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  • 1 νυμφαῖος

    νυμφ-αῖος, α, ον, ([etym.] νύμφη)
    A of or sacred to the Nymphs,

    σκοπιαί E.El. 447

    (lyr.) ;

    νᾶμα AP14.71

    ; δρυες Tryph.324 ; νυμφαία λιβάς pure spring water, prob.l. in Antiph.52.13.
    II νυμφαῖον, τό, sanctuary of the Nymphs, IG 11(2).144A91 (Delos, iv B. C.), CIG4616 (Syria, ii A. D.), Plu.Alex.7, etc.: [dialect] Boeot. [full] νυνφῆον Schwyzer 485.6 (Thespiae, iii B. C.) ; esp. fountain with architectural background, Philostr.VA8.12.
    III ν. πτέρις, = θηλυπτερίς, Dsc.4.185 ; = δρυοπτερίς, Ps.-Dsc.4.187. [[pron. full] νυμφαῐον is doubtful in E.IT 216 (lyr.): fort. νύμφαν.]

    Greek-English dictionary (Αγγλικά Ελληνικά-λεξικό) > νυμφαῖος

  • 2 σκηνή

    σκην-ή, [dialect] Dor. [full] σκᾱνά, (not in Hom., who uses κλισίη (q.v.)).
    I tent, booth, IG12.314.110, E.Hec. 1289;

    ἐπὶ σκηναῖς.. ναυτικαῖς S.Aj. 3

    ; σκηνῆς ἔνδον ib. 218 (anap.); ὑπὸ σκηναῖσι ib. 754; σκηνῆς ὕπαυλος ib. 796;

    σκηνὴν ποιήσαντες Th.2.34


    πηξάμενοι Hdt.6.12

    , cf. And.4.30;

    ἵστασθαι X.Cyr.8.5.3

    ; τὰς σ. καταλύειν, διαλύειν, strike camp, Plb.6.40.2, Paus.10.25.3;

    σ. δερματίνη PCair.Zen.13.14

    (iii B.C.); but also σ. μάλα ἰσχυρῶν ξύλων hut, D.Chr.7.23; booth in the marketplace, Ar.Th. 658, D.18.169 (both pl.), Theoc.15.16;

    σκανὰν ἐμ Πυλαίᾳ τὰν πρώταν ὑπάρχειν αὐτῷ SIG422.11

    (Delph., iii B.C.): pl., camp, A. Eu. 686, Ar. Pax 731, X.An.3.5.7.
    II stage-building as background for plays, Pl.Lg. 817c, Poll.4.123 sqq., Vitr.5.6.1;

    τῆς σ. τὸ τέγος IG11(2).161

    A115, cf. D127 (Delos, iii B.C.), 153.14 (ibid.); τραγικὴ ς. a sort of πῆγμα, such as that from which the prologue of A.Ag. is perhaps spoken, X.Cyr.6.1.54, Plu.Demetr.44, Suid. s.v. τραγικὴ ς.
    2 οἱ ἀπὸ τῆς σ. [ἥρωες] heroes represented on the stage, D.18.180; οἱ ἀπὸ σκηνῆς actors, players, opp. χορός, Arist.Pr. 922b17; also

    οἱ περὶ σκηνήν Plu.Galb.16


    οἱ ἐπὶ σκηνῆς Alciphr.3.65

    codd., cf. Luc.Nec.16; cf. σκηνικός and v. infr. 111.1b.
    3 τὸ ἐπὶ τῆς σκηνῆς μέρος that which is actually represented on the stage, Arist.Po. 1459b25; τὰ ἀπὸ τῆς σκηνῆς (sc. ᾄσματα), songs or odes sung by one of the actors standing on the stage (not by the chorus), ib. 1452b18;

    τὰ μὲν ἀπὸ τῆς σ. οὐκ ἀντίστροφα, τὰ δὲ τοῦ χοροῦ ἀντίστροφα Id.Pr. 918b27

    4 metaph., stage-effect, acting, unreality, σκηνὴ πᾶς ὁ βίος 'all the world's a stage', AP10.72 (Pall.);

    ἡ σ. τοῦ βίου Max.Tyr.7.10

    ; theatrical trick, deception, J.BJ2.21.2, Hdn.3.12.3.
    III tented cover, tilt of a wagon or carriage, X. Cyr.6.4.11, D.S.20.25, Plu.Them.26;

    σ. τροχήλατοι A.Pers. 1000

    (lyr.); also, bed-tester, D.41.11.
    b metaph., τὸν ὑπὸ (prob. cj. for ἐπὶ) σκηνῆς βίον the hidden life, Luc.Icar.21.
    2 in large ships, state-cabin on the poop, Poll.1.89, Palaeph.29;

    τῶν συριῶν ὑπὲρ τὴν σ. οὐσῶν PHib.1.38.7

    (iii B.C.); ἀποκαταστήσω [τὸν σῖτον] ἐπὶ σκηνήν ib.86.8 (iii B.C.).
    IV entertainment given in tents, banquet, X. Cyr.2.3.1, 4.2.34, etc.;

    σ. δημοσία Id.Lac.15.4


    Greek-English dictionary (Αγγλικά Ελληνικά-λεξικό) > σκηνή

  • 3 ἔδαφος

    A bottom, foundation, base of anything,

    τῆς κατασκευῆς τὰ ἐ. Th.1.10

    ; ἔ. νηός bottom of a ship, Od.5.249;

    ἔ. πλοίου D.32.5

    , cf. Pherecr.12; ἔ. ποταμοῦ, τῆς θαλάττης, X.Cyr.7.5.18, Arist.HA 534a11; [ ποτηρίου] Pherecr.143.2.
    2 ground-floor, pavement,

    οἴκου Hdt.8.137

    ; καθελεῖν ἐς ἔ. raze to the ground, Th. 3.68;

    τὸ ἔ. ὁμαλίσασι IG11(2).161

    A57 (Delos, iii B.C.);

    ἔπεσον εἰς τὸ ἔ. Act.Ap.22.7


    ἀπὸ ἐδάφους μέχρι παντὸς ὕψους CPR95.17

    (iii A. D.), etc.
    3 ground, soil, περὶ τοῦ τῆς πατρίδος ἐδάφους ἀγωνίζεσθαι for our country's soil, Aeschin.3.134, cf. D.26.11 (pl.); ἐχθρὸς τῷ τῆς πόλεως ἐδάφει, of a mortal foe, Id.8.39, 10.11;

    ὀκρυόειν ἔ.

    Eleg.Alex. Adesp.


    ; soil, viewed in regard to its quality, Thphr.CP2.4.1 (pl.), 4.11.8: pl., ἐδάφη lands and tenements (incl. houses), Is.11.42, IG 2.780, PTeb.302.10 (i A.D.); also, masses of earth, Epicur.Ep.2p.48U.
    4 text of a manuscript, opp. margin ([etym.] μέτωπον), Gal.16.837, 18(2).864.
    b manuscript, Id.16.468 (s.v.l.).
    5 background of puppet-theatre, Hero Aut.30.1, al.

    Greek-English dictionary (Αγγλικά Ελληνικά-λεξικό) > ἔδαφος

  • 4 παρήορος

    παρ-ήορος ( ἀείρω): hanging or floating beside; stretched out, sprawling, Il. 7.156; met., flighty, foolish, Il. 23.603; esp. παρήορος ( ἵππος), a third or extra horse, harnessed by the side of the pair drawing the chariot, but not attached to the yoke, and serving to take the place of either of the others in case of need, Il. 16.471, 474. (Plate I. represents the παρήορος in the background as he is led to his place. See also the adj. cut, the first horse.)

    A Homeric dictionary (Greek-English) (Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά ομηρικό λεξικό) > παρήορος

  • 5 βασανιστής

    βασανιστής, οῦ, ὁ (since Antiphon and Demosth. 37, 40, also Plut., Mor. 498d; TestAbr AB; Philo, Spec. Leg. 4, 82, Omn. Prob. Lib. 108, In Flacc. 96) guard in a prison, freq. under orders to torture prisoners, oppressive jailer, Mt 18:34 someth. like merciless jailer seems to be required. In the background may be the image of a wealthy estate owner who would have a detention center for recalcitrant slaves (SEG VIII, 246, 8 [II A.D.] uses βασανίζω of the treatment of a debtor fr. whom everything possible is to be exacted); MPol 2:3; ἄγγελοι β. avenging angels ApcPt 8, 23.—DELG s.v. βάσανος. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > βασανιστής

