 1 Cl 18:2 (Ps 50:3). τὸ πλ. τῶν σχισμάτων the large number of cracks Hs 9, 8, 3.
    of persons
    α. gener. crowd (of people), throng, host, also specif. a disorganized crowd (as Maximus Tyr. 39, 2eh) πολὺ πλ. Mk 3:7f. W. gen. of pers. (Diod S 15, 14, 4 στρατιωτῶν; Cebes 1, 3 γυναικῶν; Appian, Bell. Civ, 1. 81 §370 στρατιᾶς πολὺ πλ.=a large number of military personnel; Jos., Bell. 7, 35, Ant. 18, 61; Just., D. 120, 2) πλῆθος πολὺ τοῦ λαοῦ a great throng of people Lk 6:17; 23:27 (a πλ. at an execution Jos., Ant. 19, 270). τὸ πλ. τοῦ λαοῦ Ac 21:36 (πλῆθος … κράζοντες is constructio ad sensum as Diod S 13, 111, 1 συνέδριον … λέγοντες; Polyb. 18, 9, 9 σύγκλητος … ἐκεῖνοι and similar expressions). τὸ πλ. τοῦ ὄχλου Hs 9, 4, 4. πλ. τῶν ἀσθενούντων a large number of sick people J 5:3. Ἑλλήνων πολὺ πλ. Ac 14:1; 17:4. πλῆθός τι ἀνδρῶν a large number of (other) men Hs 9, 3, 1 (Diod S 15, 76, 2 and Appian, Iber. 59 §248 πλ. ἀνδρῶν, Bell. Civ. 2, 67 §276 πολὺ πλ. ἀνδρῶν). πολὺ πλ. ἐκλεκτῶν 1 Cl 6:1.—Of angels πλ. στρατιᾶς οὐρανίου a throng of the heavenly army Lk 2:13 (πλ. of military personnel Diod S 20, 50, 6; Appian, Bell. Civ. 1, 81 §370 στρατιᾶς πλ.; Jos., Ant. 14, 482). τὸ πᾶν πλ. τῶν ἀγγέλων αὐτοῦ 1 Cl 34:5.—Pl. (cp. Socrat., Ep. 1, 2; Diod S 1, 64, 5; 1, 85, 2; Appian, Bell. Civ. 2, 120 §503; 2 Macc 12:27; 3 Macc 5:24; EpArist 15; 21. S. Mayser II/1, 1926, 38f) πλήθη ἀνδρῶν τε καὶ γυναικῶν large numbers of men and women Ac 5:14.
    β. a (stated) meeting, assembly ἐσχίσθη τὸ πλ. Ac 23:7. πᾶν τὸ πλ. MPol 3:2. ἅπαν τὸ πλ. αὐτῶν Lk 23:1 (the verb is in the pl. as Polyaenus 7, 1; 8, 46; Xenophon Eph. 1, 3, 1 ἦλθον ἅπαν τὸ πλῆθος).
    γ. people, populace, population (Diod S 5, 15, 2; Appian, Samn. 4 §14; SIG 581, 95 [c. 200 B.C.] τὸ πλῆθος τὸ Ῥοδίων; 695, 20 [II B.C.] τὸ πλ. τὸ Μαγνήτων; IG XII/1, 846, 10; 847, 14 [cp. SIG 765, 129 note 5: τὸ πλέθος τὸ Λινδίων]; 1 Macc 8:20; 2 Macc 11:16; EpArist 308, the last three: τὸ πλ. τῶν Ἰουδαίων; Jos., Vi. 198 τὸ πλ. τῶν Γαλιλαίων; Just., D. 119, 4 Ἁμμανιτῶν πολὺ πλ.) τὸ πλῆθος the populace abs. (as Polyaenus 8, 47; 50) Ac 2:6; 1 Cl 53:5 (=ὁ λαός vss. 3, 4). ὅλον τὸ πλ. Ac 14:7 D; AcPl Ha 4, 21. W. gen. τὸ πλ. τῆς πόλεως (Sir 7:7) Ac 14:4. τὸ πλ. τῶν πέριξ πόλεων 5:16. ἅπαν τὸ πλ. τῆς περιχώρου Lk 8:37. ἅπαν τὸ πλ. τῶν Ἰουδαίων Ac 25:24; cp. MPol 12:2.
