Translation: from chinese to english

from english to chinese

absolute addressing

  • 701 三身三德

    The 三身 are the 法, 報, and 應; the 三德 are 法, 般, and 解, i.e. the virtue, or merit, of the (a) 法身 being absolute independence, reality; of (b) 報身, being 般若 (sa) prajñā or wisdom; and of (c) 應身, being 解脫德 liberation, or Nirvāṇa.

    Chinese Buddhist terms dictionary (Chinese-English) > 三身三德

  • 702 三軌

    The three rules 三法 (三法妙) of the Tiantai Lotus School: (a) 真性軌 The absolute and real, the 真如 or (sa) bhūtatathatā; (b) 觀照軌meditation upon and understanding of it; (c) 資成軌 the extension of this understanding to all its workings. In the 三軌弘經 the three are traced to the 法師品 of the < Lotus Sutra> and are developed as: (a) 慈悲室 the abode of mercy, or to dwell in mercy; (b) 忍辱衣 the garment of endurance, or patience under opposition; (c) 法空座 the throne of immateriality (or spirituality), a state of nirvāṇa tranquility. Mercy to all is an extension of 資成軌, patience of 觀照軌 and nirvāṇa tranquility of 真性軌.

    Chinese Buddhist terms dictionary (Chinese-English) > 三軌

  • 703 三轨

    The three rules 三法 (三法妙) of the Tiantai Lotus School: (a) 真性軌 The absolute and real, the 真如 or (sa) bhūtatathatā; (b) 觀照軌meditation upon and understanding of it; (c) 資成軌 the extension of this understanding to all its workings. In the 三軌弘經 the three are traced to the 法師品 of the < Lotus Sutra> and are developed as: (a) 慈悲室 the abode of mercy, or to dwell in mercy; (b) 忍辱衣 the garment of endurance, or patience under opposition; (c) 法空座 the throne of immateriality (or spirituality), a state of nirvāṇa tranquility. Mercy to all is an extension of 資成軌, patience of 觀照軌 and nirvāṇa tranquility of 真性軌.

    Chinese Buddhist terms dictionary (Chinese-English) > 三轨

  • 704 三重法界

    The three meditations, on the relationship of the noumenal and phenomenal, of the 華嚴宗 Huayan School: (a) 理法界 the universe as law or mind, that all things are 真如, i.e. all things or phenomena are of the same Buddha-nature, or the Absolute; (b) 理事無礙法界 that the Buddha-nature and the thing, or the Absolute and phenomena are not mutually exclusive; (c) 事事無礙法界 that phenomena are not mutually exclusive, but in a common harmony as parts of the whole.

    Chinese Buddhist terms dictionary (Chinese-English) > 三重法界

  • 705

    Maha. 摩訶; 麼賀. Great, large, big; all pervading, all-embracing; numerous 多; surpassing ; mysterious 妙; beyond comprehension 不可思議; omnipresent 體無不在. The elements, or essential things, i.e. (a) 三大 The three all-pervasive qualities of the 真如 q.v.: its 體, 相, 用 substance, form, and functions, v. 起信論. (b) 四大 The four tanmātra or elements, earth, water, fire, air (or wind) of the 倶舍論. (c)五大 The five, i.e. the last four and space 空, v. 大日經. (d) 六大 The six elements, earth, water, fire, wind, space (or ether), mind 識. Hīnayāna, emphasizing impersonality 人空, considers these six as the elements of all sentient beings; Mahāyāna, emphasizing the unreality of all things 法空, counts them as elements, but fluid in a flowing stream of life, with mind 識 dominant; the esoteric sect emphasizing nonproduction, or non-creation, regards them as universal and as the Absolute in differentiation. (e) 七大 The 楞嚴經 adds 見 perception, to the six above named to cover the perceptions of the six organs 根.

    Chinese Buddhist terms dictionary (Chinese-English) >

  • 706 大日

    Vairocana, or Mahāvairocana 大日如來; 遍照如來; 摩訶毘盧遮那; 毘盧遮那; 大日覺王 The sun, "shining everywhere" The chief object of worship of the Shingon sect in Japan, "represented by the gigantic image in the temple at Nara." (Eliot.) There he is known as Dai-nichi-nyorai. He is counted as the first, and according to some, the origin of the five celestial Buddhas (dhyāni-buddhas, or jinas). He dwells quiescent in Arūpa-dhātu, the Heaven beyond form, and is the essence of wisdom (bodhi) and of absolute purity. Samantabhadra 普賢 is his dhyāni-bodhisattva. The 大日經 "teaches that Vairocana is the whole world, which is divided into Garbhadhātu (material) and Vajradhātu (indestructible), the two together forming Dharmadhātu. The manifestations of Vairocana's body to himself―that is, Buddhas and Bodhisattvas ―are represented symbolically by diagrams of several circles ". Eliot. In the 金剛界 or (sa) vajradhātu maṇḍala he is the center of the five groups. In the 胎藏界 or Garbhadhātu he is the center of the eight-leaf (lotus) court. His appearance, symbols, esoteric word, differ according to the two above distinctions. Generally he is considered as an embodiment of the Truth 法, both in the sense of (sa) dharmakāya 法身 and (sa) dharmaratna 法寳. Some hold Vairocana to be the (sa) dharmakāya of Śākyamuni 大日與釋迦同一佛 but the esoteric school denies this identity. Also known as 最高顯廣眼藏如來, the Tathagata who, in the highest, reveals the far-reaching treasure of his eye, i.e. the sun. 大日大聖不動明王 is described as one of his transformations. Also, a (sa) śramaņa of Kashmir (contemporary of Padma-saṃbhava); he is credited with introducing Buddhism into Khotan and being an incarnation of Mañjuśrī; the king Vijaya Saṃbhava built a monastery for him.