  • 6 βασιλεία

    βασιλεία, ας, ἡ (Heraclit. Fgm. 52; Hdt.+) a term relating to royal administration
    gener. kingship, royal power, royal rule (1 Km 15:28; 20:31; Sir 10:8; Jdth 1:1; Esth 3:6; 1 Macc 1:16 al. LXX; En 98:2; TestJob 33:9; Just., Tat., Ath.; οὐ βασιλείαν ἀλλὰ τυράνιδα Mel., P. 49, 354; Orig.) λαβεῖν ἑαυτῷ βασιλείαν obtain royal power (for oneself) Lk 19:12, 15; without dat. Rv 17:12 (cp. Jos., Ant. 13, 220); δοῦναί τινι τὴν β. vs. 17; ἔχειν β. ἐπί τινων vs. 18; ἐποίησεν ἡμᾶς βασιλείαν he gave us royal jurisdiction 1:6; cp. 5:10; royal rule Lk 1:33; 22:29; 23:42 v.l. (ἐν τῇ β. σου in your royal power); Ac 1:6; Hb 1:8 (Ps 44:7); 1 Cor 15:24 (παραδιδόναι as Diod S 1, 43, 6); B 4:4 (Da 7:24). Ps 95:10 (Justin, A I, 41, 4, D. 73: ὁ κύριος ἐβασίλευσεν ἀπὸ τ. ξύλου) is the basis for β. Ἰησοῦ ἐπὶ ξύλου the rule of Jesus on the cross B 8:5 (s. Windisch, Hdb. ad loc.).—Hb 11:33; 1 Cl 61:1.
    esp. of God’s rule the royal reign of God (usually rendered ‘kingdom of God’, and oft. understood as royal realm but with dilution of the primary component of reigning activity), a chiefly eschatological concept, beginning to appear in the prophets, elaborated in apocalyptic passages (Mi 4:7f; Ps 102:19; 144:11–13; Wsd 6:4; 10:10; Da 3:54; 4:3; cp. SibOr 3:47f.—Diod S 5, 71, 1 Zeus takes over the βασιλεία from Cronus; Sextus 311 κοινωνεῖ βασιλείας θεοῦ σοφὸς ἀνήρ) and taught by Jesus. The expressions vary; β. τοῦ θεοῦ and τῶν οὐρανῶν have essentially the same mng., since Israelites used οὐρανός (-οί) as well as other circumlocutions for θεός (cp. Mt 19:23f; s. Bousset, Rel.3 314f); the latter term may also emphasize the heavenly origin and nature of the reign.—Dalman, Worte 75–119; JWeiss, D. Predigt Jesu v. Reiche Gottes2 1900, 1–35; ESellin, D. isr.-jüd. Heilandserwartung 1909, D. alt. Prophetismus 1912, 136ff; BDuhm, D. kommende RG 1910; SMowinckel, Psalmenstudien II 1922, 146ff; LDürr, Ursprung u. Ausbau d. isr. Heilandserwartung 1925; Bousset, Rel3 1926, 213ff; AvGall, βασιλεία τ. θεοῦ 1926; JWissing, Het begrip van het Koningrijk Gods, diss., Leiden 1927; HGressmann, Der Messias 1929; MBuber, Königtum Gottes ’32; PVolz, D. Eschatologie der jüd. Gemeinde im ntl. Zeitalter ’34; Ltzm., D. Weltheiland 1909; TManson, The Teaching of Jesus ’55, 116–284; SAalen, NTS 8, ’61/62, 215–40 (‘house’ or ‘community’ of God); GLadd, JBL 81, ’62, 230–38 (‘realm’); FNötscher, Vom A. zum NT ’62, 226–30 (ethical).
    α. β. τῶν οὐρανῶν mostly in Mt: 3:2; 4:17; 5:3, 10, 19f al.; otherw. (Did., Gen. 52, 11; 60, 28) J 3:5 v.l.; AcPl Ha 8, 31.
    β. β. τοῦ θεοῦ (cp. Orig., C. Cels. 3, 40, 21) Mt 6:33; 12:28; 21:31, 43; Mk 1:15; 4:11, 26, 30 al.; Lk 4:43; 6:20; 7:28; 8:1 al.; Ac 1:3; 8:12; 14:22; 19:8; 28:23, 31; J 3:3, 5; Ro 14:17 (defined as δικαιοσύνη, εἰρήνη, χαρά); 1 Cor 4:20 al.; Ox 1 verso, 7f; Dg 9:1; B 21:1; Pol 2:3; β. θεοῦ 1 Cor 6:10, cp. 9; 15:50; Gal 5:21; Pol 5:3; β. τοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ θεοῦ Eph 5:5; τοῦ Χριστοῦ 1 Cl 50:3.
    γ. β. τοῦ πατρός Mt 13:43; 26:29.
    δ. β. αὐτοῦ (=τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου) Mt 13:41; Lk 24:26 v.l.; cp. Col 1:13.
    ε. β. τοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν Δαυίδ Mk 11:10, since the Davidic kgdm. is to be reestablished under the Son of David, the Messiah (cp. Is 9:5f; Jer 23:5f).
    ζ. ἡ β. τοῦ κυρίου B 4:13; ἡ β. αὐτοῦ (=κυρίου) ἡ ἐπουράνιος 2 Ti 4:18; EpilMosq 5; ἡ οὐράνιος β. MPol 22:3; ἡ ἐν οὐρανῷ β. Dg 10:2.
    η. αἰώνιος β. τοῦ κυρίου (cp. Da 4:3; Just.; CIG II, 2715a, 3 ἐπὶ τῆς τῶν κυρίων Ῥωμαίων αἰωνίου ἀρχῆς, Dssm., B 277f) 2 Pt 1:11; cp. MPol 20:2.—The greatest blessings conceivable are found in the β. Mt 13:44f. The foll. expr. refer to obtaining it = participate in its benefits: ἅψασθαι τῆς β. B 7:11; δέχεσθαι Mk 10:15; διδόναι Lk 12:32; εἰσέρχεσθαι εἰς τὴν β. Mt 5:20; 7:21; 18:3; 19:23; Mk 10:23ff; Lk 24:26 P75 (first hand); J 3:5; Ac 14:22; Hs 9, 12, 3f (HWindisch, D. Sprüche v. Eingehen in d. Reich Gs: ZNW 27, 1928, 163–92); εἰσήκειν εἰς τὴν β. 2 Cl 11:7; ἔρχεσθαι εἰς τὴν β. 9:6; ἑτοιμάζειν Mt 25:34; εὔθετον εἶναι τῇ β. Lk 9:62; εὑρεθῆναι εἰς τὴν β. Hs 9, 13, 2; ζητεῖν Mt 6:33; Lk 12:31; καταξιοῦσθαι τῆς β. 2 Th 1:5; κατοικεῖν ἐν τῇ β. Hs 9, 29, 2; κληρονομεῖν Mt 25:34; 1 Cor 6:9f; 15:50; IPhld 3:3; cp. κληρονόμος τῆς β. Js 2:5; μαθητεύεσθαι τῇ β. Mt 13:52; μεθιστάναι εἰς τὴν β. Col 1:13; φθάνει ἡ β. ἐπί τινα Lk 11:20. The phrase ὁρᾶν τὴν β. see the kgdm.=‘realize the fulfillment of God’s promises to Israel’ occurs Mk 9:1; Lk 9:27; J 3:3; Hs 9, 15, 3. The mysteries of the kgdm. can be revealed to those for whom they are intended Mt 13:11; Mk 4:11; διαγγέλλειν Lk 9:60; διαμαρτυρεῖσθαι Ac 28:23; κηρύσσειν καὶ εὐαγγελίζεσθαι Lk 8:1; sim. 16:16; cp. κηρύσσειν τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τῆς β. Mt 4:23; 9:35; 24:14; κηρύσσειν τὴν β. Lk 9:2; Ac 28:31; λαλεῖν περὶ τῆς β. Lk 9:11. Keep fr. entering: κλείειν Mt 23:13; cp. κλεῖδες τῆς β. 16:19 (s. κλεῖς 1); αἴρειν ἀπό τινος 21:43.—Spoken of as present Mt 12:28; Lk 11:20, perh. also 17:20f (see s.v. ἐντός). Viewed as future, but close at hand ἤγγικεν ἡ β. Mt 3:2; 10:7; Mk 1:15; Lk 10:9, 11; perh. Mk 1:15; ἐγγύς ἐστιν Lk 21:31; ἔρχεται Mt 6:10; Mk 11:10; Lk 11:2; 17:20; μέλλει ἀναφαίνεσθαι 19:11; προσδέχεσθαι τὴν β. Mk 15:43; ἐκδέχεσθαι τὴν β. 2 Cl 12:1; μέλλει ἔρχεσθαι 1 Cl 42:3; ἡ μέλλουσα β. 2 Cl 5:5; ἥξει ἡ β. 12:2. Conceived of as a banquet (Billerb. IV 1154ff): ἀνακλιθῆναι ἐν τῇ β. Mt 8:11; sim. 26:29; Mk 14:25; Lk 13:28f; 22:16, 18, 30; cp. the parables 14:15ff; Mt 22:2ff. Participants in it are called υἱοὶ τῆς β. Mt 8:12 (of mere external connection); 13:38. Prerequisite for participation is μετάνοια Mt 4:17; Mk 1:15; the willingness to become like children Mt 18:3f; 19:14; Mk 10:14f; Lk 18:16f. Only uprightness will inherit the β. Mt 5:20. Degrees and grades 5:19; 18:1, 4. The prosperous have difficulty entering 19:23f; Mk 10:23–25; Lk 18:24f (cp. vs. 29), those who persist in sin have no prospects at all Mt 13:24ff, 36ff, 47ff.—Paul thinks of the β. as someth. that effects changes in pers. resulting in righteousness, peace (w. God) and joy Ro 14:17. It manifests itself in deeds, not in words 1 Cor 4:20. Those committed to sin will not inherit it 6:9f; Gal 5:21; Eph 5:5 (cp. 2 Cl 9:6); the latter passages show that for Paul the kgdm. is essentially future, since Christians await the complete victory of the spirit over the flesh. Cp. also 2 Ti 4:1. Flesh and blood will not inherit it, i.e. bodies under the direction of the spirit of Christ are required for entrance 1 Cor 15:50 (JJeremias, NTS 2, ’56, 151–59). None other than God calls people into it 1 Th 2:12.—HJWesterink, Het Koninkrijk Gods bij Pls ’37.—The most important lit. to 1931 in PFeine, Theol. d. NTs7 ’36, 73. Additional lit.: GGloege, Reich Gs u. Kirche im NT 1929; RFrick, D. Gesch. des R.-Gs-Gedankens in d. alten Kirche 1929; EScott, The Kgdm. of God in the NT ’31; H-DWendland, Reichsidee u. Gottesreich ’34; ROtto, Reich Gottes u. Menschensohn ’34 (Eng. tr., The Kgdm. of God and the Son of Man, tr. Filson and Woolf, ’43 and ’51); TW I 562–95; WKümmel, D. Eschatologie der Evangelien ’36, Verheissg. u. Erfüllg. ’45 and ’53; JHéring, Le Royaume de Dieu et sa Venue (Jesus, Paul) ’38 and ’59; JTheissing, D. Lehre Jesu v. d. ew. Seligkeit ’40; FGrant, The Gospel of the Kgdm. ’40; JWellhagen, Anden och Riket ’41 (Lk); WMichaelis, D. Herr verzieht nicht d. Verheissung ’42; RLiechtenhan, D. Kommen des RGs nach dem NT ’44; GKnight, From Moses to Paul, ’49, 173–87; WArndt, CTM 21, ’50, 8–29; JBright, The Kgdm. of God: The Biblical Concept and Its Mng. for the Church ’53; RSchnackenburg, Gottes Herrschaft u. Reich,4 ’65, tr. JMurray,2 ’68; ELadd, Jesus and the Kgdm., ’64; NPerrin, The Kgdm. of God in the Teaching of Jesus, ’66; MWolter, NTS 41, ’95, 541–63 [Lk].—OT background: WSchmidt, Königtum Gottes in Ugarit u. Israel, ’61; KBernhardt, D. Problem der altorientalischen Königs-Ideologie im AT, VetusT Suppl. 8, ’61.—Patristics: GLampe, JTS 49, ’48, 58–73.
    territory ruled by a king, kingdom (Diod S 4, 68, 4; Appian, Mithrid. 105 §496 ἡ βας. ὅλη=the whole kingdom; OGI 383, 25 [I B.C.]; Ps 67:33; 134:11; Bar 2:4; Tob 1:21; 1 Macc 1:6; 3:27; 2 Macc 9:25; 3 Macc 6:24 al. LXX) Mt 12:25f; 24:7; Mk 3:24; 6:23 (Socrat., Ep. 1, 10 τ. βασιλείας μέρος διδόναι); 13:8; Lk 11:17f; 21:10; αἱ β. τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου IRo 6:1. In the account of the temptation Mt 4:8; Lk 4:5 (in a manner very different from Jesus, Alexander [Diod S 17, 51, 2] asks his father, Zeus Ammon, for τὴν ἁπάσης τῆς γῆς ἀρχήν and finds a hearing).—EDNT. DELG s.v. βασιλεύς. M-M. TW. Spicq. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > βασιλεία