    δ. in the usage of cultic communities as a t.t. for the whole body of their members, fellowship, community, congregation (cp. 1QS 5:2, 9, 22; 6:19; IG XII/1, 155, 6; 156, 5; SIG 1023, 16f τὸ πλ[ῆθος] τῶν μετεχόντων τοῦ ἱεροῦ; OGI 56, 71 [237 B.C.]; Lucian, Syr. Dea 50) abs. τὸ πλ. the community, the church Ac 15:30; 19:9; 21:22 v.l.; 1 Cl 54:2; ISm 8:2; Hm 11:9. πᾶν τὸ πλ. the whole community, group Ac 6:5; 15:12. Also τὸ πᾶν πλ. IMg 6:1. τὸ ἐν θεῷ πλ. ITr 8:2. W. gen. τὸ πᾶν πλ. ὑμῶν 1:1. πᾶν το πλ. τοῦ λαοῦ Lk 1:10. ἅπαν τὸ πλ. τῶν μαθητῶν the whole community of his disciples Lk 19:37; cp. Ac 6:2. τὸ πλ. τῶν πιστευσάντων 4:32.—Dssm., NB 59f [BS 232f].—B. 929. DELG s.v. πίμπλημι. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > πλῆθος

  • 239 πολυπλήθεια

    πολυπλήθεια, ας, ἡ (πολύς, πλῆθος; Hippocr. et al.; Menand., Dysc. 166; Περὶ ὕψους 32, 1 p. 56, 5 V.; Ps.-Plut., Hom. 85; Dit., Syll. 880, 40; 2 Macc 8:16) large crowd Ac 14:7 v.l. (in an addition in codex E; codex D has πλῆθος). τὴν π. (πολυπληθίαν is to be rejected, w. Lghtf., and πολυπλήθειαν, which is also attested, is to be inserted) ὑμῶν ἀπείληφα I have received your whole (large) congregation IEph 1:3.—DELG s.v. πίμπλημι.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > πολυπλήθεια

  • 240 πολύς

    πολύς, πολλή, πολύ, gen. πολλοῦ, ῆς, οῦ (Hom.+; ins, pap, LXX, pseudepigr., Philo, Joseph., apolog.) ‘much’.—Comparative πλείων, πλεῖον (18 times in the NT, 4 times in the Apost. Fathers [including Hv 3, 6, 4; Hs 8, 1, 16] and Ath. 12, 3) or πλέον (Lk 3:13 and Ac 15:28 μηδὲν πλέον; otherwise, πλέον in the NT only J 21:15; 14 times in the Apost. Fathers [incl. μηδὲν πλέον Hs 1, 1, 6]; Ar. twice; Just. 6 times; Tat. once; Ath. 7 times), ονος; pl. πλείονες, and acc. πλείονας contracted πλείους, neut. πλείονα and πλείω (the latter Mt 26:53 [πλεῖον, πλείου vv.ll.]; B-D-F §30, 2; Mlt-H. 82; Thackeray p. 81f; Mayser p. 68f) ‘more’ (Hom.+; ins, pap, LXX; TestAbr B 7 p. 111, 27=Stone p. 70 [πλείον]; TestJob 35:2; TestGad 7:2 [πλεῖον]; AscIs 3:8; [πλέον]; EpArist; apolog. exc. Mel.).—Superlative πλεῖστος, η, ον ‘most’ (Hom.+).
    pert. to being a large number, many, a great number of
    positive πολύς, πολλή, πολύ
    α. adj., preceding or following a noun (or ptc. or adj. used as a noun) in the pl. many, numerous δυνάμεις πολλαί many mighty deeds Mt 7:22b. δαιμονιζόμενοι πολλοί 8:16. Cp. vs. 30; 9:10; 13:17; 24:11; 27:52, 55; Mk 2:15a; 6:13; 12:41; Lk 4:25, 27; 7:21b; 10:24; J 10:32; 14:2; Ac 1:3; 2:43; 8:7b; 14:22; Ro 4:17f (Gen 17:5); 8:29; 12:4; 1 Cor 8:5ab; 11:30; 12:12a, 20; 1 Ti 6:12; 2 Ti 2:2; Hb 2:10; 1J 4:1; 2J 7; Rv 5:11; 9:9; 10:11; 1 Cl 55:3ab. ἔτη πολλά many years: Lk 12:19b (εἰς ἔτη π.); Ac 24:10 (ἐκ π. ἐτῶν); Ro 15:23 (ἀπὸ π. [v.l. ἱκανῶν] ἐτῶν).—αἱ ἁμαρτίαι αἱ πολλαί Lk 7:47a. αἱ εὐεργεσίαι αἱ π. 1 Cl 21:1.—πολλὰ καὶ βαρέα αἰτιώματα many serious charges Ac 25:7 (cp. Ps.-Pla., Sisyph. 