Translation: from greek

buzzing crowd

  • 201 δῆμος

    Grammatical information: m.
    Meaning: `land, territory' (as opposed to the town), `people' (Il.); in Athens also a part of the phylai, a deme.
    Dialectal forms: Dor. δᾶμος
    Compounds: Of the compounds only δημοκρατία `government of the people' (Ion.-Att.), after ὀλιγαρχία, μοναρχία ( δημαρχία = `the office of δήμαρχος'); further Debrunner Festschrift Edouard Tièche (Bern 1947) 11ff.
    Derivatives: (Dor. forms are not mentioned separately.) Substantives: dimin. δημίδιον, δημακίδιον (Ar.) - δημότης, Dor. also δαμέτας (Karpathos) `man from the people' (Ion.-Att. Dor.) with two normal adj.: δημόσιος `belonging to the people, state, public' (Ion.-Att.) with δημοσιεύω intr. `serve the state', also tr. `make public' and δημοσιόω `confiscate, make public' with δημοσίωσις. δημοτικός `belonging to the people, useful for the people, democratic'; on the difference between δημόσιος and δημοτικός Chantr. Form. 392; - fem. δημότις; denomin. δημοτεύομαι `be δημότης, belong to a demos' (Att.). - Adject.: δήμιος `belonging to the people, public' (Od.), ὁ δήμιος euphemist. `executioner' (Att., Benveniste Sprache 1, 121), δημώδης `according to the people' (Pl.), δημόσυνος surname of Artemis (Athens IV-IIIa), δημότερος `belonging to the people' (Call.; after ἀγρότερος). - Denomin. δημεύω `make public, confiscate' (Att.) with δήμευσις and δημεῖαι αἱ τῶν δήμων συστάσεις H.; δημόομαι `sing, explain publicly' (Pi.) with δαμώματα τὰ δημοσίᾳ ᾳ᾽δόμενα (Ar. Pax 797); δημίζω `act as friend of the people' (Ar. V. 699). - Adv. δημόθεν `from the people, on communal costs' (Od.). -
    Origin: IE [Indo-European] [176] * deh₂-mo- `people'
    Etymology: On δημιουργός s. v. Celtic agrees with OIr. dām `followers, crowd', OWelsh dauu `cliens', NWelsh daw(f) `son-in-law', OCorn. dof `gener'; only this is an ā-stem; so IE * dāmos orig. fem.? (Pedersen Hittitisch 52). Orig. `part', if an m-deriv. from a verb `divide', s. δαίομαι. So * deh₂-mo-. - (Not here Hitt. damaiš `other, second'; Pedersen l.c.; see Tischler on damaiš HEG. 8. 67ff.)
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  • 202 κοίρανος

    Grammatical information: m.
    Meaning: `ruler, commander, lord' (Il.).
    Compounds: rarely as 2. member, e. g. πολυ-κοίρανος `ruling many' (A. Fr. 238, lyr.) with πολυκοιρανίη `ruling many' (Rhian. 1, 10); but Β 204 = `ruling of many' with the first member as subject; the 2. member is verbal noun to κοιρανέω.
    Derivatives: κοιρανίδαι pl. `sons of rulers, members of the ruling house' (S. Ant. 940; Fraenkel Nom. ag. 2, 20); κοιρανῃ̃ος and κοιρανικός `belonging to the ruling house' (late poets); κοιρανίη `dynasty' (D. P., APl.; s. above); κοιρανέω `rule' (Il.).
    Origin: IE [Indo-European] [515] * kor(i)os `war, army'
    Etymology: With κοίρανος agrees (except the middle vowel) OWNo. herjann surname of Odin; given the productivity of the no-suffix, esp. in words of this meaning (Lat. dominus: domus, Goth. Þiudans `king': Þiuda `people' etc.), the word need not be an old inheritance. But the basis is in any case common, i. e. a word for `army, fighting group' with representatives in Germanic, Baltic and Celtic, e. g. Goth. harjis `army', Lith. kãrias `id.', MIr. cuire m. `crowd, group', Gaul. Tri-, Petru-corii people's-namen ("consisting of three, resp. four tribes"), IE. *kori̯os. In Greek too the word has existed, also in proper name like Κοιρό-μαχος, Κοιρατάδας (Solmsen Glotta 1, 76ff.). - Beside IE. *kori̯os there was without i̯o- * kor(o)- in Lith. kãras `war', OPers. kāra- `army, people'. Further details in Pok. 615f., Fraenkel Lit. et. Wb. s. kãr(i)as. - In Greek κοίρανος was replaced by ἄναξ and βασιλεύς; s. vv.
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  • 203 λαός

    Grammatical information: m.
    Meaning: `(the common) folk, crowd, military, people', in the NT esp. `the Jewish people', pl. `the military, men, subjects, serfs', also `the laity' (LXX); in sing. `follower' (Hecat. 23J.); on use and spread amply Björck Alpha impurum 318ff. (Il., Dor., hell).
    Other forms: Ion. ληός (rare), Ion. Att. λεώς (archaic a. rare)
    Dialectal forms: Myc. rawaketa \/lāwāgetās\/ cf. Chantraine Études 88m. n. 1
    Compounds: Many old compp.: ΛαϜο-πτόλεμος, Ϝιό-λαϜος (Cor.), λαγέτας m. `leader of the people' (Pi.) from λᾱϜ-ᾱγετᾱς, Λα-έρ-της s.v., λαο-σσόος `urging the men' (Hom.; s. σεύω), λαο-, λεω-φόρος `carrying the people, publicly', of streets, as subst. `road' (Il.), Μενέλαος (Il.), - λεως Att. (Björck 104 ff.), a.o.; on the compounds Fick-Bechtel PN 184ff., and Björck l.c.
    Derivatives: Few derivv. (partly because of the synonymous δῆμος, partly because of the homonymous forms of λᾱ̃ας): 1. λαϊκός `of the people, common' (hell.). 2. λαώδης `popular' (Ph., Plu.). 3. Λήϊτος PN (Il.), λήϊτον n. (on the very rare suffix - ιτο- Schwyzer 504) `townhall' with the Achaeans (Hdt., Plu. with Ion.- Att. form for) λάϊτον τὸ ἀρχεῖον, λαΐτων τῶν δημοσίων τόπων H.; beside it a.o λῃ̃τον (cod. λῃτόν) δημόσιον, ληΐτη, οἱ δε λῄτη (cod. λῃτή) ἱέρεια; cf. λαιετόν `townhall' (Su.) [strange]. λειτόν βλάσφημον H. (correct?); Fur. 238 n. 45 objects that - ιτο- is a Pre-Greek suffix, ib. 163, 187. Deriv. ληιτιαί ἡγεμονίαι, στρατιαί H. (Scheller Oxytonierung 91).
    Origin: IE [Indo-European] [00] *leh₂-u̯o- `(fighting) people'
    Etymology: As adj. 1.member in λῃτουργέω ( λειτ-) `fulfill a public office on private means, provide a (public, ecclesiastical) service' with λῃτουργ-ία ( λειτ-) `state-, service, Liturgie' (Att.), - ός, - ημα etc. (hell.), comp. *ληϊτο-Ϝεργ-έω to *λήϊτα ἔργα, cf. δημιουργέω, - ός (s.v.); also λῄτ-αρχος m. `public priest' (Lyc. 991). - Cf. also λείτωρ. Like thr Germ. word for `people', OHG liut, OE lēod, λᾱ(Ϝ)ός was origin. an (abstracte) collective; to it came the plur. λᾱ(Ϝ)οί as liuti, lēode ' Leute', to which again the sing. ληός `follower' as liut `man', cf. Schwyzer-Debrunner 42 n. 3, Wackernagel Synt. 1,92 f. - Otherwise than with the synonymous δῆμος and στρατός, λᾱ(Ϝ)ός, which was in Ion.-Att. never quite a thome, has no IE. etymologie, but was nevertheless old. (Not to λᾶας.) Mostly connected with Hitt. lah̯h̯a- `campaign' (Sturtevanr Lang. 7 (1931) 120; Tischler, Heth. etym. Glossar 5, 8). - In Maced.-Epir. PN Δρεβελαου v. Blumenthal IF 49, 181ff. finds an Illyr. pendant of Gr. Τρεφέλεως (further a PN Lava).
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  • 204 μύρμηξ