  • 7 γενεαλογία

    γενεαλογία, ας, ἡ (s. prec.; Pla., Crat. 396c; Polyb. 9, 2, 1; Dionys. Hal. 1, 11; TestSol D 1:12; Philo, Congr. Erud. Gr. 44; Jos., Ant. 11, 71, C. Ap. 1, 16) an account of ancestry: genealogy 1 Ti 1:4 (for the combination w. μῦθοι cp. FGrH I 47f, in reference to myths cast in genealogical form, as in Hesiod; Polyb., loc. cit. περὶ τὰς γενεαλογίας καὶ μύθους; Julian, Or. 7, 205c); Tit 3:9, since Irenaeus 1 praef.; Tertullian, Praescr. Haer. 33, it has oft. been interpr. as referring to Gnostic teachings, esp. groups of Aeons; s. MDibelius, comm. Hermeneia ser. ad loc.—The interpr. which holds that the errors in question have a Jewish background and involve rabbinical speculation begins w. Ambrosiaster and Jerome, and is more or less favored by GKittel, D. γενεαλογίαι d. Past.: ZNW 20, 1921, 49–69; JJeremias4 ’47 ad loc.; RAC IX 1145–1268.—M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > γενεαλογία

  • 8 δέκατος

    δέκατος, η, ον (s. δέκα and next entry; Hom.+)
    pert. to being tenth in a series, tenth (ordinal number) a precious gem Rv 21:20; ὄρος Hs 9, 1, 9; 9, 27, 1; hour (prob.=4 P.M.; 3 Macc 5:14) J 1:39; Ac 19:9 D.
    pert. to being a tenth part of someth., part, as subst. (sc. μέρις)
    gener. τὸ δ. a tenth (part) (Appian, Ital. 8 §2; Lucian, Sat. 14; Ex 16:36; Lev 5:11 al.; Philo, Congr. Erud. Gr. 102) Rv 11:13.
    specific ἡ δεκάτη a tenth of someth. offered for a specific purpose tenth part, tithe (Simonides 106b Diehl2; Hdt. 2, 135; 4, 152) of booty (Maximus Tyr. 24, 5b [for the gods from the spoils of war]) Hb 7:2, 4 (Gen 14:20). Of the gift of a tithe prescribed by the Jewish law (LXX; Ps.-Hecataeus: 264 Fgm. 21 [188] Jac. [in Jos., C. Ap. 1, 188]; Philo, Congr. Erud. Gr. 98 al.; Joseph.; cp. on sim. sacred gifts Diod S 20, 14, 2; IDelosChoix 5, 2 [Artemis]; SEG XXVIII, 1541 [III/II B.C.]; IG XI, 1243 [III/II B.C.]; PHib 115, 1 [c. 250 B.C.]; μόσχων δεκάτης; PTebt 307, 8; O. Wilck I 348f; s. SWallace, Taxation in Egypt, ’38, index) pl. (as Lysias 20, 24; 2 Esdr 22:44; 1 Macc 3:49; 10:31; 11:35; Jos., Ant. 14, 203) Hb 7:8f (δέκ. λαμβάνειν as Diod S 5, 42, 1; Ps.-Lucian, Salt. 21).—JBaumgarten, JBL 103, ’84, 245–51 (Hb. background for nonliteral use).—Kl. Pauly I 1438. DELG s.v. δέκα. M-M. New Docs 3, 65.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > δέκατος

  • 9 διαθήκη

    διαθήκη, ης, ἡ (Democr., Aristoph.+; ins, pap, LXX, En, TestSol, TestAbr, Test12Patr; ParJer 6:21; ApcEsdr, ApcMos; AssMos Fgm. a; Philo, Joseph., Just.; Mel., HE 4, 26, 14) apart from the simplex θήκη ‘case, chest’, for the mng. of this word one must begin with the mid. form of the verb διατίθεμαι, which is freq. used in legal and commercial discourse of disposition of things (s. L-S-J-M s.v. διατιθημι B), w. implication of promissory obligation. Disposition of one’s personal effects would naturally come under testamentary law, hence
    last will and testament (so exclusively in Hellenistic times, Eger [s. 3 below] 99 note; exx. e.g. in Riggenbach 292ff; Behm 10, 1; 2; Philo, Joseph., Test12Patr; loanw. in rabb.) Hb 9:16f; δ. κεκυρωμένη a will that has been ratified Gal 3:15; cp. 17, where δ. shades into mng. 2 (s. κυρόω 1, προκυρόω); s. also EBammel, below, and JSwetnam, CBQ 27, ’65, 373–90. On Jewish perspective s. RKatzoff, An Interpretation of PYadin 19—A Jewish Gift after Death: ProcXXCongPap 562–65.
    As a transl. of בְּרִית in LXX δ. retains the component of legal disposition of personal goods while omitting that of the anticipated death of a testator. A Hellenistic reader would experience no confusion, for it was a foregone conclusion that gods were immortal. Hence a δ. decreed by God cannot require the death of the testator to make it operative. Nevertheless, another essential characteristic of a testament is retained, namely that it is the declaration of one person’s initiative, not the result of an agreement betw. two parties, like a compact or a contract. This is beyond doubt one of the main reasons why the LXX rendered בְּרִית by δ. In the ‘covenants’ of God, it was God alone who set the conditions; hence covenant (s. OED s.v. ‘covenant’ sb. 7) can be used to trans. δ. only when this is kept in mind. So δ. acquires a mng. in LXX which cannot be paralleled w. certainty in extra-Biblical sources, namely ‘decree’, ‘declaration of purpose’, ‘set of regulations’, etc. Our lit., which is very strongly influenced by LXX in this area, seems as a rule to have understood the word in these senses (JHughes, NovT 21, ’79, 27–96 [also Hb 9:16–20; Gal 3:15–17]). God has issued a declaration of his purpose Ro 11:27 (Is 59:21); 1 Cl 15:4 (Ps 77:37); 35:7 (Ps 49:16), which God bears in mind (cp. Ps 104:8f; 105:45 al.) Lk 1:72; it goes back to ancestral days Ac 3:25 (PsSol 9:10; ParJer 6:21). God also issued an ordinance (of circumcision) 7:8 (cp. Gen 17:10ff). Since God’s holy will was set forth on more than one occasion (Gen 6:18; 9:9ff; 15:18; 17:2ff; Ex 19:5 and oft.), one may speak of διαθῆκαι decrees, assurances (cp. διαθῆκαι πατέρων Wsd 18:22; 2 Macc 8:15.—But the pl. is also used for a single testament: Diog. L. 4, 44; 5, 16. In quoting or referring to Theophr. sometimes the sing. [Diog. L. 5, 52; 56] is used, sometimes the pl. [5, 51; 57]) Ro 9:4; Eph 2:12. Much emphasis is laid on the δ. καινή, mentioned as early as Jer 38:31, which God planned for future disposition (Hb 8:8–10; 10:16). God’s decree or covenant directed toward the Christians is a καινὴ δ. (δ. δευτέρα Orig., C. Cels. 2, 75) Lk 22:20; 1 Cor 11:25; 2 Cor 3:6; Hb 8:8; 9:15a; PtK 2 p. 15, 5, or δ. νέα Hb 12:24; PtK 2 p. 15, 6 which, as a δ. αἰώνιος (cp. Jer 39:40; En 99:2) Hb 13:20, far excels 7:22; 8:6 the παλαιὰ δ. 2 Cor 3:14, or πρώτη δ. Hb 9:15b, with which it is contrasted. Both are mentioned (Did., Gen. 46, 4; 235, 26) Gal 4:24; B 4:6ff (Ex 34:28; 31:18; Just., D. 67, 9). Blood was shed when the old covenant was proclaimed at Sinai Hb 9:20 (Ex 24:8); the same is true of the new covenant Hb 10:29. τὸ αἷμά μου τ. διαθήκης Mt 26:28; Mk 14:24 (ELohse, Märtyrer u. Gottesknecht2, ’63, 122–29) is prob. to be understood in connection w. this blood (s. WWrede, ZNW 1, 1900, 69–74; TRobinson, My Blood of the Covenant: KMarti Festschr. 1925, 232–37; for a critique of this view s. GWalther, Jesus, D. Passalamm des Neuen Bundes, ’50, 22–27 and JJeremias TLZ, ’51, 547. For Syriac background JEmerton, JTS 13, ’62, 111–17; s. also ÉDelebrecque, Études grecques sur l’vangile de Luc ’76, 109–21).—The v.l. Lk 22:29 may be derived from Jer 39:40 or Is 55:3 LXX (for the cognate acc. s. Aristoph., Aves 440).—δ. may also be transl. decree in the Ep. of Barnabas (4:6ff; 6:19; 9:6; 13:1, 6; 14:1ff δ. δοῦναί τινι); but the freq. occurrence of the idea of inheritance (6:19; 13:1, 6; 14:4f), makes it likely that the ‘decree’ is to be thought of as part of a will.
    The mng. compact, contract seems firmly established for Gr-Rom. times (FNorton, A Lexicographical and Historical Study of Διαθήκη, Chicago 1908, 31ff; EBruck, D. Schenkung auf d. Todesfall im griech. u. röm. Recht I 1909, 115ff; JWackernagel, D. Kultur d. Gegenw. I 82 1907, 309). It remains doubtful whether this mng. has influenced our lit. here and there (exc. quite prob. Lk 22:29 v.l. with its administrative tenor; the phrase διατίθεμαι δ. as Aristoph., Av. 440 of a treaty agreement), but the usage of the term δ. in such sense would again serve as a bridge to LXX usage.—The expr. ἡ κιβωτὸς τ. διαθήκης covenant chest i.e. the sacred box (Eng. ‘ark’ as loanw. from Lat. arca) that symbolized God’s pledge of presence w. Israel (Ex 31:7; 39:14 al.) Hb 9:4; Rv 11:19 or αἱ πλάκες τ. διαθ. (Ex 34:28; Dt 9:9, 11) Hb 9:4 would have required some acquaintance with Israelite tradition on the part of ancient readers.—ERiggenbach, D. Begriff d. Διαθήκη im Hb: Theol. Stud. f. TZahn 1908, 289ff, Hb2 1922, 205ff al.; ACarr, Covenant or Testament?: Exp. 7th ser., 7, 1909, 347ff; JBehm, D. Begriff D. im NT 1912; ELohmeyer, Diatheke 1913; WFerguson, Legal Terms Common to the Macedonian Inscr. and the NT, 1913, 42–46 (testamentary exhibits); HKennedy, Exp. 8th ser., 10, 1915, 385ff; GVos, Hebrews, the Epistle of the Diatheke: PTR 13, 1915, 587–632; 14, 1916, 1–61; OEger, ZNW 18, 1918, 84–108; EBurton, ICC Gal 1921, 496–505; LdaFonseca, Διαθήκη foedus an testamentum?: Biblica 8, 1927; 9, 1928; EBammel, Gottes διαθήκη (Gal 3:15–17) u. d. jüd. Rechtsdenken, NTS 6, ’60, 313–19; NDow, A Select Bibliography on the Concept of Covenant, Austin Seminary Bulletin 78, 6, ’63; CRoetzel, Biblica 51, ’70, 377–90 (Ro 9:4); DMcCarthy, Berit and Covenant (Deut.), ’72, 65–85; EChristiansen, The Covenant in Judaism and Paul ’95.—DELG s.v. θήκη. M-M. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > διαθήκη

