Translation: from greek to english

from english to greek

God caused the Spirit to dwell in flesh

  • 1 ἐπιποθέω

    ἐπιποθέω fut. ἐπιποθήσω; 1 aor. ἐπεπόθησα (ποθέω ‘long for’, s. next entry; Hdt. et al.; LXX, Philo) to have a strong desire for someth., with implication of need, long for, desire τὶ someth. (Pla., Protag. 329d; Plut., Agis 798 [6, 2]; Lucian, D. Deor. 4, 3; Ps 118:131, 174; Tat. 20, 1) γάλα milk 1 Pt 2:2. τινά someone (Hdt. 5, 93; Diod S 17, 101, 6; Epict. 3, 24, 53; Sir 25:21) πάντας ὑμᾶς Phil 1:8; 2:26 (v.l. π. ὑ. ἰδεῖν). ὑμᾶς 2 Cor 9:14. W. inf. foll. (Philo, Abr. 87 ἐ. θεὸν ἀνευρεῖν) τὸ οἰκητήριον ἐπενδύσασθαι 2 Cor 5:2. ἰδεῖν τινα Ro 1:11; 1 Th 3:6; 2 Ti 1:4. πρὸς φθόνον ἐπιποθεῖ τὸ πνεῦμα Js 4:5 is difficult because of the problem posed by uncertainty in the tradition concerning the correct reading of the verb: κατοικίζω text (causative) and κατοικέω v.l. (intr.), but the mng. of the verb is clear; if κατῴκισεν is read, one can render either the spirit that (God) has caused to dwell in us yearns jealously or (God) yearns jealously over the spirit that he has put in us; if κατῴκησεν the spirit that has taken up abode in us yearns jealously. See MDibelius ad loc. (w. lit.). AMeyer, D. Rätsel des Jk 1930, 258f; ASchlatter, D. Brief d. Jak. ’32, 248–53.—CSpicq, RB 64, ’57, 184–95. B. 1162. TW. Spicq. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἐπιποθέω

  • 2 ὄνομα

    ὄνομα, ατος, τό (Hom.+).
    proper name of an entity, name
    gener. τῶν ἀποστόλων τὰ ὀνόματα ἐστιν ταῦτα Mt 10:2; cp. Rv 21:14. τῶν παρθένων τὰ ὀν. Hs 9, 15, 1. τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ πατρός Lk 1:59. ὄν. μοι, sc. ἐστίν, my name is (Od. 9, 366) Mk 5:9b. τί ὄν. σοι; what is your name? vs. 9a; w. copula Lk 8:30.—The expressions ᾧ (ᾗ) ὄν., οὗ τὸ ὄν., καὶ τὸ ὄν. αὐτοῦ (αὐτῆς), ὄν. αὐτῷ (parenthetic) are almost always without the copula (B-D-F §128, 3; Rob. 395): ᾧ (ᾗ) ὄν. (Sb 7573, 13 [116 A.D.]; Demetr.: 722 Fgm. 1, 5 Jac.; Just., A I, 53, 8 ᾧ ὄν. Λώτ) Lk 1:26, 27a; 2:25; 8:41; 24:13, 18 v.l.; Ac 13:6.—οὗ τὸ ὄν. (without a verb as BGU 344, 1) Mk 14:32. Cp. ὧν τὰ ὀνόματα ἐν βίβλῳ ζωῆς Phil 4:3 (ὧν τὰ ὀν. is a formula [Dssm., LO 95=LAE 121]. S. esp. BGU 432 II, 3 ὧν τὰ ὀν. τῷ βιβλιδίῳ δεδήλωται).—καὶ τὸ ὄν. αὐτῆς Lk 1:5b. καὶ τὸ ὄν. τῆς παρθένου Μαριάμ vs. 27b.—ὄν. αὐτῷ (Demosth. 32, 11 Ἀριστοφῶν ὄνομʼ αὐτῷ; Dionys. Hal. 8, 89, 4; Aelian, NA 8, 2 γυνὴ … Ἡρακληὶς ὄν. αὐτῇ; LXX) J 1:6; 3:1. ὁ καθήμενος ἐπάνω αὐτοῦ (i.e. τοῦ ἵππου), ὄν. αὐτῷ (ὁ) θάνατος Rv 6:8; cp. 9:11a.—W. the copula ἦν δὲ ὄν. τῷ δούλῳ Μάλχος J 18:10 (POxy 465, 12 ὁ δὲ κραταιὸς αὐτοῦ, ὄν. αὐτῷ ἐστιν Νεβύ, μηνύει; Jos., Ant. 19, 332). ἄγγελος …, οὗ τὸ ὄν. ἐστιν Θεγρί Hv 4, 2, 4.—The dat. is quite freq. ὀνόματι named, by name (X., Hell. 1, 6, 29 Σάμιος ὀνόματι Ἱππεύς; Tob 6:11 BA; 4 Macc 5:4; Just., D. 85, 6; 115, 3; B-D-F §160; 197; Rob. 487) ἄνθρωπον ὀν. Σίμωνα Mt 27:32; cp. Mk 5:22; Lk 1:5a; 5:27; 10:38; 16:20; 23:50; 24:18; Ac 5:1, 34; 8:9; 9:10–12, 33, 36; 10:1; 11:28; 12:13; 16:1, 14; 17:34; 18:2, 7, 24; 19:24; 20:9; 21:10; 27:1; 28:7; MPol 4. Also the acc. τοὔνομα (on the crasis s. B-D-F §18; Mlt-H. 63; FPreisigke, Griech. Urkunden des ägypt. Mus. zu Kairo [1911] 2, 6 γυνὴ Ταμοῦνις τοὔνομα; Diod S 2, 45, 4 πόλιν τοὔνομα Θ.; Lucian, Dial. Deor. 3; Philo, Leg. All. 1, 68; Jos., Ant. 7, 344, Vi. 382) named, by name (the acc. as X. et al., also 2 Macc 12:13; Demetr.: 722 Fgm. 1, 5 Jac. υἱὸν ὄ. Δάν.—B-D-F §160; Rob. 487) Mt 27:57. (Cp. ὄν. gener. as ‘mode of expression’ εἰ καὶ διάφορα ὀνόματα ἐστιν, ἀλλʼ … οἰκείαν … δέχεται τὴν νόησιν although there are various ways of expressing it, it nevertheless has a definite sense Did., Gen. 86, 22 [of various metaphors and images for the soul].)
    used w. verbs
    α. as their obj.: ὄν. ἔχειν Did., Gen. 29, 6 bear the name or as name, be named ὄν. ἔχει Ἀπολλύων Rv 9:11b (in this case the name Ἀ. stands independently in the nom.; B-D-F §143; Rob. 458). καλεῖν τὸ ὄν. τινος w. the name foll. in the acc. (after the Hb.; B-D-F §157, 2; Rob. 459) καλέσεις τὸ ὄν. αὐτοῦ Ἰησοῦν you are to name him Jesus Mt 1:21; Lk 1:31.—Mt 1:25. καλέσεις τὸ ὄν. αὐτοῦ Ἰωάννην Lk 1:13. καλέσουσιν τὸ ὄν. αὐτοῦ Ἐμμανουήλ Mt 1:23 (Is 7:14). διδόναι GJs 6:2. Pass. w. the name in the nom. (cp. GrBar 6:10 Φοῖνιξ καλεῖται τὸ ὄν. μου) ἐκλήθη τὸ ὄν. αὐτοῦ Ἰησοῦς Lk 2:21; cp. Rv 19:13. Also τὸ ὄν. τοῦ ἀστέρος λέγεται ὁ ῎ Αψινθος Rv 8:11.—ἐπιθεῖναι ὄν. τινι w. acc. of the name Mk 3:16f; cp. 12:8f; κληρονομεῖν ὄν. receive a name Hb 1:4=1 Cl 36:2. κληροῦσθαι τὸ αὐτὸ ὄν. obtain the same name (s. κληρόω 2) MPol 6:2.—τὰ ὀν. ὑμῶν ἐγγέγραπται ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς Lk 10:20.—Rv 13:8; 17:8. ἐξαλείψω τὸ ὄν. αὐτῶν 1 Cl 53:3 (Dt 9:14); Rv 3:5a (perh. to be placed in 4 below); s. ἐξαλείφω.
    β. in another way (εἰ δέ τις ὀνόματι καλέσει but if anyone is so named Hippol., Ref. 6, 20, 2): ὸ̔ς καλεῖται τῷ ὀνόματι τούτῳ who is so named Lk 1:61. ἀνὴρ ὀνόματι καλούμενος Ζακχαῖος a man whose name was Zacchaeus 19:2. καλεῖν τι (i.e. παιδίον) ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματί τινος name someone after someone 1:59. Cp. IMg 10:1. This leads to
    used w. prepositions: ἐξ ὀνόματος (Ctesias, Ind. p. 105 M.: Diod S 13, 15, 1; 37, 15, 2; Appian, Mithrid. 59, §243, Bell. Civ. 3, 21 §77; 4, 73 §310; PGM 4, 2973; Jos., Ant. 2, 275) by name, individually, one by one (so that no one is lost in the crowd) ἐξ ὀν. πάντας ζήτει IPol 4:2. ἀσπάζομαι πάντας ἐξ ὀνόματος 8:2. πάντες ἐξ ὀν. συνέρχεσθε (parallel to κατʼ ἄνδρα) IEph 20:2.—κατʼ ὄν. by name, individually (Diod S 16, 44, 2; Gen 25:13; EpArist 247; Jos., Bell. 7, 14) J 10:3 (New Docs 3, 77f; animals called individually by name: Ps.-Aristot., Mirabil. 118.—HAlmqvist, Plut. u. das NT ’46, 74). Esp. in greetings (BGU 27, 18 [II A.D.] ἀσπάζομαι πάντας τοὺς φιλοῦντάς σε κατʼ ὄν.; POxy 1070, 46; pap in Dssm., LO 160/1, ln. 14f [LAE 193, ln. 15, note 21]; New Docs 3, 77f) 3J 15; ISm 13:2b. ῥάβδους ἐπιγεγραμμένας ἑκάστης φυλῆς κατʼ ὄν. staffs, each one inscribed with the name of a tribe 1 Cl 43:2b.
    used in combination with God and Jesus. On the significance of the Divine Name in history of religions s. FGiesebrecht, Die atl. Schätzung des Gottesnamens 1901; Bousset, Rel.3 309ff; ADieterich, Eine Mithrasliturgie 1903, 110ff; FConybeare, JQR 8, 1896; 9, 1897, esp. 9, 581ff; JBoehmer, Das bibl. ‘im Namen’ 1898, BFCT V 6, 1901, 49ff, Studierstube 2, 1904, 324ff; 388ff; 452ff; 516ff; 580ff; BJacob, Im Namen Gottes 1903;WHeitmüller, ‘Im Namen Jesu’ 1903; WBrandt, TT 25, 1891, 565ff; 26, 1892, 193ff; 38, 1904, 355ff; RHirzel, Der Name: ASG 36, 2, 1918; Schürer III4 409–11; HObbink, De magische betekenis van den naam inzonderheid in het oude Egypte 1925; OGrether, Name u. Wort Gottes im AT ’34; HHuffman, Name: 1148–52.—The belief in the efficacy of the name is extremely old; its origin goes back to the most ancient times and the most primitive forms of intellectual and religious life. It has exhibited an extraordinary vitality. The period of our lit. also sees—within as well as without the new community of believers—in the name someth. real, a piece of the very nature of the personality whom it designates, expressing the person’s qualities and powers. Accordingly, names, esp. holy names, are revered and used in customary practices and ritual (σέβεσθαι θεῶν ὀνόματα Theoph. Ant., 1, 9 [p. 76, 7]), including magic. In Israelite tradition the greatest reverence was paid to the holy name of God and to its numerous paraphrases or substitutes; the names of angels and patriarchs occupied a secondary place. The syncretistic practices of the period revered the names of gods, daemons, and heroes, or even magic words that made no sense at all, but had a mysterious sound. The Judeo-Christians revere and use the name of God and, of course, the name of Jesus. On magic in Jewish circles, s. Schürer III 342–79; for the NT period in general s. MSmith, Clement of Alexandria and a Secret Gospel of Mark ’73, 195–230.—The names of God and Jesus
    α. in combination w. attributes: διαφορώτερον ὄν. a more excellent name Hb 1:4=1 Cl 36:2 (διάφορος 2). ἅγιον τὸ ὄν. αὐτοῦ Lk 1:49 (cp. Ps 110:9; Lev 18:21; 22:2; PGM 3, 570; 627; 4, 1005; 3071; 5, 77; 13, 561 μέγα κ. ἅγιον). τὸ μεγαλοπρεπὲς καὶ ἅγιον ὄν. αὐτοῦ 1 Cl 64; τὸ μέγα καὶ ἔνδοξον ὄν. Hv 4, 1, 3; 4, 2, 4 (on ἔνδοξον ὄν., cp. EPeterson, Εἷ θεός 1926, 282.—ὄν. μέγα κ. ἅγ. κ. ἔνδ.: PGM 13, 183f; 504f). τὸ μέγα καὶ θαυμαστὸν καὶ ἔνδοξον ὄν. Hs 9, 18, 5; τὸ πανάγιον καὶ ἔνδοξον ὄν. 1 Cl 58:1a; τοῦ παντοκράτορος καὶ ἐνδόξου ὄν. Hv 3, 3, 5; τὸ πανάρετον ὄν. 1 Cl 45:7; τῷ παντοκράτορι καὶ ἐνδόξῳ ὀνόματι 60:4; τὸ ὁσιώτατον τῆς μεγαλωσύνης αὐτοῦ ὄν. 58:1b. τὸ ὄν. μου θαυμαστὸν ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσι D 14:3 (cp. Mal 1:14). The words ὄν. θεοπρεπέστατον IMg 1:2 are difficult to interpret (s. Hdb. ad loc.; θεοπρεπής b).
    β. in combination w. verbs: ἁγιάζειν τὸ ὄν. Mt 6:9 (AFridrichsen, Helligt vorde dit naun: DTT 8, 1917, 1–16). Lk 11:2; D 8:2 (ἁγιάζω 3). βλασφημεῖν (q.v. bγ) τὸ ὄν. Rv 13:6; 16:9; pass. βλασφημεῖται τὸ ὄν. (Is 52:5) Ro 2:24; 2 Cl 13:1f, 4; ITr 8:2. βλασφημίας ἐπιφέρεσθαι τῷ ὀν. κυρίου bring blasphemy upon the name of the Lord 1 Cl 47:7. πφοσέθηκαν κατὰ ὄν. τοῦ κυρίου βλασφημίαν Hs 6, 2, 3; βεβηλοῦν τὸ ὄν. 8, 6, 2 (s. βεβηλόω). ἀπαγγελῶ τὸ ὄν. τ. ἀδελφοῖς μου Hb 2:12 (cp. Ps 21:23). ὅπως διαγγελῇ τὸ ὄν. μου ἐν πάσῃ τῇ γῇ Ro 9:17 (Ex 9:16). δοξάζειν τὸ ὄν. (σου, τοῦ κυρίου, τοῦ θεοῦ etc.) Rv 15:4; 1 Cl 43:6; IPhld 10:1; Hv 2, 1, 2; 3, 4, 3; 4, 1, 3; Hs 9, 18, 5 (s. δοξάζω 1; cp. GJs 7:2; 12:1[w. ref. to name of Mary]). ὅπως ἐνδοξασθῇ τὸ ὄν. τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ 2 Th 1:12. ἐλπίζειν τῷ ὀν. Mt 12:21 (vv.ll. ἐν or ἐπὶ τῷ ὀν.; the pass. on which it is based, Is 42:4, has ἐπὶ τῷ ὀν.). ἐπικαλεῖσθαι τὸ ὄν. κυρίου (as PsSol 6:1) or αὐτοῦ, σου etc. (w. ref. to God or Christ) call on the name of the Lord Ac 2:21 (Jo 3:5); 9:14, 21; 22:16; Ro 10:13 (Jo 3:5); 1 Cor 1:2. ψυχὴ ἐπικεκλημένη τὸ μεγαλοπρεπὲς καὶ ἅγιον ὄν. αὐτοῦ a person who calls upon his exalted and holy name 1 Cl 64.—Pass. πάντα τὰ ἔθνη ἐφʼ οὓς ἐπικέκληται τὸ ὄν. μου ἐπʼ αὐτούς Ac 15:17 (Am 9:12). τὸ καλὸν ὄν. τὸ ἐπικληθὲν ἐφʼ ὑμᾶς Js 2:7 (on καλὸν ὄν. cp. Sb 343, 9 and the Pompeian graffito in Dssm., LO 237 [LAE 276]). πάντες οἱ ἐπικαλούμενοι τῷ ὀν. αὐτοῦ all those who are called by (the Lord’s) name Hs 9, 14, 3; cp. οἱ κεκλημένοι τῷ ὀν. κυρίου those who are called by the name of the Lord 8, 1, 1. ἐπαισχύνεσθαι τὸ ὄν. κυρίου τὸ ἐπικληθὲν ἐπʼ αὐτούς be ashamed of the name that is named over them 8, 6, 4. ὁμολογεῖν τῷ ὀν. αὐτοῦ praise his name Hb 13:15 (cp. PsSol 15:2 ἐξομολογήσασθαι τῷ ὀνόματι σου). ὀνομάζειν τὸ ὄν. κυρίου 2 Ti 2:19 (Is 26:13). ψάλλειν τῷ ὀν. σου Ro 15:9 (Ps 17:50). οὐ μὴ λάβῃς ἐπὶ ματαίῳ τὸ ὄν. κυρίου 19:5 (Ex 20:7; Dt 5:11).—Although in the preceding examples the name is oft. practically inseparable fr. the being that bears it, this is perh. even more true of the foll. cases, in which the name appears almost as the representation of the Godhead, as a tangible manifestation of the divine nature (Quint. Smyrn. 9, 465 Polidarius, when healing, calls on οὔνομα πατρὸς ἑοῖο ‘the name of his father’ [Asclepius]; τοσοῦτον … δύναται τὸ ὄ. τοῦ Ἰησοῦ κατὰ τῶν δαιμόνων Orig., C. Cels. 1, 56, 11; Dt 18:7; 3 Km 8:16; Ps 68:37; Zech 13:2 ἐξολεθρεύσω τὰ ὀν. τῶν εἰδώλων; Zeph 1:4; PsSol 7:6; Just., D. 121, 3 ὑποτάσσεσθαι αὐτοῦ ὀν.): the ‘name’ of God is ἀρχέγονον πάσης κτίσεως 1 Cl 59:3. Sim. τὸ ὄν. τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ μέγα ἐστὶ καὶ τὸν κόσμον ὅλον βαστάζει Hs 9, 14, 5. λατρεύειν τῷ παναρέτῳ ὀν. αὐτοῦ worship the most excellent name (of the Most High) 1 Cl 45:7. ὑπακούειν τῷ παναγίῳ καὶ ἐνδόξῳ ὀν. αὐτοῦ be obedient to his most holy and glorious name 58:1a. ὑπήκοον γενέσθαι τῷ παντοκρατορικῷ καὶ παναρέτῳ ὀν. 60:4. κηρύσσειν τὸ ὄν. τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ Hs 9, 16, 5. ἐπιγινώσκειν τὸ ὄν. τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ 9, 16, 7. φοβεῖσθαι τὸ ὄν. σου Rv 11:18. φανεροῦν τινι τὸ ὄν. σου J 17:6. γνωρίζειν τινὶ τὸ ὄν. σου vs. 26. πιστεύειν τῷ ὀν. τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ believe in the name of (God’s) son 1J 3:23. Also πιστεύειν εἰς τὸ ὄν. (s. γב below and s. πιστεύω 2aβ).—Of the name borne by followers of Jesus Christ (cp. Theoph. Ant. 1, 1 [p. 58, 13]): κρατεῖς τὸ ὄν. μου you cling to my name Rv 2:13. The same mng. also holds for the expressions: λαμβάνειν τὸ ὄν. τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ Hs 9, 12, 4; 8; 9, 13, 2a; 7. τοῦ βαστάσαι τὸ ὄν. μου ἐνώπιον ἐθνῶν to bear my name before (the) Gentiles Ac 9:15. τὸ ὄν. ἡδέως βαστάζειν bear the name gladly Hs 8, 10, 3; cp. 9, 28, 5b. τὸ ὄν. τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ φορεῖν 9, 13, 3; 9, 14, 5f; 9, 15, 2; cp. 9, 13, 2b. Christians receive this name at their baptism: πρὶν φορέσαι τὸν ἄνθρωπον τὸ ὄν. τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ νεκρός ἐστιν before a person bears the name of God’s Son (which is given the candidate at baptism), he is dead 9, 16, 3. Of dissemblers and false teachers ὄν. μὲν ἔχουσιν, ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς πίστεως κενοί εἰσιν they have the (Christian) name, but are devoid of faith 9, 19, 2. Of Christians in appearance only ἐν ὑποκρίσει φέροντες τὸ ὄν. τοῦ κυρίου who bear the Lord’s name in pretense Pol 6:3. δόλῳ πονηρῷ τὸ ὄν. περιφέρειν carry the name about in wicked deceit (evidently of wandering preachers) IEph 7:1. τὸ ὄν. ἐπαισχύνονται τοῦ κυρίου αὐτῶν they are ashamed of their Lord’s name Hs 9, 21, 3. More fully: ἐπαισχύνονται τὸ ὄν. αὐτοῦ φορεῖν 9, 14, 6.