    μύρμηξ, - ηκος
    Grammatical information: m.
    Meaning: `ant'; metaph. `submarine rocks' (IA, Lyc.), also as PN (Hdt.), on the meaning cf. μυρμηκία; `gantlet with metal studs' (Poll.).
    Other forms: Dor. (Theoc.) μύρμᾱξ, ᾱκος. Also μύρμος (Lyc.), βύρμαξ βόρμαξ, ὅρμικας H.
    Compounds: Rare compp., e.g. μυρμηκο-λέων (LXX), λεοντο-μύρμηξ (Hdn. Gr.) name of a fabulous animal; cf. Risch IF 59, 256.
    Derivatives: 1. μυρμηκ-ιά f. `ant-hill' (Arist., Thphr.), metaph. `crowd' ( Com. Adesp., H.), `triller, arpeggio' (Pherecr.). -- 2. μυρμηκ-ία `wart under the skin, irritation caused by it (Hp., Ph.) with μυρμηκιάω `be afflicted with warts' (LXX.), from which - ίασις (medic.). On 1. a. 2. s. Scheller Oxytonierung 41 f. -- 3. μυρμήκ-(ε)ιον n. name of an ant-like spider (Nic., Plin.). -- 4. μυρμηκ-ίας λίθος `stone with ant- or wart-like lumps on it' (Plin.), μύρμηξ χρυσός `gold dug out by μύρμηκες' (Hld.). -- 5. - ῖτις ( λίθος) `id.' (Plin.). -- 6. μυρμηκ-ώδης `ant-like' (Plu.), - ώεις `full of warts' (Marc. Sid.; metr. lengthened from - όεις, cf. Schwyzer 527). -- 7. μυρμηκ-ίζω as medic. expression `feel as though ants were running under the finger', of the pulse, `itch' (medic.). -- On itself stands μυρ-μηδών ξυνοικία τῶν μυρμήκων, μυρμηδόνες οἱ μύρμηκες ὑπὸ Δωριέων H., transformation of μύρμηξ resp. derivation from μύρμος (s. above) after τενθρηδών and other insectnames; cf. also σφηκών and other place-indications in - ών; old variation k: d assumes Specht Ursprung 205 a. 230 [impossible].
    Origin: IE [Indo-European] [749] *moru̯i- `ant'
    Etymology: For the formation cf. σκώληξ, σφήξ a.o. (Schwyzer 497, Chantraine Form. 380 f.); a velar suffix, prob. without genetic connection with μύρμηξ, is also seen in Lat. formīca `ant' and Skt. valmīka- m. n. `ant-hill'. -- The basis is seen in different forms in many IE languages, mostly with anlaut. m and in-(aus)laut. -u̯-, also with inlaut. -r-: IE *moru̯-ī ̆ in Av. maoiri-, Celt., e.g. OIr. moirb, Slav., e.g. ORuss. morovij; IE * mour-, * meur- in Germ., e.g. OWNo. maurr -n. (PGm. * maura-), OSwed. myra f. (PGm. * meuriōn-). Besides with anlaut. u̯- and inlaut. -m-: Skt. vamrá- m. (cf. valmīka above), thus βόρμαξ, βύρμαξ with β- for Ϝ-; in ὅρμικας a Ϝ- may have been lost. On itself stand Lat. formīca, whose f- however may go back through dissimilation to m- (cf. on μορμώ) and which would then be close to μύρμηξ. -- Further details on this old and popular word with diff. hypotheses on its development in WP. 2, 306f., Pok. 749. W.-Hofmann and Ernout-Meillet s. formīca, Vasmer s. muravéj; also Fraenkel s. marvà, which however because of its deviant meaning ('horse-fly') must be kept apart.
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  • 205 ὅμαδος

    Grammatical information: m.
    Meaning: `clamorous crowd, mêlée, turmoil, clash' (Il.)
    Derivatives: ὁμαδέω, - ῆσαι `to clamor, to speak or shout all at once' (Od., A. R.).
    Origin: XX [etym. unknown]
    Etymology: Formation like κέλαδος, χρόμαδος a.o. (Chantraine Form. 359, Schwyzer 508 w. n. 8, 726 n. 5, Güntert Reimwortbildungen 153). Usually connected with Skt. samád- f. `battle' and connected with ὁμός = Skt. samá- (e.g. Brugmann Grundr.2 II: 1, 468, Fraenkel Nom. ag. 1, 132 n. 1); rather improbable. And samád- can be interpreted diff. and ὅμαδος could belong to ὁμάζω (s. v.) cf. (Schwyzer Mél. Pedersen 73 n. 2), which DELG rejects for its meaning.
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  • 206 ὅμῑλος

    ὅμῑλος
    Grammatical information: m.
    Meaning: `throng, band of warriors, crowd, turmoil of battle' (Il.);
    Other forms: (Aeol. ὄμιλλος [EM], prob. hyperdial., s. below).
    Compounds: As 2. member a.o. in ἐξ-όμιλος `standing out of the crowd, strange, uncommon' (S. in lyr.).
    Derivatives: Usu. denomin. ὁμιλέω (Aeol. pres. ὀμίλλει Alc.), also w. prefix like καθ-, προσ-, ἐξ-, `to be together, to associate with (friendly or adversely), to keep company, to discourse on' (Il.) with ὁμιλ-ία, - ίη f. `being together, intercourse, association, speech, sermon' (IA.; formally from ὅμιλος, s. Schwyzer 469), - ημα n. `association' (Pl., E.), - ητής ( συν- ὅμῑλος) m. `companion, adherant, student' (X., Luc.), f. - ήτρια (Philostr. VA), - ητικός `sociable, affable, conversable' (Isoc., Plu.). -- Adv. ὁμιλᾰδόν `in bands' (Il.; - ηδόν Hes. Sc.), `together with' (A. R., Opp.); supposition on the origin by Haas Μνήμης χάριν 1, 143. -- Detail on ὅμιλος etc. in Trümpy Fachausdrücke 145 ff.
    Origin: PG [a word of Pre-Greek origin]
    Etymology: As ὄμιλλος, ὀμίλλει can very well be hyperAeolic (Hamm Gramm. $ 73b 3 a. 158f), we must start from ὅμ-ῑλο-ς (: ὁμός etc.) with the rare ῑλο-suffix ( στρόβιλος, πέδιλον a. o.; Chantraine Form. 249); from other languages we must esp. refer to the stemidentical and sense-cognate Skt. sam-īká- n. `battle', s. Hirt IF 31, 12 f. with a hypothesis on the origin of the ī (to - īno-, - īko-, - īto- etc. Meid IF 62, 260ff. a. 63, 14ff.). After H. here also Lat. mīles `soldier' from * sm-īlo- `turmoil of battle' (then only in ablaut deviating from ὅμιλος; diff. on mīles Kretschmer Glotta 31, 156 n. 6; s. also Szemerényi Arch. Linguist. 6, 41). A similar, but quite independent formation is ἅμιλλα (s. v.); (in my view Pre-Greek). -- Improbable on ὅμιλος Johansson IF 2, 34 n. (s. Bq, WP. 2, 491, W.-Hofmann s. mīles) and Adrados Emer. 17, 119ff. ( ὁμ(ο)- and ἴλη: "whole of ἴλαι"; similar already Curtius). - I think that he word is Pre-Greek; suffixes with V̄C are frequent there; - ιλ-ο-\/- ιλλ-ο- can represent -ily-o-.
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  • 207 οὑλαμός

    Grammatical information: m.
    Meaning: `throng, crowd' (Il.; οὑ. ἀνδρῶν); metaph. of bees (Nic.); technic. = `troop of cavalry' (Plb., Plu.; Solmsen Unt. 79, Fraenkel Nom. ag. 2, 208 n. 2).
    Compounds: As 1. member in οὑλαμη-φόρος, οὑλαμ-ώνυμος (Lyc.); details in Trümpy Fachausdrücke 159.
    Origin: IE [Indo-European] [1138] *u̯el- `press together'
    Etymology: From γόλαμος (= Ϝόλ-) διωγμός H. (on the accent Bechtel Dial. 1, 120) we get (Ϝ)ολαμός w. metr. length. (cf. Chantraine Gramm. hom. 1, 124 f.). From 1. εἰλέω `press together' with ο-ablaut as in ποταμός, πλόκαμος a.u.
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  • 208 ὄχλος