  • 10 δόξα

    δόξα, ης, ἡ (s. δοξάζω; in var. mngs. Hom.+; in Ath. ‘meaning’). In many of the passages in our lit. the OT and Gr-Rom. perceptions of dependence of fame and honor on extraordinary performance deserve further exploration. SIG 456, 15 is typical: concern for others leads to enhancement of one’s δόξα or reputation. The Common Gk. usage of δ. in sense of ‘notion, opinion’ is not found in the NT.
    the condition of being bright or shining, brightness, splendor, radiance (a distinctive aspect of Hb. כָּבוֹד).
    of physical phenomena (PGM 13, 189 τὴν δόξαν τοῦ φωτός, cp. 298ff. On this Rtzst., Mysterienrel.3 357ff, also 314 δόξα ἐκ τ. πυρός [cp. Just., D. 128]; 315 φῶς κ. δόξαν θεῖαν [=Cleopatra 150]; LXX; TestJob 43:6 τῆ λαμπάδα αὐτοῦ) οὐκ ἐνέβλεπον ἀπὸ τῆς δ. τοῦ φωτός I could not see because of the brightness of the light Ac 22:11; ὁρᾶν τὴν δ. see the radiance Lk 9:32; cp. vs. 31. Everything in heaven has this radiance: the radiant bodies in the sky 1 Cor 15:40f (cp. PGM 13, 64 σὺ ἔδωκας ἡλίῳ τὴν δόξαν κ. δύναμιν; 448; Sir 43:9, 12; 50:7).
    of humans involved in transcendent circumstances, and also transcendent beings: cherubim (Sir 49:8; Ezk 10:4) Hb 9:5; angels Lk 2:9; Rv 18:1. Esp. of God’s self (Ex 24:17; 40:34; Num 14:10; Bar 5:9 τὸ φῶς τῆς δόξης αὐτου; Tob 12:15; 13:16 BA; 2 Macc 2:8; SibOr 5, 427) ὁ θεὸς τῆς δ. (En 25:7) Ac 7:2 (Ps 28:3); cp. J 12:41 (Is 6:1); Ac 7:55; 2 Th 1:9; 2 Pt 1:17b; Rv 15:8; 19:1; 21:11, 23. ὁ πατὴρ τῆς δ. Eph 1:17; βασιλεὺς τῆς δ. AcPl BMM verso 24 and 26. But also of those who appear before God: Moses 2 Cor 3:7–11, 18 (Just., D. 127, 3; cp. Ἀδὰμ τῆς δ. θεοῦ ἐγυμνώθη GrBar 4:16); Christians in the next life 1 Cor 15:43; Col 3:4. The δόξα τοῦ θεοῦ as it relates to the final judgment Ro 3:23; 5:2 (but s. 3); Jesus himself has a σῶμα τῆς δ. radiant, glorious body Phil 3:21; cp. 2 Cl 17:5. Christ is the κύριος τ. δόξης 1 Cor 2:8 (cp. En 22:14; 27:3, 5; 36:4; 40:3 of God; PGM 7, 713 κύριοι δόξης of deities).—The concept has been widened to denote the glory, majesty, sublimity of God in general (PGM 4, 1202 ἐφώνησά σου τ. ἀνυπέρβλητον δόξαν; Orig., C. Cels. 4, 1, 24 οἰκοδομεῖν … ναὸν δόξης θεοῦ) ἀλλάσσειν τὴν δ. τοῦ θεοῦ exchange the majesty of God Ro 1:23; κατενώπιον τῆς δόξης αὐτοῦ Jd 24 (cp. En 104:1)=before himself. Christ was raised fr. the dead διὰ τῆς δ. τοῦ πατρός by the majesty (here, as in J 2:11, the thought of power, might is also present; cp. Rtzst., Mysterienrel.3 344, 359 and PGM 4, 1650 δὸς δόξαν καὶ χάριν τῷ φυλακτηρίῳ τούτῳ; Wsd 9:11 φυλάξει με ἐν τ. δόξῃ; Philo, Spec. Leg. 1, 45.—JVogel, Het sanscrit woord tejas [=gloedvuur] in de beteekenis van magische Kracht 1930) of the Father Ro 6:4; cp. Mt 16:27; Mk 8:38; AcPl Ha 10, 9; ὄψῃ τὴν δ. τοῦ θεοῦ J 11:40; κράτος τῆς δ. majestic power Col 1:11; πλοῦτος τῆς δ. the wealth of his glory Ro 9:23; Eph 1:18; cp. Eph 3:16; Phil 4:19; Col 1:27; δ. τῆς χάριτος (PGM 4, 1650, s. above) Eph 1:6; w. ἀρετή 2 Pt 1:3 (τῆς ἐπʼ ἀρετῇ καὶ δόξῃ διαλήψεως, ins at Aphrodisias II, 14: ZPE 8, ’71, 186); ἀπαύγασμα τῆς δ. Hb 1:3; τὴν ἐπιφάνειαν τῆς δ. τοῦ μεγάλου θεοῦ Tit 2:13. Some would classify Ro 2:7, 10 here, but these and related pass. w. the formulation δόξα καὶ τιμή prob. are better placed in 3 below because of their focus on honor and prestige. Doxol. σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ δ. εἰς τ. αἰῶνας, ἀμήν (Odes 12:15 [Prayer of Manasseh]) Mt 6:13 v.l.; AcPl Ha 2, 33; εἰς ἔπαινον τῆς δ. αὐτοῦ Eph 1:12, 14; cp. 1:6.—1 Th 2:12; 1 Pt 5:10. Pl. Hv 1, 3, 3. κατὰ τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τῆς δ. τοῦ μακαρίου θεοῦ 1 Ti 1:11. Transferred to Christ: Mt 19:28; 24:30; 25:31; Mk 10:37; 13:26; Lk 9:26; 21:27; J 1:14; 2:11; Js 2:1 (AMeyer, D. Rätsel d. Js 1930, 118ff); B 12:7; AcPl Ha 7:7. τὸν φωτισμὸν τοῦ εὐαγγελίου τῆς δ. τοῦ χριστοῦ the news that shines with the greatness of Christ 2 Cor 4:4; cp. 4:6 (cp. Just., A I, 51, 8 παραγίνεσθαι μετὰ δόξης μέλλει). Of Christ’s prestige promoted by Paul’s associates 2 Cor 8:23 (but s. d and 3 below).
    The state of being in the next life is thus described as participation in the radiance or glory
    α. w. ref. to Christ: εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὴν δ. αὐτοῦ enter into his glory Lk 24:26 (βασιλείαν P75 first hand); ἀνελήμφθη ἐν δ. 1 Ti 3:16; cp. τὰς μετὰ ταῦτα δ.1 Pt 1:11 (but s. β below; pl. because of the παθήματα; cp. also Wsd 18:24; Isocr. 4, 51; POslo 85, 13 [III A.D.]), 21. ἐν τῇ ἀποκαλύψει τῆς δ. αὐτοῦ 4:13. Also of Christ’s preëxistence: J 17:5, 22, 24.
    β. w. ref. to his followers (cp. Da 12:13; Herm. Wr. 10, 7): Ro 8:18, 21; 1 Cor 2:7; 2 Cor 4:17; 1 Th 2:12; 2 Th 2:14; 2 Ti 2:10; Hb 2:10; 1 Pt 5:1, 4 (στέφανος τ. δόξης; on this expr. cp. Jer 13:18; TestBenj 4:1); εἰς … δ. καὶ τιμὴν ἐν ἀποκαλύψει Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ 1 Pt 1:7 (perh. 1:11 belongs here, in ref. to sufferings that are endured in behalf of Christ). πνεῦμα τῆς δ. w. πν. τοῦ θεοῦ 4:14. ἵνα πνευματικὴν καὶ ἄφθαρτον τῆς δικαιοσύνης δόξαν κληρονομήσωσιν ending of Mk 16:14 v.l. (Freer ms. ln. 11f) (Cleopatra 146f ἐνέδυσεν αὐτοὺς θείαν δόξαν πνευματικήν); ἥτις ἐστὶν δ. ὑμῶν (my troubles) promote your glory Eph 3:13 (s. MDibelius, comm. on Col 1:24ff) τόπος τῆς δ.=the hereafter 1 Cl 5:4.
    of reflected radiance reflection ἀνὴρ … εἰκὼν καὶ δόξα θεοῦ man (as distinguished from woman) is the image and reflection of God 1 Cor 11:7 (perh. this thought finds expression Ro 3:23; 5:2, but s. 3, below); also γυνὴ δόξα ἀνδρός ibid. (cp. the formal similarity but difft. mng. in the Jewish ins in Lietzmann comm. ad loc.: ἡ δόξα Σωφρονίου Λούκιλλα εὐλογημένη; s. also AFeuillet, RB 81, ’74, 161–82). Some interpret δ. Χριστοῦ 2 Cor 8:23 in ref. to Paul’s associates (but s. 1b).