1, 387a πολλά τε καὶ καλὰ πράγματα; B-D-F §442, 11; Rob. 655). πολλὰ καὶ ἄλλα σημεῖα J 20:30 (on the form X., Hell. 5, 4, 1 πολλὰ μὲν οὖν … καὶ ἄλλα λέγειν καὶ Ἑλληνικὰ καὶ βαρβαρικά; Dionys. Hal. 2, 67, 5; Ps.-Demetr. 142 πολλὰς κ. ἄλλας χάριτας; Jos., Ant. 3, 318; Tat. 38, 1. On the subject-matter Bultmann 540, 3; also Porphyr., Vi. Pyth. 28 after a miracle-story: μυρία δʼ ἕτερα θαυμαστότερα κ. θειότερα περὶ τἀνδρὸς … εἴρηται κτλ.).—ἄλλοι πολλοί many others IRo 10:1. ἄλλαι πολλαί Mk 15:41. ἄλλα πολλά (Jos., Bell. 6, 169, Ant. 9, 242; Just., D. 8, 1) J 21:25. ἕτεροι πολλοί Ac 15:35. ἕτερα πολλά (Jos., Vi. 39) Lk 22:65.—Predicative: πολλοί εἰσιν οἱ ἐισερχόμενοι Mt 7:13.—Mk 5:9; 6:31; Gal 4:27 (Is 54:1). AcPl Ha 5, 16.—οὐ πολλοί not many=( only) a few οὐ πολλαὶ ἡμέραι (Jos., Ant. 5, 328, Vi. 309) Lk 15:13; J 2:12; Ac 1:5; AcPl Ha 11, 1. οὐ πολλοὶ σοφοί not many wise (people) 1 Cor 1:26a; cp. bc. οὐ πολλοί πατέρες not many fathers 4:15.
    β. subst.
    א. πολλοί many i.e. persons—without the art. Mt 7:22; 8:11; 12:15; 20:28; 24:5ab; 26:28; Mk 2:2; 3:10 (Mt 12:15 has ascensive πάντας; other passages to be compared in this connection are Mk 10:45=Mt 20:28 πολλῶν and 1 Ti 2:6 πάντων. Cp. the double tradition of the saying of Bias in Clem. of Alex., Strom. 1, 61, 3 πάντες ἄνθρωποι κακοὶ ἢ οἱ πλεῖστοι τ. ἀνθρώπων κακοί.—On Mk 10:45 s. OCullmann, TZ 4, ’48, 471–73); 6:2; 11:8; Lk 1:1 (cp. Herm. Wr. 11, 1, 1b and see JBauer, NovT 4, ’60, 263–66), 14; J 2:23; 8:30; Ac 9:42; Ro 16:2; 2 Cor 11:18; Gal 3:16 (πολλοί= a plurality); Tit 1:10; Hb 12:15; 2 Pt 2:2. AcPl Ha 5, 8; 7, 5; 11, 3. Opp. ὀλίγοι Mt 22:14; 20:16 v.l. (cp. Pla., Phd. 69c ναρθηκοφόροι μὲν πολλοί, βάκχοι δέ τε παῦροι=the thyrsus-bearers [officials] are many, but the truly inspired are few)—W. a partitive gen. πολλοὶ τῶν Φαρισαίων Mt 3:7. π. πῶν υἱῶν Ἰσραήλ Lk 1:16.—J 4:39; 12:11; Ac 4:4; 8:7a; 13:43; 18:8; 19:18; 2 Cor 12:21; Rv 8:11.—W. ἐκ and gen. (AscIs 3:1; Jos., Ant. 11, 151) πολλοὶ ἐκ τῶν μαθητῶν J 6:60, 66.—10:20; 11:19, 45; 12:42; Ac 17:12. ἐκ τοῦ ὄχλου πολλοί J 7:31 (Appian, Iber. 78 §337 πολλοὶ ἐκ τοῦ πλήθους).
    ב. πολλά—many things, much without the art.: γράφειν write at length B 4:9. διδάσκειν Mk 4:2; 6:34b. λαλεῖν Mt 13:3. μηχανᾶσθαι MPol 3. πάσχειν (Pind., O. 13, 63 al.; Jos., Ant. 13, 268; 403) Mt 16:21; Mk 5:26a; 9:12; Lk 9:22; 17:25; B 7:11; AcPl Ha 8, 19. ποιεῖν Mk 6:20 v.l. United w. another neut. by καί (Lucian, Icar. 20 πολλὰ κ. δεινά; Ael. Aristid. 46 p. 345 D.: πολλὰ κ. καλά; Ps.-Demetr., El. 70 πολλὰ κ. ἄλλα; likew. Appian, Bell. Civ. 5, 13 §53; Arrian, Anab. 6, 11, 2) πολλὰ κ. ἕτερα many other things Lk 3:18. πολλὰ ἂν κ. ἄλλα εἰπεῖν ἔχοιμι Dg 2:10 (Eur., Ep. 3, 2, πολλὰ κ. ἕτερα εἰπεῖν ἔχω; Diod S 17, 38, 3 πολλὰ δὲ καὶ ἄλλα … διαλεχθείς). ἐν πολλοῖς in many ways (Diod S 26, 1, 2; OGI 737, 7 [II B.C.]; Just., D. 124, 4 [of line of proof]) 2 Cor 8:22a. ἐπὶ πολλῶν (opp. ἐπὶ ὀλίγα) over many things Mt 25:21, 23.—W. art. (Pla., Apol. 1, 17a) τὰ πολλὰ πράσσειν transact a great deal of business Hs 4:5b.