    γ. used w. prepositions
    א. w. διά and the gen. διὰ τοῦ ὀνόματός μου πιστεύειν PtK 3 p. 15 ln. 12; σωθῆναι διὰ τοῦ μεγάλου καὶ ἐνδόξου ὀν. be saved through the great and glorious name Hv 4, 2, 4. εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ εἰσελθεῖν διὰ τοῦ ὀν. τοῦ υἱοῦ (τοῦ θεοῦ) Hs 9, 12, 5. ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν λαβεῖν διὰ τοῦ ὀν. αὐτοῦ Ac 10:43 (cp. Just., D. 11, 4 al.). σημεῖα … γίνεσθαι διὰ τοῦ ὀν. … Ἰησοῦ by the power of the name 4:30. Differently παρακαλεῖν τινα διὰ τοῦ ὀν. τοῦ κυρίου appeal to someone by the name (= while calling on the name) of the Lord 1 Cor 1:10.—W. διά and the acc. μισούμενοι … διὰ τὸ ὄν. μου hated on account of my name (i.e., because you bear it) Mt 10:22; 24:9; Mk 13:13; Lk 21:17 (Just., A I, 4, 2 al.). ποιεῖν τι εἴς τινα διὰ τὸ ὄν. μου J 15:21. ἀφέωνται ὑμῖν αἱ ἁμαρτίαι διὰ τὸ ὄν. αὐτοῦ your sins are forgiven on account of (Jesus’) name 1J 2:12. βαστάζειν διὰ τὸ ὄν. μου bear (hardship) for my name’s sake Rv 2:3 (s. βαστάζω 2bβ). πάσχειν διὰ τὸ ὄν. (also w. a gen. like αὐτοῦ) Pol 8:2; Hv 3, 2, 1b; Hs 9, 28, 3.
    ב. w. εἰς: somet. evidently as rendering of rabb. לְשֵׁם with regard to, in thinking of δέχεσθαί τινα εἰς ὄν. Ἰ. Χρ. receive someone in deference to Jesus Christ IRo 9:3. δύο ἢ τρεῖς συνηγμένοι εἰς τὸ ἐμὸν ὄν. two or three gathered and thinking of me, i.e., so that I am the reason for their assembling Mt 18:20; but here the other mng. (s. ג below) has had some influence: ‘while naming’ or ‘calling on my name’. τῆς ἀγάπης ἧς ἐνεδείξασθε εἰς τὸ ὄν. αὐτοῦ (i.e. θεοῦ) Hb 6:10 is either the love that you have shown with regard to him, i.e. for his sake, or we have here the frequently attested formula of Hellenistic legal and commercial language (s. Mayser II/2 p. 415; Dssm. B 143ff, NB 25, LO 97f [BS 146f; 197; LAE 121]; Heitmüller, op. cit. 100ff; FPreisigke, Girowesen im griech. Ägypt. 1910, 149ff. On the LXX s. Heitmüller 110f; JPsichari, Essai sur le Grec de la Septante 1908, 202f): εἰς (τὸ) ὄν. τινος to the name=to the account (over which the name stands). Then the deeds of love, although shown to humans, are dedicated to God.—The concept of dedication is also highly significant, in all probability, for the understanding of the expr. βαπτίζειν εἰς (τὸ) ὄν. τινος. Through baptism εἰς (τὸ) ὄν. τ. those who are baptized become the possession of and come under the dedicated protection of the one whose name they bear. An additional factor, to a degree, may be the sense of εἰς τὸ ὄν.=‘with mention of the name’ (cp. Herodian 2, 2, 10; 2, 13, 2 ὀμνύναι εἰς τὸ ὄν. τινος; Cyranides p. 57, 1 εἰς ὄν. τινος; 60, 18=εἰς τὸ ὄν. τ.; 62, 13. Another ex. in Heitmüller 107): Mt 28:19; Ac 8:16; 19:5; D 7:1, (3); 9:5; Hv 3, 7, 3; cp. 1 Cor 1:13, 15. S. βαπτίζω 2c and Silva New, Beginn. I/5, ’33, 121–40.—πιστεύειν εἰς τὸ ὄν. τινος believe in the name of someone i.e. have confidence that the person’s name (rather in the sense of a title, cp. Phil 2:9) is rightfully borne and encodes what the person really is J 1:12; 2:23; 3:18; 1J 5:13.
    ג. with ἐν: ἐν ὀνόματι of God or Jesus means in the great majority of cases with mention of the name, while naming or calling on the name (PsSol 11:8; JosAs 9:1; Just., D. 35, 2 al.; no corresponding use has been found in gener. Gk. lit.; but cp. ἐν ὀν. τοῦ μεγάλου καὶ ὑψίστου θεοῦ Hippol., Ref. 9, 15, 6.—Heitmüller p. 13ff, esp. 44; 49). In many pass. it seems to be a formula. ἐν τῷ ὀν. Ἰησοῦ ἐκβάλλειν δαιμόνια Mk 9:38; 16:17; Lk 9:49. τὰ δαιμόνια ὑποτάσσεται ἡμῖν ἐν τῷ ὀν. σου the demons are subject to us at the mention of your name 10:17. ποιεῖν τι ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι Ac 4:7; cp. Col 3:17. Perh. J 10:25 (but s. below). ἐν τῷ ὀν. Ἰησοῦ … οὗτος παρέστηκεν ὑγιής Ac 4:10. ὄν. … ἐν ᾧ δεῖ σωθῆναι ἡμᾶς vs. 12. παραγγέλλω σοι ἐν ὀν. Ἰ. Χρ. 16:18; cp. 2 Th 3:6; IPol 5:1. σοὶ λέγω ἐν τῷ ὀν. τοῦ κυρίου Ac 14:10 D. Peter, in performing a healing, says ἐν τῷ ὀν. Ἰησοῦ Χρ. περιπάτει 3:6 (s. Heitmüller 60). The elders are to anoint the sick w. oil ἐν τῷ ὀν. τοῦ κυρίου while calling on the name of the Lord Js 5:14.—Of prophets λαλεῖν ἐν τῷ ὀν. κυρίου 5:10. παρρησιάζεσθαι ἐν τῷ ὀν. Ἰησοῦ speak out boldly in proclaiming the name of Jesus Ac 9:27f. βαπτίζεσθαι ἐν τῷ ὀν. Ἰ. Χ. be baptized or have oneself baptized while naming the name of Jesus Christ Ac 2:38 v.l.; 10:48. At a baptism ἐν ὀν. χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ AcPl Ha 3, 32. αἰτεῖν τὸν πατέρα ἐν τῷ ὀν. μου (=Ἰησοῦ) ask the Father, using my name J 15:16; cp. 14:13, 14; 16:24, 26. W. the latter pass. belongs vs. 23 (ὁ πατὴρ) δώσει ὑμῖν ἐν τῷ ὀν. μου (the Father) will give you, when you mention my name. τὸ πνεῦμα ὸ̔ πέμψει ὁ πατὴρ ἐν τῷ ὀν. μου the Spirit, whom the Father will send when my name is used 14:26. To thank God ἐν ὀν. Ἰησοῦ Χρ. while naming the name of Jesus Christ Eph 5:20. ἵνα ἐν τῷ ὀν. Ἰησοῦ πᾶν γόνυ κάμψῃ that when the name of Jesus is mentioned every knee should bow Phil 2:10. χαίρετε, υἱοί, ἐν ὀν. κυρίου greetings, my sons, as we call on the Lord’s name 1:1. ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀν. κυρίου whoever comes, naming the Lord’s name (in order thereby to give evidence of being a Christian) D 12:1. ἀσπάζεσθαι ἐν ὀν. Ἰ. Χρ. greet, while naming the name of J. Chr. w. acc. of pers. or thing greeted IRo ins; ISm 12:2. Receive a congregation ἐν ὀν. θεοῦ IEph 1:3. συναχθῆναι ἐν τῷ ὀν. τοῦ κυρίου Ἰ. meet and call on the name of the Lord Jesus=as a Christian congregation 1 Cor 5:4. μόνον ἐν τῷ ὀν. Ἰ. Χρ. only (it is to be) while calling on the name of J. Chr. ISm 4:2.—Not far removed fr. these are the places where we render ἐν τῷ ὀν. with through or by the name (s. ἐν 4c); the effect brought about by the name is caused by its utterance ἀπελούσασθε, ἡγιάσθητε, ἐδικαιώθητε ἐν τῷ ὀν. τοῦ κυρίου Ἰ. Χρ. 1 Cor 6:11. ζωὴν ἔχειν ἐν τῷ ὀν. αὐτοῦ (=Ἰησοῦ) J 20:31. τηρεῖν τινα ἐν τῷ ὀν. (θεοῦ) 17:11f.—ἐν τῷ ὀν. at the command (of), commissioned by ἔργα ποιεῖν ἐν τῷ ὀν. τοῦ πατρός J 10:25 (but s. above). ἔρχεσθαι ἐν τῷ ὀν. τοῦ πατρός 5:43a; in contrast ἔρχ. ἐν τῷ ὀν. τῷ ἰδίῳ vs. 43b. εὐλογημένος ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀν. κυρίου 12:13 (Ps 117:26). The Ps-passage prob. has the same sense (despite Heitmüller 53f) in Mt 21:9; 23:39; Mk 11:9; Lk 13:35; 19:38.—OMerlier, Ὄνομα et ἐν ὀνόματι dans le quatr. Év.: RevÉtGr 47, ’34, 180–204; RBratcher, BT 14, ’63, 72–80.
    ד. w. ἕνεκα (and the other forms of this word; s. ἕνεκα 1): of persecutions for one’s Christian faith ἀπάγεσθαι ἐπὶ βασιλεῖς ἕνεκεν τοῦ ὀν. μου Lk 21:12. πάσχειν or ὑποφέρειν εἵνεκα τοῦ ὀνόματος Hv 3, 1, 9; 3, 2, 1; Hs 9, 28, 5. ἕνεκεν τοῦ ὀν. (τοῦ) κυρίου v 3, 5, 2; Hs 9, 28, 6. ἀφιέναι οἰκίας … ἕνεκεν τοῦ ἐμοῦ ὀν. for my name’s sake Mt 19:29. ἔκτισας τὰ πάντα ἕνεκεν τοῦ ὀν. σου you created all things for your name’s sake, i.e. that God’s name might be praised for the benefits which the works of creation bring to humankind D 10:3.
    ה. w. ἐπί and the dat.: ἐπὶ τῷ ὀν. τινος when someone’s name is mentioned or called upon, or mentioning someone’s name (LXX; En 10:2; Just., D. 39, 6; Ath. 23, 1; s. Heitmüller 19ff; 43ff; s. also 47ff; 52ff; 87ff) in the NT only of the name of Jesus, and only in the synoptics and Ac. ἐλεύσονται ἐπὶ τῷ ὀν. μου they will come using my name Mt 24:5; Mk 13:6; Lk 21:8. κηρύσσειν ἐπὶ τῷ ὀν. αὐτοῦ μετάνοιαν 24:47. λαλεῖν ἐπὶ τῷ ὀν. τούτῳ to speak using this name Ac 4:17; 5:40. διδάσκειν 4:18; 5:28. ποιεῖν δύναμιν ἐπὶ τῷ ὀν. μου Mk 9:39. ἐπὶ τῷ ὀν. σου ἐκβάλλειν δαιμόνια Lk 9:49 v.l. ἐπὶ τῷ σῷ ὀν. τὰς θεραπείας ἐπετέλουν GJs 20:2 (codd.). Of the (spiritual) temple of God: οἰκοδομηθήσεται ναὸς θεοῦ ἐνδόξως ἐπὶ τῷ ὀν. κυρίου the temple of God will be gloriously built with the use of the Lord’s name 16:6f, 8 (quot. of uncertain orig.). βαπτίζεσθαι ἐπὶ τῷ ὀν. Ἰ. Χρ. Ac 2:38. Baptism is also referred to in καλεῖσθαι ἐπὶ τῷ ὀν. τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ receive a name when the name of God’s son is named Hs 9, 17, 4. The words δέχεσθαι (παιδίον) ἐπὶ τῷ ὀν. μου can also be classed here receive (a child) when my name is confessed, when I am called upon Mt 18:5; Mk 9:37; Lk 9:48 (s. Heitmüller 64); but s. also 3 below.—ἐπί w. acc.: πεποιθέναι ἐπὶ τὸ ὁσιώτατον τῆς μεγαλωσύνης αὐτοῦ ὄν. have confidence in (the Lord’s) most sacred and majestic name 1 Cl 58:1b; ἐλπίζειν ἐπὶ τὸ ὄν. hope in the name (of the Lord) 16:8b.
    ו. w. περί and the gen.: εὐαγγελίζεσθαι περὶ τοῦ ὀν. Ἰ. Χ. bring the good news about the name of J. Chr. Ac 8:12.—(W. acc.: ἔχομεν δέος τὸ ὄ. τοῦ θεοῦ Orig., C. Cels. 4, 48, 34).
    ז. w. πρός and acc.: πρὸς τὸ ὄν. Ἰησοῦ … πολλὰ ἐναντία πρᾶξαι do many things in opposing the name of Jesus Ac 26:9.
    ח. w. ὑπέρ and gen.: ὑπὲρ τοῦ ὀν. (Ἰησοῦ) ἀτιμασθῆναι Ac 5:41. πάσχειν 9:16; Hs 9, 28, 2. Cp. Ac 15:26; 21:13. The activity of the apostles takes place ὑπὲρ τοῦ ὀν. αὐτοῦ to the honor of (Jesus’) name Ro 1:5. Cp. 3J 7. Of thankful praying at the Lord’s Supper εὐχαριστοῦμεν σοι … ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἁγίου ὀν. σου, οὗ κατεσκήνωσας ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ἡμῶν we thank you … for your holy name, which you caused to dwell in our hearts D 10:2.
    δ. ὄν. w. ref. to God or Christ not infreq. stands quite alone, simply the Name: Ac 5:41; Phil 2:9 (cp. Diod S 3, 61, 6); 3J 7; 2 Cl 13:1, 4; IEph 3:1; 7:1; IPhld 10:1; Hv 3, 2, 1; Hs 8, 10, 3; 9, 13, 2; 9, 28, 3; 5.
    a person (Phalaris, Ep. 128; POxy 1188, 8 [13 A.D.]; BGU 113, 11; Jos., Ant. 14, 22; other exx. in Dssm., NB 24f [BS 196f]; LXX) τὸ ποθητόν μοι ὄν. my dear friend: Alce ISm 13:2; IPol 8:3; Crocus IRo 10:1. Pl. (PThéad 41, 10; PSI 27, 22; Num 1:18 al.) people Ac 1:15; Rv 3:4. ὀνόματα ἀνθρώπων 11:13 (cp. Ael. Aristid. 50, 72 K.=26 p. 523 D.: ὀνόματα δέκα ἀνδρῶν). This is prob. the place for περὶ λόγου καὶ ὀνομάτων καὶ νόμου about teaching and persons and (the) law Ac 18:15.
    the classification under which one belongs, noted by a name or category, title, category (cp. Cass. Dio 38, 44; 42, 24 καὶ ὅτι πολλῷ πλείω ἔν τε τῷ σχήματι καὶ ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι τῷ τῆς στρατηγίας ὢν καταπράξειν ἤλπιζε=he hoped to effect much more by taking advantage of his praetorial apparel and title; ins: Sb 7541, 5 [II A.D.] Νύμφη ὄνομʼ ἐστί σοι; POxy 37 I, 17 [49 A.D.] βούλεται ὀνόματι ἐλευθέρου τὸ σωμάτιον ἀπενέγκασθαι=she claims to have carried off the infant on the basis of its being free-born; Jos., Ant. 12, 154 φερνῆς ὀνόματι; 11, 40; Just., A II, 6, 4 καὶ ἀνθρώπου καὶ σωτῆρος ὄνομα. Other exx. in Heitmüller 50); the possibility of understanding ὄν. as category made it easier for Greeks to take over rabb. לְשֵׁם (s. 1dγב above) in the sense with regard to a particular characteristic, then simply with regard to, for the sake of ὁ δεχόμενος προφήτην εἰς ὄν. προφήτου whoever receives a prophet within the category ‘prophet’, i.e. because he is a prophet, as a prophet Mt 10:41a; cp. vss. 41b, 42.—ὸ̔ς ἂν ποτίσῃ ὑμᾶς ἐν ὀνόματι, ὄτι Χριστοῦ ἐστε whoever gives you a drink under the category that you belong to Christ, i.e. in your capacity as a follower of Christ Mk 9:41. εἰ ὀνειδίζεσθε ἐν ὀν. Χριστοῦ if you are reviled for the sake of Christ 1 Pt 4:14. δοξαζέτω τὸν θεὸν ἐν τῷ ὀν. τούτῳ let the person praise God in this capacity (=ὡς Χριστιανός) vs. 16. δέδεμαι ἐν τῷ ὀν. I am imprisoned for the sake of the Name IEph 3:1.—δέχεσθαι (παιδίον) ἐπὶ τῷ ὀν. μου for my (name’s) sake Mt 18:5; Mk 9:37; Lk 9:48 (cp. Heitmüller 113. But s. 1dγה above).
    recognition accorded a person on the basis of performance, (well-known) name, reputation, fame (Hom. et al.; 1 Ch 14:17; 1 Macc 8:12) φανερὸν ἐγένετο τὸ ὄν. αὐτοῦ his fame was widespread Mk 6:14. ὄν. ἔχειν (Pla., Apol. 38c, Ep. 2, 312c) w. ὅτι foll. have the reputation of Rv 3:1 perh. also 3:5 (s. 1bα; JFuller, JETS 26, ’83, 297–306).
    name in terms of office held, office (POxy 58, 6) στασιαζουσῶν τ. φυλῶν, ὁποία αὐτῶν εἴη τῷ ἐνδόξῳ ὀνόματι κεκοσμημένη when the tribes were quarreling as to which one of them was to be adorned with that glorious office 1 Cl 43:2. τὸ ὄν. τῆς ἐπισκοπῆς the office of supervision 44:1.—B. 1263f. OEANE IV 91–96 on Mesopotamian practices. Schmidt, Syn. I 113–24. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ὄνομα