    a state of being magnificent, greatness, splendor, anything that catches the eye (1 Esdr 6:9; 1 Macc 10:60, 86; 2 Macc 5:20): fine clothing (Sir 6:31; 27:8; 45:7; 50:11) of a king Mt 6:29; Lk 12:27; of royal splendor gener. (Bar 5:6; 1 Macc 10:58; Jos., Ant. 8, 166) Mt 4:8; Lk 4:6; Rv 21:24, 26. Gener. of human splendor of any sort 1 Pt 1:24 (Is 40:6).
    honor as enhancement or recognition of status or performance, fame, recognition, renown, honor, prestige (s. s.v. ἀγαθός and δικαιο-entries; Diod S 15, 61, 5 abs. δόξα= good reputation; Appian, Bell. Civ. 2, 89 §376 δ. ἀγαθή good reputation, esteem; Polyaenus 8 Prooem. δόξα ἀθάνατος=eternal renown; Herm. Wr. 14, 7; PsSol 1:4; 17:6; Jos., Ant. 4, 14, Vi. 274; Just., A II, 10, 8 δόξης … καταφρονήσαντος) of public approbation (cp. Orig., C. Cels. 7, 24, 1; Did., Gen. 238, 25) ἐνώπιον πάντων τῶν συνανακειμένων σοι Lk 14:10; δ. λαμβάνειν (En 99:1; Diog. L. 9, 37 of Democr. οὐκ ἐκ τόπου δόξαν λαβεῖν βουλόμενος) J 5:41, 44a al.; sim. of God Rv 4:11 and the Lamb 5:12 receiving honor. J 8:54 (=make high claims for myself); 12:43a (cp. 8:50); Ro 9:4; 2 Cor 6:8 (opp. ἀτιμία); 1 Th 2:6; 1 Cl 3:1; B 19:3; Hv 1, 1, 8. Gener. γυνὴ … ἐὰν κομᾷ, δόξα αὐτῇ ἐστιν, i.e. she enjoys a favorable reputation 1 Cor 11:15 (opp. ἀτιμία). Oxymoron ὧν … ἡ δόξα ἐν τῇ αἰσχύνῃ αὐτῶν whose prestige is in their disgrace Phil 3:19. Of enhancement of divine prestige as an objective J 7:18; Lazarus’ illness redounds to God’s honor 11:4; Ro 15:7. Of divine approbation of pers. δ. τοῦ θεοῦ J 5:44b; 12:43b (cp. 1QH 17:15; 1QS 4:23); Ro 3:23; 5:2. Here also belong pass. w. the form δὸξα καὶ τιμή / τιμὴ καὶ δόξα (LXX; ins, e.g. OGI 223, 12; 244, 19f; 763, 37; Welles 42, 6; also PGM 4, 1616f δὸς δ. καὶ τιμὴν κ. χάριν; Just., D. 42, 1) Ro 2:7, 10; 1 Ti 1:17; Hb 2:7, 9 (Ps 8:6); cp. 3:3; 1 Pt 1:7; 2 Pt 1:17; Rv 4:9, 11; 5:12, 13; 21:26. Of pers. who bestow renown through their excellence: of Jesus Lk 2:32 (cp. Ro 9:4); of Paul’s epistolary recipients ὑμεῖς ἡ δ. ἡμῶν you bring us renown 1 Th 2:20 (cp. the Jewish ins in Lietzmann, 1d above: Loucilla brings renown to Sophronius).—Israel’s liturgy furnishes the pattern for the liturg. formula δ. θεῷ praise is (BWeiss; HHoltzmann; Harnack; Zahn; EKlostermann; ASchlatter; Rengstorf) or be (Weizsäcker; JWeiss; OHoltzmann) to God Lk 2:14. Cp. 19:38; Ro 11:36; 16:27; Gal 1:5; Eph 3:21; Phil 4:20; 2 Ti 4:18 (perh. Christ as referent); Hb 13:21; 1 Pt 4:11; 1 Cl 20:12; 50:7 al.; τιμὴ καὶ δ. 1 Ti 1:17 (s. also above as extra-biblical formulation, esp. OGI 223, 12; 244, 19f; 763, 37); cp. Jd 25 v.l.; Rv 5:13; 7:12. Doxologies to Christ 2 Pt 3:18; Rv 1:6; εἰς (τὴν) δ. (τοῦ) θεοῦ to the praise of God Ro 15:7; 1 Cor 10:31; 2 Cor 4:15; Phil 1:11; 2:11; cp. Ro 3:7. Also πρὸ δ. 2 Cor 1:20; πρὸ τὴν αὐτοῦ τοῦ κυρίου (Christ) δ. 8:19. Hence the expr. δ. διδόναι τῷ θεῷ praise God (Bar 2:17f; 1 Esdr 9:8; 4 Macc 1:12): in thanksgiving Lk 17:18; Rv 19:7; as a form of relig. devotion: Ac 12:23; Ro 4:20; Rv 4:9; 11:13; 14:7; 16:9; as an adjuration δὸς δ. τῷ θεῷ give God the praise by telling the truth J 9:24.—GBoobyer, ‘Thanksgiving’ and the ‘Glory of God’ in Paul, diss. Leipzig 1929; LChampion, Benedictions and Doxologies in the Epistles of Paul ’35; MPamment, The Meaning of δόξα in the Fourth Gospel: ZNW 74, ’83, 12–16, God’s glory is manifested through the gift of Jesus’ voluntary self-surrender on the cross.
    a transcendent being deserving of honor, majestic being, by metonymy (cp. Diod S 15, 58, 1 of citizens who stood out from among all others in ἐξουσίαι καὶ δόξαι=offices and honors) of angelic beings (s. Philo, Spec. Leg. 1, 45; PGM 1, 199) δόξαι majestic (heavenly) beings Jd 8; 2 Pt 2:10 (s. also Ex 15:11 LXX; TestJud 25:2 αἱ δυνάμεις τ. δόξης. Also the magical text in Rtzst., Poim. p. 28 [VI 17] χαιρέτωσάν σου αἱ δόξαι (practically = δυνάμει) εἰς αἰῶνα, κύριε). Cp. JSickenberger, Engelsoder Teufelslästerer? Festschrift zur Jahrhundertfeier d. Univers. Breslau 1911, 621ff. The mng. majesties and by metonymy illustrious persons is also prob.—On the whole word Rtzst., Mysterienrel.3 289; 314f; 344; 355ff; AvGall, D. Herrlichkeit Gottes 1900; IAbrahams, The Glory of God 1925.—AForster, The Mng. of Δόξα in the Greek Bible: ATR 12, 1929/1930, 311ff; EOwen, Δόξα and Cognate Words: JTS 33, ’32, 139–50; 265–79; CMohrmann, Note sur doxa: ADebrunner Festschr. ’54, 321–28; LBrockington, LXX Background to the NT Use of δ., Studies in the Gospels in memory of RLightfoot ’55, 1–8.—HBöhlig, D. Geisteskultur v. Tarsos 1913, 97ff; GWetter, D. Verherrlichung im Joh.-ev.: Beitr. z. Rel.-wiss. II 1915, 32–113, Phos 1915; RLloyd, The Word ‘Glory’ in the Fourth Gospel: ET 43, ’32, 546–48; BBotte, La gloire du Christ dans l’Evangile de S. Jean: Quest. liturgiques 12, 1927, 65ff; HPass, The Glory of the Father; a Study in St John 13–17, ’35; WThüsing, Die Erhöhung u. Verherrlichung Jesu im J, ’60.—GKittel, D. Rel. gesch. u. d. Urchristentum ’32, 82ff; JSchneider, Doxa ’32; HKittel, D. Herrlichkeit Gottes ’34; MGreindl, Κλεος, Κυδος, Ευχος, Τιμη, Φατις, Δοξα, diss. Munich ’38; AVermeulen, Semantic Development of Gloria in Early-Christian Latin ’56.—RAC IV 210–16; XI 196–225.—B. 1144f. DELG s.v. δοκάω etc. II p. 291. Schmidt, Syn. I 321–28, s. δοκέω. M-M. EDNT. TW. Spicq. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > δόξα