    γ. elliptical δαρήσεται πολλά (sc. πληγάς) will receive many (lashes) Lk 12:47 (B-D-F §154; 241, 6).
    comparative πλείων, πλεῖον
    α. adj. w. a plural (Diod S 14, 6, 1 μισθοφόρους πλείους=many mercenaries) πλείονας πόνους (opp. οὐχ ἕνα οὐδὲ δύο) 1 Cl 5:4. ἐπὶ ἡμέρας πλείους for a (large) number of days, for many days (Jos., Ant. 4, 277; cp. Theophr. in Apollon. Paradox. 29 πλείονας ἡμ.) Ac 13:31.—21:10 (Jos., Ant. 16, 15); 24:17; 25:14; 27:20. οἱ μὲν πλείονές εἰσιν γεγονότες ἱερεῖς the priests of former times existed in greater numbers Hb 7:23. ἑτέροις λόγοις πλείοσιν in many more words (than have been reported) Ac 2:40. ταῦτα καὶ ἕτερα πλείονα MPol 12:1.—W. a gen. of comparison (Just., A I 53, 3; Tat. 3, 2) ἄλλους δούλους πλείονας τῶν πρώτων other slaves, more than (he had sent) at first Mt 21:36. πλείονα σημεῖα ὧν more signs than those which J 7:31. Also w. ἤ: πλείονας μαθητὰς ἤ more disciples than 4:1. After πλείονες (-α) before numerals the word for ‘than’ is omitted (B-D-F §185, 4; Kühner-G. II 311; Rob. 666; Jos., Ant. 14, 96) ἐτῶν ἦν πλειόνων τεσσεράκοντα ὁ ἄνθρωπος the man was more than 40 years old Ac 4:22. πλείους τεσσεράκοντα 23:13, 21. Cp. 24:11; 25:6 (Jos., Ant. 6, 306 δέκα οὐ πλείους ἡμέρας).—The ref. is to relative extent (cp. 2bα) in τὰ ἔργα σου τὰ ἕσχατα πλείονα τῶν πρώτων your deeds, the latter of which are greater than the former Rv 2:19.
    β. subst.
    א. (οἱ) πλείονες, (οἱ) πλείους the majority, most (Diog. L. 1, 20; 22; Jos., Ant. 10, 114) Ac 19:32; 27:12. W. ἐξ: ἐξ ὧν οἱ πλείονες most of whom 1 Cor 15:6. W. gen. and a neg. (litotes) οὐκ ἐν τ. πλείοσιν αὐτῶν ηὐδόκησεν ὁ θεός God was pleased with only a few of them 10:5. This is perh. (s. ג below) the place for 1 Cor 9:19; 2 Cor 2:6; 9:2. Phil 1:14; MPol 5:1.
    ב. (οἱ) πλείονες, (οἱ) πλείους (even) more πλείονες in even greater numbers Ac 28:23. πολλῷ πλείους ἐπίστευσαν many more came to believe J 4:41.—διὰ τῶν πλειόνων to more and more people=those who are still to be won for Christ 2 Cor 4:15.
    ג. (οἱ) πλείονες, (οἱ) πλείους. In contrast to a minority οἱ πλείονες can gain the sense the others, the rest (so τὰ πλείονα Soph., Oed. Col. 36; τὸ πλέον Thu. 4, 30, 4; Jos., Ant. 12, 240; B-D-F §244, 3). So perh. (s. א above) ἵνα τ. πλείονας κερδήσω (opp. the apostle himself) 1 Cor 9:19; 2 Cor 2:6 (opp. the one who has been punished too severely.—In this case [s. א above] his punishment would have been determined by a unanimous vote of the Christian assembly rather than by a majority). Cp. 9:2; Phil 1:14; MPol 5:1.