    Chinese Buddhist terms dictionary (Chinese-English) > 大日

  • 707 大總法門

    The bhūtatathatā as the totality of things, and Mind 心真如 as the Absolute, 起信論.

    Chinese Buddhist terms dictionary (Chinese-English) > 大總法門

  • 708 大总法门

    The bhūtatathatā as the totality of things, and Mind 心真如 as the Absolute, 起信論.

    Chinese Buddhist terms dictionary (Chinese-English) > 大总法门

  • 709 大自在

    Īśvara, self-existent, sovereign, independent, absolute, used of Buddhas and bodhisattvas.

    Chinese Buddhist terms dictionary (Chinese-English) > 大自在

  • 710 小乘

    Hīnayāna 希那衍. The small, or inferior wain, or vehicle; the form of Buddhism which developed after Śākyamuni's death to about the beginning of the Christian era, when Mahāyāna doctrines were introduced. It is the orthodox school and more in direct line with the Buddhist succession than Mahāyānism which developed on lines fundamentally different. The Buddha was a spiritual doctor, less interested in philosophy than in the remedy for human misery and perpetual transmigration. He "turned aside from idle metaphysical speculations; if he held views on such topics, he deemed them valueless for the purposes of salvation, which was his goal" (Keith). Metaphysical speculations arose after his death, and naturally developed into a variety of Hīnayāna schools before and after the separation of a distinct school of Mahāyāna. Hīnayāna remains the form in Ceylon, Burma, and Siam, hence is known as Southern Buddhism in contrast with Northern Buddhism or Mahāyāna, the form chiefly prevalent from Nepal to Japan. Another rough division is that of Pali and Sanskrit, Pali being the general literary language of the surviving form of Hīnayāna, Sanskrit of Mahāyāna. The term Hīnayāna is of Mahāyānist origination to emphasize the universalism and altruism of Mahāyāna over the narrower personal salvation of its rival. According to Mahāyāna teaching its own aim is universal Buddhahood, which means the utmost development of wisdom and the perfect transformation of all the living in the future state; it declares that Hīnayāna, aiming at arhatship and pratyekabuddhahood, seeks the destruction of body and mind and extinction in nirvāṇa. For arhatship the 四諦Four Noble Truths are the foundation teaching, for pratyekabuddhahood the 十二因緣 twelve-nidānas, and these two are therefore sometimes styled the two vehicles 二乘. Tiantai sometimes calls them the (Hīnayāna) Tripiṭaka school. Three of the eighteen Hīnayāna schools were transported to China: 倶舍 (Abhidharma) Kośa; 成實 Satya-siddhi; and the school of Harivarman, the律 Vinaya school. These are described by Mahāyānists as the Buddha's adaptable way of meeting the questions and capacity of his hearers, though his own mind is spoken of as always being in the absolute Mahāyāna all-embracing realm. Such is the Mahāyāna view of Hīnayāna, and if the Vaipulya sūtras and special scriptures of their school, which are repudiated by Hīnayāna, are apocryphal, of which there seems no doubt, then Mahāyāna in condemning Hīnayāna must find other support for its claim to orthodoxy. The sūtras on which it chiefly relies, as regards the Buddha, have no authenticity; while those of Hīnayāna cannot be accepted as his veritable teaching in the absence of fundamental research. Hīnayāna is said to have first been divided into minority and majority sections immediately after the death of Śākyamuni, when the sthāvira, or older disciples, remained in what is spoken of as "the cave", some place at Rājagṛha, to settle the future of the order, and the general body of disciples remained outside; these two are the first 上坐部 and 大衆部 q. v. The first doctrinal division is reported to have taken place under the leadership of the monk 大天 Mahādeva (q.v.) a hundred years after the Buddha's nirvāṇa and during the reign of Aśoka; his reign, however, has been placed later than this by historians. Mahādeva's sect became the Mahāsāṅghikā, the other the Sthāvira. In time the two are said to have divided into eighteen, which with the two originals are the so-called "twenty sects" of Hīnayāna. Another division of four sects, referred to by Yijing, is that of the 大衆部 (Arya) Mahāsaṅghanikāya, 上座部 Āryasthavirāḥ, 根本說一切有部 Mūlasarvāstivādaḥ, and 正量部 Saṃmatīyāḥ. There is still another division of five sects, 五部律. For the eighteen Hīnayāna sects see 小乘十八部.