    Grammatical information: m.
    Meaning: 1. `(orderless, moved) crowd, (common) multitude, great mass, throng', pl. `crowd, people'; 2. `disturbance, perturbation, annoyance' (Pi., IA.).
    Compounds: Compp., e.g. ὀχλο-κρατία f. `mob-rule' (Plb., Plu., s. lit. on δημοκρατία), ἄ-οχλος `without disturbances, not disturbing' (Hp.).
    Derivatives: Adj. 1. ὀχλ-ηρός `bothersome, annoying' (IA.) with - ηρία f. (LXX); 2. - ικός `belonging to a great multitude, mobbish' (hell.); 3. - ώδης `annoying' (IA.), `popular, common' (Plu.). Subst. 4. ὀχλεύς μοχλός, στρόφιγξ, δεσμός... H.; ἐποχλεύς m. `sprag on a cart' (Ath.), prob. for *ἐποχεύς; ἐποχλίζομαι `to be bolted' (Apollon. Lex.). -- Denominative verbs 5. ὀχλέω `to put in (rolling) motion, to roll away' (Φ 261; ἀν-οχλέω = ἀν-οχλίζω S. E.), `to disturb, to perturb, to bother' (Ion., hell.; w. prefix, esp. ἐν-, also Att.); from it ὄχλ-ησις ( ἐν- ὄχλος) f. `bothering, interference, perturbation' (Democr., hell.), ( ἐν-)ὄχλ-ημα `id.' (Epicur., medic.), ὀχλητι-κός = ὀχλικός (Procl.); 6. ὀχλεύονται = ὀχλεῦνται κυλινδοῦνται H.; 7. ὀχλ-ίζω, also w. μετ-, ἀν- a.o., `to pull up, out of place' (Il.); 8. ὀχλ-άζω `to be disturbed, confused' (LXX).
    Origin: IE [Indo-European] [1118] *u̯eǵh- `move, drive, ride'
    Etymology: The orig. meaning of the verbal nouns ὄχλος, which was concretized as `heap, crowd', cannot be established with more certainty; in the sense of `perturbation etc.' it may have been influenced by ὀχλέω (cf. Bosshardt 78). If one starts from *Ϝόχ-(σ)λο-ς (on the possible loss of a Ϝ- in Hom. s. Chantraine Gramm. hom. 1, 125), ὄχλος agrees well with the well-known verb for `drive, carry, bring, move' in Ϝέχω (s. 2. ἔχω), ὀχέομαι, Lat. vehō etc., IE *u̯oǵh-(s)lo-; cf. the interpretations of Sealey Glotta 37, 281 ff. The broad sphere of meaning gives several possibiliies: *'driving, carrying, moving', resp. as nom. agentis or instr. *'driver, carryer, mover'. -- Formally identical is OWNo. vagl m. `tiebeam, roost' (prop. *'bearing-bar, carrier'). To the denominative ὀχλ-ίζω `raise', ὀχλ-έω `roll away' and to ὀχλ-εύς `lever etc.' agree semantically the primary nouns Lat. vec-tis and OWNo. vǫg (IE *u̯oǵhā) `lever'. From *`move, movement' one gets both to `moved mass, mob' and to `spiritual movement, unrest'; the same holds for the denominative ὀχλέω (cf. turba, - āre). -- Uncertain supposition on cross with μοχλός, - έω in Güntert Reimwortbildungen 161 f. Older hypothesis in Bq (rejected). Wrong Belardi Doxa 3, 217. -- Further lit. s. ὄχος.
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  • 209 ῥοῖβδος

    Grammatical information: m.
    Meaning: `buzzing, whistling, hissing noise', of arrows, winds (S., Ar.).
    Derivatives: Beside it (cf. Schwyzer 726 w. n. 5) ῥοιβδέω, also w. ἀπο-, ἐπι-, `to buzz, etc.', also `to make buzz' (A., Q. S., AP), w. prefix also of birds `to squawk, to caw' (S., Thphr., Nonn.); from this ῥοίβδ-ημα n. = ῥοῖβδος (S.), - ησις f. `whistling' (E. in lyr.); - ηδόν `with a hissing noise' (Q. S.; also with ῥοῖβδος connected); ἐπιρροίβδην (for - βδ-δην) `in a rushing attack' (E. in troch.).
    Origin: PG [a word of Pre-Greek origin]
    Etymology: Expressive and poetic onomatop., in suffix agreeing with κέλαδος, ἄραδος and other sound-words; for - β- cf. φλοῖσβος, ὄτοβος a.o.; positing an IE (Bq) is hardly recommendable. Further hypotheses on the basic form by Haas Μνήμης χάριν 1, 132 f. -- Cf. ῥοῖζος, also ῥυβδέω. -- So the word is prob. Pre-Greek.
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  • 210 ῥοῖζος

    Grammatical information: m. (f. ι 315; cf. Schw.-Debrunner 34 n. 1).
    Meaning: `buzzing, rushing, humming', of arrows, wings, water etc. (ep. Π 361, hell.).
    Compounds: As 2. member a.o. in ἁλί-ρροιζος `roared around by the sea' (Nonn.).
    Derivatives: 1. adj. ῥοιζ-ώδης (medic.), - ήεις (hell. inscr., Nonn.), - αῖος ( Orac. Chald.) `buzzing, rushing, humming etc.'; 2. adv. - ηδόν (Nic., Lyc., 2. Ep. Pet.), - ηδά (Nic.) `with rushing, with humming'; 3. verb ῥοιζέω, also w. ἐπι-, ἀνα- a.o., `to buzz, to hum, to hiss, to rush', also trans. `to make buzz etc.' (ep. Κ 502, hell.) with ῥοίζ-ημα n. (Ar.), - ησις f. (Aq.) `buzz, buzzing', - ήτωρ m. `noisemaker' (Orph.).
    Origin: PG [a word of Pre-Greek origin]
    Etymology: Like ῥοῖβδος expressive onomatop.; without connection. Uncertain suppositions on the basic form in the lit. on ῥοῖβδος; s. also Risch $ 64 a.
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  • 211 ῥύμη

    Grammatical information: f.
    Meaning: `street, alley' (since IVa).
    Etymology: From ῥύμη `tow, press' (s.v. ῥῦμα 1.) made concrete ("where the crowd goes, presses").
    See also: s. ἐρύω.
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  • 212 στενός

    Grammatical information: adj.
    Meaning: `narrow, close, small, tight, slim' (IA.).
    Other forms: Ion. στεινός, Aeol. (gramm.) στέννος.
    Compounds: Often as 1. member, e.g. στενωπός, s. ὀπή.
    Derivatives: στενό-της (ion. - ει-) f. `narrowness, tightness' (IA.); backformation (cf. Schwyzer 512) στεῖνος (ep. Il.) for στένος (A. Eu. 521 [lyr.]) n. `narrowness, narrow room, throng, distress' (cf. below; on the meaning Zumbach Neuerungen 43 f.). Denominative verbs. 1. backformation στείνομαι, rarely w. ἐν-, ἀμφιπερι-, only present a. ipf. `to be narrowed, to crowd, to be crowded' (ep. Il.), rare and late στείνω `to narrow, to crowd' (Nonn., Orph.). 2. στενόομαι (- ει-), - όω, often w. ἀπο-, `to become, make narrow' (hell. a. late) with - ωσις, - ωμα, - ωτικός (late.). -- Besides στενυγρός `narrow' (Ion.) with στενυγρ-ῶσαι aor. (Hp. ap. Gal.); PlN Στενύ-κληρος (Hdt. 9, 64). -- Zero grade(?), unexplained στάνει \<σ\> τείνεται, συμβέβυσται H.
    Origin: PG [a word of Pre-Greek origin](X)
    Etymology: From στενός: στεινός: στέννος follows PGr. *στενϜός (cf. also Att. στεν(Ϝ)ό-τερος, - τατος), a thematic enlargement of the suffix combination - γ-ρ- is seen in στενυ-γρός (s. Schwyzer 496 w. n. 9 a. lit., Chantraine Form. 225, also Specht Ursprung 192 f.) and the u-stem seen in Στενύ-κληρος (Schw. 472, Chantr. 122); beside it the s-stem in στένος (Porzig Satzinhalte 247). - Isolated. Hypotheses of doubtful worth in Bq and WP. 2, 627, Pok. 1021 f.; new attempt by Machek Zeitschr. f. Slaw. 1, 35 and Ling. Posn. 5, 69 f. -- There is, then, no IE etym.; στενυγρός may be Pre-Greek (see Beekes, suff. under γρ and ρ, ταναγρίς, βάλαγρος, γήλιγρος); the place name Στενύκληρος could well be Pre-Greek. Cf. Chantr. Form. 226. Furnée 226 "nicht sicher erklärt". DELG "L'étymologie de ce groupe de mots reste obscure." Note also στάνει.
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    Greek-English etymological dictionary (Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά ετυμολογική λεξικό) > στενός

  • 213 στῖφος

    Grammatical information: n.
    Meaning: `crowd packed closely together, troop of warriors, ships etc.' (Hdt., A., Ar., Th., X. etc.).
    Derivatives: Besides στιφρός `packed closely together, tight, compact' (Ar., X., Arist., hell. a. late) with - ότης f. `compactness' (middl. com.), - άω `to harden' (Ath., Eust.).
    Origin: PG [a word of Pre-Greek origin]
    Etymology: With στῖφος: στιφρός cf. e.g. αἶσχος: αἰσχρός, κῦδος: κυδρός. To the family of στείβω with vowellength as in στί̄βη `hoarfrost'; without direct agreement outside Greek. An IE aspirate (= Gr. φ) is prob. also found in some semantically deiviating Balto-Slav. words, e.g. Lith. stíebas `mast(tree), pillar, stalk', stáibis `lower shank, supporting post' [note that the Baltic acute points to a b, not bh], OCS stьblь, Russ. stébelь `stalk', thus in Skt. stibhi- m. `bunch of flowers, bundle'. Further s. στείβω; cf. στριφνός. -- From στῖφος Lat. * stīpus in stīpāre? (Thierfelder by letter). -- From στείβω neither the φ not the vowellength can be explained. So the word must be Pre-Greek.
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    Greek-English etymological dictionary (Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά ετυμολογική λεξικό) > στῖφος

  • 214 Έγκέλαδος

    Grammatical information: m.
    Meaning: N. of one of the Gigantes (Eur., Call.); also a buzzing insect (sch.).
    Origin: GR [a formation built with Greek elements]X [probably]
    Etymology: From κέλαδος? Strönberg Wortstudien 18; cf. Greek Prefix Studies 113ff.

