Translation: from english

Phrasal verbs

  • 1 Phrasal verbs

    Verb
    1) Фразовые глаголы - это глаголы, представляющие собой сочетание глагол + частица. Данное сочетание является идиоматическим: его значение нельзя вывести из значений глагола и соответствующей частицы.

    The fire went outОгонь погас (в этом предложении имеется фразовый глагол go out: его смысл нельзя вычислить, зная значения слов go и out).

    John went out — Джон вышел (в этом предложении нет фразовых глаголов: смысл сочетания went out можно вычислить, зная значения глагола go и наречия out).

    2) Наиболее распространенными частицами, входящими в состав фразовых глаголов, являются слова about, across, along, around, away, back, by, down, forward, in, off, on, out, over, through, under, up. Таким образом, частица, являющаяся частью фразового глагола, может совпадать по форме как с наречием (например, out), так и с предлогом (например, on). В отличие от "настоящих" предлогов, частицы, похожие на предлог, обычно ударны.

    I put ON my hat — Я надела шляпу (частица on ударна, put on — фразовый глагол со значением "надевать").

    He put the book on the tableОн положил книгу на стол (onбезударный предлог в составе предложной группы on the table - обстоятельства, относящегося к глаголу put в значении "класть").

    3) Фразовые глаголы можно разделить на три группы:
    ГЛАГОЛ+ЧАСТИЦА (дополнения нет)
    ГЛАГОЛ+ЧАСТИЦА (есть дополнение без предлога)
    ГЛАГОЛ+ЧАСТИЦА (есть дополнение с предлогом)
    а) ГЛАГОЛ+ЧАСТИЦА (дополнения нет)

    The lesson is over — Урок окончен.

    His car has broken down — Его машина сломалась.

    б) ГЛАГОЛ+ЧАСТИЦА (есть дополнение без предлога).
    Если дополнение ( Object) выражено личным местоимением (Personal pronouns), то оно всегда располагается между глаголом и частицей. Если дополнение не является местоимением, то оно может стоять как после частицы, так и между глаголом и частицей.

    I put the meeting off till next week / I put off the meeting till next week — Я отложил собрание до следующей недели.

    I put it off — Я отложил его до следующей недели.

    She brought the children up by herself / She brought up the children by herself — Она вырастила детей сама.

    She brought them up by herself — Она их вырастила сама.

    в) ГЛАГОЛ+ЧАСТИЦА (есть дополнение с предлогом)
    Дополнение ( Object) всегда стоит после предлога.

    She always stands up for her children — Она всегда защищает своих детей.

    How can you put up with the noise? — Как ты можешь мириться с таким шумом?

    I'm looking forward to seeing you — Я с нетерпением жду встречи с тобой.

    4)
    а) Очень важно различать комбинацию глагола с предлогом и фразовый глагол в том случае, если глагол переходный.
    Например, в предложении Can you fill in the form?Не могли бы вы заполнить бланк? сочетание fill in является фразовым глаголом, а in является частицей. Можно сказать также Can you fill the form in?, Can you fill it in?.
    В предложении I will call on the writer next MondayЯ посещу писателя в следующий понедельник сочетание call on является комбинацией глагола call и предлога on. Дополнение не может идти перед предлогом, с которым оно сочетается, поэтому нельзя сказать * I will call the writer on / I will call him on.
    Точно также можно сказать Turn the light on ( turn on — фразовый глагол), но нельзя сказать * Look the picture at ( look at — сочетание глагола с предлогом).
    б) Ниже приводится список фразовых глаголов группы 3б, то есть таких, которые могут разрываться дополнением:
    act out, add in, add on, add up, ask in, ask out, ask over, ask up, back up, beat up, bend back, bend up, bind down, bind off, bind over, bind up, block in, block off, block out, block up, bring about, bring off, bring out, bring up, carry out, carry through, clear away, clear off, clear out, clear up, cool down, cool off, cover up, cover over, deal out, divide up, draw back, draw down, draw in, draw off, draw out, draw up, dry off, dry out, drive in, drive off, drive out, eat away, eat up, factor out, figure out, find out, fish out, fish up, fit in, follow up, give away, give back, give in, give out, give over, give up, hand around, hand back, hand down, hand in, hand on, hand out, hand over, lead in, leave in, leave out, level down, level off, level out, line up, live down, live out, look over, look up, make out, make over, make up, mark down, mark off, mark up, move in, move out, paper over, point out, point up, pump in, pump off, pump out, pump up, read over, read in, read out, read off, read through, reason out, rule out, save up, send away, send back, send down, send forth, send out, show in, show off, show out, show around, show up, sleep off, slice away, slice open, slice off, slow down, slow up, smooth away, smooth back, smooth down, smooth off, smooth out, space out, split away, split off, split up, stop up, store up, strip away, strip off, switch off, switch on, take away, take along, take off, take out, take up, think out, think over, try on, try out, turn down, turn off, turn on, turn over, use up, wash away, wash down, wash off, weigh down, work off, work out, work over, work through, write down, write in, write off, write out, write up.