    Chinese Buddhist terms dictionary (Chinese-English) > 小乘

  • 711 不增不減

    Neither adding nor subtracting; nothing can be added or taken away. In referenc to the absolute 實相之空理 nothing can be added or taken away; vice versa with the relative.

    Chinese Buddhist terms dictionary (Chinese-English) > 不增不減

  • 712 不增不减

    Neither adding nor subtracting; nothing can be added or taken away. In referenc to the absolute 實相之空理 nothing can be added or taken away; vice versa with the relative.

    Chinese Buddhist terms dictionary (Chinese-English) > 不增不减

  • 713 不變真如

    The immutable (sa) bhūtatathatā in the absolute, as compared with 隨緣真如, i. e. in relative or phenomenal conditions.

    Chinese Buddhist terms dictionary (Chinese-English) > 不變真如

  • 714 不变真如

    The immutable (sa) bhūtatathatā in the absolute, as compared with 隨緣真如, i. e. in relative or phenomenal conditions.

    Chinese Buddhist terms dictionary (Chinese-English) > 不变真如

  • 715 中觀

    Meditation on the Mean, one of the 三觀; also meditation on the absolute which unites all opposites. There are various forms of such meditation, that of the 法相宗, the 三論宗, the 天台宗. v. 中論.

    Chinese Buddhist terms dictionary (Chinese-English) > 中觀

  • 716 中观

    Meditation on the Mean, one of the 三觀; also meditation on the absolute which unites all opposites. There are various forms of such meditation, that of the 法相宗, the 三論宗, the 天台宗. v. 中論.

    Chinese Buddhist terms dictionary (Chinese-English) > 中观

  • 717 中道宗

    The third period of the Buddha's teaching, according to the 法相宗, giving the via media between the two extremes, the absolute as not confined to the phenomenal or the noumenal; also called 中道教.

    Chinese Buddhist terms dictionary (Chinese-English) > 中道宗

  • 718 五怖畏

    (also 五畏) The five fears of beginners in the bodhisattva-way: fear of
    (1) giving away all lest they should have no means of livelihood;
    (2) sacrificing their reputation;
    (3) sacrificing themselves through dread of dying;
    (4) falling into evil;
    (5) addressing an assembly, especially of men of position.

    Chinese Buddhist terms dictionary (Chinese-English) > 五怖畏

  • 719 五法

    pañcadharma. The five laws or categories, of which four groups are as follows:
    I.
    相名五法 The five categories of form and name:
    (1) 相 appearances, or phenomena;
    (2) 名 their names;
    (3) 分別 sometimes called 妄想 ordinary mental discrimination of them--
    (1) and
    (2) are objective,
    (3) subjective;
    (4) 正智 corrective wisdom, which corrects the deficiencies and errors of the last:
    (5) 如如 the 真如 Bhutatathata or absolute wisdom, reached through the 如理智 understanding of the law of the absolute, or ultimate truth.
    II.
    事理五法 The five categories into which things and their principles are divided:
    (1) 心法 mind;
    (2) 心所法 mental conditions or activities;
    (3) 色法 the actual states or categories as conceived;
    (4) 不相應法 hypothetic categories, 唯識 has twenty-four, the Abhidharma fourteen;
    (5) 無為法 the state of rest, or the inactive principle pervading all things; the first four are the 事 and the last the 理.
    III.
    理智五法 cf. 五智; the five categories of essential wisdom:
    (1) 真如 the absolute;
    (2) 大圓鏡智 wisdom as the great perfect mirror reflecting all things;
    (3) 平等性智 wisdom of the equal Buddha nature of all beings;
    (4) 妙觀察智 wisdom of mystic insight into all things and removal of ignorance and doubt;
    (5) 成所作智 wisdom perfect in action and bringing blessing to self and others. IV. 提婆五法 The five obnoxious rules of Devadatta: not to take milk in any form, nor meat, nor salt; to wear unshaped garments, and to live apart. Another set is: to wear cast-off rags, beg food, have only one set meal a day, dwell in the open, and abstain from all kinds of flesh, milk, etc.

    Chinese Buddhist terms dictionary (Chinese-English) > 五法

  • 720 127 =soothill

    The five (sa) bodhi, or states of enlightenment, as described in the 起信論 < Awakening of Faith>; see also 五菩提 for a different group.
    (1) 本覺 Absolute eternal wisdom, or (sa) bodhi;
    (2) 始覺 (sa) bodhi in its initial stages, or in action, arising from right observances;
    (3) 相似覺 bodhisattva. attainment of (sa) bodhi in action, in the 十信;
    (4) 隨分覺 further bodhisattva-enlightenment according to capacity, i. e. the stages 十住, 十行, and 十廻向;
    (5) 究竟覺 final or complete enlightenment, i. e. the stage of 妙覺, which is one with the first, i. e. 本覺. The 本覺 is bodhi in the potential, 始覺 is (sa) bodhi in the active state, hence
    (2),
    (3),
    (4), and
    (5) are all the latter, but the fifth has reached the perfect quiescent stage of original (sa) bodhi.

    Chinese Buddhist terms dictionary (Chinese-English) > 127 =soothill

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