    Greek-English etymological dictionary (Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά ετυμολογική λεξικό) > Έγκέλαδος

  • 215 αἴτιος

    αἴτιος, ία, ον (Hom.+)
    pert. to being the cause of someth., in our lit. only subst.
    ὁ αἴ. one who is the cause, source αἴ. σωτηρίας Hb 5:9 (Hdt. et al.; Diod S 4, 82 αἴ. ἐγένετο τῆς σωτηρίας; SIG 1109, 80; Philo, Agr. 96, Spec. Leg. 1, 252 θεὸν τ. σωτηρίας αἴτιον al.; Jos., Ant. 14, 136; Bel 42; 2 Macc 4:47; 13:4; EpArist 205; Just., D. 3, 5; 4, 1; Tat., Ath.).
    neut. cause, reason (Hdt., Thu. et al.; PHib 73, 18 [243/242 B.C.]; BGU 1121, 27; 29; Philo; Jos., Ant. 7, 75; 12, 84; Just., D. 5, 6; Tat.; Ath. 19, 2) μηδενὸς αἰ. ὑπάρχοντος i.e. the crowd will be unable to explain its action Ac 19:40.
    ground for legal action. τὸ αἴτ.=αἰτία 3a in a legal expr. ground for complaint, basis for a charge αἴ. εὑρίσκειν ἔν τινι Lk 23:4, 14. οὐδὲν αἴ. θανάτου no ground for capital punishment vs. 22.—DELG. M-M. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > αἴτιος

  • 216 βλέπω

    βλέπω fut. βλέψω; 3 pl. fut. βλέψονται Is 29:18; 1 aor. ἔβλεψα (s. βλέμμα; Pind.+ ‘see’: on the use of βλέπω and ὁράω s. Reinhold 97ff. Esp. oft. in Hermas [70 times]).
    to perceive w. the eye, see
    w. acc. of what is seen: beam, splinter Mt 7:3; Lk 6:41f—Mt 11:4; 13:17; 24:2; Mk 8:23f; Lk 10:23f; Ac 2:33; 9:8f; Rv 1:11f; 5:3f; 22:8. Large buildings Mk 13:2 (cp. Choliamb. in Ps.-Callisth. 1, 46a, 8 lines 4, 8, 19: ὁρᾷς τὰ τείχη ταῦθʼ; … τὰ θεμέλια ταῦτα … ὁρᾷς ἐκείνους τοὺς οἴκους;); a woman Lk 7:44; light (Artem. 5, 20 τὸ φῶς ἔβλεπεν; 5, 77) 8:16, cp. 11:33; Jesus J 1:29; B 5:10; signs Ac 8:6; B 4:14; a vision Ac 12:9; nakedness Rv 16:15; the beast 17:8; smoke 18:9, 18. Seeing contrasted w. hoping Ro 8:24f. Of angels βλέπουσι τὸ πρόσωπον τοῦ πατρός (expr. fr. oriental court life = have access constantly, 2 Km 14:24; cp. 4 Km 25:19) Mt 18:10 (s. πρόσωπον 1bα). Pass. πάντων βλεπομένων since everything is seen 1 Cl 28:1. W. acc. and ptc. instead of a dependent clause (SIG1104, 42; UPZ 68, 6 [152 B.C.] βλέπω Μενέδημον κατατρέχοντά με=that M. runs after me; 1 Macc 12:29; Jos., Ant. 20, 219); τὸν ὄχλον συνθλίβοντά σε that the crowd is pressing around you Mk 5:31. τὸν λίθον ἠρμένον that the stone was taken away J 20:1; cp. Mt 15:31; Lk 24:12; J 20:5; 21:9. τὸν πατέρα ποιοῦντα 5:19; sim. 21:20; Ac 4:14; Hb 2:9. ὑπὲρ ὸ̔ βλέπει με beyond what he sees in me 2 Cor 12:6.
    abs.: Mt 13:16; Ro 11:10 (Ps 68:24); Rv 9:20. τὰ βλεπόμενα (Ael. Aristid. 46 p. 406 D.; Wsd 13:7; 17:6) what can be seen 2 Cor 4:18. Look on, watch (Jos., Bell. 1, 596. Ant. 3, 95 βλεπόντων αὐτῶν while they looked on, before their eyes) Ac 1:9; 1 Cl 25:4.
    w. prep. phrase: ἐν τῷ κρυπτῷ who sees in secret Mt 6:4, 6; cp. vs. 18 (s. 4 Macc 15:18). In imagery διʼ ἐσόπτρου ἐν αἰνίγματι 1 Cor 13:12.
    βλέπων βλέπω see w. open eyes Mt 13:14 (Is 6:9). βλέπων οὐ βλέπει though he looks he does not see 13:13; Lk 8:10 (the theme is transcultural, cp. Aeschyl., Prom. 447f; Soph. O.T. 413; Ps.-Demosth. 25, 89; Polyb. 12, 24, 6; Lucian, D. Mar. 4, 3; Lucretius 2:14 o pectora caeca! qualibus in tenebris vitae ‘O blind hearts! In what darkness of life … ’; s. ἀκούω).
    to have the faculty of sight, be able to see, in contrast to being blind (Trag.; Antiphon 4, 4, 2; X., Mem. 1, 3, 4; Aelian, VH 6, 12; SIG 1168, 78 blind man βλέπων ἀμφοῖν ἐξῆλθε; POxy 39, 9 [52 A.D.] ὀλίγον βλέπων=of weak sight; Ex 4:11; 23:8; 1 Km 3:2; Ps. 113:14; al.) Mt 12:22; 15:31; Lk 7:21; J 9:7, 15, 25; Ac 9:9; Rv 3:18. ὀφθαλμοὶ τοῦ μὴ β. (Ps 68:24, cp. 9:32; Sus 9; B-D-F §400, 2) eyes unable to see Ro 11:8 (Dt 29:3); Hs 6, 2, 1. θεοὶ … δυνάμενοι μήτε βλέψαι μήτε ἀκοῦσαι AcPl Ha 1, 20 (cp. Ps 113:14).—Fig. of grasp of transcendent matters (cp. Diog. L. 6, 53 with reference to Pla.: β. with the eyes of the νοῦς) J 9:39.
    to take in the sight of someth., look at, observe εἰς w. acc. (Anaxandrides Com. [IV B.C.] 34, 9 K. εἰς τοὺς καλούς; Ael. Aristid. 28, 126 K.=49 p. 531f D.; Aelian, VH 14, 42; Herodian 3, 11, 3; Jdth 9:9; Pr 16:25; Sir 40:29; 4 Macc l5:18) Lk 9:62; J 13:22 (εἰς ἀλλήλους as Proverb. Aesopi 49 P.) Ac 1:11 v.l. (Ps.-Apollod., Epit. 5, 22 and PGM 13, 833 εἰς τ. οὐρανὸν β.); 3:4. W. dat. [ὁ δὲ λέων ….ἔβλ]επεν τῷ Παύλῳ| καὶ ὁ Παῦλο[ς τῷ λέοντι] the lion looked at Paul and Paul [at the lion] AcPl Ha 4, 36. W. acc. look at a woman (cp. Synes., Calvitii encomium 23, 86b ὅστις ἀδίκοις ὀφθαλμοῖς ὁρᾷ τὴν τοῦ γείτονος) Mt 5:28 (ὅστις ἄν ἐμβλέψῃ γυναικί Just., A I, 15, 1). See magic rites D 3:4. βιβλίον look into a book Rv 5:3f.
    to pay esp. close attention to someth., notice, mark someth.: w. acc. 2 Cor 10:7 (impv.). W. εἴς τι (Polyb. 3, 64, 10 εἰς τ. παρουσίαν) εἰς πρόσωπον β. look at someone’s face = regard someone’s opinion in the sense of being afraid of what someone might think Mt 22:16; Mk 12:14.
    be ready to learn about someth. that is needed or is hazardous, watch, look to, beware of, Mk 13:9; Phil 3:2 (GKilpatrick, PKahle memorial vol. ’68, 146–48: look at, consider); 2J 8. Followed by μή, μήποτε, μήπως and aor. subj. (Pythag., Ep. 4; Epict. 2, 11, 22; 3, 20, 16; PLond III, 964, 9 p. 212 [II/III A.D.] βλέπε μὴ ἐπιλάθῃ οὐδέν; PLips 106, 17 [I B.C.]) beware, look out Mt 24:4; Mk 13:5; Lk 21:8; Ac 13:40; 1 Cor 8:9; 10:12; Gal 5:15; Hb 12:25, or fut. indic. Col 2:8. W. ἀπό τινος (BGU 1079, 2426 [41 A.D.]=CPJ 152, 24ff βλέπε σατὸν [=σαυτὸν] ἀπὸ τῶν Ἰουδαίων; APF 4, 1908, 568) beware of the leaven of the Pharisees Mk 8:15; of the scribes 12:38.
    to process information by giving thought, direct one’s attention to someth., consider, note (Jos., Bell. 7, 351, Ant. 20, 57).
    abs. βλέπετε keep your eyes open Mk 13:33.
    w. acc. (2 Ch 10:16) 1 Cor 1:26; 10:18; on Phil 3:2 s. 5; Col 2:5; 4:17. βλέπων τ. ἐντολήν w. regard to the commandment B 10:11a.
    w. indir. question foll. Mk 4:24; Lk 8:18; 1 Cor 3:10; Eph 5:15; 1 Cl 56:16; B 10:11b.—W. ἵνα foll. 1 Cor 16:10.
    to develop awareness of someth., perceive, feel
    by the senses: a strong wind Mt 14:30.
    of inner awareness discover, find a law Ro 7:23 (cp. PFay 111, 16 ἐὰν βλέπῃς τὴν τιμὴν [price] παντὸς ἀγόρασον). W. acc. and ptc. 2 Cl 20:1; B 1:3. W. ὅτι foll. (BGU 815, 4; EpArist 113) 2 Cor 7:8; Hb 3:19; Js 2:22.
    to be oriented in a particular direction, looking to, in the direction of, facing (rather freq. and w. var. preps.; w. κατά and acc. Ezk 11:1; 40:6 al.; JosAs 5:2 θυρίδα … βλέπουσαν κατὰ ἀνατολάς ‘a window looking out toward the east’) Ac 27:12 (s. λίψ and s. Field, Notes 144).—FHahn, Sehen u. Glauben im J: OCullmann Festschr., ’72, 125–41; FThordarson, SymbOsl 46, ’71, 108–30.—B. 1042. DELG. M-M. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > βλέπω