    ד. πλείονα (for πλεῖον) more Mt 20:10 v.l.; various things Lk 11:53. ἐκ τοῦ ἑνὸς πλείονα 1 Cl 24:5 (s. as adv. ParJer 7:26).
    superl. adj. πλείστη w. a plural most of αἱ πλεῖσται δυνάμεις Mt 11:20 (difft. B-D-F §245, 1).
    pert. to being relatively large in quantity or measure, much, extensive
    positive πολύς, πολλή, πολύ
    α. adj. preceding or following a noun (or ptc. or adj. used as a noun)
    א. in the sg. much, large, great πολὺς ἀριθμός Ac 11:21. W. words that in themselves denote a plurality (Appian, Bell. Civ. 5, 80 §338 στρατὸς πολύς) πολὺς ὄχλος (s. ὄχ. 1a) Mt 14:14; 20:29; 26:47; Mk 5:21, 24; 6:34a; 8:1; 9:14; 12:37 (ὁ π. ὄχ.); Lk 5:29; 6:17a; 8:4; J 6:2, 5 (for the expression ὁ ὄχλος πολύς, in which π. follows the noun, J 12:9, 12, cp. Arrian, Anab. 1, 9, 6 ὁ φόνος πολύς); Ac 6:7; Rv 7:9; 19:1, 6. πολὺ πλῆθος (s. pl. 2bα) Mk 3:7f; Lk 5:6; 6:17b; 23:27; Ac 14:1; 17:4; 1 Cl 6:1. λαὸς πολύς many people Ac 18:10. Of money and its value, also used in imagery μισθὸς πολύς Mt 5:12; Lk 6:23, 35 (all three predicative, as Gen 15:1). ἐργασία π. Ac 16:16. π. κεφάλαιον 22:28. χρυσοῦ πολλοῦ … τρυφῆς πολλῆς AcPl Ha 2, 19.—Of things that occur in the mass or in large quantities (Diod S 3, 50, 1 πολλὴ ἄμπελος) γῆ πολλή Mt 13:5; Mk 4:5; θερισμὸς π. Mt 9:37; Lk 10:2 (both pred.). χόρτος π. J 6:10; καρπὸς π. (Cyranides p. 121, 11) 12:24; 15:5, 8.—λόγος π. a long speech (Diod S 13, 1, 2; Just., D. 123, 7) Ac 15:32; 20:2. περὶ οὗ πολὺς ἡμῖν ὁ λόγος about this we have much to say Hb 5:11 (cp. Pla., Phd. 115d).—Of time: πολὺς χρόνος a long time (Hom. et al.; Demetr.(?): 722 Fgm. 7; Jos., Ant. 8, 342; 19, 28; Just., A II, 2, 11) J 5:6 (s. ἔχω 7b); Hs 6, 4, 4 (pred.). μετὰ πολὺν χρόνον (Jos., Ant. 12, 324) Mt 25:19. Differently Mk 6:35ab (s. 3aα).
    ב. adj. w. a noun in the pl. many, large, great, extensive, plentiful ὄχλοι πολλοί great crowds or probably better many people (as Diod S 20, 59, 2; Ps.-Clem., Hom. 10, 3. For the corresponding mng. of ὄχλοι s. ὄχλος 1a) Mt 4:25; 8:1; 13:2; 15:30a; 19:2; Lk 5:15; 14:25. κτήματα πολλά a great deal of property Mt 19:22; Mk 10:22 (cp. Da 11:28 χρήματα π.). ὕδατα πολλά much water, many waters (Maximus Tyr. 21, 3g of the Nile ὁ πολὺς ποταμός, likew. Procop. Soph., Ep. 111) J 3:23; Rv 1:15; 14:2; 17:1; 19:6b. θυμιάματα πολλά a great deal of incense 8:3. τὰ πολλὰ γράμματα Ac 26:24. πολλοὶ χρόνοι long periods of time (Plut., Thes. 6, 9). πολλοῖς χρόνοις for long periods of time (SIG 836, 6; pap) Lk 8:29; 1 Cl 44:3. χρόνοις πολλοῖς AcPlCor 2:10. ἐκ πολλῶν χρόνων (Diod S 3, 47, 8; Jos., Ant. 14, 110; 17, 204) 1 Cl 42:5.
    β. subst.
    א. πολλοί many i.e. pers.—w. the art. οἱ πολλοί the many, of whatever appears in the context Mk 6:2 v.l. (the many people who were present in the synagogue); 9:26b (the whole crowd). Opp. ὁ εἷς Ro 5:15ac, 19ab; the many who form the ἓν σῶμα the one body 12:5; 1 Cor 10:17. Paul pays attention to the interests of the many rather than to his own vs. 33 (cp. Jos., Ant. 3, 212).—The majority, most (X., An. 5, 6, 19; Appian, Maced. 7, Bell. Civ. 4, 73 §309; 2 Macc 1:36; En 104:10; AscIs 3:26; Jos., Ant. 17, 72; Just., D. 4, 3) Mt 24:12; Hb 12:15 v.l. W. a connotation of disapproval most people, the crowd (Socrat., Ep. 6, 2; Dio Chrys. 15 [32], 8; Epict. 1, 3, 4; 2, 1, 22 al.; Plut., Mor. 33a; 470b; Plotinus, Enn. 2, 9, 9; Philo, Rer. Div. Her. 42) 2 Cor 2:17; Pol 2:1; 7:2.—Jeremias, The Eucharistic Words of Jesus3, tr. NPerrin, ’66, 179–82; 226–31, and TW VI 536–45: πολλοί.