  • 11 εὐχαριστία

    εὐχαριστία, ας, ἡ (s. prec. entry; since Hippocr. Comp. II 87f. Ps.-Menand. Fgm. 693 Kock; ins; PLond III, 1178, 25 p. 216 [194 A.D.]; LXX; Philo, Joseph., Just., Did.).
    the quality of being grateful, with implication of appropriate attitude, thankfulness, gratitude (an important component of Gr-Rom. reciprocity; s. decrees of the Byzantines in Demosth. 18, 91 [s. εὐχαριστέω 1]; Polyb. 8, 12, 8; Diod S 17, 59, 7; OGI 227, 6; 199, 31 [I A.D.] ἔχω πρὸς τ. μέγιστον θεόν μου Ἄρην εὐχαριστίαν; BGU 1764, 21 [I B.C.]; 2 Macc 2:27; Esth 8:12d; Philo, Leg. All. 1, 84) μετὰ πάσης εὐ. (cp. Orig., C. Cels. 7, 46, 8) with all gratitude Ac 24:3.
    the expression or content of gratitude, the rendering of thanks, thanksgiving (SIG 798, 5 [c. 37 A.D.] εἰς εὐχαριστίαν τηλικούτου θεοῦ εὑρεῖν ἴσας ἀμοιβάς; Wsd 16:28; Sir 37:11; Philo, Spec. Leg. 1, 224; Jos., Ant. 1, 156; 2, 346; 3, 65; 4, 212) abs. Eph 5:4 (s. OCasel, BZ 18, 1929, 84f, who, after Origen, equates εὐχαριστία w. εὐχαριτία=‘the mark of fine training’). τῷ θεῷ toward God 2 Cor 9:11. μετὰ εὐχαριστίας with thanksgiving (Philo, Spec. Leg. 1, 144) Phil 4:6; 1 Ti 4:3f; ἐν εὐ. Col 4:2. περισσεύειν ἐν εὐ. overflow w. thanksg. 2:7; περισσεύειν τὴν εὐ. increase the thanksg. 2 Cor 4:15. εὐχαριστίαν τῷ θεῷ ἀνταποδοῦναι περὶ ὑμῶν render thanks to God for you 1 Th 3:9. Also εὐ. διδόναι (Theodor. Prodr. 8, 414 H. θεοῖς) Rv 4:9. Esp. prayer of thanksgiving (Herm. Wr. 1, 29) 1 Cor 14:16; Rv 7:12. Pl. 2 Cor 9:12; 1 Ti 2:1.
    the observance and elements of the Eucharist, Lord’s Supper, Eucharist ποτήριον τῆς εὐχ. 1 Cor 10:16 v.l.—D 9:1, 5 JClabeaux, in: Prayers fr. Alexander to Constantine, ed. MKiley, ’97, 260–66; IEph 13:1; IPhld 4; ISm 8:1. W. προσευχή 7:1. Cp. Just., A I, 65, 3; 66, 1; Orig., C. Cels. 57, 20; RKnopf, Hdb. on D 9:1.—JRéville, Les origines de l’Eucharistie 1908; MGoguel, L’Euch. des origines à Justin mart. 1909; FWieland, D. vorirenäische Opferbegriff 1909; GLoeschcke, Zur Frage nach der Einsetzung u. Herkunft der Eucharistie: ZWT 54, 1912, 193–205; ALoisy, Les origines de la Cène euch.: Congr. d’Hist. du Christ. I 1928, 77–95. GMacGregor, Eucharistic Origins 1929; KGoetz, D. Ursprung d. kirchl. Abendmahls 1929; HHuber, D. Herrenmahl im NT, diss. Bern 1929; WGoossens, Les origines de l’Euch. ’31; RHupfeld, D. Abendmahlsfeier, ihr ursprüngl. Sinn usw., ’35; JJeremias, D. Abendmahlsworte Jesu ’35, 2’49, 3’60 (Eng. tr., The Eucharistic Words of Jesus, AEhrhardt ’55; s. also KKuhn, TLZ 75, ’50, 399–408), D. paul. Abdm.—eine Opferdarbietung?: StKr 108, ’37, 124–41; AArnold, D. Ursprung d. Chr. Abdmahls ’37, 2’39; LPoot, Het oudchristelijk Avondmaal ’36; ELohmeyer, D. Abdm. in d. Urgem.: JBL 56, ’37, 217–52; EKäsemann, D. Abdm. im NT: Abdm. gemeinschaft? ’37, 60–93; HSasse, D. Abdm. im NT: V. Sakr. d. Altars ’41, 26–78; EGaugler, D. Abdm. im NT ’43; NJohansson, Det urkristna nattvardsfirandet ’44; ESchweizer, D. Abdm. eine Vergegenwärtigung des Todes Jesu od. e. eschatalogisches Freudenmahl?: TZ 2, ’46, 81–101; TPreiss, TZ 4, ’48, 81–101 (Eng. tr., Was the Last Supper a Paschal Meal? in Life in Christ, chap. 5, ’54, 81–99); F-JLeenhardt, Le Sacrement de la Sainte Cène, ’48; GWalther, Jesus, das Passalamm des Neuen Bundes usw., ’50; RBultmann, Theol. of the NT (tr. KGrobel), ’51, I, 144–52; AHiggins, The Lord’s Supper in the NT, ’52; OCullmann, Early Christian Worship (transl. ATodd and JTorrance), ’53; HLessig, D. Abendmahlsprobleme im Lichte der NTlichen Forschung seit 1900, diss. Bonn, ’53; ESchweizer, TLZ 79, ’54, 577–92 (lit.); GBornkamm, Herrenmahl u. Kirche bei Paulus, NTS 2, ’55/56, 202–6; CMoule, The Judgment Theme in the Sacraments, in Background of the NT and Its Eschatology (CDodd Festschr.) ’56, 464–81; MBlack, The Arrest and Trial of Jesus and the Date of the Last Supper, in NT Essays (TManson memorial vol.) ’59, 19–33; PNeuenzeit, Das Herrenmahl, ’60; The Eucharist in the NT, five essays tr. fr. French by EStewart, ’64; EKilmartin, The Eucharist in the Primitive Church, ’65; BIersel, NovT 7, ’64/65, 167–94; HBraun, Qumran II, ’66, 29–54; JAudet, TU 73, ’59, 643–62; HSchürmann, D. Paschamahlbericht, ’53, D. Einsetzungsbericht, ’55, Jesu Abschiedsrede, ’57 (all Lk 22); HPatsch, Abendmahl u. Historischer Jesus, ’72; FHahn RGG4, I, 10–15 (NT); CMarkschies, ibid., 15–21 (early church). S. also the lit. on ἀγάπη 2.—M-M. TW.

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  • 12 θερισμός

    θερισμός, οῦ, ὁ (s. θερίζω; X., Oec. 18, 3; Polyb. 5, 95, 5; PLille 1 verso, 9 [III B.C.]; PHib 90, 5; BGU 594, 5; LXX; JosAs 2:19 καιρὸς … θερισμοῦ; EpArist 116; Philo, Somn. 2, 23)
    the process (and time) of harvesting, harvest. ἕως τ. θερισμοῦ Mt 13:30a. ἐν καιρῷ τ. θερισμοῦ vs. 30b (cp. Jer 27:16 ἐν καιρῷ θ.); Mk 4:29. In these parables, θερισμός serves to explain procedures in the reign of God, as Mt 13:39 plainly shows. Harvest-time as background for discussion of the apostolic mission and approaching judgment J 4:35a (s. 2b).
    crop to be harvested, harvest fig. extension of mng. 1
    of persons to be won Mt 9:37f; Lk 10:2. In J 4:35b the evangelist may be combining an agricultural observation with a statement about the apostolic mission πρὸς θερισμόν in pass. sense of undergoing a reaping.
    of the approaching judgment ἐξηράνθη ὁ θ. τῆς γῆς the earth’s harvest is dry (=fully ripe) Rv 14:15.—DELG s.v. θέρομαι 2. M-M. TW.