  • 217 διά

    διά prep. w. gen. and acc. (Hom.+) (for lit. s. ἀνά, beg.); the fundamental idea that finds expression in this prep. is separation, esp. in the gen., with the gener. sense ‘through’; in the acc. the gener. sense also is ‘through’ (cp. the semantic range in Eng.), but primarily with a causal focus ‘owing to’.
    A. w. gen.
    marker of extension through an area or object, via, through
    w. verbs of going διέρχεσθαι διὰ πάντων (sc. τόπων, EpArist 132) go through all the places Ac 9:32; cp. Mt 12:43; Lk 11:24. ἀπελεύσομαι διʼ ὑμῶν εἰς I will go through your city on the way to Ro 15:28; cp. 2 Cor. 1:16. διαβαίνειν Hb 11:29. διαπορεύεσθαι διὰ σπορίμων Lk 6:1. εἰσέρχεσθαι διὰ τῆς πύλης (Jos., Ant. 13, 229) Mt 7:13a; τ. θύρας J 10:1f; cp. vs. 9. παρέρχεσθαι διὰ τ. ὁδοῦ pass by along the road Mt 8:28; cp. 7:13b. παραπορεύεσθαι Mk 2:23; 9:30. περιπατεῖν διὰ τοῦ φωτός walk about through or in the light Rv 21:24. ὑποστρέφειν διὰ Μακεδονίας return through M. Ac 20:3.—Ἰης. ὁ ἐλθὼν διʼ ὕδατος καὶ αἵματος 1J 5:6 first of all refers quite literally to Jesus’ passing through water at the hand of John and through blood at his death (on the expression ‘come through blood’ in this sense cp. Eur., Phoen. 20 in Alex. Aphr., Fat. 31 II 2 p. 202, 10, of the oracle to Laius the father of Oedipus, concerning the bloody downfall of his house: πᾶς σὸς οἶκος βήσεται διʼ αἵματος). But mng. 3c may also apply: Jesus comes with the water of baptism and with the blood of redemption for his own.—AKlöpper, 1J 5:6–12: ZWT 43, 1900, 378–400.—The ῥῆμα ἐκπορευόμενον διὰ στόματος θεοῦ Mt 4:4 (Dt 8:3) is simply the word that proceeds out of the mouth of God (cp. Theognis 1, 18 Diehl3 τοῦτʼ ἔπος ἀθανάτων ἦλθε διὰ στομάτων; Pittacus in Diog. L. 1, 78 διὰ στόματος λαλεῖ; Chrysippus argues in Diog. L. 7, 187: εἴ τι λαλεῖς, τοῦτο διὰ τοῦ στόματός σου διέρχεται, i.e. if one e.g. says the word ἅμαξα, a wagon passes through the person’s lips; TestIss 7:4 ψεῦδος οὐκ ἀνῆλθε διὰ τ. χειλέων μου. Cp. also δέχεσθαι διὰ τῶν χειρῶν τινος Gen 33:10 beside δέχ. ἐκ τ. χειρ. τινος Ex 32:4).
    w. other verbs that include motion: οὗ ὁ ἔπαινος διὰ πασῶν τ. ἐκκλησιῶν (sc. ἀγγέλλεται) throughout all the congregations 2 Cor 8:18. διαφέρεσθαι διʼ (v.l. καθʼ) ὅλης τῆς χώρας be spread through the whole region Ac 13:49. διὰ τ. κεράμων καθῆκαν αὐτόν they let him down through the tile roof Lk 5:19. διὰ τοῦ τείχους καθῆκαν through an opening in the wall (Jos., Ant. 5, 15) Ac 9:25; cp. 2 Cor 11:33. (σωθήσεται) ὡς διὰ πυρός as if he had come through fire 1 Cor 3:15. διασῴζεσθαι διʼ ὕδατος be brought safely through the water 1 Pt 3:20.—διʼ ὅλου J 19:23 s. ὅλος 2.
    of a whole period of time, to its very end throughout, through, during διὰ παντός (sc. χρόνου. Edd. gener. write διὰ παντός, but Tdf. writes διαπαντός exc. Mt 18:10) always, continually, constantly (Hdt. 1, 122, 3; Thu. 1, 38, 1; Vett. Val. 220, 1; 16; PLond I, 42, 6 [172 B.C.] p. 30; BGU 1078, 2; PGM 7, 235; LXX; GrBar 10:7; EpArist index; Jos., Ant. 3, 281; SibOr Fgm. 1, 17; Just., D. 6, 2; 12, 3 al.) Mt 18:10; Mk 5:5; Lk 24:53; Ac 2:25 (Ps 15:8); 10:2; 24:16; Ro 11:10 (Ps 68:24); 2 Th 3:16; Hb 9:6; 13:15; Hm 5, 2, 3; Hs 9, 27, 3. διὰ νυκτός during the night, overnight (νύξ 1b) Ac 23:31. διʼ ὅλης νυκτός the whole night through Lk 5:5; J 21:6 v.l. (X., An. 4, 2, 4; Diod S 3, 12, 3 διʼ ὅλης τῆς νυκτός; PGM 4, 3151; Jos., Ant. 6, 37; cp. διʼ ἡμέρας all through the day: IPriene 112, 61 and 99; 1 Macc 12:27; 4 Macc 3:7). διʼ ἡμερῶν τεσσεράκοντα Ac 1:3 means either for forty days (Philo, Vi. Cont. 35 διʼ ἓξ ἡμερῶν. So AFridrichsen, ThBl 6, 1927, 337–41; MEnslin, JBL 47, 1928, 60–73) or (s. b below) now and then in the course of 40 days (B-D-F §223, 1; Rob. 581; WMichaelis, ThBl 4, 1925, 102f; Bruce, Acts). διὰ παντὸς τοῦ ζῆν throughout the lifetime Hb 2:15 (cp. διὰ παντὸς τοῦ βίου: X., Mem. 1, 2, 61; Pla., Phileb. 39e; Dionys. Hal. 2, 21; διʼ ὅλου τοῦ ζῆν EpArist 130; 141; 168).
    of a period of time within which someth. occurs during, at (PTebt 48, 10) διὰ (τῆς) νυκτός at night, during the night (Palaeph. 1, 10; PRyl 138, 15 κατέλαβα τοῦτον διὰ νυκτός; Jos., Bell. 1, 229. S. νύξ 1b end) Ac 5:19; 16:9; 17:10. διὰ τῆς ἡμέρας during the day Lk 9:37 D (Antig. Car. 128 διὰ πέμπτης ἡμέρας=on the fifth day). διὰ τριῶν ἡμερῶν within three days Mt 26:61; Mk 14:58.
    of an interval of time, after (Hdt. 6, 118, 3 διʼ ἐτέων εἴκοσι; Thu. 2, 94, 3; X., Mem. 2, 8, 1; Diod S 5, 28, 6 of transmigration of souls: διʼ ἐτῶν ὡρισμένων [=after the passing of a certain number of years] πάλιν βιοῦν; OGI 56, 38; 4 Macc 13:21; Jos., Ant. 4, 209): διʼ ἐτῶν πλειόνων after several years Ac 24:17. διὰ δεκατεσσάρων (s. under δέκα) ἐτῶν after 14 years Gal 2:1. διʼ ἡμερῶν several days afterward Mk 2:1. διὰ ἱκανοῦ χρόνου after (quite) some time Ac 11:2 D (X., Cyr. 1, 4, 28 διὰ χρόνου).
    marker of instrumentality or circumstance whereby someth. is accomplished or effected, by, via, through
    of means or instrument γράφειν διά χάρτου καὶ μέλανος write w. paper and ink 2J 12; cp. 3J 13 (Plut., Sol. 87 [17, 3]). διὰ πυρὸς δοκιμάζειν test by fire 1 Pt 1:7. διὰ χρημάτων κτᾶσθαι Ac 8:20. Hebraistically in expr. denoting activity διὰ χειρῶν τινος (LXX) Mk 6:2; Ac 5:12; 14:3; 19:11, 26. Differently γράφειν διὰ χειρός τινος write through the agency of someone 15:23; cp. 11:30. εἰπεῖν διὰ στόματός τινος by the mouth of someone (where the usage discussed in A1a is influential) 1:16; 3:18, 21; 4:25. εὔσημον λόγον διδόναι διὰ τῆς γλώσσης utter intelligible speech with the tongue 1 Cor 14:9. διὰ τοῦ νοὸς λαλεῖν speak, using one’s reason (=consciously; opp., ecstatic speech) vs. 19 v.l. Of the work of Christ: περιποιεῖσθαι διὰ τοῦ αἵματος obtain through his blood Ac 20:28; cp. Eph 1:7; Col 1:20. Also διὰ τοῦ θανάτου Ro 5:10; Col 1:22; Hb 2:14; διὰ τοῦ σώματος Ro 7:4; διὰ τῆς ἰδίας σαρκός AcPlCor 2:6; cp. 2:15; διὰ τοῦ σταυροῦ Eph 2:16; διὰ τῆς θυσίας Hb 9:26; διὰ τῆς προσφορᾶς τοῦ σώματος Ἰησοῦ through the offering of the body of Jesus 10:10; διὰ παθημάτων 2:10.