    ב. πολύ much ᾧ ἐδόθη πολύ, πολὺ ζητηθήσεται παρʼ αὐτοῦ, καὶ ᾧ παρέθεντο πολὺ κτλ. Lk 12:48 (Just., A I, 17, 4 twice πλέον). Cp. 16:10ab; 2 Cl 8:5; καρποφορεῖν π. bear much fruit Hs 2:3. πολὺ κατὰ πάντα τρόπον much in every way Ro 3:2 (Ael. Aristid. 34, 43 K.=50 p. 562 D. gives answer to a sim. quest. asked by himself: πολλὰ καὶ παντοῖα).—Js 5:16.—As gen. of price πολλοῦ for a large sum of money (Menand., Fgm. 197 Kö.; PRyl 244, 10. S. στρουθίον.) Mt 26:9.—Of time: ἐπὶ πολύ ( for) a long time (JosAs 19:3; Ar. 65, 3; s. also ἐπί 18cβ) Ac 28:6; AcPl Ha 10, 21. μετʼ οὐ πολύ soon afterward Ac 27:14 (μετά B 2c).—ἐπὶ πολύ more than once, often (Is 55:7) Hm 4, 1, 8.—Before a comp. (as Hom. et al.; B-D-F §246; Rob. 664) in the acc. πολὺ βέλτιον much better Hs 1:9. π. ἐλάττων v 3, 7, 6 (Ar. 6, 2). π. μᾶλλον much more, to a much greater degree (Dio Chrys. 2, 10; 17; 64 al.; Ael. Aristid. 34, 9 K.=50 p. 549 D.; Just., A II, 8, 3; D. 95, 1 al.) Hb 12:9, 25 (by means of a negative it acquires the mng. much less; cp. Diod S 7, 14, 6 πολὺ μᾶλλον μὴ … =even much less); Dg 2:7b. π. πλέον 2:7a (Ar. 11, 7). π. σπουδαιότερος 2 Cor 8:22b. Cp. π. τιμώτερον 1 Pt 1:7 v.l.; in the dat. of degree of difference πολλῷ μᾶλλον (Thu. 2, 51, 4; UPZ 42, 48 [162 B.C.]; EpArist 7; 24 al.; Sir prol. ln. 14; Jos., Ant. 18, 184; Just., A I, 68, 9; Tat. 17, 4) Mt 6:30; Mk 10:48b; Lk 18:39; Ro 5:9f, 15b, 17; 1 Cor 12:22; 2 Cor 3:9, 11; Phil 2:12. πολλῷ μᾶλλον κρείσσον 1:23 (v.l. without μᾶλλον). πολλῷ πλείους J 4:41. πολλῷ στρουθίων as v.l. Mt 20:31 and Lk 12:7 (both N.25 app.; on the strong ms. support for this rdg. s. RBorger, TRu 52, ’87, 21–24).—W. the art. τὸ πολύ (opp. τὸ ὀλίγον as X., An. 7, 7, 36) 2 Cor 8:15 (cp. Ex 16:18).
    ג. πολύς (Diod S 14, 107, 4 πολὺς ἦν ἐπὶ τῇ τιμωρίᾳ=he was strongly inclined toward punishing) μὴ πολὺς ἐν ῥήμασιν γίνου do not be profuse in speech, do not gossip 1 Cl 30:5 (Job 11:3).—Παπίας ὁ πολύς Papias (7), prob. to be understood as ὁ πάνυ; s. πάνυ d.
    comp. πλείων, πλεῖον; adv. πλειόνως
    α. adj., w. a singular (TestJob 35:2 διὰ πλείονος εὐωδίας) καρπὸν πλείονα more fruit J 15:2, 8 P66; Hs 5, 2, 4. τὸ πλεῖον μέρος τοῦ ὄχλου the greater part of the throng 8, 1, 16. ἐπὶ πλείονα χρόνον for a longer time (PTebt 6:31 [II B.C.]) Ac 18:20. Foll. by gen. of comparison: πλείονα τιμήν more honor Hb 3:3b.—IPol 1:3a. Foll. by παρά τινα for comparison Hb 3:3a; 11:4; Hs 9, 18, 2. ὅσῳ πλείονος κατηξιώθημεν γνώσεως, τοσούτῳ μᾶλλον 1 Cl 41:4.—τὸ πλεῖον μέρος as adv. acc. for the greater part Hv 3, 6, 4a.