  • 3 πνεῦμα

    πνεῦμα, ατος, τό (πνέω; Aeschyl., Pre-Socr., Hdt.+. On the history of the word s. Rtzst., Mysterienrel.3 308ff).
    air in movement, blowing, breathing (even the glowing exhalations of a volcanic crater: Diod S 5, 7, 3)
    wind (Aeschyl. et al.; LXX, EpArist, Philo; Jos., Ant. 2, 343; 349; SibOr 8, 297) in wordplay τὸ πνεῦμα πνεῖ the wind blows J 3:8a (EpJer 60 πνεῦμα ἐν πάσῃ χώρᾳ πνεῖ. But s. TDonn, ET 66, ’54f, 32; JThomas, Restoration Qtrly 24, ’81, 219–24). ὀθόνη πλοίου ὑπὸ πνεύματος πληρουμένη MPol 15:2. Of God ὁ ποιῶν τοὺς ἀγγέλους αὐτοῦ πνεύματα who makes his angels winds Hb 1:7; 1 Cl 36:3 (both Ps 103:4).
    the breathing out of air, blowing, breath (Aeschyl. et al.; Pla., Tim. 79b; LXX) ὁ ἄνομος, ὅν ὁ κύριος Ἰησοῦς ἀνελεῖ τῷ πνεύματι τοῦ στόματος αὐτοῦ 2 Th 2:8 (cp. Is 11:4; Ps 32:6).
    that which animates or gives life to the body, breath, (life-)spirit (Aeschyl. et al.; Phoenix of Colophon 1, 16 [Coll. Alex. p. 231] πν.=a breathing entity [in contrast to becoming earth in death]; Polyb. 31, 10, 4; Ps.-Aristot., De Mundo 4 p. 394b, 8ff; PHib 5, 54 [III B.C.]; PGM 4, 538; 658; 2499; LXX; TestAbr A 17 p. 98, 19 [Stone p. 44] al.; JosAs 19:3; SibOr 4, 46; Tat. 4:2) ἀφιέναι τὸ πνεῦμα give up one’s spirit, breathe one’s last (Eur., Hec. 571; Porphyr., Vi. Plotini 2) Mt 27:50. J says for this παραδιδόναι τὸ πν. 19:3 (cp. ApcMos 31 ἀποδῶ τὸ πν.; Just., D. 105, 5). Of the return of the (life-)spirit of a deceased person into her dead body ἐπέστρεψεν τὸ πν. αὐτῆς Lk 8:55 (cp. Jdg 15:19). εἰς χεῖράς σου παρατίθεμαι τὸ πν. μου into your hands I entrust my spirit 23:46 (Ps 30:6; for alleged focus on ἐλπίζειν s. EBons, BZ 38, ’94, 93–101). κύριε Ἰησοῦ, δέξαι τὸ πνεῦμά μου Ac 7:59; composite of both passages AcPl Ha 10, 23 (cp. ApcMos 42). τὸ πν. μου ὁ δεσπότης δέξεται GJs 23:3 (on the pneuma flying upward after death cp. Epicharm. in Vorsokrat. 23 [=13, 4th ed.], B 9 and 22; Eur., Suppl. 533 πνεῦμα μὲν πρὸς αἰθέρα, τὸ σῶμα δʼ ἐς γῆν; PGM 1, 177ff τελευτήσαντός σου τὸ σῶμα περιστελεῖ, σοῦ δὲ τὸ πνεῦμα … εἰς ἀέρα ἄξει σὺν αὑτῷ ‘when you are dead [the angel] will wrap your body … and take your spirit with him into the sky’). τὸ σῶμα χωρὶς πν. νεκρόν ἐστιν Js 2:26. πν. ζωῆς ἐκ τ. θεοῦ εἰσῆλθεν ἐν αὐτοῖς (i.e. the prophet-witnesses who have been martyred) Rv 11:11 (cp. Ezk 37:10 v.l. εἰσῆλθεν εἰς αὐτοὺς πνεῦμα ζωῆς; vs. 5). Of the spirit that animated the image of a beast, and enabled it to speak and to have Christians put to death 13:15.—After a person’s death, the πν. lives on as an independent being, in heaven πνεύματα δικαὶων τετελειωμένων Hb 12:23 (cp. Da 3:86 εὐλογεῖτε, πνεύματα καὶ ψυχαὶ δικαίων, τὸν κύριον). According to non-biblical sources, the πν. are in the netherworld (cp. En 22:3–13; Sib Or 7, 127) or in the air (PGM 1, 178), where evil spirits can prevent them from ascending higher (s. ἀήρ2b). τοῖς ἐν φυλακῇ πνεύμασιν πορευθεὶς ἐκήρυξεν 1 Pt 3:19 belongs here if it refers to Jesus’ preaching to the spirits of the dead confined in Hades (so Usteri et al.; s. also JMcCulloch, The Harrowing of Hell, 1930), whether it be when he descended into Hades, or when he returned to heaven (so RBultmann, Bekenntnis u. Liedfragmente im 1 Pt: ConNeot11, ’47, 1–14).—CClemen, Niedergefahren zu den Toten 1900; JTurmel, La Descente du Christ aux enfers 1905; JMonnier, La Descente aux enfers 1906; HHoltzmann, ARW 11, 1908, 285–97; KGschwind, Die Niederfahrt Christi in die Unterwelt 1911; DPlooij, De Descensus in 1 Pt 3:19 en 4:6: TT 47, 1913, 145–62; JBernard, The Descent into Hades a Christian Baptism (on 1 Pt 3:19ff): Exp. 8th ser., 11, 1916, 241–74; CSchmidt, Gespräche Jesu mit seinen Jüngern: TU 43, 1919, 452ff; JFrings, BZ 17, 1926, 75–88; JKroll, Gott u. Hölle ’32; RGanschinietz, Katabasis: Pauly-W. X/2, 1919, 2359–449; Clemen2 89–96; WBieder, Die Vorstellung v. d. Höllenfahrt Jesu Chr. ’49; SJohnson, JBL 79, ’60, 48–51; WDalton, Christ’s Proclamation to the Spirits ’65. S. also the lit. in Windisch, Hdb.2 1930, exc. on 1 Pt 3:20; ESelwyn, The First Ep. of St. Peter ’46 and 4c below.—This is prob. also the place for θανατωθεὶς μὲν σαρκὶ ζωοποιηθεὶς δὲ πνεύματι• ἐν ᾧ καὶ … 1 Pt 3:18f (some mss. read πνεύματι instead of πνεύμασιν in vs. 19, evidently in ref. to the manner of Jesus’ movement; πνεῦμα is that part of Christ which, in contrast to σάρξ, did not pass away in death, but survived as an individual entity after death; s. ἐν 7). Likew. the contrast κατὰ σάρκα … κατὰ πνεῦμα Ro 1:3f. Cp. 1 Ti 3:16.
    a part of human personality, spirit
    when used with σάρξ, the flesh, it denotes the immaterial part 2 Cor 7:1; Col 2:5. Flesh and spirit=the whole personality, in its outer and inner aspects, oft. in Ign.: IMg 1:2; 13:1a; ITr ins; 12:1; IRo ins; ISm 1:1; IPol 5:1; AcPl Ant 13, 18 (=Aa I 237, 3).—In the same sense beside σῶμα, the body (Simplicius, In Epict. p. 50, 1; Ps.-Phoc. 106f; PGM 1, 178) 1 Cor 5:3–5; 7:34.—The inner life of humans is divided into ψυχὴ καὶ πνεῦμα (cp. Ps.-Pla., Axioch. 10 p. 370c τὶ θεῖον ὄντως ἐνῆν πνεῦμα τῇ ψυχῇ=a divine spirit was actually in the soul; Wsd 15:11; Jos., Ant. 1, 34; Tat. 13, 2; 15, 1 et al.; Ath. 27, 1. S. also Herm. Wr. 10, 13; 16f; PGM 4, 627; 630. ἐκ τριῶν συνεστάναι λέγουσι τὸν ἄνθρωπον ἐκ ψυχῆς καὶ σώματος καὶ πνεύματος Did., Gen. 55, 14) Hb 4:12. Cp. Phil 1:27. τὸ πνεῦμα καὶ ἡ ψυχὴ καὶ τὸ σῶμα 1 Th 5:23 (s. GMilligan, Thess. 1908, 78f; EvDobschütz in Meyer X7 1909, 230ff; EBurton, Spirit, Soul, and Flesh 1918; AFestugière, La Trichotomie des 1 Th 5:23 et la Philos. gr.: RSR 20, 1930, 385–415; CMasson, RTP 33, ’45, 97–102; FGrant, An Introd. to NT Thought ’50, 161–66). σαρκί, ψυχῇ, πνεύματι IPhld 11:2.
    as the source and seat of insight, feeling, and will, gener. as the representative part of human inner life (cp. PGM 4, 627; 3 Km 20:5; Sir 9:9 al.; Just., D. 30, 1; Did., Gen. 232, 5) ἐπιγνοὺς ὁ Ἰησοῦς τῷ πν. αὐτοῦ Mk 2:8. ἀναστενάξας τῷ πν. αὐτοῦ λέγει 8:12 (s. ἀναστενάζω). ἠγαλλίασεν τὸ πν. μου Lk 1:47 (in parallelism w. ψυχή vs. 46, as Sir 9:9). ἠγαλλιάσατο τῷ πν. 10:21 v.l., Ἰησοῦς ἐνεβριμήσατο τῷ πν. J 11:33 (s. ἐμβριμάομαι 3); Ἰης. ἐταράχθη τῷ πν. 13:21. παρωξύνετο τὸ πν. αὐτοῦ ἐν αὐτῷ Ac 17:16; ζέων τῷ πν. with spirit-fervor 18:25 (s. ζέω). τὸ παιδίον ἐκραταιοῦτο πνεύματι Lk 1:80; 2:40 v.l.; ἔθετο ὁ Παῦλος ἐν τῷ πν. Paul made up his mind Ac 19:21 (some would put this pass. in 6c, but cp. Lk 1:66 and analogous formulations Hom. et al. in L-S-J-M s.v. τίθημι A6). προσκυνήσουσιν τῷ πατρὶ ἐν πνεύματι of the spiritual, i.e. the pure, inner worship of God, that has nothing to do w. holy times, places, appurtenances, or ceremonies J 4:23; cp. vs. 24b. πν. συντετριμμένον (Ps 50:19) 1 Cl 18:17; 52:4.—2 Cl 20:4; Hv 3, 12, 2; 3, 13, 2.—This usage is also found in Paul. His conviction (s. 5 below) that the Christian possesses the (divine) πνεῦμα and thus is different fr. all other people, leads him to choose this word in preference to others, in order to characterize a believer’s inner being gener. ᾧ λατρεύω ἐν τῷ πν. μου Ro 1:9. οὐκ ἔσχηκα ἄνεσιν τῷ πν. μου 2 Cor 2:13. Cp. 7:13. As a matter of fact, it can mean simply a person’s very self or ego: τὸ πνεῦμα συμμαρτυρεῖ τῷ πνεύματι ἡμῶν the Spirit (of God) bears witness to our very self Ro 8:16 (cp. PGM 12, 327 ἠκούσθη μου τὸ πνεῦμα ὑπὸ πνεύματος οὐρανοῦ). ἀνέπαυσαν τὸ ἐμὸν πν. καὶ τὸ ὑμῶν they have refreshed both me and you 1 Cor 16:18. ἡ χάρις τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰ. Χρ. μετά τοῦ πν. (ὑμῶν) Gal 6:18; Phil 4:23; Phlm 25. Cp. 2 Ti 4:22. Likew. in Ign. τὸ ἐμὸν πν. my (unworthy) self IEph 18:1; IRo 9:3; cp. 1 Cor 2:11a—On the relation of the divine Spirit to the believer’s spiritual self, s. SWollenweider, Der Geist Gottes als Selbst der Glaubenden: ZTK 93, ’96, 163–92.—Only a part of the inner life, i.e. that which concerns the will, is meant in τὸ μὲν πνεῦμα πρόθυμον, ἡ δὲ σὰρξ ἀσθενής Mt 26:41; Mk 14:38; Pol 7:2. That which is inferior, anxiety, fear of suffering, etc. is attributed to the σάρξ.—The mng. of the expr. οἱ πτωχοὶ τῷ πνεύματι Mt 5:3 is difficult to determine w. certainty (cp. Pla., Ep. 7, 335a πένης ἀνὴρ τὴν ψυχήν. The dat. as τῇ ψυχῇ M. Ant. 6, 52; 8, 51). The sense is prob. those who are poor in their inner life, because they do not have a misdirected pride in their own spiritual riches (s. AKlöpper, Über den Sinn u. die ursprgl. Form der ersten Seligpreisung der Bergpredigt bei Mt: ZWT 37, 1894, 175–91; RKabisch, Die erste Seligpreisung: StKr 69, 1896, 195–215; KKöhler, Die ursprgl. Form der Seligpreisungen: StKr 91, 1918, 157–92; JBoehmer, De Schatkamer 17, 1923, 11–16, TT [Copenhagen] 4, 1924, 195–207, JBL 45, 1926, 298–304; WMacgregor, ET 39, 1928, 293–97; VMacchioro, JR 12, ’32, 40–49; EEvans, Theology 47, ’44, 55–60; HLeisegang, Pneuma Hagion 1922, 134ff; Betz, SM 116 n. 178 for Qumran reff.).
    spiritual state, state of mind, disposition ἐν ἀγάπῃ πνεύματί τε πραΰτητος with love and a gentle spirit 1 Cor 4:21; cp. Gal 6:1. τὸ πν. τοῦ νοὸς ὑμῶν Eph 4:23 (s. νοῦς 2a). ἐν τῷ ἀφθάρτῳ τοῦ ἡσυχίου πνεύματος with the imperishable (gift) of a quiet disposition 1 Pt 3:4.
    an independent noncorporeal being, in contrast to a being that can be perceived by the physical senses, spirit (ELangton, Good and Evil Spirits ’42).
    God personally: πνεῦμα ὁ θεός J 4:24a (Ath. 16, 2; on God as a spirit, esp. in the Stoa, s. MPohlenz, D. Stoa ’48/49. Hdb. ad loc. Also Celsus 6, 71 [Stoic]; Herm. Wr. 18, 3 ἀκάματον μέν ἐστι πνεῦμα ὁ θεός).
    good, or at least not expressly evil spirits or spirit-beings (cp. CIG III, 5858b δαίμονες καὶ πνεύματα; Proclus on Pla., Cratyl. p. 69, 6; 12 Pasqu.; En 15:4; 6; 8; 10; TestAbr A 4 p. 81, 15f [Stone p. 10, 15f] πάντα τὰ ἐπουράνια πνεύματα; TestAbr B 13 p. 117, 26 [Stone p. 82] ὑψηλὸν πν.; PGM 3, 8 ἐπικαλοῦμαί σε, ἱερὸν πνεῦμα; 4, 1448; 3080; 12, 249) πνεῦμα w. ἄγγελος (cp. Jos., Ant. 4, 108; Ps.-Clem., Hom. 3, 33; 8, 12) Ac 23:8f. God is ὁ παντὸς πνεύματος κτίστης καὶ ἐπίσκοπος 1 Cl 59:3b.—Pl., God the μόνος εὐεργέτης πνεύματων 1 Cl 59:3a. Cp. 64 (s. on this Num 16:22; 27:16. Prayers for vengeance fr. Rheneia [Dssm., LO 351–55=LAE 423ff=SIG 1181, 2] τὸν θεὸν τὸν κύριον τῶν πνευμάτων; PGM 5, 467 θεὸς θεῶν, ὁ κύριος τῶν πν.; sim. the magic pap PWarr 21, 24; 26 [III A.D.]); the πατὴρ τῶν πνευμάτων Hb 12:9. Intermediary beings (in polytheistic terminology: δαίμονες) that serve God are called λειτουργικὰ πνεύματα Hb 1:14. In Rv we read of the ἑπτὰ πνεύματα (τοῦ θεοῦ) 1:4; 3:1; 4:5; 5:6; s. ASkrinjar, Biblica 16, ’35, 1–24; 113–40.— Ghost Lk 24:37, 39.
    evil spirits (PGM 13, 798; 36, 160; TestJob 27, 2; ApcSed [both Satan]; AscIs 3:28; Just., D. 39, 6 al.; Ath. 25, 3), esp. in accounts of healing in the Synoptics: (τὸ) πνεῦμα (τὸ) ἀκάθαρτον (Just., D. 82, 3) Mt 12:43; Mk 1:23, 26; 3:30; 5:2, 8; 7:25; 9:25a; Lk 8:29; 9:42; 11:24; Rv 18:2. Pl. (TestBenj 5:2) Mt 10:1; Mk 1:27; 3:11; 5:13; 6:7; Lk 4:36; 6:18; Ac 5:16; 8:7; Rv 16:13; ending of Mk in the Freer ms.—τὸ πν. τὸ πονηρόν Ac 19:15f. Pl. (En 99:7; TestSim 4:9; 6:6, TestJud 16:1; Just., D. 76, 6) Lk 7:21; 8:2; Ac 19:12f.—πν. ἄλαλον Mk 9:17; cp. vs. 25b (s. ἄλαλος). πν. πύθων Ac 16:16 (s. πύθων). πν. ἀσθενείας Lk 13:11. Cp. 1 Ti 4:1b. πνεῦμα δαιμονίου ἀκαθάρτου (s. δαιμόνιον 2) Lk 4:33. πνεύματα δαιμονίων Rv 16:14 (in effect = personified ‘exhalations’ of evil powers; for the combination of πν. and δαιμ. cp. the love spell Sb 4324, 16f τὰ πνεύματα τῶν δαιμόνων τούτων).—Abs. of a harmful spirit Mk 9:20; Lk 9:39; Ac 16:18. Pl. Mt 8:16; 12:45; Lk 10:20; 11:26.—1 Pt 3:19 (s. 2 above) belongs here if the πνεύματα refer to hostile spirit-powers, evil spirits, fallen angels (so FSpitta, Christi Predigt an die Geister 1890; HGunkel, Zum religionsgesch. Verständnis des NT 1903, 72f; WBousset, ZNW 19, 1920, 50–66; Rtzst., Herr der Grösse 1919, 25ff; Knopf, Windisch, FHauck ad loc.; BReicke, The Disobedient Spirits and Christian Baptism ’46, esp. 54–56, 69).—Hermas also has the concept of evil spirits that lead an independent existence, and live and reign within the inner life of a pers.; the Holy Spirit, who also lives or would like to live there, is forced out by them (cp. TestDan 4) Hm 5, 1, 2–4; 5, 2, 5–8; 10, 1, 2. τὸ πν. τὸ ἅγιον … ἕτερον πονηρὸν πν. 5, 1, 2. These πνεύματα are ὀξυχολία 5, 1, 3; 5, 2, 8 (τὸ πονηρότατον πν.); 10, 1, 2; διψυχία 9:11 (ἐπίγειον πν. ἐστι παρὰ τοῦ διαβόλου); 10, 1, 2; λύπη 10, 1, 2 (πάντων τῶν πνευμάτων πονηροτέρα) and other vices. On the complicated pneuma-concept of the Mandates of Hermas s. MDibelius, Hdb. exc. on Hm 5, 2, 7; cp. Leutzsch, Hermas 453f n. 133.
    God’s being as controlling influence, with focus on association with humans, Spirit, spirit as that which differentiates God fr. everything that is not God, as the divine power that produces all divine existence, as the divine element in which all divine life is carried on, as the bearer of every application of the divine will. All those who belong to God possess or receive this spirit and hence have a share in God’s life. This spirit also serves to distinguish Christians fr. all unbelievers (cp. PGM 4, 1121ff, where the spirit is greeted as one who enters devotees and, in accordance w. God’s will, separates them fr. themselves, i.e. fr. the purely human part of their nature); for this latter aspect s. esp. 6 below.
    the Spirit of God, of the Lord (=God) etc. (LXX; TestSim 4:4; JosAs 8:11; ApcSed 14:6; 15:6; ApcMos 43; SibOr 3, 701; Ps.-Phoc. 106; Philo; Joseph. [s. c below]; apolog. Cp. Plut., Numa 4, 6 πνεῦμα θεοῦ, capable of begetting children; s. παρθένος a) τὸ πν. τοῦ θεοῦ 1 Cor 2:11b, 14; 3:16; 6:11; 1J 4:2a (Just., D. 49, 3; Tat. 13, 3; Ath. 22, 3). τὸ τοῦ θεοῦ πν. 1 Pt 4:14 (Just., A I, 60, 6). τὸ πν. τὸ ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ 1 Cor 2:12b. τὸ πν. κυρίου Ac 5:9; B 6:14; B 9:2 (cp. Mel., P. 32, 222). τὸ πνεῦμά μου or αὐτοῦ: Mt 12:18 (Is 42:1); Ac 2:17f (Jo 3:1f.—Cp. 1QS 4:21); 1 Cor 2:10a v.l.; Eph 3:16; 1 Th 4:8 (where τὸ ἅγιον is added); 1J 4:13.—τὸ πν. τοῦ πατρὸς ὑμῶν Mt 10:20. τὸ πν. τοῦ ἐγείραντος τὸν Ἰησοῦν Ro 8:11a.—Without the art. πν. θεοῦ (JosAs 4:9; Tat. 15:3; Theoph. Ant. 1, 5 [p. 66, 18]) the Spirit of God Mt 3:16; 12:28; Ro 8:9b, 14, 19; 1 Cor 7:40; 12:3a; 2 Cor 3:3 (πν. θεοῦ ζῶντος); Phil 3:3. πν. κυρίου Lk 4:18 (Is 61:1); Ac 8:39 (like J 3:8; 20:22; Ac 2:4, this pass. belongs on the borderline betw. the mngs. ‘wind’ and ‘spirit’; cp. Diod S 3, 60, 3 Ἕσπερον ἐξαίφνης ὑπὸ πνευμάτων συναρπαγέντα μεγάλων ἄφαντον γενέσθαι ‘Hesperus [a son of Atlas] was suddenly snatched by strong winds and vanished fr. sight’. S. HLeisegang, Der Hl. Geist I 1, 1919, 19ff; OCullmann, TZ. 4, ’48, 364); 1 Cl 21:2.
    the Spirit of Christ, of the Lord (=Christ) etc. τὸ πν. Ἰησοῦ Ac 16:7. τὸ πν. Χριστοῦ AcPlCor 2:32. τὸ ἐν αὐτοῖς πν. Χριστοῦ 1 Pt 1:11. πν. Χριστοῦ Ro 8:9c. πν. τοῦ Χριστοῦ AcPl Ha 8, 18. ἀπὸ τοῦ πν. τοῦ χριστοῦ AcPlCor 2:10. τὸ πν. Ἰης. Χριστοῦ Phil 1:19. τὸ πν. κυρίου 2 Cor 3:17b (JHermann, Kyrios und Pneuma, ’61). τὸ πν. τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ (=θεοῦ) Gal 4:6. As possessor of the divine Spirit, and at the same time controlling its distribution among humans, Christ is called κύριος πνεύματος Lord of the Spirit 2 Cor 3:18 (s. Windisch ad loc.); but many prefer to transl. from the Lord who is the Spirit.—CMoule, OCullmann Festschr., ’72, 231–37.
    Because of its heavenly origin and nature this Spirit is called (the) Holy Spirit (cp. PGM 4, 510 ἵνα πνεύσῃ ἐν ἐμοὶ τὸ ἱερὸν πνεῦμα.—Neither Philo nor Josephus called the Spirit πν. ἅγιον; the former used θεῖον or θεοῦ πν., the latter πν. θεῖον: Ant. 4, 118; 8, 408; 10, 239; but ἅγιον πνεῦμα Orig. C. Cels 1, 40, 16).
    α. w. the art. τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον (Is 63:10f; Ps 50:13; 142:10 v.l.; cp. Sus 45 Theod.; TestAbr A 4 p. 81, 10 [Stone p. 10]; JosAs 8:11 [codd. ADE]; AscIs 3, 15, 26; Just., D. 36, 6 al.) Mt 12:32 = Mk 3:29 = Lk 12:10 (τὸ ἅγιον πνεῦμα; on the ‘sin against the Holy Spirit’ s. HLeisegang, Pneuma Hagion 1922, 96–112; AFridrichsen, Le péché contre le Saint-Esprit: RHPR 3, 1923, 367–72). Mk 12:36; 13:11; Lk 2:26; 3:22; 10:21; J 14:26; Ac 1:16; 2:33; 5:3, 32; 7:51; 8:18 v.l.; 10:44, 47; 11:15; 13:2; 15:8, 28; 19:6; 20:23, 28; 21:11; 28:25; Eph 1:13 (τὸ πν. τῆς ἐπαγγελίας τὸ ἅγιον); 4:30 (τὸ πν. τὸ ἅγιον τοῦ θεοῦ); Hb 3:7; 9:8; 10:15; 1 Cl 13:1; 16:2; 18:11 (Ps 50:13); 22:1; IEph 9:1; Hs 5, 5, 2; 5, 6, 5–7 (on the relationship of the Holy Spirit to the Son in Hermas s. ALink, Christi Person u. Werk im Hirten des Hermas 1886; JvWalter, ZNW 14, 1913, 133–44; MDibelius, Hdb. exc. following Hs 5, 6, 8 p. 572–76).—τὸ ἅγιον πνεῦμα (Wsd 9:17; OdeSol 11:2; TestJob 51:2; ApcEsdr 7:16; Just. D. 25, 1 al.) Mt 28:19; Lk 12:10 (s. above), 12; Ac 1:8; 2:38 (epexegetic gen.); 4:31; 9:31; 10:45; 13:4; 16:6; 1 Cor 6:19; 2 Cor 13:13; 1J 5:7 v.l. (on the Comma Johanneum s. λόγο 3); GJs 24:4 (s. χρηματίζω 1bα). As the mother of Jesus GHb 20, 61 (HLeisegang, Pneuma Hagion 1922, 64ff; SHirsch, D. Vorstellg. v. e. weibl. πνεῦμα ἅγ. im NT u. in d. ältesten christl. Lit. 1927. Also WBousset, Hauptprobleme der Gnosis 1907, 9ff).