    of manner, esp. w. verbs of saying: ἀπαγγέλλειν διὰ λόγου by word of mouth Ac 15:27; cp. 2 Th 2:15. διʼ ἐπιστολῶν by letter (POxy 1066, 9; 1070, 14f πολλάκις σοι γράψας διὰ ἐπιστολῶν πολλῶν; Tat. 12:3 δια γραφῆς in writing) 1 Cor 16:3; 2 Cor 10:11; cp. 2 Th 2:2, 15. διὰ λόγου πολλοῦ w. many words Ac 15:32. διʼ ὁράματος εἰπεῖν in a vision 18:9. διὰ παραβολῆς in an illustrative way, in a parable Lk 8:4. διὰ προσευχῆς καὶ δεήσεως προσεύχεσθαι call on (God) w. prayer and supplication Eph 6:18. διὰ βραχέων ἐπιστέλλειν write briefly Hb 13:22 (cp. 1 Pt 5:12 P72; Isocr. 14, 3; Lucian, Tox. 56; EpArist 128; Ath. 17:1 σκέψασθε … διὰ βρ.). Also διʼ ὀλίγων γράφειν 1 Pt 5:12 (Pla., Phileb. 31d; UPZ 42, 9 [162 B.C.]; 2 Macc 6:17).
    of attendant or prevailing circumstance (Kühner-G. I 482f; X., Cyr. 4, 6, 6 διὰ πένθους τὸ γῆρας διάγων; Just., D. 105, 2 διʼ οὗ πάθους ἔμελλενἀποθνῄσκειν; PTebt 35, 9 [111 B.C.] διὰ τῆς γνώμης τινός=with someone’s consent; Jos., Bell. 4, 105) σὲ τὸν διὰ γράμματος καὶ περιτομῆς παραβάτην νόμου you who, (though provided) with the written code and circumcision, are a transgressor/violator of the law Ro 2:27. διʼ ὑπομονῆς 8:25. διὰ προσκόμματος eat with offense (to the scruples of another) 14:20. διʼ ἀκροβυστίας in a state of being uncircumcised 4:11. διὰ πολλῶν δακρύων with many tears 2 Cor 2:4. Cp. 6:7. διὰ τῆς ἐπιγνώσεως 2 Pt 1:3 ( through recognition [of God as source of the gifts], s. Danker, Benefactor 457). διὰ πυρός in fiery form AcPlCor 2:13.—Here prob. belongs σωθήσεται διὰ τῆς τεκνογονίας 1 Ti 2:15 (opp. of the negative theme in Gen. 3:16), but s. d next. On 1J 5:6 s. A1a above.
    of efficient cause via, through διὰ νόμου ἐπίγνωσις ἁμαρτίας ( only) recognition of sin comes via the law Ro 3:20; cp. 4:13. τὰ παθήματα τὰ διὰ τοῦ νόμου passions aroused via the law 7:5. διὰ νόμου πίστεως by the law of faith 3:27; Gal 2:19. ἀφορμὴν λαμβάνειν διὰ τῆς ἐντολῆς Ro 7:8, 11; cp. 13. διὰ τ. εὐαγγελίου ὑμᾶς ἐγέννησα (spiritual parenthood) 1 Cor 4:15. Perh. 1 Ti 2:15 but s. c, above. διὰ τῆς σοφίας with its wisdom 1 Cor 1:21; opp. διὰ τῆς μωρίας τοῦ κηρύγματος through the folly of proclamation = foolish proclamation ibid. διὰ τῆς Λευιτικῆς ἱερωσύνης Hb 7:11. Freq. διὰ (τῆς) πίστεως Ro 1:12; 3:22, 25, 30f; Gal 2:16; 3:14, 26; Eph 2:8; 3:12, 17 al. Cp. AcPl Cor 2:8. πίστις διʼ ἀγάπης ἐνεργουμένη faith which works through (=expresses itself in) deeds of love Gal 5:6. διὰ θελήματος θεοῦ if God is willing Ro 15:32; by the will of God 1 Cor 1:1; 2 Cor 1:1; 8:5; Eph 1:1; Col 1:1; 2 Ti 1:1.
    of occasion διὰ τῆς χάριτος by virtue of the grace Ro 12:3; Gal 1:15 (Just., D. 100, 2).—3:18; 4:23; Phlm 22. διὰ δόξης καὶ ἀρετῆς in consequence of his glory and excellence 2 Pt 1:3 v.l.
    in wording of urgent requests διὰ τῶν οἰκτιρμῶν τοῦ θεοῦ by the mercy of God Ro 12:1; cp. 15:30; 1 Cor 1:10; 2 Cor 10:1.
    marker of pers. agency, through, by
    with focus on agency through ( the agency of), by (X., An. 2, 3, 17 διʼ ἑρμηνέως λέγειν; Menand., Fgm. 210, 1 οὐθεὶς διʼ ἀνθρώπου θεὸς σῴζει … ἑτέρου τόν ἕτερον; Achilles Tat. 7, 1, 3 διʼ ἐκείνου μαθεῖν; Just., D. 75, 4 διὰ παρθένου γεννηθῆναι; PMert 5, 8 γεομετρηθῆναι διʼ αὐτοῦ) ῥηθὲν διὰ τοῦ προφήτου Mt 1:22; 2:15, 23; 4:14 al. (cp. Just., A I, 47, 5 διὰ Ἠσαίου τοῦ πρ.). γεγραμμένα διὰ τῶν προφητῶν Lk 18:31; cp. Ac 2:22; 10:36; 15:12 al. διʼ ἀνθρώπου by human agency Gal 1:1. διὰ Μωϋσέως through Moses (Jos., Ant. 7, 338; Mel., P. 11, 77 διὰ χειρὸς Μωυσέως) J 1:17; under Moses’ leadership Hb 3:16. διʼ ἀγγέλων by means of divine messengers (TestJob 18:5 διὰ τοῦ ἀγγέλου; cp. Jos., Ant. 15, 136, but s. n. by RMarcus, Loeb ed., ad loc.) Gal 3:19; Hb 2:2. πέμψας διὰ τ. μαθητῶν εἶπεν sent and said through his disciples Mt 11:2f. Cp. the short ending of Mk. γράφειν διά τινος of the bearer IRo 10:1; IPhld 11:2; ISm 12:1, but also of pers. who had a greater or smaller part in drawing up some document (Dionys. of Cor. in Eus., HE 4, 23, 11) 1 Pt 5:12 (on the practice s. ERichards, The Secretary in the Letters of Paul ’91). In this case διά comes close to the mng. represented by (LWenger, D. Stellvertretung im Rechte d. Pap. 1906, 9ff; Dssm., LO 98 [LAE 123f]). So also κρίνει ὁ θεὸς διὰ Χρ. Ἰ. God judges, represented by Christ Jesus Ro 2:16. Christ as intermediary in the creation of the world J 1:3, 10; 1 Cor 8:6; Col 1:16.—εὐχαριστεῖν τ. θεῷ διὰ Ἰ. Χρ. thank God through Jesus Christ Ro 1:8; 7:25; Col 3:17.—Occasionally the mediation becomes actual presence (references for this usage in BKeil, Anonymus Argentinensis 1902, p. 192, 1; 306 note) διὰ πολλῶν μαρτύρων in the presence of many witnesses 2 Ti 2:2 (Simplicius in Epict. p. 114, 31 διὰ θεοῦ μέσου=in the presence of God as mediator; Philo, Leg. ad Gai. 187 τὸ διὰ μαρτύρων κλαίειν=weeping in the presence of witnesses).
    with focus on the originator of an action (Hom. et al.; pap, LXX, EpArist)
    α. of human activity (PSI 354, 6 [254 B.C.] τὸν χόρτον τὸν συνηγμένον διʼ ἡμῶν=by us; 500, 5; 527, 12; 1 Esdr 6:13; 2 Macc 6:21; 4 Macc 1:11) 2 Cor 1:11 (where διὰ πολλῶν resumes ἐκ πολλῶν προσώπων). ᾧ παρέλαβε κανόνι διὰ τῶν μακαρίων προφήτων καὶ τοῦ ἁγίου εὐαγγελίου AcPlCor 2:36.
    β. of divine activity:—of God (Aeschyl., Ag. 1485; Pla., Symp. 186e ἡ ἰατρικὴ πᾶσα διὰ τ. θεοῦ τούτου [Asclepius] κυβερνᾶται; Ael. Aristid., Sarap. [Or. 8 Dind.=45 Keil] 14 K. πάντα γὰρ πανταχοῦ διὰ σοῦ τε καὶ διὰ σὲ ἡμῖν γίγνεται; Zosimus in CALG p. 143 and a magic ring in introd. 133; EpArist 313) 1 Cor 1:9 διʼ οὗ ἐκλήθητε (v.l. ὑπό s. καλέω 4); Ro 11:36 (s. Norden, Agn. Th. 240–50; 347f); Hb 2:10b (s. B 2a, below; cp. Ar. 1:5 διʼ αὐτοῦ … τὰ πάντα συνέστηκεν).—Of Christ Ro 1:5; 5:9, 17f, 21; 8:37; 2 Cor 1:20 al. (ASchettler, D. paulin. Formel ‘durch Christus’ 1907; GJonker, De paulin. formule ‘door Christus’: ThSt 27, 1909, 173–208).—Of the Holy Spirit Ac 11:28; 21:4; Ro 5:5.