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  • 13 καινός

    καινός, ή, όν (Aeschyl., Hdt.+; ins, pap, LXX, TestSol; TestAbr A 7 p. 84, 27 [Stone p. 16]; Test12Patr; JosAs 14:13 and 15; Philo, Joseph., Just., Mel.) comp. καινότερος; prim. sense ‘new’.
    pert. to being in existence for a relatively short time, new, unused (X., Hell. 3, 4, 28; PGM 36, 265; Judg 15:13; 2 Km 6:3; 4 Km 2:20) ἀσκοί wineskins (Josh 9:13) Mt 9:17; Mk 2:22; Lk 5:38. ἱμάτιον (Artem. 2, 3 p. 86, 3; 3 Km 11:29f) vs. 36. μνημεῖον Mt 27:60; J 19:41 (w. ἐν ᾧ οὐδέπω οὐδεὶς ἦν τεθειμένος added). τὸ κ. the new piece=πλήρωμα Mk 2:21; Lk 5:36. καινὰ καὶ παλαιά Mt 13:52 (perh. with ref. to coins; cp. PGrenf II, 74, 9; 77, 7f).
    pert. to being not previously present, unknown, strange, remarkable, also w. the connotation of the marvelous or unheard-of (Pla., Apol. 24c; X., Mem. 1, 1, 1 ἕτερα καὶ καινὰ δαιμόνια; Just., A I, 15, 9; Orig., C. Cels. 1 58, 15) διδαχή Mk 1:27; Ac 17:19. ἐντολή (κ. νόμος: Menand., Fgm. 238, 3 Kö.; Diod S 13, 34, 6) J 13:34; 1J 2:7f (Polyaenus 2, 1, 13 οὐ καινοὺς νόμους … ἀλλὰ τ. παλαιούς); 2J 5. ὄνομα (Is 62:2; 65:15) Rv 2:17 (here w. ὸ̔ οὐδεὶς οἶδεν εἰ μὴ ὁ λαμβάνων, perh. as antidote to adversarial magic); 3:12. ᾠδή 5:9 (Ps 143:9; cp. Is 42:10; Ps 32:3; 39:4.—Philo, Vi. Cont. 80 ὕμνος κ. [opp. ἀρχαῖος]); 14:3. γλῶσσαι Mk 16:17. κ. γένος of Christians Dg 1. θεώρημα AcPl Ox 6, 1f (διήγημα Aa I, 241, 11). θέαμα GJs 19:2f (Mel., P. 19, 127). Christ as ὁ κ. ἄνθρωπος the new kind of human being IEph 20:1. ἢ λέγειν τι ἢ ἀκούειν τι καινότερον either to hear or to say someth. quite new (=‘the latest thing’) Ac 17:21 (s. Kühner-G. II 306f; Norden, Agn. Th. 333ff [but s. HAlmqvist, Plutarch u. d. NT ’46, 79f, w. ref. to Plut.]; B-D-F §244, 2; Rdm. 70 and s. Demosth. 4, 10 ὦ ἄνδρες Ἀθηναῖοι … λέγεταί τι καινόν; γένοιτʼ ἄν τι καινότερον … ; also Theophr., Char. 8, 2; BGU 821, 6 [II A.D.] ὅταν ᾖ τι καινότερον, εὐθέως σοι δηλώσω; Simplicius, Coroll. De Tempore, in Aristot., Phys. p. 788, 36ff καινοτέραν ἐβάδισεν ὁδόν=he traveled a rather new road [of interpretation]; Jos., Ant. 14, 104; Iren. 1, 18, 1 [Harv. I 169, 3]).
    pert. to that which is recent in contrast to someth. old, new
    w. no criticism of the old implied (Herodas 4, 57 καινὴ Ἀθηναίη; Lucian, M. Peregr. 12 κ. Σωκράτης): of the Son of God or Logos, who is old and new at the same time Hs 9, 12, 1ff; Dg 11:4.
    in the sense that what is old has become obsolete, and should be replaced by what is new. In such a case the new is, as a rule, superior in kind to the old ἡ κ. διαθήκη the new covenant or declaration (Jer 38:31; Just., D. 11, 4 al.; Did., Gen. 46, 4; 156, 5) Mt 26:28 v.l.; Mk 14:24 v.l.; Lk 22:20; 1 Cor 11:25; 2 Cor 3:6; Hb 8:8 (Jer 38:31), 13; 9:15. κ. νόμος (Timocles Com. [IV B.C.] Fgm. 32, 4 κατὰ τὸν νόμον τ. καινόν; Just., D. 12, 3; Mel., P. 7, 46) B 2:6. λαὸς κ. 5:7; 7:5; cp. 15:7.—Esp. in eschatol. usage κ. οὐρανοί, κ. γῆ (Is 65:17; 66:22) 2 Pt 3:13; Rv 21:1; Ἰερουσαλὴμ καινή vs. 2; 3:12. καινὰ πάντα ποιεῖν 21:5. καινὸν πίνειν τὸ γένημα τῆς ἀμπέλου Mt 26:29; Mk 14:25.—Of the renewing of a pers. who has been converted κ. ἄνθρωπος Eph 4:24; Dg 2:1. κ. κτίσις a new creature 2 Cor 5:17a; cp. 17b (Ps.-Pla., Axioch. 11 p. 370e ἐκ τῆς ἀσθενείας ἐμαυτὸν συνείλεγμαι καὶ γέγονα καινός=out of weakness I have brought myself together and become new; cp. Orig., C. Cels. 6, 67, 33); Gal 6:15; cp. B 16:8. All the Christians together appear as κ. ἄνθρωπος Eph 2:15.—RHarrisville, The Concept of Newness in the NT, ’60; GSchneider, Καινὴ Κτίσις (Paul and background), diss. Trier, ’59, Neuschöpfung oder Wiederkehr? ’61. Qumran: DSwanson, A Covenant Just Like Jacob’s, The Covenant of 11QT 29 and Jeremiah’s New Covenant: New Qumran Texts and Studies, ed. GBrooke/FMartínez ’94, 273–86.—B. 957. Schmidt, Syn. II 94–123. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW. S. νεό.

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  • 14 καταργέω

    καταργέω fut. καταργήσω; 1 aor. κατήργησα; pf. κατήργηκα. Pass.: 1 fut. καταργηθήσομαι; 1 aor. κατηργήθην; pf. κατήργημαι (s. ἀργέω; since Eur., Phoen. 753; Polyb.; POxy 38, 7 [49/50 A.D.]; PFlor 176, 7; 218, 13; PStras 32, 7; 2 Esdr; TestSol [also PVindobBosw for 18:38]; AscIs 3:31; Just.).
    to cause someth. to be unproductive, use up, exhaust, waste of a tree κ. τὴν γῆν Lk 13:7 (cp. ἀργεῖ οὐδὲν ἀλλὰ καρποφορεῖ OdeSol 11:23).
    to cause someth. to lose its power or effectiveness, invalidate, make powerless fig. extension of 1 (so, above all, in Paul and the writings dependent on him; cp. Herm. Wr. 13, 7 κατάργησον τ. σώματος τὰς αἰσθήσεις; of the soul of Jesus: κ. τὰ ἐπὶ κολάσεσιν πάθη Iren. 1, 25, 1 [Harv. I 205, 4]) make ineffective, nullify τὴν πίστιν τοῦ θεοῦ God’s fidelity Ro 3:3. ἐπαγγελίαν Gal 3:17; cp. Ro 4:14; τὰ ὄντα κ. nullify the things that (actually) exist 1 Cor 1:28. τὸν νόμον make the law invalid Eph 2:15; cp. Ro 3:31 (RThompson, ETh 63, ’87, 136–48, on alleged rabbinic background; s. also ἵστημι A4). Also in B of the OT cultic ordinances, which have lost their validity for Christians 5:6; 9:4; 16:2.
    to cause someth. to come to an end or to be no longer in existence, abolish, wipe out, set aside τὶ someth. τὰ τοῦ νηπίου set aside childish ways 1 Cor 13:11. Of God or Christ: God will do away with both stomach and food 6:13; bring to an end πᾶσαν ἀρχήν, ἐξουσίαν, δύναμιν 15:24. τὸν ἄνομον 2 Th 2:8. τὸν καιρὸν τοῦ ἀνόμου put an end to the time of the lawless one (i.e., the devil) B 15:5. τὸν θάνατον break the power of death 2 Ti 1:10; B 5:6; pass. 1 Cor 15:26 (MDahl, The Resurrection of the Body [ 1 Cor 15], ’62, 117–19). τὸν τὸ κράτος ἔχοντα τοῦ θανάτου destroy the one who has power over death Hb 2:14. ἵνα καταργηθῇ τὸ σῶμα τ. ἁμαρτίας in order that the sinful body may be done away with Ro 6:6. In 2 Cor 3:14 the subject may be ἡ παλαιὰ διαθήκη or, more probably (despite some grammatical considerations), κάλυμμα; in the latter case the mng. is remove.—Pass. cease, pass away προφητεία, γνῶσις 1 Cor 13:8. τὸ ἐκ μέρους what is imperfect vs. 10. ἄρα κατήργηται τὸ σκάνδαλον τοῦ σταυροῦ the cross has ceased to be an obstacle Gal 5:11. πᾶς πόλεμος καταργεῖται every war is brought to an end IEph 13:2. καταργούμενος doomed to perish of the ἄρχοντες τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου 1 Cor 2:6. Of the radiance on Moses’ face 2 Cor 3:7. Subst. τὸ καταργούμενον what is transitory vss. 11, 13.
    to cause the release of someone from an obligation (one has nothing more to do with it), be discharged, be released. In our lit. pass. καταργοῦμαι ἀπό τινος of a woman upon the death of her husband κατήργηται ἀπὸ τοῦ νόμου τοῦ ἀνδρός Ro 7:2. Of Christians κ. ἀπὸ τοῦ νόμου be released fr. the law vs. 6. Of those who aspire to righteousness through the law κ. ἀπὸ Χριστοῦ be estranged from Christ Gal 5:4.—Frisk s.v. 2 ἀργός; also DELG s.v. ἔργον. M-M. EDNT. TW.

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  • 15 κατασπείρω

    κατασπείρω fut. κατασπερῶ, pass. κατασπαρήσομαι (LXX, TestSol) (s. σπείρω; Eur., Pla. et al.; LXX; TestSol 15:9) sow (upon) PEg2 69 (the Gk. proverbial expr. σπείρειν πόντον: Theognis 106 and 107; Ps.-Phocyl. 152, denoting an action that can hope for no results, may lie in the background here; cp. J 12:24).