    β. without the art. (s. B-D-F §257, 2; Rob. 761; 795) πνεῦμα ἅγιον (PGM 3, 289; Da 5:12 LXX; PsSol 17:37; AssMos Fgm. b; Just., D. 4, 1 al.; Ath. 24, 1. S. also Da Theod. 4:8, 9, 18 θεοῦ πνεῦμα ἅγιον or πνεῦμα θεοῦ ἅγιον) Mk 1:8; Lk 1:15, 35, 41, 67; 2:25; 4:1; 11:13; J 20:22 (Cassien, La pentecôte johannique [J 20:19–23] ’39.—See also 1QS 4:20f); Ac 2:4a; 4:8; 7:55; 8:15, 17, 19; 9:17; 10:38; 11:24; 13:9; 19:2ab; Hb 2:4; 6:4; 1 Pt 1:12 v.l.; 1 Cl 2:2; AcPl 6:18; 9:4 (restored after Aa I 110, 11); AcPlCor 2:5.—So oft. in combination w. a prep.: διὰ πνεύματος ἁγίου Ac 1:2; 4:25; Ro 5:5; 2 Ti 1:14; 1 Cl 8:1 (cp. διὰ πν. αἰωνίου Hb 9:14). διὰ φωνῆς πν. ἁγίου AcPl Ha 11, 6. ἐκ πνεύματος ἁγίου (Eus., PE 3, 12, 3 of the Egyptians: ἐκ τ. πνεύματος οἴονται συλλαμβάνειν τὸν γῦπα. Here πνεῦμα= ‘wind’; s. Horapollo 1, 11 p. 14f. The same of other birds since Aristot.—On the neut. πνεῦμα as a masc. principle cp. Aristoxenus, Fgm. 13 of the two original principles: πατέρα μὲν φῶς, μητέρα δὲ σκότος) Mt 1:18, 20; IEph 18:2; GJs 14:2; 19:1 (pap). ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ (PsSol 17:37; ApcZeph; Ar. 15, 1) Mt 3:11; Mk 1:8 v.l.; Lk 3:16; J 1:33b; Ac 1:5 (cp. 1QS 3:7f); 11:16; Ro 9:1; 14:17; 15:16; 1 Cor 12:3b; 2 Cor 6:6; 1 Th 1:5; 1 Pt 1:12 (without ἐν v.l.); Jd 20. ὑπὸ πνεύματος ἁγίου 2 Pt 1:21. Cp. ἐν δυνάμει πνεύματος ἁγίου Ro 15:13, 19 v.l. (for πνεύματος θεοῦ). μετὰ χαρᾶς πνεύματος ἁγίου 1 Th 1:6. διὰ ἀνακαινώσεως πνεύματος ἁγίου Tit 3:5.
    α. w. the art. τὸ πνεῦμα. In this connection the art. is perh. used anaphorically at times, w. the second mention of a word (s. B-D-F §252; Rob. 762); perh. Mt 12:31 (looking back to vs. 28 πν. θεοῦ); Mk 1:10, 12 (cp. vs. 8 πν. ἅγιον); Lk 4:1b, 14 (cp. vs. 1a); Ac 2:4b (cp. vs. 4a).—As a rule it is not possible to assume that anaphora is present: Mt 4:1; J 1:32, 33a; 3:6a, 8b (in wordplay), 34; 7:39a; Ac 8:29; 10:19; 11:12, 28; 19:1 D; 20:3 D, 22; 21:4; Ro 8:23 (ἀπαρχή 1bβ; 2), 26a, 27; 12:11; 15:30; 2 Cor 1:22 and 5:5 (KErlemann, ZNW 83, ’92, 202–23, and s. ἀρραβών); 12:18 (τῷ αὐτῷ πν.); Gal 3:2, 5, 14 (ἐπαγγελία 1bβ); Eph 4:3 (gen. of the author); 6:17 (perh. epexegetic gen.); 1 Ti 4:1a; Js 4:5; 1J 3:24; 5:6ab (some mss. add καὶ πνεύματος to the words διʼ ὕδατος κ. αἵματος at the beg. of the verse; this is approved by HvSoden, Moffatt, Vogels, Merk, and w. reservations by CDodd, The Joh. Epistles ’46, TManson, JTS 48, ’47, 25–33), vs. 8; Rv 2:7, 11, 17, 29; 3:6, 13, 22; 14:13; 22:17; B 19:2, B 7= D 4:10 (s. ἐτοιμάζω b). ἐν τῷ πνεύματι (led) by the Spirit Lk 2:27.—Paul links this Spirit of God, known to every Christian, with Christ as liberating agent in contrast to legal constraint ὁ κύριος τὸ πνεῦμα ἐστιν the Lord means Spirit 2 Cor 3:17a (UHolzmeister, 2 Cor 3:17 Dominus autem Spiritus est 1908; JNisius, Zur Erklärung v. 2 Cor 3:16ff: ZKT 40, 1916, 617–75; JKögel, Ὁ κύριος τὸ πνεῦμά ἐστιν: ASchlatter Festschr. 1922, 35–46; C Guignebert, Congr. d’Hist. du Christ. II 1928, 7–22; EFuchs, Christus u. d. Geist b. Pls ’32; HHughes, ET 45, ’34, 235f; CLattey, Verb. Dom. 20, ’40, 187–89; DGriffiths ET 55, ’43, 81–83; HIngo, Kyrios und Pneuma, ’61 [Paul]; JDunn, JTS 21, ’70, 309–20).
    β. without the art. πνεῦμα B 1:3. κοινωνία πνεύματος Phil 2:1 (κοινωνία 1 and 2). πνεύματι in the Spirit or through the Spirit Gal 3:3; 5:5, 16, 18; 1 Pt 4:6. εἰ ζῶμεν πνεύματι, πνεύματι καὶ στοιχῶμεν if we live by the Spirit, let us also walk by the Spirit Gal 5:25. Freq. used w. a prep.: διὰ πνεύματος 1 Pt 1:22 v.l. ἐξ (ὕδατος καὶ) πνεύματος J 3:5. ἐν πνεύματι in, by, through the Spirit Mt 22:43; Eph 2:22; 3:5; 5:18; 6:18; Col 1:8 (ἀγάπη ἐν πνεύματι love called forth by the Spirit); B 9:7. κατὰ πνεῦμα Ro 8:4f; Gal 4:29. ἐν ἁγιασμῷ πνεύματος 2 Th 2:13; 1 Pt 1:2 (s. ἁγιασμός).—In neg. expressions: οὔπω ἧν πνεῦμα the Spirit had not yet come J 7:39b. ψυχικοὶ πνεῦμα μὴ ἔχοντες worldly people, who do not have the Spirit Jd 19.—ἓν πνεῦμα one and the same Spirit 1 Cor 12:13; Eph 2:18; 4:4; one (in) Spirit 1 Cor 6:17.
    The Spirit is more closely defined by a gen. of thing: τὸ πν. τῆς ἀληθείας (TestJud 20:5) J 14:17; 15:26; 16:13 (in these three places the Spirit of Truth is the Paraclete promised by Jesus upon his departure); 1J 4:6 (opp. τὸ πνεῦμα τῆς πλάνης, as TestJud 20:1; PsSol 8:14 πλ. πλανήσεως; Just., D. 7, 3 πλάνου καὶ ἀκαθάρτου πνεύματος; cp. 1QS 4:23); τὸ τῆς δόξης πν. 1 Pt 4:14. τὸ πν. τῆς ζωῆς the Spirit of life Ro 8:2. το πν. τῆς πίστεως 2 Cor 4:13. πν. σοφίας καὶ ἀποκαλύψεως Eph 1:17 (cp. Just., D. 87, 4). πν. υἱοθεσίας Ro 8:15b (opp. πν. δουλείας vs. 15a). πν. δυνάμεως AcPl Ha 8, 25. πν. δυνάμεως καὶ ἀγάπης καὶ σωφρονισμοῦ 2 Ti 1:7 (opp. πν. δειλίας). τὸ πν. τῆς χάριτος (s. TestJud 24:2) Hb 10:29 (Zech 12:10); cp. 1 Cl 46:6.
    Of Christ ‘it is written’ in Scripture: (ἐγένετο) ὁ ἔσχατος Ἀδὰμ εἰς πνεῦμα ζῳοποιοῦν 1 Cor 15:45. The scripture pass. upon which the first part of this verse is based is Gen 2:7, where Wsd 15:11 also substitutes the words πνεῦμα ζωτικόν for πνοὴν ζωῆς (cp. Just., D. 6, 2). On the other hand, s. Philo, Leg. All. 1, 42 and s. the lit. s.v. Ἀδάμ ad loc.
    The (divine) Pneuma stands in contrast to everything that characterizes this age or the finite world gener.: οὐ τὸ πν. τοῦ κόσμου ἀλλὰ τὸ πν. τὸ ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ 1 Cor 2:12; cp. Eph 2:2 and 1 Ti 4:1ab.
    α. in contrast to σάρξ, which is more closely connected w. sin than any other earthly material (Just., D. 135, 6): J 3:6; Ro 8:4–6, 9a, 13; Gal 3:3; 5:17ab; 6:8. Cp. B 10:9. πᾶσα ἐπιθυμία κατὰ τοῦ πνεύματος στρατεύεται Pol 5:3.
    β. in contrast to σῶμα (=σάρξ) Ro 8:10 and to σάρξ (=σῶμα, as many hold) J 6:63a (for τὸ πν. ἐστιν τὸ ζῳοποιοῦν cp. Philo, Op. Mund. 30; Herm. Wr. in Cyrill., C. Jul. I 556c=542, 24 Sc. the pneuma τὰ πάντα ζῳοποιεῖ καὶ τρέφει. S. also f above). Cp. Ro 8:11b.
    γ. in contrast to γράμμα, which is the characteristic quality of God’s older declaration of the divine will in the law: Ro 2:29; 7:6; 2 Cor 3:6ab, 8 (cp. vs. 7).
    δ. in contrast to the wisdom of humans 1 Cor 2:13.
    the Spirit of God as exhibited in the character or activity of God’s people or selected agents, Spirit, spirit (s. HPreisker, Geist u. Leben ’33).
    πνεῦμα is accompanied by another noun, which characterizes the working of the Spirit more definitely: πνεῦμα καὶ δύναμις spirit and power Lk 1:17; 1 Cor 2:4. Cp. Ac 10:38; 1 Th 1:5. πνεῦμα καὶ ζωή J 6:63b. πνεῦμα κ. σοφία Ac 6:3; cp. vs. 10 (cp. TestReub 2:6 πνεῦμα λαλίας). πίστις κ. πνεῦμα ἅγιον 6:5 (cp. Just., D. 135, 6). χαρὰ καὶ πνεῦμα ἅγ. 13:52.
    Unless frustrated by humans in their natural condition, the Spirit of God produces a spiritual type of conduct Gal 5:16, 25 and produces the καρπὸς τοῦ πνεύματος vs. 22 (s. Vögtle under πλεονεξία).
    The Spirit inspires certain people of God B 12:2; B 13:5, above all, in their capacity as proclaimers of a divine revelation (Strabo 9, 3, 5 the πνεῦμα ἐνθουσιαστικόν, that inspired the Pythia; Περὶ ὕψους 13, 2; 33, 5 of the divine πν. that impels prophets and poets to express themselves; schol. on Pla. 856e of a μάντις: ἄνωθεν λαμβάνειν τὸ πνεῦμα καὶ πληροῦσθαι τοῦ θεοῦ; Aristobulus in Eus., PE 8, 10, 4 [=Fgm. 2, 4 p. 136 Holladay] τὸ θεῖον πν., καθʼ ὸ̔ καὶ προφήτης ἀνακεκήρυκται ‘[Moses possessed] the Divine Spirit with the result that he was proclaimed a prophet’; AscIs 1:7 τὸ πν. τὸ λαλοῦν ἐν ἐμοί; AssMos Fgm. f εἶδεν πνεύματι ἐπαρθείς; Just., A I, 38, 1 al.; Ath. 10, 3 τὸ προφητικὸν πν. Cp. Marinus, Vi. Procli 23 of Proclus: οὐ γὰρ ἄνευ θείας ἐπινοίας … διαλέγεσθαι; Orig., C. Cels. 3, 28, 23). προφητεία came into being only as ὑπὸ πνεύματος ἁγίου φερόμενοι ἐλάλησαν ἀπὸ θεοῦ ἄνθρωποι 2 Pt 1:21; cp. Ac 15:29 v.l.; cp. 1 Cl 8:1. David Mt 22:43; Mk 12:36; cp. Ac 1:16; 4:25. Isaiah Ac 28:25. Moses B 10:2, B 9; the Spirit was also active in giving the tables of the law to Moses 14:2. Christ himself spoke in the OT διὰ τοῦ πνεύματος τοῦ ἁγίου 1 Cl 22:1. The ἱεραὶ γραφαί are called αἱ διὰ τοῦ πν. τοῦ ἁγίου 45:2.—The Christian prophet Agabus also ἐσήμαινεν διὰ τοῦ πν. Ac 11:28; cp. Ac 21:11. Likew. Ign. IPhld 7:2. In general the Spirit reveals the most profound secrets to those who believe 1 Cor 2:10ab.—1 Cl claims to be written διὰ τοῦ ἁγ. πν. 63:2. On Ac 19:21 s. 3b.
    The Spirit of God, being one, shows the variety and richness of its life in the different kinds of spiritual gifts which are granted to certain Christians 1 Cor 12:4, 7, 11; cp. vs. 13ab.—Vss. 8–10 enumerate the individual gifts of the Spirit, using various prepositions: διὰ τοὺ πν. vs. 8a; κατὰ τὸ πν. vs. 8b; ἐν τῷ πν. vs. 9ab. τὸ πν. μὴ σβέννυτε do not quench the Spirit 1 Th 5:19 refers to the gift of prophecy, acc. to vs. 20.—The use of the pl. πνεύματα is explained in 1 Cor 14:12 by the varied nature of the Spirit’s working; in vs. 32 by the number of persons who possess the prophetic spirit; on the latter s. Rv 22:6 and 19:10.
    One special type of spiritual gift is represented by ecstatic speaking. Of those who ‘speak in tongues’ that no earthly person can understand: πνεύματι λαλεῖ μυστήρια expresses secret things in a spiritual way 1 Cor 14:2. Cp. vss. 14–16 and s. νοῦς 1b. τὸ πνεῦμα ὑπερεντυγχάνει στεναγμοῖς ἀλαλήτοις the Spirit pleads in our behalf with groans beyond words Ro 8:26b. Of speech that is ecstatic, but expressed in words that can be understood λαλεῖν ἐν πνεύματι D 11:7, 8; cp. vs. 9 (on the subject-matter 1 Cor 12:3; Jos., Ant. 4, 118f; TestJob 43:2 ἀναλαβὼν Ἐλιφᾶς πν. εἶπεν ὕμνον). Of the state of mind of the seer of the Apocalypse: ἐν πνεύματι Rv 17:3; 21:10; γενέσθαι ἐν πν. 1:10; 4:2 (s. γίνομαι 5c, ἐν 4c and EMoering, StKr 92, 1920, 148–54; RJeske, NTS 31, ’85, 452–66); AcPl Ha 6, 27. On the Spirit at Pentecost Ac 2:4 s. KLake: Beginn. I 5, ’33, 111–21. κατασταλέντος τοῦ πν. τοῦ ἐν Μύρτῃ when the Spirit (of prophecy) that was in Myrta ceased speaking AcPl Ha 7, 9.
    The Spirit leads and directs Christian missionaries in their journeys (Aelian, NA 11, 16 the young women are led blindfolded to the cave of the holy serpent; they are guided by a πνεῦμα θεῖον) Ac 16:6, 7 (by dreams, among other methods; cp. vs. 9f and s. Marinus, Vi. Procli 27: Proclus ἔφασκεν προθυμηθῆναι μὲν πολλάκις γράψαι, κωλυθῆναι δὲ ἐναργῶς ἔκ τινων ἐνυπνίων). In Ac 16:6–7 τὸ ἅγιον πν. and τὸ πν. Ἰησοῦ are distinguished.
    an activating spirit that is not fr. God, spirit: πν. ἔτερον a different (kind of) spirit 2 Cor 11:4. Cp. 2 Th 2:2; 1J 4:1–3. Because there are persons activated by such spirits, it is necessary to test the var. kinds of spirits (the same problem Artem. 3, 20 περὶ διαφορᾶς μάντεων, οἷς δεῖ προσέχειν καὶ οἷς μή) 1 Cor 12:10; 1J 4:1b. ὁ διάβολος πληροῖ αὐτὸν αὐτοῦ πν. Hm 11:3. Also οὐκ οἴδατε ποίου πνεύματός ἐστε Lk 9:55 v.l. distinguishes betw. the spirit shown by Jesus’ disciples, and another kind of spirit.—Even more rarely a spirit divinely given that is not God’s own; so (in a quot. fr. Is 29:10) a πνεῦμα κατανύξεως Ro 11:8.
    an independent transcendent personality, the Spirit, which appears in formulas that became more and more fixed and distinct (cp. Ath. 12, 2; Hippol., Ref. 7, 26, 2.—Ps.-Lucian, Philopatr. 12 θεόν, υἱόν πατρός, πνεῦμα ἐκ πατρὸς ἐκπορευόμενον ἓν ἐκ τριῶν καὶ ἐξ ἑνὸς τρία, ταῦτα νόμιζε Ζῆνα, τόνδʼ ἡγοῦ θεόν=‘God, son of the father, spirit proceeding from the father, one from three and three from one, consider these as Zeus, think of this one as God’. The entire context bears a Christian impress.—As Aion in gnostic speculation Iren. 1, 2, 5 [Harv. I 21, 2]): βαπτίζοντες αὐτοὺς εἰς τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ πατρὸς καὶ τοῦ υἱοῦ καὶ τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος Mt 28:19 (on the text s. βαπτίζω 2c; on the subject-matter GWalther, Die Entstehung des Taufsymbols aus dem Taufritus: StKr 95, 1924, 256ff); D 7:1, 3. Cp. 2 Cor 13:13; 1 Cl 58:2; IEph 9:1; IMg 13:1b, 2; MPol 14:3; 22:1, 3; Epil Mosq 5. On this s. HUsener, Dreiheit: RhM 58, 1903, 1ff; 161ff; 321ff; esp. 36ff; EvDobschütz, Zwei-u. dreigliedrige Formeln: JBL 50, ’31, 116–47 (also Heinrici Festschr. 1914, 92–100); Norden, Agn. Th. 228ff; JMainz, Die Bed. der Dreizahl im Judentum 1922; Clemen2 125–28; NSöderblom, Vater, Sohn u. Geist 1909; DNielsen, Der dreieinige Gott I 1922; GKrüger, Das Dogma v. der Dreieinigkeit 1905, 46ff; AHarnack, Entstehung u. Entwicklung der Kirchenverfassung 1910, 187ff; JHaussleiter, Trinitarischer Glaube u. Christusbekenntnis in der alten Kirche: BFCT XXV 4, 1920; JLebreton, Histoire du dogme de la Trinité I: Les origines6 1927; RBlümel, Pls u. d. dreieinige Gott 1929.—On the whole word FRüsche, D. Seelenpneuma ’33; HLeisegang, Der Hl. Geist I 1, 1919; EBurton, ICC Gal 1921, 486–95; PVolz, Der Geist Gottes u. d. verwandten Erscheinungen im AT 1910; JHehn, Zum Problem des Geistes im alten Orient u. im AT: ZAW n.s. 2, 1925, 210–25; SLinder, Studier till Gamla Testamentets föreställningar om anden 1926; AMarmorstein, Der Hl. Geist in der rabb. Legende: ARW 28, 1930, 286–303; NSnaith, The Distinctive Ideas of the OT ’46, 229–37; FDillistone, Bibl. Doctrine of the Holy Spirit: Theology Today 3, ’46/47, 486–97; TNicklin, Gospel Gleanings ’50, 341–46; ESchweizer, CDodd Festschr., ’56, 482–508; DLys, Rûach, Le Souffle dans l’AT, ’62; DHill, Gk. Words and Hebr. Mngs. ’67, 202–93.—HGunkel, Die Wirkungen des Hl. Geistes2 1899; HWeinel, Die Wirkungen des Geistes u. der Geister im nachap. Zeitalter 1899; EWinstanley, The Spirit in the NT 1908; HSwete, The Holy Spirit in the NT 1909, The Holy Spirit in the Ancient Church 1912; EScott, The Spirit in the NT 1923; FBüchsel, Der Geist Gottes im NT 1926; EvDobschütz, Der Geistbesitz des Christen im Urchristentum: Monatsschr. für Pastoral-theol. 20, 1924, 228ff; FBadcock, ‘The Spirit’ and Spirit in the NT: ET 45, ’34, 218–21; RBultmann, Theologie des NT ’48, 151–62 (Eng. tr. KGrobel, ’51, I 153–64); ESchweizer, Geist u. Gemeinde im NT ’52, Int 6, ’52, 259–78.—WTosetti, Der Hl. Geist als göttliche Pers. in den Evangelien 1918; HLeisegang, Pneuma Hagion. Der Ursprung des Geistbegriffs der Syn. Ev. aus der griech. Mystik 1922; AFrövig, Das Sendungsbewusstsein Jesu u. der Geist 1924; HWindisch, Jes. u. d. Geist nach Syn. Überl.: Studies in Early Christianity, presented to FCPorter and BWBacon 1928, 209–36; FSynge, The Holy Spirit in the Gospels and Acts: CQR 120, ’35, 205–17; CBarrett, The Holy Spirit and the Gospel Trad. ’47.—ESokolowski, Die Begriffe Geist u. Leben bei Pls 1903; KDeissner, Auferstehungshoffnung u. Pneumagedanke bei Pls 1912; GVos, The Eschatological Aspect of the Pauline Conception of the Spirit: Bibl. and Theol. Studies by the Faculty of Princeton Theol. Sem. 1912, 209–59; HBertrams, Das Wesen des Geistes nach d. Anschauung des Ap. Pls 1913; WReinhard, Das Wirken des Hl. Geistes im Menschen nach den Briefen des Ap. Pls 1918; HHoyle, The Holy Spirit in St. Paul 1928; PGächter, Z. Pneumabegriff des hl. Pls: ZKT 53, 1929, 345–408; ASchweitzer, D. Mystik des Ap. Pls 1930, 159–74 al. [Mysticism of Paul the Apostle, tr. WMontgomery ’31, 160–76 al.]; E-BAllo, RB 43, ’34, 321–46 [1 Cor]; Ltzm., Hdb. exc. after Ro 8:11; Synge [s. above], CQR 119, ’35, 79–93 [Pauline epp.]; NWaaning, Onderzoek naar het gebruik van πνεῦμα bij Pls, diss. Amsterd. ’39; RJewett, Paul’s Anthropological Terms, ’71, 167–200.—HvBaer, Der Hl. Geist in den Lukasschriften 1926; MGoguel, La Notion joh. de l’Esprit 1902; JSimpson, The Holy Spirit in the Fourth Gospel: Exp., 9th ser., 4, 1925, 292–99; HWindisch, Jes. u. d. Geist im J.: Amicitiae Corolla (RHarris Festschr.) ’33, 303–18; WLofthouse, The Holy Spirit in Ac and J: ET 52, ’40/41, 334–36; CBarrett, The Holy Spirit in the Fourth Gospel: JTS 1 n.s., ’50, 1–15; FCrump, Pneuma in the Gospels, diss. Catholic Univ. of America, ’54; GLampe, Studies in the Gospels (RHLightfoot memorial vol.) ’55, 159–200; NHamilton, The Holy Spirit and Eschatology in Paul, ’57; WDavies, Paul and the Dead Sea Scrolls, Flesh and Spirit: The Scrolls and the NT, ed. KStendahl, ’57, 157–82.—GJohnston, ‘Spirit’ and ‘Holy Spirit’ in the Qumran Lit.: NT Sidelights (ACPurdy Festschr.) ’60, 27–42; JPryke, ‘Spirit’ and ‘Flesh’ in Qumran and NT, RevQ 5, ’65, 346–60; HBraun, Qumran und d. NT II, ’66, 150–64; DHill, Greek Words and Hebrew Meanings, ’67, 202–93; WBieder, Pneumatolog. Aspekte im Hb, OCullmann Festschr. ’72, 251–59; KEasley, The Pauline Usage of πνεύματι as a Reference to the Spirit of God: JETS 27, ’84, 299–313 (statistics).—B. 260; 1087. Pauly-W. XIV 387–412. BHHW I 534–37. Schmidt, Syn. II 218–50. New Docs 4, 38f. DELG s.v. πνέω. M-M. Dict. de la Bible XI 126–398. EDNT. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > πνεῦμα