    At times διά w. gen. seems to have causal mng. (Rdm. 142; POxy 299, 2 [I A.D.] ἔδωκα αὐτῷ διὰ σοῦ=because of you; Achilles Tat. 3, 4, 5 διὰ τούτων=for this reason; in Eng. cp. Coleridge, Anc. Mariner 135–36: Every tongue thro’ utter drouth Was wither’d at the root, s. OED s.v. ‘through’ I B 8) διὰ τῆς σαρκός because of the resistance of the flesh Ro 8:3.—2 Cor 9:13.—On the use of διά w. gen. in Ro s. Schlaeger, La critique radicale de l’épître aux Rom.: Congr. d’ Hist. du Christ. II 111f.
    B. w. acc.
    marker of extension through an area, through (Hom. and other early Gk. only in poetry, e.g. Pind. P. 9, 123 διʼ ὅμιλον ‘through the throng’; Hellenistic prose since Dionys. Hal. [JKäser, D. Präpositionen b. Dionys. Hal., diss. Erlangen 1915, 54]; ISyriaW 1866b τὸν πάτρωνα διὰ πάντα of the governor of a whole province) διήρχετο διὰ μέσον Σαμαρείας καὶ Γαλιλαίας Lk 17:11 (cp. SibOr 3, 316 ῥομφαία διελεύσεται διὰ μέσον σεῖο).
    marker of someth. constituting cause
    the reason why someth. happens, results, exists: because of, for the sake of (do something for the sake of a divinity: UPZ 62, 2 [161 B.C.] διὰ τὸν Σάραπιν; JosAs 1:10 διʼ αὐτήν; ApcSed 3:3 διὰ τὸν ἄνθρωπον; Tat. 8:2 διὰ τὸν … Ἄττιν; Ath. 30, 1 διὰ τὴν Δερκετώ) hated because of the name Mt 10:22; persecution arises because of teaching 13:21; because of unbelief vs. 58; because of a tradition 15:3; διὰ τὸν ἄνθρωπον (the sabbath was designed) for people Mk 2:27; because of Herodias Mk 6:17 (cp. Just. D. 34, 8 διὰ γυναῖκα); because of a crowd Lk 5:19; 8:19 al; because of Judeans Ac 16:3. διὰ τὸν θόρυβον 21:34; because of rain 28:2. Juristically to indicate guilt: imprisoned for insurrection and murder Lk 23:25. διʼ ὑμᾶς on your account=through your fault Ro 2:24 (Is 52:5). διὰ τὴν πάρεσιν because of the passing over 3:25 (but s. WKümmel, ZTK 49, ’52, 164). διὰ τὰ παραπτώματα on account of transgressions 4:25a (cp. Is 53:5; PsSol 13:5); but διὰ τὴν δικαίωσιν in the interest of justification vs. 25b; s. 8:10 for a sim. paired use of διὰ. διὰ τὴν χάριν on the basis of the grace 15:15. διʼ ἀσθένειαν τῆς σαρκός because of a physical ailment (cp. POxy 726, 10f [II A.D.] οὐ δυνάμενος διʼ ἀσθένειαν πλεῦσαι. Cp. ἀσθένεια 1) Gal 4:13. διὰ τὸ θέλημα σου by your will Rv 4:11. διὰ τὸν χρόνον according to the time = by this time Hb 5:12 (Aelian, VH 3, 37 δ. τὸν χρ.=because of the particular time-situation).—W. words denoting emotions out of (Diod S 5, 59, 8 διὰ τὴν λύπην; 18, 25, 1 διὰ τὴν προπέτειαν=out of rashness; Appian, Celt. 1 §9 διʼ ἐλπίδα; 2 Macc 5:21; 7:20; 9:8; 3 Macc 5:32, 41; Tob 8:7): διὰ φθόνον out of envy Mt 27:18; Phil 1:15. διὰ σπλάγχνα ἐλέους out of tender mercy Lk 1:78. διὰ τ. φόβον τινός out of fear of someone J 7:13. διὰ τὴν πολλὴν ἀγάπην out of the great love Eph 2:4. διὰ τ. πλεονεξίαν in their greediness B 10:4.—Of God as the ultimate goal or purpose of life, whereas διά w. gen. (s. A4bβ above) represents God as Creator, Hb 2:10a (s. Norden, op. cit.; PGM 13, 76 διὰ σὲ συνέστηκεν … ἡ γῆ). Cp. J 6:57 (s. Bultmann ad loc.) PtK 2.
    in direct questions διὰ τί; why? (Hyperid. 3, 17; Dio Chrys. 20 [37], 28; Ael. Aristid. 31 p. 597 D.; oft. LXX; TestJob 37:8; TestLevi 2:9; GrBar, Tat; Mel., Fgm. 8b, 42) mostly in an interrogative clause Mt 9:11, 14; 13:10; 15:2f; 17:19; 21:25; Mk 2:18; 11:31; Lk 5:30; 19:23, 31; 20:5; 24:38; J 7:45; 8:43, 46; 12:5; 13:37; Ac 5:3; 1 Cor 6:7; Rv 17:7. Simply διὰ τί; (Hyperid. 3, 23) Ro 9:32; 2 Cor 11:11. Also διατί (always in t.r. and often by Tdf.; TestJob 46:2) B 8:4, 6; Hm 2:5; Hs 5, 5, 5. Kvan Leeuwen Boomkamp, Τι et Διατι dans les évangiles: RevÉtGr 39, 1926, 327–31.—In real and supposed answers and inferences διὰ τοῦτο therefore (X., An. 1, 7, 3; 7, 19; oft. LXX; JosAs 7:7; Ar. 12, 2; Just., A I, 44, 5 al.; Demetr.: 722 Fgm. 2, 3 Jac.) Mt 6:25; 12:27, 31; 13:13, 52; 14:2; 18:23; 21:43; 23:13 v.l.; 24:44; Mk 11:24; 12:24; Lk 11:19 al. Also διὰ ταῦτα (Epict.) Eph 5:6. διὰ τοῦτο ὅτι for this reason, (namely) that J 5:16, 18; 8:47; 10:17; 12:18, 39; 15:19; 1J 3:1. διὰ τοῦτο ἵνα for this reason, (in order) that (Lucian, Abdic. 1) J 1:31; 2 Cor 13:10; 1 Ti 1:16; Phlm 15. Also διὰ τοῦτο ὅπως Hb 9:15.
    διά foll. by inf. or acc. w. inf., representing a causal clause, because (Gen 39:9; Dt 1:36; 1 Macc 6:53; GrBar 8:4; Demetr.: 722 fgm 1:1 al.) διὰ τὸ μὴ ἔχειν βάθος because it had no depth Mt 13:5f; Mk 4:5f (διὰ τὸ μή w. inf.: X., Mem. 1, 3, 5; Hero Alex. I 348, 7; III 274, 19; Lucian, Hermot. 31); because lawlessness increases Mt 24:12; διὰ τὸ εἶναι αὐτὸν ἐξ οἴκου Δ.. Lk 2:4; because it was built well 6:48 al. διὰ τὸ λέγεσθαι ὑπό τινων because it was said by some Lk 9:7 (for the constr. cp. Herodian 7, 12, 7 διὰ τὸ τὰς ἐξόδους ὑπὸ τ. πυρὸς προκατειλῆφθαι=because the exit-routes were blocked by the fire).
    instead of διά w. gen. to denote the efficient cause we may have διά, by
    α. w. acc. of thing (schol. on Pind., N. 4, 79a; 2 Macc 12:11; EpArist 77) διὰ τὸ αἷμα by the blood Rv 12:11. διὰ τὰ σημεῖα by the miracles 13:14.
    β. w. acc. of pers. and freq. as expr. of favorable divine action (Aristoph., Plut. 468; Dionys. Hal. 8, 33, 3, 1579 μέγας διὰ τ. θεούς ἐγενόμην; Ael. Aristid. 24, 1 K.=44 p. 824 D.: διʼ οὓς [= θεούς] ἐσώθην; SIG 1122; OGI 458, 40; PGM 13, 579 διῳκονομήθη τ. πάντα διὰ σέ; EpArist 292; Sir 15:11; 3 Macc 6:36: other exx. in SEitrem and AFridrichsen, E. christl. Amulett auf Pap. 1921, 24). ζῶ διὰ τὸν πατέρα J 6:57 (cp. PKöln VI, 245, 16 of Isis σὺ κυρεῖς τὰ πάντα, διὰ σὲ δʼ εἰσορῶ φαός ‘you are responsible for everything and thanks to you I can see light’). διὰ τὸν ὑποτάξαντα by the one who subjected it Ro 8:20.—DELG. M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > διά

