1 φυσικόςφῠσικός, ή, όν,A natural, produced or caused by nature, inborn, native, once in X.,Mem.3.9.1, not in Pl., freq. in Arist. (
τὰ περὶ γένεσιν φ. Ph. 191a3, al.), and later Prose; opp. διδακτός, X. l.c.; opp. νομικός (conventional), ; ἡ φ. χρῆσις, opp. ἡ παρὰ φύσιν, Ep.Rom.1.26; of style, natural, simple,
ἀληθὲς καὶ φ. χρῶμα D.H.Th.42; τὸ φ., opp. τὸ τεχνικόν, ib.34: φ. υἱός, = ὁ ἐκ πορνείας γεγονώς, opp. γνήσιος, Thom.Mag.p.362 R.;
υἱὸς γνήσιος καὶ φ. PLips.28.18(iv A. D.). Adv. - κῶς by nature, naturally, κινητόν, κινεῖσθαι, Arist.Ph. 201a24, Cael. 307b32;
ὠχυρωμένη φ. λίμνῃ D.S.20.55;
ἀκατασκεύως καὶ φ. Plb.6.4.7, etc.b belonging to the nature of a plant, characteristic, Thphr.HP8.4.4, al.2 belonging to growth, Stoic.2.205, al.3 φ. ὀδόντες milk-teeth, Nicom. ap. Theol.Ar.49.II of or concerning the order of external nature, natural, physical,
ἡ φ. ἐπιστήμη Arist.PA 640a2; φ. φιλοσοφία ib. 653a9;
ἡ φ. Id.Metaph. 1026a6, etc.; opp. μαθηματική, θεολογική, ib. 1064b2; τὰ φ. ib. 1026a4; οἱ φ. λόγοι f.l. for οἱ φυσιολόγοι, Id.EN 1154b7; φ. προτάσεις, opp. ἠθικαί, λογικαί, Id.Top. 105b21; τὸ φ., τὸ ἠθικόν, τὸ λογικόν, the three branches of philosophy, Zeno Stoic.1.15, etc., cf. S.E.P.2.13; τὰ πρῶτα καὶ -ώτατα the primal elements of things, Plu.2.395d.2
ὁ φ.an inquirer into nature, natural philosopher,
Arist.de An. 403a28, PA 641a21, Metaph. 1005a34;
περὶ πασῶν [τῶν αἰτιῶν] εἰδέναι τοῦ φ. Id.Ph. 198a22, cf. Metaph. 1026a5: esp. of the Ionic and other pre-Socratic philosophers, Id.Ph. 184b17, 187a12, 205a5, al.: also ὁ φ., of Epicurus, Phylarch. 24J.; ὁ φυσικώτατος, of Thales, Luc.Ner.4.b army surgeon, dub. in IG12.950.153.3 ἡ φ. ἀκρόασις, title of a treatise by Arist.; τὰ φυσικά, a name given to his physical treatises, Id.Ph. 267b21, Metaph. 1042b8; it.4 Adv.
- κῶςaccording to the laws of nature,
Id.Ph. 198a23; opp. λογικῶς, ib. 204b10: [comp] Comp. .
3 μαγείαμαγεία, ας, ἡ (s. next entry and μάγος; Pla. et al.; on the spelling s. B-D-F §23; s. Mlt-H. 339) a rite or rites ordinarily using incantations designed to influence/control transcendent powers, magic (Theophr., HP 9, 15, 7; Vett. Val. 210, 4; IDefixWünsch 4, 15; PGM 1, 127; Zosimus 7: Herm. Wr. IV p. 105 Sc.; the Herm. document Κόρη κόσμου in Stob. I 407, 4 W.=p. 494, 7 Sc.; Jos., Ant. 2, 286) in a list of vices 20:1 (AscIs 2:5 μαγεία w. φαρμακεία and other vices). ἐλύετο πᾶσα μαγεία IEph 19:3 (λύω 4). Pl. magic arts (Jos., Ant. 2, 284) in a list of vices D 5:1. Of Simon Ac 8:11 (cp. PGM 4, 2447ff: Παχράτης, ὁ προφήτης Ἡλιουπόλεως, Ἁδριανῷ βασιλεῖ ἐπιδεικνύμενος τ. δύναμιν τῆς θείας αὐτοῦ μαγείας ‘Pachrates, prophet of Heliopolis, demonstrating the force of his divine magic’).—R. Kotansky, Israel Exploration Journal 41, ’91, 267–81, amulets used in prayers to angels; Kl. Pauly III 873f. Lit. s.v. Σίμων 9.—B. 1494. DELG s.v. μάγος. Μ-Μ. TW.