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  • 16 καυχάομαι

    καυχάομαι (s. two next entries; Pind., Hdt.+) mid. dep.; 2 sing. καυχᾶσαι Ro 2:17, 23; 1 Cor 4:7 (s. Mayser 328; JWackernagel, TLZ 33, 1908, 639; Thackeray 218; Mlt-H. 198); fut. καυχήσομαι; 1 aor. ἐκαυχησάμην; pf. κεκαύχημαι. In our lit. restricted to Paul, except for two pass. each in Js and Ign., and one in 1 Cl (a quot. fr. the OT).
    to take pride in someth., boast, glory, pride oneself, brag, intr. (Sappho, Fgm. 26, 10 D.2) ἔν τινι in or about a person or thing (schol. on Apollon. Rhod. 3, 976 οἱ καυχώμενοι ἐν ἑτέρων διαβολαῖς; LXX; TestJud 13:2; ἐν τοῖς θεοῖς Theoph. Ant. 1, 1 [p. 58, 6].—B-D-F §196; s. Rob. 532) ἐν θεῷ Ro 2:17. ἐν τῷ θεῷ 5:11. ἐν κυρίῳ 1 Cor 1:31b; 2 Cor 10:17b; 1 Cl 13:1 (cp. on the three Jer 9:23). ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ Phil 3:3. ἐν ἀνθρώποις 1 Cor 3:21.—ἐν νόμῳ (cp. Sir 39:8) Ro 2:23; in afflictions 5:3; in the work of others 2 Cor 10:15; in weaknesses 12:9; in high position Js 1:9; in wisdom, etc. 1 Cl 13:1 (Jer 9:22f). ἐν τῇ ὑμετέρᾳ σαρκί Gal 6:13. ἐν τῷ σταυρῷ vs. 14. ἐν τῷ προσώπῳ κ., opp. ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ pride oneself on externals … on the heart 2 Cor 5:12. ἐν ᾧ καυχῶνται 11:12. On 2 Th 1:4 v.l. see ἐγκαυχάομαι.—The ἐν is to be taken somewhat differently Js 4:16 (s. ἀλαζονεία).—εἴς τι boast with regard to someth. 2 Cor 10:16. Differently εἰς τὰ ἄμετρα κ. boast beyond limit (s. ἄμετρος) vss. 13, 15.—ἐπί τινι based on someth., in someth. (Cratinus Com. [V B.C.] 95; Diod S 15, 6, 2 ἐπὶ τοῖς ποιήμασιν; 16, 70, 2; iambic poet in Ps.-Callisth. 2, 20, 11 ἐπὶ τέκνοισι; SIG 1268, 23 ἐπὶ ῥώμῃ; Ps 48:7) Ro 5:2 (JBover, Biblica 22, ’41, 41–45). ὑπέρ τινος on behalf of someone 2 Cor 12:5ab. κατά τι in accordance with someth. 2 Cor 11:18a.—ἐνώπιον τ. θεοῦ before God 1 Cor 1:29.—W. ὅτι foll. (Strabo 13, 1, 27) IPhld 6:3. (W. inf. TestJob 41:3; Just., D. 101, 1.)—Abs. (TestReub 3:5) 1 Cor 1:31a; 4:7; 2 Cor 10:17a; 11:18b, 30a; 12:1, 6, 11 v.l.; Eph 2:9; IPol 5:2.—1 Cor 13:3, a variety of witnesses have καυχήσωμαι (read by N. and defended e.g. by Harnack, SBBerlAk 1911, 139ff; Goodsp., Probs. 162–65; KClark, Studia Paulina [deZwaan Festschr.] ’53, 61f) instead of the v.l. καυθήσομαι, which is preferred by others (e.g., EPreuschen, ZNW 16, 1915, 127ff; JKElliott, ZNW 62, ’71, 297f; et al.).—S. καίω 2.
    to make a boast about someth., boast about, mention in order to boast of, be proud of, trans. τὶ someth. (Philemon Com. [IV–III B.C.], Fgm. 141 p. 521; Diod S 20, 63, 4) τὰ τῆς ἀσθενείας μου boast about my weaknesses 2 Cor 11:30b (cp. Pr 27:1 κ. τὰ εἰς αὔριον). τὶ περί τινος 10:8. τί τινι ὑπέρ τινος say someth. boastingly (or in pride) to someone concerning someone 7:14; 9:2 (here a ὅτι-clause defines τὶ more closely). μικρόν τι 11:16.—For Gr-Rom. cultural background on Paul’s theme of boasting in 2 Cor s. Plut., Mor. 539–547 ‘On Inoffensive Self-Praise’; FDanker, Augsburg Comm. on the NT: II Cor ’89, esp. 147–214; idem, Paul’s Debt to Demosthenes’ ‘De Corona’, in Persuasive Artistry [GKennedy Festschr.], ed. DWatson, ’91, 262–80; JLambrecht, Dangerous Boasting, Paul’s Self-Commendation in 2 Cor 10–13, in RBieringer, ed., The Corinthian Correspondence ’96, 325–46.—JBosch, ‘Gloriarse’ según San Pablo, Sentido y teologia de καυχάομαι, ’70. BDowdy, The Meaning of καυχᾶσθαι in the NT, diss. Vanderbilt ’55.—B. 1281. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW. Spicq.

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  • 17 κλητός

    κλητός, ή, όν (s. καλέω; Hom.; Aeschin. 2, 162; Aelian, NA 11, 12; PAmh 79, 5; LXX; Hippol., Ref. 5, 6, 7) pert. to being invited, called, invited to a meal (3 Km 1:41, 49; 3 Macc 5:14) in imagery of invitation to the kgdm. of God Mt 22:14 (=B 4:14); cp. 20:16 v.l.—Also without the figure consciously in the background called to God’s kgdm. κ. ἅγιοι saints who are called (by God) Ro 1:7; 1 Cor 1:2; cp. B 4:13 ὡς κλητοί.—Subst. (SibOr 8, 92) κλητοὶ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ called by Jesus Christ Ro 1:6 (for the gen. cp. 3 Km 1:49 οἱ κλητοὶ τοῦ Αδωνιου). τοῖς κλητοῖς μου ApcPtRainer 1. κατὰ πρόθεσιν κ. ὄντες called in accordance w. (God’s) purpose 8:28. οἱ κλητοί those who are called 1 Cor 1:24; Jd 1. οἱ μετʼ αὐτοῦ κλητοὶ κ. ἐκλεκτοὶ κ. πιστοί Rv 17:14. κ. ἡγιασμένοι ἐν θελήματι θεοῦ διὰ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰ. Χρ. those who are called and consecrated acc. to God’s will through our Lord Jesus Christ 1 Cl ins.—Of calling to an office: κ. ἀπόστολος called (by God) as an apostle Ro 1:1; 1 Cor 1:1.—DELG s.v. καλέω. M-M. TW.

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  • 18 κλῆρος

    κλῆρος, ου, ὁ (Hom.+; loanw. in rabb.)
    a specially marked object, such as a pebble, a piece of pottery, or a stick, used to decide someth., lot (Diod S 13, 34, 6 κλήρῳ=by lot) βάλλειν κ. (ἐπί τι) cast lots (for someth.) Mt 27:35; Mk 15:24; Lk 23:34; J 19:24; B 6:6 (Ps 21:19. The expr. as such is oft. found in LXX, also Jos., Ant. 6, 61; schol. on Soph., Antig. 275 p. 232 Papag.; cp. 1QS 6, 16–22). ἔπεσεν ὁ κ. ἐπί τινα the lot fell upon someone (Jon 1:7) Ac 1:26b. ἀνέβη ὁ κ. ἐπὶ Συμεών GJs 24:4. ἔδωκαν κλήρους αὐτοῖς they gave them (the candidates) lots vs. 26a. On this LThornton, JTS 46, ’45, 51–59. JLindblom, VetusT 12, ’62, 164–78 (OT background); WBeardslee, NovT 4, ’60, 245–52 (Qumran).
    that which is assigned by lot or simply given as a portion or share, portion, share (Pla.; Diod S 40, 3, 7 in connection with the distribution of the country conquered by the Jews; JosAs 10:1 Potiphar and his family go to their estate; ApcMos 22 τὰ φυτὰ … τοῦ κλήρου; Mitt-Wilck. I/1, pp. 280–83; Jos., Bell. 2, 83) esp. what comes to someone by divine grace (Ael. Aristid. 30, 23 K.=10 p. 123 D.; Hierocles 4, 426 ἀθάνατος κ.=the eternal portion bestowed by the gods; LXX) λαγχάνειν τὸν κ. τῆς διακονίας ταύτης Ac 1:17 (cp. κλῆρον τῆς ἐπισκοπῆς ἔχειν Iren. 1, 27, 1 [Harv. I 215, 1]); cp. vs. 25 v.l. λαβεῖν κ. ἐν τοῖς ἡγιασμένοις receive a place among God’s holy people 26:18 (cp. Wsd 5:5 ἐν ἁγίοις ὁ κ. αὐτοῦ). μερίς and κλῆρος together (schol. on Apollon. Rhod. 1, 1082a; Dt 10:9; 12:12 al.; Is 57:6) οὐκ ἔστιν σοι μερὶς οὐδὲ κ. ἐν τῷ λόγῳ τούτῳ you have neither part nor share in this matter 8:21. μερὶς τοῦ κ. τῶν ἁγίων ἐν τῷ φωτί a share in the inheritance of God’s people in (the realm of) light Col 1:12 (cp. 1QH 11, 11f). καὶ κλῆρον καὶ μερισμὸν λαμβάνοντες ὑπὸ πνεύματος τοῦ Χριστοῦ receiving a portion and share through the spirit of Christ AcPl Ha 8, 18/Ox 1602, 22f=BMM recto 23f (of prophets). κ. Ἐφεσίων the class of the Ephesians IEph 11:2.—1 Pt 5:3 the κλῆροι seem to denote the ‘flock’ as a whole, i.e. the various parts of the people of God which have been assigned as ‘portions’ to individual elders or shepherds (of the various portions that combine to form a whole: Simplicius in Epict. p. 71, 10, where the κλῆροι of good and evil [acc. to the teaching of those who assume two original principles] are differentiated ἐξ ἀϊδίου [eternally]). Cp. Goppelt, KEK ad loc.
    someth. that inevitably happens, lot, destiny esp. of martyrs τὸν ἴδιον κ. ἀπαρτίζειν fulfill one’s own destiny MPol 6:2; cp. ITr 12:3; IRo 1:2; IPhld 5:1.—Pauly-W., XI 810ff; XIII 1451–1504; Kl. Pauly III 252.—DELG. M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > κλῆρος

  • 19 κνήθω

    κνήθω (Aristot.; Herodas 4, 51 et al.=‘scratch’; acc. to Moeris p. 234 H. Gk., not Att. There is an older form κνάω which, as ἐπικνάω, is found as early as Il. 11, 639. The aor. mid. is found in Lucian, Bis Accusatus 1 οὐδʼ ὅσσον κνήσασθαι τὸ οὖς σχολὴν διάγων=he does not even have enough time to scratch his ear) itch pass. w. act. sense feel an itching κνηθόμενοι τὴν ἀκοήν (s. ἀκοή 3). Fig. of curiosity, that looks for interesting and juicy bits of information. This itching is relieved by the messages of the new teachers. W. the same components as a background, one might transl.: to have one’s ear tickled (a κνῆσις ὤτων takes place τρυφῆς ἕνεκα: Plut., Mor. 167b) 2 Ti 4:3 (s. Clem. Al., Strom. I 3, 22, 5 p. 15 Stähl.).—DELG s.v.-κναίω. M-M.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > κνήθω

  • 20 κοδράντης

    κοδράντης, ου, ὁ (Lat. loanw., ‘quadrans’; also in rabb.; actually one quarter of an ‘as’. Cp. Plut., Cic. 875 [29, 5] τὸ λεπτότατον τοῦ χαλκοῦ νομίσματος κουαδράντην ἐκάλουν [the Romans]. For the spelling s. B-D-F §41, 2) quadrans, penny=two λεπτά Mk 12:42 (DSperber, Mk 12:42 and Its Metrological Background, NovT 9, ’67, 178–90), 1/64 of a denarius (s. δηνάριον). It was the smallest Roman coin. ἕως ἂν ἀποδῷς τὸν ἔσχατον κ. until you have repaid the last cent Mt 5:26; Lk 12:59 D; D 1:5 (Sextus 39 μέχρις οὗ καὶ τ. ἔσχατον κοδράντην ἀπολάβῃ [the punishing demon]).—Lit. under ἀργύριον 2c.—Schürer II 66. M-M.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > κοδράντης

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