  • 4 σάρξ

    σάρξ, σαρκός, ἡ (Hom.+; ‘flesh’).
    the material that covers the bones of a human or animal body, flesh lit. 1 Cor 15:39abcd; Hv 3, 10, 4; 3, 12, 1. The pl. (which denotes flesh in the mass [Lucian, Dial. Mort. 10, 5], whereas the sing. rather denotes the substance.—Herodas 4, 61; Gen 40:19; 1 Km 17:44; 4 Km 9:36; PsSol 4:19; TestJob 13:5; Philo; Jos., Ant. 12, 211; Just., A I, 26, 7; Mel., P. 52, 383; Ath. 34, 2) Lk 24:39 v.l.; Rv 19:18, 21 (4 [6] Esdr [POxy 1010, 16] cannibalism out of hunger, sim. Mel., P. 52, 383; Quint. Smyrn. 11, 245: the σάρκες of the slain are food for the birds) B 10:4; metaph. Rv 17:16. It decays 1 Cl 25:3; cp. Ac 2:31 (cp. 2a below). Normally gives forth an evil odor when burned MPol 15:2. W. bones (s. ὀστέον) 1 Cl 6:3 (Gen 2:23); Lk 24:39; Eph 5:30 v.l. (metaph.). Paul speaks of his illness as a σκόλοψ τῇ σαρκί (s. σκόλοψ) 2 Cor 12:7. ἡ ἐν σαρκὶ περιτομή the physical circumcision (cp. Just., D. 10, 1 al.) Ro 2:28; cp. Eph 2:11b; Col 2:13 (ἀκροβυστία 2); Gal 6:13 (ἡ σάρξ=the flesh that is circumcised); B 9:4. Metaph.: the corrosion on the precious metals of the rich φάγεται τὰς σάρκας ὑμῶν ὡς πῦρ Js 5:3.—Ign. describes the elements of the Eucharist as σὰρξ (or αἷμα) Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ IRo 7:3; IPhld 4; ISm 7:1. Also J 6:51–56 urges that one must eat the flesh (and drink the blood) of the Human One or Son of Man (Just., A I, 66, 2; s. TPhilips, Die Verheissung der hl. Eucharistie nach Joh. 1922; Bultmann ad loc.; AWikenhauser ’48, 105f).—His anti-Docetic position also leads Ign. to use the concept ‘flesh (and blood) of Christ’ in other contexts as well ITr 8:1; IPhld 5:1.—For Mt 16:17; Gal 1:16; Eph 6:12; and 1 Cor 15:50 s. 3a.
    the physical body as functioning entity, body, physical body
    as substance and living entity (Aeschyl., Sept. 622: opp. νοῦς; Ex 30:32; 4 Km 6:30; TestAbr A 20 p. 103, 6 [Stone p. 54] πάντα τὰ μέλη τῆς σαρκός μου; w. καρδία or ψυχή Alex. Aphr., An. p. 98, 7–10 Br.; Ps 37:8; 62:2; Eccl 2:3; Ezk 11:19; 44:7 a1.; Jos., Bell. 6, 47, Ant. 19, 325; Ar.15, 7) οὔτε ἡ σὰρξ αὐτοῦ εἶδεν διαφθοράν Ac 2:31 (but s. 1). W. ψυχή 1 Cl 49:6 (Tat. 13:2 al.). W. καρδία Ac 2:26 (Ps 15:9).—Eph 5:29. ἑόρακαν τὸ πρόσωπόν μου ἐν σαρκί they have seen me face to face Col 2:1. ἕως ἂν τὸν χριστὸν ἐν σαρκὶ ἴδῃ before he had seen the Messiah in person GJs 24:4 (cp. Lk 2:26). Opp. πνεῦμα (Ath. 31:3; PGM 5, 460 ἐπικαλοῦμαί σε τὸν κτίσαντα πᾶσαν σάρκα κ. πᾶν πνεῦμα) 1 Cor 5:5; 2 Cor 7:1; Col 2:5; 1 Pt 4:6; Hm 3:1; 10, 2, 6; cp. AcPl Ant 13:17 (=Aa, I 237, 2; s. οἶδα); also in relation to Christ (though this is disputed) J 6:63; Hs 5, 6, 5–7; cp. 1 Ti 3:16.—ἀσθένεια τῆς σαρκός bodily ailment Gal 4:13; s. vs. 14. ἀσθενὴς τῇ σαρκί weak in the body Hs 9, 1, 2. ὁ ἀλγῶν σάρκα the one who is ill in body B 8:6. πάσχειν σαρκί 1 Pt 4:1b. Cp. 2 Cor 7:5. ἡ τῆς σαρκὸς καθαρότης the purity of the body Hb 9:13 (opp. καθαρίζειν τὴν συνείδησιν vs. 14). σαρκὸς ἀπόθεσις ῥύπου 1 Pt 3:21 (s. ῥύπος 1). The σάρξ is raised fr. the dead (s. ParJer 6:9; Theoph. Ant. 1, 7 [74, 2]) 1 Cl 26:3; 2 Cl 9:1. ἀνάστασις σαρκός AcPlCor 1:12; 2:24 (σαρκὸς ἀνάστασιν Just., D. 80, 5); cp. ἀναστήσεσθε ἔχοντες ὑγιῆ τὴν σάρκα AcPlCor 2:32. Of the body of Christ during his earthly ministry Eph 2:14 (JHart, The Enmity in His Flesh: Exp. 6th ser., 3, 1901, 135–41); Hb 10:20; 1 Pt 3:18; 4:1a; 1J 4:2; 2J 7; B 5:1, 10f; 6:7, 9; 7:5; 12:10; IEph 7:2; Pol 7:1; AcPlCor 2:6b. Married couples form μία σάρξ (Gen 2:24; s. Ath. 33, 2 τὴν σάρκα πρὸς σάρκα … κοινωνίαν.—GAicher, Mann u. Weib ein Fleisch: BZ 5, 1907, 159–65) Mt 19:5f; Mk 10:8ab; 1 Cor 6:16; Eph 5:31 (on these passages, TBurkill, ZNW 62, ’71, 115–20). δικαιώματα σαρκός behind ‘all sorts of ceremonial washings’ there are regulations that concern the physical body Hb 9:10.—On ὑποτάγητε τῷ ἐπισκόπῳ ὡς ὁ Χριστὸς τῷ πατρὶ κατὰ σάρκα IMg 13:2 s. Hdb. ad loc. and MRackl, Die Christologie des hl. Ignatius v. Ant. 1914, 228.—πνεῦμα δυνάμεως … ὁ θεὸς … κατέπεμψεν εἰς σάρκα τουτέστιν εἰς τὴν Μαρίαν God sent a powerful spirit (prob. a ref. to the kind of divine breath that brought the first human being to life [Gen 2:7]) into flesh, that is, into Mary AcPl Ha 8, 26=BMM recto 34; s. AcPlCor 1:14.
    as someth. with physical limitations, life here on earth (ApcEsdr 4:4 p. 28, 3 Tdf. σάρκα ἀνθρωπίνην φορῶ) θλῖψιν τῇ σαρκὶ ἕξουσιν 1 Cor 7:28. Cp. 2 Cor 4:11; Col 1:24. Of Christ τὸ σῶμα τῆς σαρκὸς αὐτοῦ his body with its physical limitations Col 1:22; cp. 2:11 and s. cα below (cp. En 102:5 τὸ σῶμα τῆς σαρκὸς ὑμῶν; 1QpHab 9:2; Orig., C. Cels. 6, 29, 25).—Of human life: ἀποδημεῖν τῆς σαρκός MPol 2:2 (s. ἀποδημέω). ἐπιμένειν ἐν τῇ σαρκί Phil 1:24. ζῆν ἐν σαρκί vs. 22; Gal 2:20. ἐν ς. περιπατεῖν 2 Cor 10:3a. ἐν ς. τυγχάνειν Dg 5:8a. ὄντος ἔτι ἐν ς. σου AcPlCor 1:6. τὸν ἐπίλοιπον ἐν ς. χρόνον 1 Pt 4:2. ἡ ἐπιδημία τῆς σαρκὸς ταύτης our sojourn in life 2 Cl 5:5. ἐν τῇ σαρκί in our earthly life 8:2.
    as instrument of various actions or expressions.
    α. In Paul’s thought esp., all parts of the body constitute a totality known as ς. or flesh, which is dominated by sin to such a degree that wherever flesh is, all forms of sin are likew. present, and no good thing can live in the σάρξ Ro 7:18 (cp. Philo, Gig. 29 αἴτιον δὲ τῆς ἀνεπιστημοσύνης μέγιστον ἡ σὰρξ καὶ ἡ πρὸς σάρκα οἰκείωσις; Sextus 317 ἀγαθὸν ἐν σαρκὶ μὴ ἐπιζήτει. The OT lays no stress on a necessary relationship betw. flesh as a substance, and sin. But for Epicurus the σάρξ is the bearer of sinful feelings and desires as well as the means of sensual enjoyment: Ep. in Plut., Mor. 135c; 1087bf; 1089e; 1096c αἱ τῆς σαρκὸς ἐπιθυμίαι. Also Diog. L. 10, 145. Likew. Plut. himself: Mor. 101b ταῖς τῆς σαρκὸς ἡδοναῖς; 672e; 688d; 734a; Ps.-Plut., Mor. 107f σαρκὶ καὶ τοῖς πάθεσι ταύτης; Maximus Tyr. 33, 7a. Cp. 4 Macc 7:18 τὰ τῆς σαρκὸς πάθη; Philo, Deus Imm. 143 σαρκὸς ἡδονή, Gig. 29; TestJud 19:4; TestZeb 9:7; ApcMos 25 [p. 14, 2 Tdf.] εἰς τὴν ἁμαρτίαν τῆς σαρκός); Ro 6:19; 7:25 (opp. νοῦς); 8:3a, 4–9 (cp. Persius 2, 63 scelerata pulpa, which contaminates devotion to deity), 12f; Gal 5:13, 24; Col 2:23; Jd 23; AcPlCor 2:11, 15; Dg 6:5 (opp. ψυχή, as Plut., Mor. 101b). Opp. τὸ πνεῦμα Ro 8:4, 5, 6, 9, 13; Gal 3:3; 5:16, 17ab; 6:8ab; J 3:6; B 10:9. τὸ μὲν πνεῦμα πρόθυμον, ἡ δὲ σὰρξ ἀσθενής (cp. Orig., C. Cels. 2, 25, 8) Mt 26:41; Mk 14:38; Pol 7:2. σὰρξ ἁμαρτίας sinful flesh Ro 8:3b. ἐπιθυμία (τῆς) σαρκός (cp. Maximus Tyr. 20, 9f σαρκῶν … ἐπιθυμίας) Gal 5:16; 1J 2:16; B 10:9. Pl. Eph 2:3a, cp. b; 2 Pt 2:18; cp. Ro 13:14. τὰ ἔργα τῆς σαρκός Gal 5:19 (s. Vögtle at πλεονεξία). τὰ θελήματα τῆς σαρκός Eph 2:3b. ὁ νοῦς τῆς σαρκός Col 2:18. τὸ σῶμα τῆς σαρκός the body of (sinful) flesh 2:11; cp. 1:22 and s. b above (cp. Sir 23:17 σῶμα σαρκὸς αὐτοῦ; En 102:5 τῷ σώματι τῆς σαρκὸς ὑμῶν). τὰ τῆς σαρκός what pertains to (sinful) flesh Ro 8:5b. ἐν (τῇ) σαρκὶ εἶναι be in an unregenerate (and sinful) state Ro 7:5; 8:8f. τὰ ἔθνη ἐν σαρκί Eph 2:11a. κατὰ σάρκα εἶναι Ro 8:5a; ζῆν vs. 12b; 13; Dg 5:8b; περιπατεῖν Ro 8:4; 2 Cor 10:2; βουλεύεσθαι 1:17; στρατεύεσθαι 10:3b; cp. IRo 8:3 (opp. κατὰ γνώμην θεοῦ).
    β. source of the sexual urge. The σάρξ is the source of the sexual urge, without any suggestion of sinfulness connected w. it ἐκ θελήματος σαρκὸς ἐγεννήθησαν J 1:13.
    as someth. attractive 2 Pt 2:10 (a Hebraism, cp. Judg 2:12; 3 Km 11:10; Sir 46:10). S. also 3b.
    one who is or becomes a physical being, living being with flesh
    of humans person, human being: πᾶσα σάρξ every person, everyone (LXX; TestAbr B 7 p. 112, 3 [Stone p. 72]; GrBar 4:10; ApcEsdr 7:7; ApcMos 13 [p. 7, 1 Tdf.]; Mel., P. 55, 400: for כָּל-בָּשָׂר; s. πᾶς 1aα) Lk 3:6 (Is 40:5); J 17:2; Ac 2:17 (Jo 3:1); 1 Pt 1:24 (Is 40:6); 1 Cl 59:3; 64; 2 Cl 7:6; 17:5 (the last two Is 66:24); AcPlCor 2:6a. οὐ πᾶσα σάρξ no person, nobody (En 14:21 end.—W-S. §26, 10a; B-D-F §275, 4; 302, 1; Rob. 752) Mt 24:22; Mk 13:20; Ro 3:20 (cp. Ps 142:2 πᾶς ζῶν); 1 Cor 1:29 (μή); Gal 2:16.—Though ς. in the foll. passages refers to body in its physical aspect, it cannot be divorced from its conjunction with αἷμα, and the unit σὰρξ καὶ αἷμα (cp. Sir 17:31; TestAbr B 13 p. 117, 26 [Stone p. 82]; Philo, Quis Div. Rer. Her. 57; Just., D. 135, 6) refers to a human being in contrast to God and other transcendent beings Mt 16:17; Gal 1:16; Eph 6:12 (here vice versa, αἷ. καὶ ς.). τὰ παιδία κεκοινώνηκεν αἵματος καὶ σαρκός the children share mortal nature Hb 2:14, but with suggestion of its frailty, as indicated by the context with its ref. to death. Because they are the opposites of the divine nature σὰρξ καὶ αἷμα βασιλείαν θεοῦ κληρονομῆσαι οὐ δύναται 1 Cor 15:50 (JJeremias, NTS 2, ’56, 151–59). For Jd 7 s. b next. Cp. AcPl Ant 13, 17 (=Aa I 237, 2) σαρκί personally (s. οἶδα 2).
    of transcendent entities ὁ λόγος σὰρξ ἐγένετο J 1:14 (RSeeberg, Festgabe AvHarnack dargebracht 1921, 263–81.—Artem. 2, 35 p. 132, 27 ἐὰν σάρκινοι οἱ θεοὶ φαίνωνται; Synes., Dio 6 p. 45b).—Of flesh other than human: ὀπίσω σαρκὸς ἑτέρας after another kind of flesh (cp. Judg 2:12 ὀπίσω θεῶν ἑτέρων) i.e. of divine messengers who take on ς. when they appear to humans (so Windisch et al.; difft. Frame et al. of same-sex activity) Jd 7.
    human/ancestral connection, human/mortal nature, earthly descent (Did., Gen. 144, 25) Ἀβραὰμ τὸν προπάτορα ἡμῶν κατὰ σάρκα Ro 4:1 (Just., D. 43, 7 al.). οἱ συγγενεῖς μου κατὰ σάρκα 9:3. τοὺς τῆς σαρκὸς ἡμῶν πατέρας Hb 12:9. τὸν Ἰσραὴλ κατὰ σάρκα the earthly Israel 1 Cor 10:18 (opp. τὸν Ἰσραὴλ τοῦ θεοῦ Gal 6:16). Of natural descent τὰ τέκνα τῆς σαρκός children by natural descent Ro 9:8 (opp. τὰ τέκνα τῆς ἐπαγγελίας). ὁ μὲν ἐκ τῆς παιδίσκης κατὰ σάρκα γεγέννηται Gal 4:23; cp. vs. 29. μου τὴν σάρκα my compatriots Ro 11:14 (s. Gen 37:27).—Of Christ’s physical nature Ro 8:3c; Hb 5:7. Christ is descended fr. the patriarchs and fr. David (τὸ) κατὰ σάρκα according to the human side of his nature, as far as his physical descent is concerned Ro 1:3 (JDunn, Jesus: Flesh and Spirit [Ro 1:3f], JTS 24, ’73, 40–68); 9:5; 1 Cl 32:2; IEph 20:2. The context of 2 Cor 11:18 includes ancestry as a reason for boasting, but ς. in this pass. applies as well to other aspects of Paul’s career and therefore belongs more properly in 5.
    the outward side of life as determined by normal perspectives or standards, a transf. sense of 1 and 2. Usually w. κατά indicating norm or standard σοφοὶ κατὰ σάρκα wise (people) according to human standards 1 Cor 1:26. καυχᾶσθαι κατὰ (τὴν) σάρκα boast of one’s outward circumstances, i.e. descent, manner of life, etc. (cp. 11:22) 2 Cor 11:18. κατὰ σάρκα Χριστόν Christ (the Messiah) from a human point of view or as far as externals are concerned 5:16b, cp. a (κατά B5bβ and 7a; also VWeber, BZ 2, 1904, 178–88; HWindisch, exc. ad loc.; Rtzst., Mysterienrel.3, 374–76; FPorter, Does Paul Claim to Have Known the Historical Jesus [2 Cor 5:16]?: JBL 47, 1928, 257–75; RMoxon, CQR 108, 1929, 320–28). οἱ κατὰ σάρκα κύριοι those who, according to human standards, are masters Eph 6:5; Col 3:22. ὑμεῖς κατὰ τὴν ς. κρίνετε you judge by outward things, by externals J 8:15. Of the route taken in one’s earthly life ἡ ὁδὸς ἡ κατὰ σάρκα IRo 9:3.—ἐν σαρκὶ πεποιθέναι place one’s trust in earthly things or physical advantages Phil 3:3f. εὐπροσωπῆσαι ἐν σαρκί Gal 6:12. Onesimus is a beloved brother to Philemon καὶ ἐν σαρκὶ καὶ ἐν κυρίῳ both as a human being (=personally, in the external relationship betw. master and slave) and as a Christian Phlm 16. ὑμῶν δὲ ἐν σαρκὶ ἐπισκόπῳ IEph 1:3 (cp. IMg 3:2).—HWindisch, Taufe u. Sünde 1908; EBurton, ICC Gal. 1920, 492–95; WSchauf, Sarx 1924; WBieder, Auferstehung des Fleisches od. des Leibes?: TZ 1, ’45, 105–20. W. special ref. to Paul: Ltzm., Hdb. exc. on Ro 7:14 and 8:11; Lohmeyer (ἁμαρτία 3a); EKäsemann, Leib u. Leib Christi ’33; RGrant, ATR 22, ’40, 199–203; RBultmann, Theologie des NTs ’48, 228–49 (Engl. tr. by KGrobel, ’51 I, 227–59); LMarshall, Challenge of NT Ethics ’47, 267–70; E Schweizer, Die hellenist. Komponente im NT sarx-Begriff: ZNW 48, ’57, 237–53; two in KStendahl, The Scrolls and the NT, ’57: KKuhn, 94–113 and WDavies, 157–82; JPryke, ‘Spirit’ and ‘Flesh’ in Qumran and NT: RevQ 5, ’65, 346–60; DLys, La chair dans l’AT ’67; ASand, D. Begriff ‘Fleisch’ ’67 (Paul); RJewett, Paul’s Anthropological Terms ’71, 49–166. On Ign.: CRichardson, The Christianity of Ign. of Ant. ’35, esp. 49 and 61. S. also the lit. s.v. πνεῦμα, end.—B. 202. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW. Spicq. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > σάρξ

  • 5 κατοικίζω

    κατοικίζω (s. four prec. entries) fut. κατοικιῶ; 1 aor. κατῴκισα. Pass.: fut. κατοικισθήσομαι; aor. κατωκίσθην; pf. κατῴκισται (all LXX) cause to dwell, establish, settle (so Hdt. et al.; POxy 705, 24; LXX; EpArist; Jos., Ant. 1, 110 εἰς; 11, 19 ἐν) of the Spirit τὸ πνεῦμα ὸ̔ κατῴκισεν ἐν ἡμῖν the Spirit which (God) has caused to live in us Js 4:5. τὸ πνεῦμα ὸ̔ ὁ θεὸς κ. ἐν τῇ σαρκὶ ταύτῃ Hm 3:1. τὸ πνεῦμα κατῴκισεν ὁ θεὸς εἰς σάρκα God caused the Spirit to dwell in flesh Hs 5, 6, 5.—M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > κατοικίζω

  • 6 πνευματικός

    πνευματικός, ή, όν (πνεῦμα; Pre-Socr. et al., mostly in the sense ‘pert. to wind or breath’; Strabo 1, 3, 5; Cleom. [II A.D.] 1, 8 p. 84, 22; Vett. Val. p. 1, 11; 231, 20; PLond I, 46, 25 p. 66 [IV A.D.?]; PGM 5, 25; GrBar 13:4 [π. πατέρας]; Philo; Just.; Tat. 15, 3) predom. in Paul in our lit. (elsewh. only 1 Pt, 2 Cl, B, Ign., D)
    pert. to spirit as inner life of a human being, spiritual (s. πνεῦμα 3.—Plut., Mor. 129c πν. stands in contrast to σωματικόν; Hierocles 27, 483 τὸ πνευματικὸν τῆς ψυχῆς ὄχημα= the spiritual vehicle of the soul; cp. also Philo, Rer. Div. Her. 242); so perh. ἐπιμελείᾳ σαρκικῇ καὶ πνευματικῆ IPol 1:2 (s. ἐπιμέλεια); cp. 2:2; IMg 13:2; ISm 12:2; 13:2. But mng. 2a is not improb.
    In the great majority of cases in ref. to the divine πνεῦμα (s. πνεῦμα 5) having to do with the (divine) spirit, caused by or filled with the (divine) spirit, pert./corresponding to the (divine) spirit (Philo, Abr. 113; PGM 4, 1778; Zosimus [2aγ below, end]).
    α. of Jesus; in his preexistence 2 Cl 14:2. σαρκικός τε καὶ πνευματικός of flesh and (at the same time) of spirit IEph 7:2. Of the δεύτερος ἄνθρωπος 1 Cor 15:47 P46 (s. also the addition ὁ κύριος).
    β. as a rule it is used of impersonal things (πλήρωμα Iren. 1, 1, 3 [Harv. I 11, 11]; νόμος Orig., C. Cels. 4, 1, 28; βρῶμα 2, 2, 50; ἀρετή Did., Gen. 236, 6): the law given by God Ro 7:14. χάρισμα πν. 1:11. τῆς δωρεᾶς πνευματικῆς χάριν B 1:2 (s. δωρεά). εὐλογία πν. Eph 1:3 (s. εὐλογία 3bα). ᾠδαὶ πν. spiritual songs 5:19; Col 3:16 (cp. Just., D. 118, 2 πν. αἴνους). σύνεσις πν. understanding given by the Spirit 1:9. Christians are to let themselves be built up into an οἶκος πν. 1 Pt 2:5a and they are to bring πν. θυσίαι vs. 5b (ESelwyn, 1 Pt ’46, 281–85). Using the same figure, B 16:10 characterizes the believer as πν. ναός. Ign. calls his bonds πν. μαργαρῖται IEph 11:2; the fellowship that binds him to the Ephesian bishop is συνήθεια οὐκ ἀνθρωπίνη ἀλλὰ πνευματική 5:1; the presbytery he calls ἀξιόπλοκος πνευματικὸς στέφανος a worthily woven spiritual wreath IMg 13:1.—Of the Lord’s Supper and its OT counterpart: πνευματικὸν βρῶμα 1 Cor 10:3 and πν. πόμα vs. 4a, the former in the manna granted fr. heaven (s. βρῶμα 1), the latter in the water ἐκ πν. πέτρας vs. 4b (s. πέτρα 1a). πνευματικὴ τροφὴ καὶ (sc. πνευματικὸν) ποτόν D 10:3.—That which belongs to the transcendent order of being is described as πν.: accordingly, the resurrection body is a σῶμα πν. (the expr.: Cleopatra p. 24 ln. 24) 1 Cor 15:44a; cp. vs. 44b. Of the preexistent church 2 Cl 14:1, 2, 3.
    γ. ὁ πνευματικὸς (w. ἄνθρωπος to be supplied) 1 Cor 2:15 stands in contrast to ψυχικὸς ἄνθρωπος of vs. 14. The latter is a person who has nothing more than an ordinary human soul; the former possesses the divine πνεῦμα, not beside his natural human soul, but in place of it; this enables the person to penetrate the divine mysteries. This treatment of ψυχή and πνεῦμα in contrast to each other is also found in Hellenistic mysticism (s. Rtzst., Mysterienrel.3 70f; 325ff; 333ff; JWeiss, exc. on 1 Cor 15:44a. See also Zosimus in CALG pt. 2, 230 οὐ δεῖ τὸν πνευματικὸν ἄνθρωπον τὸν ἐπιγνόντα ἑαυτὸν κτλ.=Hermetica IV p. 105, 25 Sc.; s. also p. 107, 7. Iren. 1, 8, 3 [Harv. I 72, 6].—HMüller, Plotinos u. der Ap. Pls: Her 54, 1919, 109f).
    α. neut. τὰ πνευματικά spiritual things or matters (in contrast to τὰ σαρκικά earthly things) Ro 15:27; 1 Cor 9:11; it is characteristic of adherents to sound tradition, as τὰ σαρκ. is of dissidents IEph 8:2 (s. β below).—τὰ πν. spiritual gifts 1 Cor 12:1 (the gen. here may also be masc. those who possess spiritual gifts); 14:1. In πνευματικοῖς πνευματικὰ συγκρίνοντες 1 Cor 2:13 the dat. is either to be taken as a neut. (Lghtf., BWeiss, Bachmann, Ltzm., Rtzst. op. cit. 336, H-DWendland) or as a masc. (Schmiedel, Heinrici, JWeiss, Sickenberger); s. συγκρίνω and πνευματικῶς 2.—τὸ πνευματικόν (in contrast to τὸ ψυχικόν [s. 2aγ above]) 1 Cor 15:46.
    β. masc. (ὁ) πνευματικός possessing the Spirit, the one who possesses the Spirit (w. προφήτης) 1 Cor 14:37. (οἱ) πνευματικοί (οὐδεὶς ἢ οἱ πν. μόνοι Hippol., Ref. 5, 9, 6) (the) spirit-filled people 3:1 (opp. σάρκινοι and νήπιοι ἐν Χριστῷ); Gal 6:1; B 4:11; IEph 8:2 (of adherents to sound tradition in contrast to σαρκικοί, dissidents; s. 2bα above). Perh. also 1 Cor 2:13 and 12:1 (2bα).
    pert. to (evil) spirits (s. πνεῦμα 4c) subst. τὰ πνευματικὰ τῆς πονηρίας the spirit-forces of evil Eph 6:12.—DELG s.v. πνέω. M-M. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > πνευματικός