    β. as subst. πλεῖον, πλέον more τὸ πλεῖον the greater sum (cp. Diod S 1, 82, 2=the greater part; Ps 89:10) Lk 7:43. πλεῖον λαμβάνειν receive a larger sum Mt 20:10. W. partitive gen. ἐπὶ πλεῖον προκόψουσιν ἀσεβείας they will arrive at an ever greater measure of impiety=become more and more deeply involved in impiety 2 Ti 2:16. W. a gen. of comparison πλεῖον τῆς τροφῆς someth. greater (more important) than food Mt 6:25; Lk 12:23. πλεῖον Ἰωνᾶ Mt 12:41; cp. vs. 42; Lk 11:31, 32. ἡ χήρα πλεῖον πάντων ἔβαλεν the widow put in more than all the rest Mk 12:43; Lk 21:3. μηδὲν πλέον nothing more (Jos., Bell. 1, 43; cp. Just., D. 2, 3 οὐδὲν πλέον); the words than, except following are expressed by παρά and the acc. Lk 3:13 or by πλήν w. gen. Ac 15:28, w. εἰ μή Hs 1:6.—The acc. is used as an adv. more, in greater measure, to a greater degree (Herm. Wr. 13, 21 Nock after the mss.) Lk 7:42; IRo 1:1; IEph 6:2; w. a gen. of comparison Mt 5:20 (περισσεύω 1aβ); J 21:15; IPol 5:2 (s. Ad’Alès, RSR 25, ’35, 489–92). τριετίαν ἢ καὶ πλεῖον for three years or even more Ac 20:18 D (cp. TestAbr B 7 p. 111, 27 [Stone p. 70, 27]).—ἐπὶ πλεῖον any farther (of place) Ac 4:17 (TestGad 7:2; Ath. 12 [ἐπί 4bβ]); (of time) at length Ac 20:9 (ἐπί 18cβ) or any longer, too long 24:4; 1 Cl 55:1 (ἐπί 18cβ); any more, even more (ἐπί 13) 2 Ti 3:9; 1 Cl 18:3 (Ps 50:4). Strengthened πολὺ πλέον much more, much rather (4 Macc 1:8; cp. X., An. 7, 5, 15; BGU 180, 12f [172 A.D.] πολλῷ πλεῖον; Ar. 11, 7 πολλῷ πλεῖον) Dg 2:7; 4:5.—Also w. indications of number (s. 1bα) πλεῖον ἢ ἄρτοι πέντε Lk 9:13 (the words πλ. ἤ outside the constr. as X., An. 1, 2, 11). In πλείω δώδεκα λεγιῶνας ἀγγέλων more than twelve legions of angels Mt 26:53 the text is uncertain (B-D-F §185, 4; s. Rob. 666).—The adv. can also be expressed by πλειόνως (Aeneas Tact. 237; Jos., Ant. 17, 2; Leontios 24, p. 52, 10) more ὅσον … πλειόνως the more … the more IEph 6:1.
    superl. πλεῖστος, ον
    α. adj.
    א. superlative proper τὸ πλεῖστον μέρος the greatest part w. partitive gen. Hs 8, 2, 9; 9, 7, 4. As adv. acc. for the greatest part 8, 5, 6; 8, 10, 1 (s. μέρος 1d).
    ב. elative (s. Mayser II/1, 1926, 53) very great, very large (ὁ) πλεῖστος ὄχλος Mt 21:8 (ὁ πλεῖστος ὄχλος could also be the greatest part of the crowd, as Thu. 7, 78, 2; Pla., Rep. 3, 397d); Mk 4:1.
    β. subst. οἱ πλεῖστοι the majority, most Ac 19:32 D (Just., D. 1, 4; cp. D. 48, 4 πλεῖστοι).