  • 218 διαλύω

    διαλύω fut. διαλύσω LXX; 1 aor. διέλυσε 4 Macc 14:10. Mid.: pf. ptc. διαλελυμένος (Ath. 37, 1). Pass.: fut. 3 sg. διαλυθήσεται Sir 22:16; 1 aor. διελύθην; pf. 3 sg. διαλέλυται Job 13:17 (s. διάλυσις; Eur., Hdt. et al.; ins, pap, LXX; PsSol 4:9; TestJos 15:3; JosAs 27:8; Philo, Joseph., Just., Ath.)
    to break up into elements, break up, dissolve, pass. with act. force.
    of a seed break down, decay 1 Cl 24:5.
    of a ship’s stern break up Ac 27:41 v.l.
    to put an end to someth., destroy fig. ext. of 1 (Philo, Aet. M. 36 δεσμόν; Just., A I, 43, 1 [resolve an intellectual problem by offering appropriate explanation]; Ath. 11:2 τὰς ἀμφιβολίας) δ. στραγγαλιάς loose the entanglements B 3:3 (Is 58:6; w. λύω); destroy, put an end to (UPZ 19, 21 [163 B.C.] τῷ λιμῷ διαλυθῆναι; 11, 27 [160 B.C.]; PsSol 4:9; ApcrEzk P 1 recto 7f [Denis p. 125]; Jos., Ant. 14, 284) τὶ someth. (SIG 1268 II, 22 [III B.C.] ἔχθραν) λογισμοὺς ἐθνῶν 1 Cl 59:3.
    to cause a group to be broken up, disperse, scatter, fig. ext. of 1, of a crowd (Hdt. 8, 11 al. ‘disperse’): pass. in act. sense (Appian, Iber. 42 §172 διελύθησαν [people] scattered; BGU 1012, 12 [II B.C.] διαλυθῆναι αὐτά sc. τὰ πρόβατα; Jos., Ant. 20, 124) Ac 5:36 (Appian, Mithrid. 19 §75 διελύθησαν of military forces; likewise 90 §412; Ath. R. 59, 14 τῶν διαλυθέντων σωμάτων).—M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > διαλύω

  • 219 διί̈στημι

    διί̈στημι fut. διαστήσεις Ezk 5:1; 1 aor. (διέστησα), ptc. διαστήσας; 2 aor. διέστην, ptc. διαστάς; pf. 3 pl. διεστᾶσι (Ath. 15, 1); ptc. διεστηκώς Esth. 8:13 ‘separate, divide’.
    to move from, separate from, or take leave of, go away, part intr. (2 aor.) (Hom. et al.; pap; 3 Macc 2:32; Philo, Aet. M. 75; Jos., Ant. 18, 136) ἀπό τινος (Herm. Wr. 14, 5) fr. someone Lk 24:51.
    to cause separation through movement, go on trans. (1 aor.—Appian, Iber. 36 §144 διαστῆσαι τὸ πλῆθος=divide the crowd; Sir 28:14 of pers. driven from place to place by malicious gossip; PGM 13, 476 διέστησεν τὰ πάντα; 4, 1150; Jos., Ant. 13, 305) βραχὺ διαστήσαντες (cp. Hippiatr. I 388, 5) after they had sailed a short distance farther Ac 27:28 (FBlass, Acta Apost. 1895, 279 equates: βραχὺ διάστημα ποιήσαντες after a short distance).
    to mark the passage of time, pass intr. (2 aor.) διαστάσης ὡσεὶ ὥρας μιᾶς after about an hour had passed Lk 22:59.—DELG s.v. ἵστημι. M-M.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > διί̈στημι

  • 220 δῆμος

    δῆμος, ου, ὁ (Hom. et al.; ins, pap, LXX; Jos., Ant. 12, 120; 123; 14, 24; SibOr 5, 419; apolog.; loanw. in rabb.)
    a gathering of people for any purpose, people, populace, crowd Ac 12:22; πεῖσον τὸν δ. try to convince the crowd (so that it will intercede for you) MPol 10:2.
    in a Hellenistic city, a convocation of citizens called together for the purpose of transacting official business, popular assembly προάγειν εἰς τὸν δ. Ac 17:5; εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὸν δ. go into the assembly 19:30; ἀπολογεῖσθαι τῷ δ. make a defense before the assembly vs. 33 (cp. in the ins the common expr. δεδόχθαι or ἔδοξεν τῷ δήμῳ). Ferguson 38–41; Kl. Pauly I 1482.—LfgrE II 275 (lit.). M-M. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > δῆμος

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