  • 7 ἐν

    ἐν prep. w. dat. (Hom.+). For lit. s. ἀνά and εἰς, beg. For special NT uses s. AOepke, TW II 534–39. The uses of this prep. are so many and various, and oft. so easily confused, that a strictly systematic treatment is impossible. It must suffice to list the main categories, which will help establish the usage in individual cases. The earliest auditors/readers, not being inconvenienced by grammatical and lexical debates, would readily absorb the context and experience little difficulty.
    marker of a position defined as being in a location, in, among (the basic idea, Rob. 586f)
    of the space or place within which someth. is found, in: ἐν τῇ πόλει Lk 7:37. ἐν Βηθλέεμ Mt 2:1. ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ 3:1 (Just., D. 19, 5, cp. A I, 12, 6 ἐν ἐρημίᾳ) ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ Ac 5:42. ἐν οἴκῳ 1 Ti 3:15 and very oft. ἐν τοῖς τοῦ πατρός μου in my Father’s house Lk 2:49 and perh. Mt 20:15 (cp. Jos., Ant. 16, 302, C. Ap. 1, 118 ἐν τοῖς τοῦ Διός; PTebt 12, 3; POxy 523, 3; Tob 6:11 S; Goodsp., Probs. 81–83). ἐν τῇ ἀγορᾷ Mt 20:3. ἐν (τῷ) οὐρανῷ in heaven (Arat., Phaen. 10; Diod S 4, 61, 6; Plut., Mor. 359d τὰς ψυχὰς ἐν οὐρανῷ λάμπειν ἄστρα; Tat. 12, 2 τὰ ἄστρα τὰ ἐν αὐτῷ) Ac 2:19 (Jo 3:3); Rv 12:1; IEph 19:2.—W. quotations and accounts of the subject matter of literary works: in (Ps.-Demetr. c. 226 ὡς ἐν τῷ Εὐθυδήμῳ; Simplicius in Epict. p. 28, 37 ἐν τῷ Φαίδωνι; Ammon. Hermiae in Aristot. De Interpret. c. 9 p. 136, 20 Busse ἐν Τιμαίῳ παρειλήφαμεν=we have received as a tradition; 2 Macc 2:4; 1 Esdr 1:40; 5:48; Sir 50:27; Just., A I, 60, 1 ἐν τῷ παρὰ Πλάτωνι Τιμαίῳ) ἐν τῇ ἐπιστολῇ 1 Cor 5:9. ἐν τῷ νόμῳ Lk 24:44; J 1:45. ἐν τοῖς προφήταις Ac 13:40. ἐν Ἠλίᾳ in the story of Elijah Ro 11:2 (Just., D. 120, 3 ἐν τῷ Ἰούδα). ἐν τῷ Ὡσηέ 9:25 (Just., D. 44, 2 ἐν τῷ Ἰεζεκιήλ). ἐν Δαυίδ in the Psalter ( by David is also prob.: s. 6) Hb 4:7. ἐν ἑτέρῳ προφήτῃ in another prophet B 6:14. Of inner life φανεροῦσθαι ἐν ταῖς συνειδήσεσι be made known to (your) consciences 2 Cor 5:11. ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ Mt 5:28; 13:19; 2 Cor 11:12 et al.
    on ἐν τῷ ὄρει (X., An. 4, 3, 31; Diod S 14, 16, 2 λόφος ἐν ᾧ=a hill on which; Jos., Ant. 12, 259; Just., D. 67, 9 ἐν ὄρει Χωρήβ) J 4:20f; Hb 8:5 (Ex 25:40). ἐν τῇ ἀγορᾷ in the market Mt 20:3. ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ on the way Mt 5:25. ἐν πλαξίν on tablets 2 Cor 3:3. ἐν ταῖς γωνίαις τῶν πλατειῶν on the street corners Mt 6:5.
    within the range of, at, near (Soph., Fgm. 37 [34 N.2] ἐν παντὶ λίθῳ=near every stone; Artem. 4, 24 p. 217, 19 ἐν Τύρῳ=near Tyre; Polyaenus 8, 24, 7 ἐν τῇ νησῖδι=near the island; Diog. L. 1, 34; 85; 97 τὰ ἐν ποσίν=what is before one’s feet; Jos., Vi. 227 ἐν Χαβωλώ) ἐν τῷ γαζοφυλακείῳ (q.v.) J 8:20. ἐν τῷ Σιλωάμ near the pool of Siloam Lk 13:4. καθίζειν ἐν τῇ δεξιᾷ τινος sit at someone’s right hand (cp. 1 Esdr 4:29) Eph 1:20; Hb 1:3; 8:1.
    among, in (Hom.+; PTebt 58, 41 [111 B.C.]; Sir 16:6; 31:9; 1 Macc 4:58; 5:2; TestAbr B 9 p. 13, 27 [Stone p. 74]; Just., A I, 5, 4 ἐν βαρβάροις) ἐν τῇ γενεᾷ ταύτῃ in the generation now living Mk 8:38. ἐν τῷ γένει μου among my people Gal 1:14 (Just., D. 51, 1 al. ἐν τῷ γένει ὑμῶν). ἐν ἡμῖν Hb 13:26. ἐν τῷ ὄχλῳ in the crowd Mk 5:30 (cp. Sir 7:7). ἐν ἀλλήλοις mutually (Thu. 1, 24, 4; Just., D. 101, 3) Ro 1:12; 15:5. ἐν τοῖς ἡγεμόσιν (=among the commanding officers: Diod S 18, 61, 2; Appian, Bell. Civ. 5, 21 §84) Ἰούδα Mt 2:6 et al. ἐν ἀνθρώποις among people (as Himerius, Or. 48 [14], 11; Just., A I, 23, 3, D. 64, 7) Lk 2:14; cp. Ac 4:12.
    before, in the presence of, etc. (cp. Od. 2, 194; Eur., Andr. 359; Pla., Leg. 9, 879b; Demosth. 24, 207; Polyb. 5, 39, 6; Epict. 3, 22, 8; Appian, Maced. 18 §2 ἐν τοῖς φίλοις=in the presence of his friends; Sir 19:8; Jdth 6:2; PPetr. II, 4 [6], 16 [255/254 B.C.] δινὸν γάρ ἐστιν ἐν ὄχλῳ ἀτιμάζεσθαι=before a crowd) σοφίαν λαλοῦμεν ἐν τοῖς τελείοις in the presence of mature (i.e. spiritually sophisticated) adults 1 Cor 2:6 (cp. Simplicius in Epict. p. 131, 20 λέγειν τὰ θεωρήματα ἐν ἰδιώταις). ἐν τ. ὠσὶν ὑμῶν in your hearing Lk 4:21 (cp. Judg 17:2; 4 Km 23:2; Bar 1:3f), where the words can go linguistically just as well w. πεπλήρωται as w. ἡ γραφὴ αὕτη (this passage of scripture read in your hearing). ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖς τινος in someone’s eyes, i.e. judgment (Wsd 3:2; Sir 8:16; Jdth 3:4; 12:14; 1 Macc 1:12) Mt 21:42 (Ps 117:23). ἔν τινι in the same mng. as early as Trag. (Soph., Oed. C. 1213 ἐν ἐμοί=in my judgment, Ant. 925 ἐν θεοῖς καλά; also Pla., Prot. 337b; 343c) ἐν ἐμοί 1 Cor 14:11; possibly J 3:21 (s. 4c below) and Jd 1 belong here.—In the ‘forensic’ sense ἔν τινι can mean in someone’s court or forum (Soph., Ant. 459; Pla., Gorg. 464d, Leg. 11, 916b; Ael. Aristid. 38, 3 K.=7 p. 71 D.; 46 p. 283, 334 D.; Diod S 19, 51, 4; Ps.-Heraclit., Ep. 4, 6; but in several of these pass. the mng. does not go significantly beyond ‘in the presence of’ [s. above]) ἐν ὑμῖν 1 Cor 6:2 ( by you is also tenable; s. 6 below).
    esp. to describe certain processes, inward: ἐν ἑαυτῷ to himself, i.e. in silence, διαλογίζεσθαι Mk 2:8; Lk 12:17; διαπορεῖν Ac 10:17; εἰδέναι J 6:61; λέγειν Mt 3:9; 9:21; Lk 7:49; εἰπεῖν 7:39 al.; ἐμβριμᾶσθαι J 11:38.
    marker of a state or condition, in
    of being clothed and metaphors assoc. with such condition in, with (Hdt. 2, 159; X., Mem. 3, 11, 4; Diod S 1, 12, 9; Herodian 2, 13, 3; Jdth 10:3; 1 Macc 6:35; 2 Macc 3:33) ἠμφιεσμένον ἐν μαλακοῖς dressed in soft clothes Mt 11:8. περιβάλλεσθαι ἐν ἱματίοις Rv 3:5; 4:4. ἔρχεσθαι ἐν ἐνδύμασι προβάτων come in sheep’s clothing Mt 7:15. περιπατεῖν ἐν στολαῖς walk about in long robes Mk 12:38 (Tat. 2, 1 ἐν πορφυρίδι περιπατῶν); cp. Ac 10:30; Mt 11:21; Lk 10:13. ἐν λευκοῖς in white (Artem. 2, 3; 4, 2 ἐν λευκοῖς προϊέναι; Epict. 3, 22, 1) J 20:12; Hv 4, 2, 1. Prob. corresp. ἐν σαρκί clothed in flesh (cp. Diod S 1, 12, 9 deities appear ἐν ζῴων μορφαῖς) 1 Ti 3:16; 1J 4:2; 2J 7. ἐν πάσῃ τῇ δόξῃ αὐτοῦ in all his glory Mt 6:29 (cp. 1 Macc 10:86). ἐν τ. δόξῃ τοῦ πατρός clothed in his Father’s glory 16:27; cp. 25:31; Mk 8:38; Lk 9:31.
    of other states and conditions (so freq. w. γίνομαι, εἰμί; Attic wr.; PPetr II, 11 [1], 8 [III B.C.] γράφε, ἵνα εἰδῶμεν ἐν οἷς εἶ; 39 [g], 16; UPZ 110, 176 [164 B.C.] et al.; LXX; Just., A I, 13, 2 πάλιν ἐν ἀφθαρσίᾳ γενέσθαι; 67, 6 τοῖς ἐν χρείᾳ οὖσι; Tat. 20, 1f οὐκ ἔστι γὰρ ἄπειρος ὁ οὐρανός, … πεπερασμένος δὲ καὶ ἐν τέρματι; Mel., HE 4, 26, 6 ἐν … λεηλασίᾳ ‘plundering’): ὑπάρχων ἐν βασάνοις Lk 16:23. ἐν τῷ θανάτῳ 1J 3:14. ἐν ζωῇ Ro 5:10. ἐν τοῖς δεσμοῖς Phlm 13 (Just., A II, 2, 11 ἐν δ. γενέσθαι). ἐν πειρασμοῖς 1 Pt 1:6; ἐν πολλοῖς ὢν ἀστοχήμασι AcPlCor 2:1. ἐν ὁμοιώματι σαρκός Ro 8:3. ἐν πολλῷ ἀγῶνι 1 Th 2:2. ἐν φθορᾷ in a state of corruptibility 1 Cor 15:42. ἐν ἑτοίμῳ ἔχειν 2 Cor 10:6 (cp. PEleph 10, 7 [223/222 B.C.] τ. λοιπῶν ἐν ἑτοίμῳ ὄντων; PGen 76, 8; 3 Macc 5:8); ἐν ἐκστάσει in a state of trance Ac 11:5 (opp. Just., D, 115, 3 ἐν καταστάσει ὤν). Of qualities: ἐν πίστει κ. ἀγάπῃ κ. ἁγιασμῷ 1 Ti 2:15; ἐν κακίᾳ καὶ φθόνῳ Tit 3:3; ἐν πανουργίᾳ 2 Cor 4:2; ἐν εὐσεβείᾳ καὶ σεμνότητι 1 Ti 2:2; ἐν τῇ ἀνοχῇ τοῦ θεοῦ Ro 3:26; ἐν μυστηρίῳ 1 Cor 2:7; ἐν δόξῃ Phil 4:19.
    marker of extension toward a goal that is understood to be within an area or condition, into: ἐν is somet. used w. verbs of motion where εἰς would normally be expected (Diod S 23, 8, 1 Ἄννων ἐπέρασε ἐν Σικελίᾳ; Hero I 142, 7; 182, 4; Paus. 7, 4, 3 διαβάντες ἐν τῇ Σάμῳ; Epict. 1, 11, 32; 2, 20, 33; Aelian, VH 4, 18; Vett. Val. 210, 26; 212, 6 al., s. index; Pel.-Leg. 1, 4; 5; 2, 1; PParis 10, 2 [145 B.C.] ἀνακεχώρηκεν ἐν Ἀλεξανδρείᾳ; POxy 294, 4; BGU 22, 13; Tob 5:5 BA; 1 Macc 10:43; TestAbr B 2 p. 106, 23=Stone p. 60 [s. on the LXX Thackeray 25]; πέμψον αὐτοὺς ἐν πολέμῳ En 10:9; TestAbr A 6 p. 83, 22 [Stone p. 14] δάκρυα … ἐν τῷ νιπτῆρι πίπτοντα): εἰσέρχεσθαι Lk 9:46; Rv 11:11; ἀπάγειν GJs 6:1; ἀνάγειν 7:1; εἰσάγειν 10:1; καταβαίνειν J 5:3 (4) v.l.; ἀναβαίνειν GJs 22:13; ἀπέρχεσθαι (Diod S 23, 18, 5) Hs 1:6; ἥκειν GJs 5:1; ἀποστέλλειν 25:1. To be understood otherwise: ἐξῆλθεν ὁ λόγος ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ Ἰουδαίᾳ the word went out = spread in all Judaea Lk 7:17; likew. 1 Th 1:8. The metaphorical expr. ἐπιστρέψαι ἀπειθεῖς ἐν φρονήσει δικαίων turn the disobedient to the wisdom of the righteous Lk 1:17 is striking but consistent w. the basic sense of ἐν. S. also γίνομαι, δίδωμι, ἵστημι, καλέω, and τίθημι. ἐν μέσῳ among somet. answers to the question ‘whither’ (B-D-F §215, 3) Mt 10:16; Lk 10:3; 8:7.
    marker of close association within a limit, in
    fig., of pers., to indicate the state of being filled w. or gripped by someth.: in someone=in one’s innermost being ἐν αὐτῷ κατοικεῖ πᾶν τὸ πλήρωμα in him dwells all the fullness Col 2:9. ἐν αὐτῷ ἐκτίσθη τὰ πάντα (prob. to be understood as local, not instrumental, since ἐν αὐ. would otherwise be identical w. διʼ αὐ. in the same vs.) everything was created in association with him 1:16 (cp. M. Ant. 4, 23 ἐν σοὶ πάντα; Herm. Wr. 5, 10; AFeuillet, NTS 12, ’65, 1–9). ἐν τῷ θεῷ κέκρυπται ἡ ζωὴ ὑμῶν your life is hid in God 3:3; cp. 2:3. Of sin in humans Ro 7:17f; cp. κατεργάζεσθαι vs. 8. Of Christ who, as a spiritual being, fills people so as to be in charge of their lives 8:10; 2 Cor 13:5, abides J 6:56, lives Gal 2:20, and takes form 4:19 in them. Of the divine word: οὐκ ἔστιν ἐν ἡμῖν 1J 1:10; μένειν ἔν τινι J 5:38; ἐνοικεῖν Col 3:16. Of God’s spirit: οἰκεῖν (ἐνοικεῖν) ἔν τινι Ro 8:9, 11; 1 Cor 3:16; 2 Ti 1:14. Of spiritual gifts 1 Ti 4:14; 2 Ti 1:6. Of miraculous powers ἐνεργεῖν ἔν τινι be at work in someone Mt 14:2; Mk 6:14; ποιεῖν ἔν τινι εὐάρεστον Hb 13:21. The same expr. of God or evil spirits, who somehow work in people: 1 Cor 12:6; Phil 2:13; Eph 2:2 al.
    of the whole, w. which the parts are closely joined: μένειν ἐν τῇ ἀμπέλῳ remain in the vine J 15:4. ἐν ἑνὶ σώματι μέλη πολλὰ ἔχομεν in one body we have many members Ro 12:4. κρέμασθαι ἔν τινι depend on someth. Mt 22:40.
    esp. in Paul. or Joh. usage, to designate a close personal relation in which the referent of the ἐν-term is viewed as the controlling influence: under the control of, under the influence of, in close association with (cp. ἐν τῷ Δαυιδ εἰμί 2 Km 19:44): of Christ εἶναι, μένειν ἐν τῷ πατρί (ἐν τῷ θεῷ) J 10:38; 14:10f (difft. CGordon, ‘In’ of Predication or Equivalence: JBL 100, ’81, 612f); and of Christians 1J 3:24; 4:13, 15f; be or abide in Christ J 14:20; 15:4f; μένειν ἐν τῷ υἱῷ καὶ ἐν τῷ πατρί 1J 2:24. ἔργα ἐν θεῷ εἰργασμένα done in communion with God J 3:21 (but s. 1e above).—In Paul the relation of the individual to Christ is very oft. expressed by such phrases as ἐν Χριστῷ, ἐν κυρίῳ etc., also vice versa (FNeugebauer, NTS 4, ’57/58, 124–38; AWedderburn, JSNT 25, ’85, 83–97) ἐν ἐμοὶ Χριστός Gal 2:20, but here in the sense of a above.—See, e.g., Dssm., D. ntl. Formel ‘in Christo Jesu’ 1892; EWeber, D. Formel ‘in Chr. Jesu’ u. d. paul. Christusmystik: NKZ 31, 1920, 213ff; LBrun, Zur Formel ‘in Chr. Jesus’ im Phil: Symbolae Arctoae 1, 1922, 19–37; MHansen, Omkring Paulus-Formeln ‘i Kristus’: TK 4/10, 1929, 135–59; HBöhlig, ʼΕν κυρίῳ: GHeinrici Festschr. 1914, 170–75; OSchmitz, D. Christusgemeinschaft d. Pls2 ’56; AWikenhauser, D. Christusmystik d. Pls2 ’56; KMittring, Heilswirklichkeit b. Pls; Beitrag z. Verständnis der unio cum Christo in d. Plsbriefen 1929; ASchweitzer, D. Mystik d. Ap. Pls 1930 (Eng. tr., WMontgomery, The Myst. of Paul the Ap., ’31); WSchmauch, In Christus ’35; BEaston, Pastoral Ep. ’47, 210f; FBüchsel, ‘In Chr.’ b. Pls: ZNW 42, ’49, 141–58. Also HKorn, D. Nachwirkungen d. Christusmystik d. Pls in den Apost. Vätern, diss. Berlin 1928; EAndrews, Interpretation 6, ’52, 162–77; H-LParisius, ZNW 49, ’58, 285–88 (10 ‘forensic’ passages); JAllan, NTS 5, ’58/59, 54–62 (Eph), ibid. 10, ’63, 115–21 (pastorals); FNeugebauer, In Christus, etc. ’61; MDahl, The Resurrection of the Body ( 1 Cor 15) ’62, 110–13.—Paul has the most varied expressions for this new life-principle: life in Christ Ro 6:11, 23; love in Christ 8:39; grace, which is given in Christ 1 Cor 1:4; freedom in Chr. Gal 2:4; blessing in Chr. 3:14; unity in Chr. vs. 28. στήκειν ἐν κυρίῳ stand firm in the Lord Phil 4:1; εὑρεθῆναι ἐν Χ. be found in Christ 3:9; εἶναι ἐν Χ. 1 Cor 1:30; οἱ ἐν Χ. Ro 8:1.—1 Pt 5:14; κοιμᾶσθαι ἐν Χ., ἀποθνῄσκειν ἐν κυρίῳ 1 Cor 15:18.—Rv 14:13; ζῳοποιεῖσθαι 1 Cor 15:22.—The formula is esp. common w. verbs that denote a conviction, hope, etc. πεποιθέναι Gal 5:10; Phil 1:14; 2 Th 3:4. παρρησίαν ἔχειν Phlm 8. πέπεισμαι Ro 14:14. ἐλπίζειν Phil 2:19. καύχησιν ἔχειν Ro 15:17; 1 Cor 15:31. τὸ αὐτὸ φρονεῖν Phil 4:2. ὑπακούειν Eph 6:1. λαλεῖν 2 Cor 2:17; 12:19. ἀλήθειαν λέγειν Ro 9:1. λέγειν καὶ μαρτύρεσθαι Eph 4:17. But also apart fr. such verbs, in numerous pass. it is used w. verbs and nouns of the most varied sort, often without special emphasis, to indicate the scope within which someth. takes place or has taken place, or to designate someth. as being in close assoc. w. Christ, and can be rendered, variously, in connection with, in intimate association with, keeping in mind ἁγιάζεσθαι 1 Cor 1:2, or ἅγιος ἐν Χ. Phil 1:1; ἀσπάζεσθαί τινα 1 Cor 16:19. δικαιοῦσθαι Gal 2:17. κοπιᾶν Ro 16:12. παρακαλεῖν 1 Th 4:1. προσδέχεσθαί τινα Ro 16:2; Phil 2:29. χαίρειν 3:1; 4:4, 10. γαμηθῆναι ἐν κυρίῳ marry in the Lord=marry a Christian 1 Cor 7:39. προϊστάμενοι ὑμῶν ἐν κυρίῳ your Christian leaders (in the church) 1 Th 5:12 (but s. προί̈στημι 1 and 2).—εὐάρεστος Col 3:20. νήπιος 1 Cor 3:1. φρόνιμος 4:10. παιδαγωγοί vs. 15. ὁδοί vs. 17. Hence used in periphrasis for ‘Christian’ οἱ ὄντες ἐν κυρίῳ Ro 16:11; ἄνθρωπος ἐν Χ. 2 Cor 12:2; αἱ ἐκκλησίαι αἱ ἐν Χ. Gal 1:22; 1 Th 2:14; νεκροὶ ἐν Χ. 4:16; ἐκλεκτός Ro 16:13. δόκιμος vs. 10. δέσμιος Eph 4:1. πιστὸς διάκονος 6:21; ἐν Χ. γεννᾶν τινα become someone’s parent in the Christian life 1 Cor 4:15. τὸ ἔργον μου ὑμεῖς ἐστε ἐν κυρίῳ 9:1.—The use of ἐν πνεύματι as a formulaic expression is sim.: ἐν πν. εἶναι be under the impulsion of the spirit, i.e. the new self, as opposed to ἐν σαρκί under the domination of the old self Ro 8:9; cp. ἐν νόμῳ 2:12. λαλεῖν speak under divine inspiration 1 Cor 12:3. ἐγενόμην ἐν πνεύματι I was in a state of inspiration Rv 1:10; 4:2; opp. ἐν ἑαυτῷ γενόμενος came to himself Ac 12:11 (cp. X., An. 1, 5, 17 et al.).—The expr. ἐν πν. εἶναι is also used to express the idea that someone is under the special infl. of a good or even an undesirable spirit: Mt 22:43; Mk 12:36; Lk 2:27; 1 Cor 12:3; Rv 17:3; 21:10. ἄνθρωπος ἐν πν. ἀκαθάρτῳ (ὤν) Mk 1:23 (s. GBjörck, ConNeot 7, ’42, 1–3).—ἐν τῷ πονηρῷ κεῖσθαι be in the power of the evil one 1J 5:19. οἱ ἐν νόμῳ those who are subject to the law Ro 3:19. ἐν τῷ Ἀδὰμ ἀποθνῄσκειν die because of a connection w. Adam 1 Cor 15:22.—On the formula ἐν ὀνόματι (Χριστοῦ) s. ὄνομα 1, esp. dγג. The OT is the source of the expr. ὀμνύναι ἔν τινι swear by someone or someth. (oft. LXX) Mt 5:34ff; 23:16, 18ff; Rv 10:6; παραγγέλλομέν σοι ἐν Ἰησοῦ Ac 19:14 v.l. The usage in ὁμολογεῖν ἔν τινι acknowledge someone Mt 10:32; Lk 12:8 (s. ὁμολογέω 4b) is Aramaic.