    pert. to being high on a scale of extent
    positive πολύς, πολλή, πολύ
    α. as simple adj., to denote degree much, great, strong, severe, hard, deep, profound (Diod S 13, 7, 4 πολὺς φόβος; schol. on Apollon. Rhod. 4, 57; 58 p. 265, 3 πολλὴ δικαιοσύνη; Eccl 5:16 θυμὸς π.; Sir 15:18 σοφία; TestAbr A 20 p. 103, 4 [Stone p. 54] ἀθυμία; Just., D. 3, 1 ἠρεμία) ἀγάπη Eph 2:4. ἀγών 1 Th 2:2. ἄθλησις Hb 10:32. ἁπλότης Hv 3, 9, 1. ἀσιτία Ac 27:21. βία 24:6 [7] v.l. γογγυσμός J 7:12. διακονία Lk 10:40. δοκιμή 2 Cor 8:2. δόξα Mt 24:30; Hv 1, 3, 4; 2, 2, 6. δύναμις Mk 13:26. ἐγκράτεια strict self-control Hv 2, 3, 2. εἰρήνη complete or undisturbed peace (Diod S 3, 64, 7; 11, 38, 1) Ac 24:2. ἔλεος 1 Pt 1:3. ἐπιθυμία 1 Th 2:17. ζημία Ac 27:10. ζήτησις 15:7. θλῖψις 2 Cor 2:4a; 1 Th 1:6. καύχησις 2 Cor 7:4b (pred.). μακροθυμία Ro 9:22. ὀδυρμός Mt 2:18. παράκλησις 2 Cor 8:4. παρρησία (Wsd 5:1) 3:12; 7:4a (pred.); 1 Ti 3:13; Phlm 8. πεποίθησις 2 Cor 8:22c. πλάνη 2 Cl 1:7. πληροφορία 1 Th 1:5. πόνος Col 4:13. σιγή a great or general hush (X., Cyr. 7, 1, 25; Arrian, Anab. 5, 28, 4) Ac 21:40. στάσις 23:10. τρόμος 1 Cor 2:3. φαντασία Ac 25:23. χαρά 8:8; Phlm 7. ὥρα πολλή late hour (Polyb. 5, 8, 3; Dionys. Hal. 2, 54; Jos., Ant. 8, 118) Mk 6:35ab.
    β. subst. πολλά in the acc. used as adv. greatly, earnestly, strictly, loudly, often etc. (X., Cyr. 1, 5, 14; Diod S 13, 41, 5; Lucian, Dial. Deor. 19, 2; Aelian, VH 1, 23; 4 Km 10:18; Is 23:16; TestSol 1:1; GrBar; ApcMos; Jos., Ant. 14, 348) ἀλαλάζειν πολλά Mk 5:38 (s. ἀλαλάζω). πολλὰ ἁμαρτάνειν Hs 4:5c (ApcMos 32). π. ἀνακρίνειν Ac 28:18 v.l. π. ἀπορεῖν Mk 6:20 (Field, Notes 29). π. ἀσπάζεσθαι 1 Cor 16:19 (s. ἀσπάζομαι 1a). δεηθῆναι π. (GrBar 4:14; Jos., Vi. 173; 343) Hs 5, 4, 1. διαστέλλεσθαι Mk 5:43 (s. διαστέλλω). π. ἐπιτιμᾶν 3:12. π. ἐρωτᾶν earnestly pray Hv 2, 2, 1. κατηγορεῖν π. Mk 15:3 (s. κατηγορέω 1a). κηρύσσειν π. talk freely 1:45. κλαίειν bitterly Ac 8:24 D (ApcMos 39). κοπιᾶν (ApcMos 24; CIG IV 9552, 5 … μοι πολλὰ ἐκοπίασεν, cp. Dssm., LO 266, 5 [LAE 317]) work hard Ro 16:6, 12; 2 Cl 7:1b. νηστεύειν π. fast often Mt 9:14a. ὀμνύναι π. Mk 6:23. παρακαλεῖν Mk 5:10, 23; Ac 20:1 D; 1 Cor 16:12. π. πταίειν make many mistakes Js 3:2. π. σπαράσσειν convulse violently Mk 9:26a.—W. the art. ἐνεκοπτόμην τὰ πολλά I have been hindered these many times (cp. Ro 1:13 πολλάκις) Ro 15:22 (v.l. πολλάκις here too).
    γ. subst. πολύ in the acc. used as adv. greatly, very much, strongly (Da 6:15, 24 Theod.) ἀγαπᾶν πολύ show much affection, love greatly Lk 7:47b. κλαίειν π. weep loudly Rv 5:4.—Mk 12:27; Ac 18:27.
    superlative, the neut. acc. πλεῖστον, α as adv. (sing. Hom. et al.; pl. Pind. et al.)
    α. pl. πλεῖστα in the formula of greeting at the beginning of a letter πλεῖστα χαίρειν (POxy 742; 744; 1061 [all three I B.C.]; PTebt 314, 2 [II A.D.] and very oft. in pap.—Griech. pap ed. Ltzm.: Kl. Texte 142, 1910, p. 4, 5, 6, 7 al.; Preis. II s.v. πλεῖστος) heartiest greeting(s) IEph ins; IMg ins; ITr ins; IRo ins; ISm ins; IPol ins.
    β. sing. τὸ πλεῖστον at the most (Aristoph., Vesp. 260; Diod S 14, 71, 3 πεμπταῖοι ἢ τὸ πλ. ἑκταῖοι; POxy 58, 17; PGiss 65:9) κατὰ δύο ἢ τὸ πλ. τρεῖς (word for word like Περὶ ὕψους 32, 1) 1 Cor 14:27.—B. 922f. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > πολύς

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