4 μαλακίαμαλακία, ας, ἡ (s. two next entries; variously ‘softness, weakness, weakliness, ailment’ Hdt. et al.; pap, LXX, Philo; Jos., Ant. 4, 169; 17, 109; TestJos 17:7; loanw. in rabb.)① condition of bodily weakness, debility, weakness, sickness (Menand., Fgm. 177, 5 Kö.; Vit. Hom. 36; Dt 7:15; 28:61; Is 38:9) w. νόσος (as in Christian amulets, which are obviously dependent upon NT language: POxy 1151, 27; BGU 954, 12) Mt 4:23; 9:35; 10:1. εἰδὼς φέρειν μαλακίαν who knows how to endure weakness 1 Cl 16:3 (Is 53:3).② condition of inner weakness, faint-heartedness, despondency, lack of energy (Thu. 1, 122, 4; Demosth. 11, 22) pl. (w. διψυχία) Hv 3, 11, 2; 3, 12, 3.—DELG s.v. μαλακός. M-M. TW.
5 φυλακτήριονφυλακτήριον, ου, τό (φύλαξ, cp. φυλάσσω; Hdt.+; TestJob 47:11; Jos., Ant. 15, 249; Just., D. 46, 5; in var. senses) leather prayer band and case containing scripture passages, sometimes used as an amulet, prayer-band, prayer-case. One of the lit. senses of φ., which occurs only once in our lit., Mt 23:5, is ‘safeguard, means of protection’ (Demosth. 6, 24; Philo), esp. ‘amulet’, (Dioscor., Mat. Med. 5, 154; Plut., Mor. 377b al.; OGI 90, 45; PGM 1, 275; 3, 97; 127; 4, 86; 660; 708; 1071; 2506; 2510; 2694; 2705; 13, 796), but this sense is only one component of a more complex semantic phenomenon, where the referent reflects the Aramaic תְפִלִּין, i.e. two black leather boxes containing scripture passages worn on the forehead and the left arm, in keeping with Mosaic instruction Ex 13:9, 16; Dt 6:8; 11:18, where the directives appear to be figurative. Discovery of such small boxes, some with compartments, at the caves of Murabbaat, further confirms literary evidence of the practice. In some circles the devices were viewed as amulets protecting against demonic influences, and this understanding is reflected in Goodspeed’s rendering (‘they wear wide Scripture texts as charms’), which avoids the ambiguous Eng. loanword ‘phylacteries’.—Schürer II 479–81 (note 86 lit.; add YYadin, Tefillin fr. Qumran ’69); MFriedländer, Der Antichrist 1901, 155ff; GKropatscheck, De Amuletorum apud Antiquos Usu, diss. Greifswald 1907; Billerb. IV 1928, 250–76; GLanger, Die jüd. Gebetsriemen ’31; WKnox, St. Paul and the Church of the Gentiles ’39, 209; GFox, JNES 1, ’42, 373–77; Goodsp., Probs. 35f; CBonner, HTR 39, ’46, 25–53 (esp. 35), Studies in Magical Amulets ’50; JBowman, TU 73, ’59, 523–38; JTigay, HTR 72, ’79, 45–53; Pauly-W. I 467–76; Kl. Pauly IV 834; BHHW I 90f; RAC I 397–411 (lit.).—DELG s.v. φυλαξ 9. M-M. Sv.
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