    English-Russian grammar dictionary > Phrasal verbs

  • 2 phrasal verb

    (a phrase consisting of a verb and adverb or preposition, which together function as a verb: `Leave out', `go without', `go away', are phrasal verbs.)

    English-Portuguese dictionary > phrasal verb

  • 3 phrasal verb

    (a phrase consisting of a verb and adverb or preposition, which together function as a verb: `Leave out', `go without', `go away', are phrasal verbs.)

    English-Finnish dictionary > phrasal verb

Look at other dictionaries:

  • phrasal verbs — 1. A phrasal verb is a combination of verb and adverb or preposition (or both) such as come about, draw up, put up with, and work out. Phrasal verbs formed with adverbs can be either transitive (i.e. take an object, as in He drew up a chair) or… …   Modern English usage

  • Phrasal verbs — ◊ GRAMMAR A phrasal verb is a combination of a verb and an adverb, a verb and a preposition, or a verb, an adverb, and a preposition, which together have a single meaning. Phrasal verbs extend the usual meaning of the verb or create a new meaning …   Useful english dictionary

  • phrasal verbs —    is a somewhat ungainly term for what is unquestionably one of the more versatile features of English namely, the ability to extend the meaning of verbs by attaching a particle to them. Thus in English we can break up, break off, break down,… …   Dictionary of troublesome word

  • verbs — 1. A verb is traditionally regarded as a word that describes the action or state which the sentence seeks to convey and is normally an essential element in a clause or sentence: She locked the door / She was angry. Verbs are either transitive… …   Modern English usage

  • phrasal verb — n a group of words that is used like a verb and consists of a verb with an adverb or ↑preposition after it, for example set off or look after . In this dictionary, phrasal verbs are marked phr v …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • Phrasal verb — A phrasal verb is a combination of a verb and a preposition, a verb and an adverb, or a verb with both an adverb and a preposition, any of which are part of the syntax of the sentence, and so are a complete semantic unit. Sentences, however, may… …   Wikipedia

  • phrasal verb — noun an English verb followed by one or more particles where the combination behaves as a syntactic and semantic unit turn out is a phrasal verb in the question how many turned out to vote? • Hypernyms: ↑verb * * * noun, pl ⋯ verbs [count]… …   Useful english dictionary

  • phrasal verb — UK / US noun [countable] Word forms phrasal verb : singular phrasal verb plural phrasal verbs linguistics a combination of words that is used like a verb and consists of a verb and an adverb or preposition, for example give in or come up with …   English dictionary

  • phrasal verb — [[t]fre͟ɪz(ə)l vɜ͟ː(r)b[/t]] phrasal verbs N COUNT A phrasal verb is a combination of a verb and an adverb or preposition, for example shut up or look after , which together have a particular meaning …   English dictionary

  • phrasal typology — noun The study of phrasal verbs, idioms, hyphenated nouns adjectives, and rhetorical and literary terminology, and how they are categorized or typed …   Wiktionary

  • phrasal verb — noun (C) a group of words that is used like a verb and consists of a verb with an adverb or preposition, such as set off , look after , put up with . In this dictionary phrasal verbs are marked phr v …   Longman dictionary of contemporary English


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