    marker introducing means or instrument, with, a construction that begins w. Homer (many examples of instrumental ἐν in Radermacher’s edition of Ps.-Demetr., Eloc. p. 100; Reader, Polemo p. 258) but whose wide currency in our lit. is partly caused by the infl. of the LXX, and its similarity to the Hebr. constr. w. בְּ (B-D-F §219; Mlt. 104; Mlt-H. 463f; s. esp. M-M p. 210).
    it can serve to introduce persons or things that accompany someone to secure an objective: ‘along with’
    α. pers., esp. of a military force, w. blending of associative (s. 4) and instrumental idea (1 Macc 1:17; 7:14, 28 al.): ἐν δέκα χιλιάσιν ὑπαντῆσαι meet, w. 10,000 men Lk 14:31 (cp. 1 Macc 4:6, 29 συνήντησεν αὐτοῖς Ἰούδας ἐν δέκα χιλιάσιν ἀνδρῶν). ἦλθεν ἐν μυριάσιν αὐτοῦ Jd 14 (cp. Jdth 16:3 ἦλθεν ἐν μυριάσι δυνάμεως αὐτοῦ).
    β. impers. (oft. LXX; PTebt 41, 5 [c. 119 B.C.]; 16, 14 [114 B.C.]; 45, 17 al., where people rush into the village or the house ἐν μαχαίρῃ, ἐν ὅπλοις). (Just., D. 86, 6 τῆς ἀξίνης, ἐν ἧ πεπορευμένοι ἦσαν … κόψαι ξύλα) ἐν ῥάβδῳ ἔρχεσθαι come with a stick (as a means of discipline) 1 Cor 4:21 (cp. Lucian, Dial. Mort. 23, 3 Ἑρμῆν καθικόμενον ἐν τῇ ῥάβδῳ; Gen 32:11; 1 Km 17:43; 1 Ch 11:23; Dssm., B 115f [BS 120]). ἐν πληρώματι εὐλογίας with the full blessing Ro 15:29. ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ αὐτοῦ Mt 16:28. ἐν αἵματι Hb 9:25 (cp. Mi 6:6). ἐν τῷ ὕδατι καὶ ἐν τῷ αἵματι 1J 5:6. ἐν πνεύματι καὶ δυνάμει τοῦ Ἠλίου equipped w. the spirit and power of Elijah Lk 1:17. φθάνειν ἐν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ come with the preaching of the gospel 2 Cor 10:14. μὴ ἐν ζύμῃ παλαιᾷ not burdened w. old leaven 1 Cor 5:8.
    it can serve to express means or instrumentality in terms of location for a specific action (cp. TestAbr A 12 p. 91, 5f [Stone p. 30] κρατῶν ἐν τῇ χειρὶ αὐτοῦ ζυγόν; Tat. 9, 2 οἱ ἐν τοῖς πεσσοῖς ἀθύροντες ‘those who play w. gaming pieces’ [as, e.g., in backgammon]): κατακαίειν ἐν πυρί Rv 17:16 (cp. Bar 1:2; 1 Esdr 1:52; 1 Macc 5:5 al.; as early as Il. 24, 38; cp. POxy 2747, 74; Aelian, HA 14, 15. Further, the ἐν Rv 17:16 is not textually certain). ἐν ἅλατι ἁλίζειν, ἀρτύειν Mt 5:13; Mk 9:50; Lk 14:34 (s. M-M p. 210; WHutton, ET 58, ’46/47, 166–68). ἐν τῷ αἵματι λευκαίνειν Rv 7:14. ἐν αἵματι καθαρίζειν Hb 9:22. ἐν ῥομφαίᾳ ἀποκτείνειν kill with the sword Rv 6:8 (1 Esdr 1:50; 1 Macc 2:9; cp. 3:3; Jdth 16:4; ἀπολεῖ ἐν ῥομφαίᾳ En 99:16; 4 [6] Esdr [POxy 1010] ἐν ῥ. πεσῇ … πεσοῦνται ἐν μαχαίρῃ; cp. Lucian, Hist. Conscrib. 12 ἐν ἀκοντίῳ φονεύειν). ἐν μαχαίρῃ πατάσσειν Lk 22:49 (διχοτομήσατε … ἐν μ. GrBar 16:3); ἐν μ. ἀπόλλυσθαι perish by the sword Mt 26:52. ποιμαίνειν ἐν ῥάβδῳ σιδηρᾷ Rv 2:27; 12:5; 19:15 (s. ποιμαίνω 2aγ and cp. PGM 36, 109). καταπατεῖν τι ἐν τοῖς ποσίν tread someth. w. the feet Mt 7:6 (cp. Sir 38:29). δύο λαοὺς βλέπω ἐν τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς μου I see two peoples with my eyes GJs 17:2 (ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖσιν ὀρᾶν=see with the eyes: cp. Il. 1, 587; Od. 8, 459; Callinus [VII B.C.], Fgm. 1, 20 Diehl2). ποιεῖν κράτος ἐν βραχίονι do a mighty deed w. one’s arm Lk 1:51 (cp. Sir 38:30); cp. 11:20. δικαιοῦσθαι ἐν τῷ αἵματι be justified by the blood Ro 5:9. ἐν ἁγιασμῷ πνεύματος 2 Th 2:13; 1 Pt 1:2; ἐν τ. παρακλήσει 2 Cor 7:7. εὐλογεῖν ἐν εὐλογίᾳ Eph 1:3. λαλοῦντες ἑαυτοῖς ἐν ψάλμοις 5:19. ἀσπάσασθαι … ἐν εὐχῇ greet w. prayer GJs 24:1. Of intellectual process γινώσκειν ἔν τινι know or recognize by someth. (cp. Thuc. 7, 11, 1 ἐν ἐπιστολαῖς ἴστε; Sir 4:24; 11:28; 26:29) J 13:35; 1J 3:19; cp. ἐν τῇ κλάσει τοῦ ἄρτου in the breaking of bread Lk 24:35 (s. 10c).—The ἐν which takes the place of the gen. of price is also instrumental ἠγόρασας ἐν τῷ αἵματί σου Rv 5:9 (cp. 1 Ch 21:24 ἀγοράζω ἐν ἀργυρίῳ).—ἐν ᾧ whereby Ro 14:21.—The idiom ἀλλάσσειν, μεταλλάσσειν τι ἔν τινι exchange someth. for someth. else Ro 1:23, 25 (cp. Ps 105:20) is not un-Greek (Soph., Ant. 945 Danaë had to οὐράνιον φῶς ἀλλάξαι ἐν χαλκοδέτοις αὐλαῖς=change the heavenly light for brass-bound chambers).
    marker of agency: with the help of (Diod S 19, 46, 4 ἐν τοῖς μετέχουσι τοῦ συνεδρίου=with the help of the members of the council; Philostrat., Vi. Apoll. 7, 9 p. 259, 31 ἐν ἐκείνῳ ἑαλωκότες) ἐν τῷ ἄρχοντι τ. δαιμονίων ἐκβάλλει τὰ δαιμόνια Mt 9:34. ἐν ἑτερογλώσσοις λαλεῖν 1 Cor 14:21. κρίνειν τ. οἰκουμένην ἐν ἀνδρί Ac 17:31 (cp. SIG2 850, 8 [173/172 B.C.] κριθέντω ἐν ἄνδροις τρίοις; Synes., Ep. 91 p. 231b ἐν ἀνδρί); perh. 1 Cor 6:2 (s. 1e); ἀπολύτρωσις ἐν Χρ. redemption through Christ Ro 3:24 (cp. ἐν αὐτῷ σωθήσεσθε Just., A I, 60, 3).
    marker of circumstance or condition under which someth. takes place: ἐν ᾧ κρίνεις Ro 2:1 (but s. B-D-F §219, 2); ἐν ᾧ δοκιμάζει 14:22; ἐν ᾧ καυχῶνται 2 Cor 11:12; ἐν ᾧ τις τολμᾷ 11:21; ἐν ᾧ καταλαλοῦσιν whereas they slander 1 Pt 2:12, cp. 3:16 (on these Petrine pass. s. also ὅς 1k); ἐν ᾧ ξενίζονται in view of your changed attitude they consider it odd 4:4. ἐν ᾧ in 3:19 may similarly refer to a changed circumstance, i.e. from death to life (WDalton, Christ’s Proclamation to the Spirits, ’65, esp. 135–42: ‘in this sphere, under this influence’ [of the spirit]). Other possibilities: as far as this is concerned: πνεῦμα• ἐν ᾧ spirit; as which (FZimmermann, APF 11, ’35, 174 ‘meanwhile’ [indessen]; BReicke, The Disobedient Spirits and Christian Baptism, ’46, 108–15: ‘on that occasion’=when he died).—Before a substantive inf. (oft. LXX; s. KHuber, Unters. über den Sprachchar. des griech. Lev., diss. Zürich 1916, 83): in that w. pres. inf. (POxy 743, 35 [2 B.C.] ἐν τῷ δέ με περισπᾶσθαι οὐκ ἠδυνάσθην συντυχεῖν Ἀπολλωνίῳ; Just., D. 10, 3 ἐν τῷ μήτε σάββατα τηρεῖν μήτε …) βασανιζομένους ἐν τῷ ἐλαύνειν as they were having rough going in the waves=having a difficult time making headway Mk 6:48. ἐθαύμαζον ἐν τῷ χρονίζειν … αὐτόν they marveled over his delay Lk 1:21. ἐν τῷ τὴν χεῖρα ἐκτείνειν σε in that you extend your hand Ac 4:30; cp. 3:26; Hb 8:13. W. aor. inf. ἐν τῷ ὑποτάξαι αὐτῷ τὰ πάντα Hb 2:8. Somet. the circumstantial and temporal (s. 7 and 10) uses are so intermingled that it is difficult to decide between them; so in some of the pass. cited above, and also Hv 1, 1, 8 et al. (B-D-F §404, 3; Rob. 1073).—WHutton, Considerations for the Translation of ἐν, Bible Translator 9, ’58, 163–70; response by NTurner, ibid. 10, ’59, 113–20.—On ἐν w. article and inf. s. ISoisalon-Soininen, Die Infinitive in der LXX, ’65, 80ff.
    marker denoting the object to which someth. happens or in which someth. shows itself, or by which someth. is recognized, to, by, in connection with: ζητεῖν τι ἔν τινι require someth. in the case of someone 1 Cor 4:2; cp. ἐν ἡμῖν μάθητε so that you might learn in connection w. us vs. 6. Cp. Phil 1:30. ἵνα οὕτως γένηται ἐν ἐμοί that this may be done in my case 1 Cor 9:15 (Just., D. 77, 3 τοῦτο γενόμενον ἐν τῷ ἡμετέρῳ Χριστῷ). ἐδόξαζον ἐν ἐμοὶ τὸν θεόν perh. they glorified God in my case Gal 1:24, though because of me and for me are also possible. μήτι ἐν ἐμοὶ ἀνεκεφαλαιώθη ἡ ἱστορία GJs 13:1 (s. ἀνακεφαλαιόω 1). ποιεῖν τι ἔν τινι do someth. to (with) someone (Epict., Ench. 33, 12; Ps.-Lucian, Philopatr. 18 μὴ ἑτεροῖόν τι ποιήσῃς ἐν ἐμοί; Gen 40:14; Jdth 7:24; 1 Macc 7:23) Mt 17:12; Lk 23:31. ἐργάζεσθαί τι ἔν τινι Mk 14:6. ἔχειν τι ἔν τινι have someth. in someone J 3:15 (but ἐν αὐτῷ is oft. constr. w. πιστεύων, cp. v.l.); cp. 14:30 (s. BNoack, Satanas u. Soteria ’48, 92). ἵνα δικαιοσύνης ναὸν ἐν τῷ ἰδίῳ σώματι ἀναδείξῃ AcPlCor 2:17 (s. ἀναδείκνυμι 1).—For the ordinary dat. (Diod S 3, 51, 4 ἐν ἀψύχῳ ἀδύνατον=it is impossible for a lifeless thing; Ael. Aristid. 49, 15 K.=25 p. 492 D.: ἐν Νηρίτῳ θαυμαστὰ ἐνεδείξατο=[God] showed wonderful things to N.; 53 p. 629 D.: οὐ γὰρ ἐν τοῖς βελτίστοις εἰσὶ παῖδες, ἐν δὲ πονηροτάτοις οὐκέτι=it is not the case that the very good have children, and the very bad have none [datives of possession]; 54 p. 653 D.: ἐν τ. φαύλοις θετέον=to the bad; EpJer 66 ἐν ἔθνεσιν; Aesop, Fab. 19, 8 and 348a, 5 v.l. Ch.) ἀποκαλύψαι τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ ἐν ἐμοί Gal 1:16. φανερόν ἐστιν ἐν αὐτοῖς Ro 1:19 (Aesop 15c, 11 Ch. τ. φανερὸν ἐν πᾶσιν=evident to all). ἐν ἐμοὶ βάρβαρος (corresp. to τῷ λαλοῦντι βάρβ.) 1 Cor 14:11 (Amphis Com. [IV B.C.] 21 μάταιός ἐστιν ἐν ἐμοί). δεδομένον ἐν ἀνθρώποις Ac 4:12. θεῷ … ἐν ἀνθρώποις Lk 2:14.—Esp. w. verbs of striking against: προσκόπτω, πταίω, σκανδαλίζομαι; s. these entries.
    marker of cause or reason, because of, on account of (PParis 28, 13=UPZ 48, 12f [162/161 B.C.] διαλυόμενοι ἐν τῷ λιμῷ; Ps 30:11; 1 Macc 16:3 ἐν τῷ ἐλέει; 2 Macc 7:29; Sir 33:17)
    gener. ἁγιάζεσθαι ἔν τινι Hb 10:10; 1 Cor 7:14. ἐν τ. ἐπιθυμίαις τῶν καρδιῶν Ro 1:24; perh. ἐν Ἰσαὰκ κληθήσεταί σοι σπέρμα 9:7; Hb 11:18 (both Gen 21:12). ἐν τῇ πολυλογίᾳ αὐτῶν because of their many words Mt 6:7. ἐν τούτῳ πιστεύομεν this is the reason why we believe J 16:30; cp. Ac 24:16; 1 Cor 4:4 (Just., D. 68, 7 οὐχὶ καὶ ἐν τούτῳ δυσωπήσω ὑμᾶς μὴ πείθεσθαι τοῖς διδασκάλοις ὑμῶν=‘surely you will be convinced by this [argument] to lose confidence in your teachers, won’t you?’); perh. 2 Cor 5:2. Sim., of the occasion: ἔφυγεν ἐν τῷ λόγῳ τούτῳ at this statement Ac 7:29; cp. 8:6. W. attraction ἐν ᾧ = ἐν τούτῳ ὅτι for the reason that = because Ro 8:3; Hb 2:18; 6:17.
    w. verbs that express feeling or emotion, to denote that toward which the feeling is directed; so: εὐδοκεῖν (εὐδοκία), εὐφραίνεσθαι, καυχᾶσθαι, χαίρειν et al.
    marker of a period of time, in, while, when
    indicating an occurrence or action within which, at a certain point, someth. occurs Mt 2:1. ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ἐκείναις 3:1. ἐν τῷ ἑξῆς afterward Lk 7:11. ἐν τῷ μεταξύ meanwhile (PTebt 72, 190; PFlor 36, 5) J 4:31. in the course of, within ἐν τρισὶν ἡμέραις (X., Ages. 1, 34; Diod S 13, 14, 2; 20, 83, 4; Arrian, Anab. 4, 6, 4 ἐν τρισὶν ἡμέραις; Aelian, VH 1, 6; IPriene 9, 29; GDI 1222, 4 [Arcadia] ἰν ἁμέραις τρισί; EpArist 24; Demetr.: 722 Fgm. 1:3 Jac.) Mt 27:40; J 2:19f.
    point of time when someth. occurs ἐν ἡμέρᾳ κρίσεως Mt 11:22 (En 10:6; Just., D. 38, 2; Tat. 12, 4). ἐν τῇ ἐσχάτῃ ἡμέρᾳ J 6:44; 11:24; 12:48; cp. 7:37. ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ὥρᾳ Mt 8:13; 10:19; cp. 7:22; J 4:53. ἐν σαββάτῳ 12:2; J 7:23. ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ J 11:9 (opp. ἐν τῇ νυκτί vs. 10). ἐν τῷ δευτέρῳ on the second visit Ac 7:13. ἐν τῇ παλιγγενεσίᾳ in the new age Mt 19:28. ἐν τῇ παρουσίᾳ 1 Cor 15:23; 1 Th 2:19; 3:13; Phil 2:12 (here, in contrast to the other pass., there is no reference to the second coming of Christ.—Just., D. 31, 1 ἐν τῇ ἐνδόξῳ γινομένῃ αὐτοῦ παρουσίᾳ; 35, 8; 54, 1 al.); 1J 2:28. ἐν τῇ ἀναστάσει in the resurrection Mt 22:28; Mk 12:23; Lk 14:14; 20:33; J 11:24 (Just., D. 45, 2 ἐν τῇ τῶν νεκρῶν ἀναστάσει). ἐν τῇ ἐσχάτῃ σάλπιγγι at the last trumpet-call 1 Cor 15:52. ἐν τῇ ἀποκαλύψει at the appearance of Jesus/Christ (in the last days) 2 Th 1:7; 1 Pt 1:7, 13; 4:13.
    to introduce an activity whose time is given when, while, during (Diod S 23, 12, 1 ἐν τοῖς τοιούτοις=in the case of this kind of behavior) ἐν τῇ προσευχῇ when (you) pray Mt 21:22. ἐν τῇ στάσει during the revolt Mk 15:7. ἐν τῇ διδαχῇ in the course of his teaching Mk 4:2; 12:38. If Lk 24:35 belongs here, the sense would be on the occasion of, when (but s. 5b). ἐν αὐτῷ in it (the preaching of the gospel) Eph 6:20. γρηγοροῦντες ἐν αὐτῇ (τῇ προσευχῇ) while you are watchful in it Col 4:2. Esp. w. the pres. inf. used substantively: ἐν τῷ σπείρειν while (he) sowed Mt 13:4; Mk 4:4; cp. 6:48 (s. 7 above and βασανίζω); ἐν τῷ καθεύδειν τοὺς ἀνθρώπους while people were asleep Mt 13:25; ἐν τῷ κατηγορεῖσθαι αὐτόν during the accusations against him 27:12. W. the aor. inf. the meaning is likewise when. Owing to the fundamental significance of the aor. the action is the focal point (s. Rob. 1073, opp. B-D-F §404) ἐν τῷ γενέσθαι τὴν φωνήν Lk 9:36. ἐν τῷ ἐπανελθεῖν αὐτόν 19:15. ἐν τῷ εἰσελθεῖν αὐτούς 9:34.—W. ἐν ᾦ while, as long as (Soph., Trach. 929; Cleanthes [IV/III B.C.] Stoic. I p. 135, 1 [Diog. L. 7, 171]; Demetr.: 722 Fgm. 1, 11 Jac.; Plut., Mor. 356c; Arrian, Anab. 6, 12, 1; Pamprepios of Panopolis [V A.D.] 1, 22 [ed. HGerstinger, SBWienAk 208/3, 1928]) Mk 2:19; Lk 5:34; 24:44 D; J 5:7.
    marker denoting kind and manner, esp. functioning as an auxiliary in periphrasis for adverbs (Kühner-G. I 466): ἐν δυνάμει w. power, powerfully Mk 9:1; Ro 1:4; Col 1:29; 2 Th 1:11; ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ justly Ac 17:31; Rv 19:11 (cp. Just., A II, 4, 3 and D. 16, 3; 19, 2 ἐν δίκῃ). ἐν χαρᾷ joyfully Ro 15:32. ἐν ἐκτενείᾳ earnestly Ac 26:7. ἐν σπουδῇ zealously Ro 12:8. ἐν χάριτι graciously Gal 1:6; 2 Th 2:16. ἐν (πάσῃ) παρρησίᾳ freely, openly J 7:4; 16:29; Phil 1:20. ἐν πάσῃ ἀσφαλείᾳ Ac 5:23. ἐν τάχει (PHib 47, 35 [256 B.C.] ἀπόστειλον ἐν τάχει) Lk 18:8; Ro 16:20; Rv 1:1; 22:6. ἐν μυστηρίῳ 1 Cor 2:7 (belongs prob. not to σοφία, but to λαλοῦμεν: in the form of a secret; cp. Polyb. 23, 3, 4; 26, 7, 5; Just., D. 63, 2 Μωυσῆς … ἐν παραβολῇ λέγων; 68, 6 εἰρήμενον … ἐν μυστηρίῳ; Diod S 17, 8, 5 ἐν δωρεαῖς λαβόντες=as gifts; 2 Macc 4:30 ἐν δωρεᾷ=as a gift; Sir 26:3; Polyb. 28, 17, 9 λαμβάνειν τι ἐν φερνῇ). Of the norm: ἐν μέτρῳ ἑνὸς ἑκάστου μέρους acc. to the measure of each individual part Eph 4:16. On 1 Cor 1:21 s. AWedderburn, ZNW 64, ’73, 132–34.
    marker of specification or substance: w. adj. πλούσιος ἐν ἐλέει Eph 2:4; cp. Tit 2:3; Js 1:8.—of substance consisting in (BGU 72, 11 [191 A.D.] ἐξέκοψαν πλεῖστον τόπον ἐν ἀρούραις πέντε) τὸν νόμον τῶν ἐντολῶν ἐν δόγμασιν Eph 2:15. ἐν μηδενὶ λειπόμενοι Js 1:4 (contrast Just., A I, 67, 6 τοῖς ἐν χρείᾳ οὖσι). Hb 13:21a.— amounting to (BGU 970, 14=Mitt-Wilck. II/2, 242, 14f [177 A.D.] προσηνενκάμην αὐτῷ προοῖκα ἐν δραχμαῖς ἐννακοσίαις) πᾶσαν τὴν συγγένειαν ἐν ψυχαῖς ἑβδομήκοντα πέντε Ac 7:14.—Very rarely for the genitive (Philo Mech. 75, 29 τὸ ἐν τῷ κυλίνδρῳ κοίλασμα; EpArist 31 ἡ ἐν αὐτοῖς θεωρία = ἡ αὐτῶν θ.; cp. 29; Tat. 18, 1 πᾶν τὸ ἐν αὐτῇ εἶδος) ἡ δωρεὰ ἐν χάριτι the free gift in beneficence or grace Ro 5:15.—DELG. LfgrE s.v. ἐν col. 569 (lit. esp. early Greek). M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἐν

  • 8 σάρξ, σαρκός

    + N 3 58-15-40-51-51=215 Gn 2,21.23(bis).24; 6,3
    flesh, meat (food for men) Dn 10,3 (stereotypical rendition of רשׂב); flesh (of the human body, distinguished from the spirit or life-giving breath) Gn 2,21; body Ex 30,32; male member, penis Ez 23,20; living being Gn 8,17; σάρκες portions of meat, meat Gn 40,19; body 2 Mc 9,9
    πᾶσα σάρξ everybody, all humankind Gn 6,12; εἰς σάρκα μίαν to one body (of a married couple) Gn 2,24; σὰρξ καὶ αἷμα flesh and blood, human being (in contrast to God) Sir 17,31; τῶν τῆς σαρκὸς παθῶν the weakness of the flesh 4 Mc 7,18; σὰρξ ἡμῶν ἐστιν he is our flesh, he is our relative Gn 37,27
    *Nm 16,22 θεὸς τῶν πνευμάτων καὶ πάσης σαρκός god of the spirits and of all flesh-רשׂב וכל הרוחת אלהי for MT הרוחת אלהי רשׂב לכל god of the spirits of all flesh, see also Nm 27,16; *Hos 9,12 σάρξ μου my flesh-רישׂב for MT ורישׂ/ב when I depart; *Mi 3,3 ὡς σάρκας like meat-ארשׁכ for MT רשׁכא as, like; *Ps 27(28),7 ἡ σάρξ μου my body-רישׂב? for MT ירישׁומ and with my song
    see κρέας, σῶμα, χρώς
    Cf. BARR 1961 35.37.159(n.1); HARL 1986a, 60-61. 105.106.130; LYS 1983 47-70; 1986 163-204;
    SCHARBERT 1972 121-124. 136; SPICQ 1982, 591-602; TOV 1976b, 543-544; →NIDNTT; TWNT

    Lust (λαγνεία) > σάρξ, σαρκός

  • 9 μαλακός

    μᾰλᾰκός, ή, όν,
    A soft:
    I of things subject to touch,

    εὐνή Il.9

    . 618;

    κώεα Od.3.38


    τάπης μαλακοῦ ἐρίοιο 4.124


    χιτών Il.2.42

    , PSI 4.364.5 (iii B.C.);

    πέπλοι Il.24.796

    ; νειὸς μ. fresh-ploughed fallow, 18.541; λειμῶνες μ. soft grassy meadows, Od.5.72, cf. Il.14.349;

    πόας ἄνθος Sapph.54


    τάπητες.. -ώτεροι ὕπνω Theoc.15.125

    ; of the skin or flesh,

    μ. παρειαί S.Ant. 783


    χρώς E.Med. 1403


    σώματα X.Mem.3.10.1

    ; πρόβατα μ. soft-fleeced, D.47.52; τόποι πεδινοὶ καὶ μ., opp. hard, rugged ground, Arist.HA 607a10; οἱ κρημνοὶ οἱ μ. ib. 615b31;

    μ. πέτρα SIG970.8

    (iii B.C.), PPetr.2p.6 (iii B.C.); μ. τέφρα a slow fire, Ph.Bel.89.36; so

    μ. πῦρ Androm.

    ap. Gal.13.26;

    μ. ἀνθρακιά Dsc.2.76

    ; ὕδωρ μ., of marsh water, A.Fr.192.8 (anap.), Pl.Ti. 59d (cf. μαλθακός); of soil, X.Oec.19.8, Pl.Criti. 111b. Adv., μαλακῶς ἐνεύδειν, εὑδέμεναι, to sleep softly, i.e. on soft bedding, Od. 3.350, 24.255;

    μαλακώτατα καθεύδειν X.Mem.2.1.24

    ; καθίζου μ. sit softly, i.e. on a cushion, Ar.Eq. 785;

    ὑποστορεῖτε μ. τῷ κυνί Eub.90

    , cf. 108; but ὡς μ. ἐσθίεις what dainty food you have! Thphr.Char.2.10.
    2 μαλακά (sc. σκεύη), τά, household utensils, Men.Per.Fr.3, Diph.19.
    II of things not subject to touch, gentle,

    θάνατος Od. 18.202


    ὕπνος Il.10.2


    κῶμα 14.359

    ; μ. ἔπεα soft, fair words, 1.582, 6.337;

    λόγοι Od.1.56


    ἐπαοιδαί Pi.P.3.51


    παρηγορίαι A.Ag.95


    αὖραι X.Oec.20.18

    ; μ. βλέμμα tender, youthful looks, Ar. Pl. 1022;

    μαλακὰ φρονέων ἐσλοῖς Pi.N.4.95

    ; μ. οἶνος mild, Arist.Pr. 873b34; μ. [φωνή] soft, Id.Aud. 803a8 ([comp] Comp.); of scent, faint, delicate, Thphr.HP6.7.4; of climate, mild, ib.6.8.1. Adv.

    μαλακῶς, αὐλεῖν Arist.Aud. 803a20


    ἐὰν τὰ σκληρὰ μ. λέγηται Id.Rh. 1408b9

    2 light, mild, -

    ώτεραι ζημίαι Th.3.45

    III of persons or modes of life, soft, mild, gentle, μαλακώτερος ἀμφαφάασθαι easier to handle, of a fallen hero, Il.22.373;

    ἐκ τῶν μ. χώρων μ. ἄνδρας γίνεσθαι Hdt.9.122

    ; -

    ώτερον ἐκ σκληροτέρου τὸ τῆς ψυχῆς ἦθος Pl.Lg. 666b


    ἀρνίου -ώτερος Philippid.29

    ; -

    ώτερον τὸ ἦθος τὸ τῶν θηλειῶν Arist.HA 608a25


    ἀρρένων καὶ μ. ἠθῶν καὶ πράξεων Phld.Mus.p.92

    2 in bad sense, soft,

    μ. ἐν τῇ ξυναγωγῇ τοῦ πολέμου Th.2.18


    μ. ἦν περὶ τοῦ μισθοῦ Id.8.29


    πρὸς τὸ πονεῖν X.Mem.1.2.2

    . Adv. -

    κῶς, ξυμμαχεῖν Th.6.78

    ; - ωτέρως ἀνθήπτετο attacked him somewhat feebly, Id.8.50;

    μ. φιλεῖν X.Mem.3.11.10

    b faint-hearted, cowardly, Th.6.13, X. HG4.5.16 ([comp] Comp.), etc.
    c morally weak, lacking in self-control, Hdt.7.153 ([comp] Comp.);

    ἀντίκειται τῷ μ. ὁ καρτερικός Arist.EN 1150a33

    : c. inf.,

    μαλακὸς καρτερεῖν πρὸς ἡδονάς τε καὶ λύπας Pl.R. 556c


    τὸ τρυφῶν καὶ μ. Ar.V. 1455

    (lyr.); μ. οὐδὲν ἐνδιδόναι not to give in from weakness or want of spirit, Hdt.3.51, 105, Ar.Pl. 488; τὰ μ. indulgences, Epich.288, cf. X.Cyr.7.2.28.
    d = παθητικός, PHib.1.54.11 (iii B.C.), 1 Ep.Cor.6.9, Vett.Val.113.22, D.L.7.173.
    e of music, soft, effeminate,

    μ. ἁρμονίαι Pl.R. 398e

    , 411a, cf. Arist.Pol. 1290a28; tuned to a low pitch, opp.

    σύντονος, χρῶμα μ. Cleonid.Harm.7

    , etc.
    g of reasoning, weak, loose,

    λόγος Isoc.12.4

    ([comp] Comp.), cf. 5.149 ([comp] Comp.);

    λόγος λίαν μ. Arist.Metaph. 1090b8

    . Adv. -κῶς, συλλογίζεσθαι to reason loosely, Id.Rh. 1396b1 ([comp] Comp.);

    ἀποδεικνύειν -ώτερον Id.Metaph. 1025b13

    3 weakly, sickly, - κῶς ἔχειν to be ill, Hermipp.58, Ps.-Hdt. Vit.Hom.34, Luc.DDeor.9.1; -

    κῶς διάκειται PCair.Zen.263.3

    (iii B.C.).
    IV Adv. - κῶς, v. supr. I, II, III.

    Greek-English dictionary (Αγγλικά Ελληνικά-λεξικό) > μαλακός

  • 10 βασιλεία

    βασιλεία, ας, ἡ (Heraclit. Fgm. 52; Hdt.+) a term relating to royal administration
    gener. kingship, royal power, royal rule (1 Km 15:28; 20:31; Sir 10:8; Jdth 1:1; Esth 3:6; 1 Macc 1:16 al. LXX; En 98:2; TestJob 33:9; Just., Tat., Ath.; οὐ βασιλείαν ἀλλὰ τυράνιδα Mel., P. 49, 354; Orig.) λαβεῖν ἑαυτῷ βασιλείαν obtain royal power (for oneself) Lk 19:12, 15; without dat. Rv 17:12 (cp. Jos., Ant. 13, 220); δοῦναί τινι τὴν β. vs. 17; ἔχειν β. ἐπί τινων vs. 18; ἐποίησεν ἡμᾶς βασιλείαν he gave us royal jurisdiction 1:6; cp. 5:10; royal rule Lk 1:33; 22:29; 23:42 v.l. (ἐν τῇ β. σου in your royal power); Ac 1:6; Hb 1:8 (Ps 44:7); 1 Cor 15:24 (παραδιδόναι as Diod S 1, 43, 6); B 4:4 (Da 7:24). Ps 95:10 (Justin, A I, 41, 4, D. 73: ὁ κύριος ἐβασίλευσεν ἀπὸ τ. ξύλου) is the basis for β. Ἰησοῦ ἐπὶ ξύλου the rule of Jesus on the cross B 8:5 (s. Windisch, Hdb. ad loc.).—Hb 11:33; 1 Cl 61:1.
    esp. of God’s rule the royal reign of God (usually rendered ‘kingdom of God’, and oft. understood as royal realm but with dilution of the primary component of reigning activity), a chiefly eschatological concept, beginning to appear in the prophets, elaborated in apocalyptic passages (Mi 4:7f; Ps 102:19; 144:11–13; Wsd 6:4; 10:10; Da 3:54; 4:3; cp. SibOr 3:47f.—Diod S 5, 71, 1 Zeus takes over the βασιλεία from Cronus; Sextus 311 κοινωνεῖ βασιλείας θεοῦ σοφὸς ἀνήρ) and taught by Jesus. The expressions vary; β. τοῦ θεοῦ and τῶν οὐρανῶν have essentially the same mng., since Israelites used οὐρανός (-οί) as well as other circumlocutions for θεός (cp. Mt 19:23f; s. Bousset, Rel.3 314f); the latter term may also emphasize the heavenly origin and nature of the reign.—Dalman, Worte 75–119; JWeiss, D. Predigt Jesu v. Reiche Gottes2 1900, 1–35; ESellin, D. isr.-jüd. Heilandserwartung 1909, D. alt. Prophetismus 1912, 136ff; BDuhm, D. kommende RG 1910; SMowinckel, Psalmenstudien II 1922, 146ff; LDürr, Ursprung u. Ausbau d. isr. Heilandserwartung 1925; Bousset, Rel3 1926, 213ff; AvGall, βασιλεία τ. θεοῦ 1926; JWissing, Het begrip van het Koningrijk Gods, diss., Leiden 1927; HGressmann, Der Messias 1929; MBuber, Königtum Gottes ’32; PVolz, D. Eschatologie der jüd. Gemeinde im ntl. Zeitalter ’34; Ltzm., D. Weltheiland 1909; TManson, The Teaching of Jesus ’55, 116–284; SAalen, NTS 8, ’61/62, 215–40 (‘house’ or ‘community’ of God); GLadd, JBL 81, ’62, 230–38 (‘realm’); FNötscher, Vom A. zum NT ’62, 226–30 (ethical).
    α. β. τῶν οὐρανῶν mostly in Mt: 3:2; 4:17; 5:3, 10, 19f al.; otherw. (Did., Gen. 52, 11; 60, 28) J 3:5 v.l.; AcPl Ha 8, 31.
    β. β. τοῦ θεοῦ (cp. Orig., C. Cels. 3, 40, 21) Mt 6:33; 12:28; 21:31, 43; Mk 1:15; 4:11, 26, 30 al.; Lk 4:43; 6:20; 7:28; 8:1 al.; Ac 1:3; 8:12; 14:22; 19:8; 28:23, 31; J 3:3, 5; Ro 14:17 (defined as δικαιοσύνη, εἰρήνη, χαρά); 1 Cor 4:20 al.; Ox 1 verso, 7f; Dg 9:1; B 21:1; Pol 2:3; β. θεοῦ 1 Cor 6:10, cp. 9; 15:50; Gal 5:21; Pol 5:3; β. τοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ θεοῦ Eph 5:5; τοῦ Χριστοῦ 1 Cl 50:3.
    γ. β. τοῦ πατρός Mt 13:43; 26:29.
    δ. β. αὐτοῦ (=τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου) Mt 13:41; Lk 24:26 v.l.; cp. Col 1:13.
    ε. β. τοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν Δαυίδ Mk 11:10, since the Davidic kgdm. is to be reestablished under the Son of David, the Messiah (cp. Is 9:5f; Jer 23:5f).
    ζ. ἡ β. τοῦ κυρίου B 4:13; ἡ β. αὐτοῦ (=κυρίου) ἡ ἐπουράνιος 2 Ti 4:18; EpilMosq 5; ἡ οὐράνιος β. MPol 22:3; ἡ ἐν οὐρανῷ β. Dg 10:2.
    η. αἰώνιος β. τοῦ κυρίου (cp. Da 4:3; Just.; CIG II, 2715a, 3 ἐπὶ τῆς τῶν κυρίων Ῥωμαίων αἰωνίου ἀρχῆς, Dssm., B 277f) 2 Pt 1:11; cp. MPol 20:2.—The greatest blessings conceivable are found in the β. Mt 13:44f. The foll. expr. refer to obtaining it = participate in its benefits: ἅψασθαι τῆς β. B 7:11; δέχεσθαι Mk 10:15; διδόναι Lk 12:32; εἰσέρχεσθαι εἰς τὴν β. Mt 5:20; 7:21; 18:3; 19:23; Mk 10:23ff; Lk 24:26 P75 (first hand); J 3:5; Ac 14:22; Hs 9, 12, 3f (HWindisch, D. Sprüche v. Eingehen in d. Reich Gs: ZNW 27, 1928, 163–92); εἰσήκειν εἰς τὴν β. 2 Cl 11:7; ἔρχεσθαι εἰς τὴν β. 9:6; ἑτοιμάζειν Mt 25:34; εὔθετον εἶναι τῇ β. Lk 9:62; εὑρεθῆναι εἰς τὴν β. Hs 9, 13, 2; ζητεῖν Mt 6:33; Lk 12:31; καταξιοῦσθαι τῆς β. 2 Th 1:5; κατοικεῖν ἐν τῇ β. Hs 9, 29, 2; κληρονομεῖν Mt 25:34; 1 Cor 6:9f; 15:50; IPhld 3:3; cp. κληρονόμος τῆς β. Js 2:5; μαθητεύεσθαι τῇ β. Mt 13:52; μεθιστάναι εἰς τὴν β. Col 1:13; φθάνει ἡ β. ἐπί τινα Lk 11:20. The phrase ὁρᾶν τὴν β. see the kgdm.=‘realize the fulfillment of God’s promises to Israel’ occurs Mk 9:1; Lk 9:27; J 3:3; Hs 9, 15, 3. The mysteries of the kgdm. can be revealed to those for whom they are intended Mt 13:11; Mk 4:11; διαγγέλλειν Lk 9:60; διαμαρτυρεῖσθαι Ac 28:23; κηρύσσειν καὶ εὐαγγελίζεσθαι Lk 8:1; sim. 16:16; cp. κηρύσσειν τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τῆς β. Mt 4:23; 9:35; 24:14; κηρύσσειν τὴν β. Lk 9:2; Ac 28:31; λαλεῖν περὶ τῆς β. Lk 9:11. Keep fr. entering: κλείειν Mt 23:13; cp. κλεῖδες τῆς β. 16:19 (s. κλεῖς 1); αἴρειν ἀπό τινος 21:43.—Spoken of as present Mt 12:28; Lk 11:20, perh. also 17:20f (see s.v. ἐντός). Viewed as future, but close at hand ἤγγικεν ἡ β. Mt 3:2; 10:7; Mk 1:15; Lk 10:9, 11; perh. Mk 1:15; ἐγγύς ἐστιν Lk 21:31; ἔρχεται Mt 6:10; Mk 11:10; Lk 11:2; 17:20; μέλλει ἀναφαίνεσθαι 19:11; προσδέχεσθαι τὴν β. Mk 15:43; ἐκδέχεσθαι τὴν β. 2 Cl 12:1; μέλλει ἔρχεσθαι 1 Cl 42:3; ἡ μέλλουσα β. 2 Cl 5:5; ἥξει ἡ β. 12:2. Conceived of as a banquet (Billerb. IV 1154ff): ἀνακλιθῆναι ἐν τῇ β. Mt 8:11; sim. 26:29; Mk 14:25; Lk 13:28f; 22:16, 18, 30; cp. the parables 14:15ff; Mt 22:2ff. Participants in it are called υἱοὶ τῆς β. Mt 8:12 (of mere external connection); 13:38. Prerequisite for participation is μετάνοια Mt 4:17; Mk 1:15; the willingness to become like children Mt 18:3f; 19:14; Mk 10:14f; Lk 18:16f. Only uprightness will inherit the β. Mt 5:20. Degrees and grades 5:19; 18:1, 4. The prosperous have difficulty entering 19:23f; Mk 10:23–25; Lk 18:24f (cp. vs. 29), those who persist in sin have no prospects at all Mt 13:24ff, 36ff, 47ff.—Paul thinks of the β. as someth. that effects changes in pers. resulting in righteousness, peace (w. God) and joy Ro 14:17. It manifests itself in deeds, not in words 1 Cor 4:20. Those committed to sin will not inherit it 6:9f; Gal 5:21; Eph 5:5 (cp. 2 Cl 9:6); the latter passages show that for Paul the kgdm. is essentially future, since Christians await the complete victory of the spirit over the flesh. Cp. also 2 Ti 4:1. Flesh and blood will not inherit it, i.e. bodies under the direction of the spirit of Christ are required for entrance 1 Cor 15:50 (JJeremias, NTS 2, ’56, 151–59). None other than God calls people into it 1 Th 2:12.—HJWesterink, Het Koninkrijk Gods bij Pls ’37.—The most important lit. to 1931 in PFeine, Theol. d. NTs7 ’36, 73. Additional lit.: GGloege, Reich Gs u. Kirche im NT 1929; RFrick, D. Gesch. des R.-Gs-Gedankens in d. alten Kirche 1929; EScott, The Kgdm. of God in the NT ’31; H-DWendland, Reichsidee u. Gottesreich ’34; ROtto, Reich Gottes u. Menschensohn ’34 (Eng. tr., The Kgdm. of God and the Son of Man, tr. Filson and Woolf, ’43 and ’51); TW I 562–95; WKümmel, D. Eschatologie der Evangelien ’36, Verheissg. u. Erfüllg. ’45 and ’53; JHéring, Le Royaume de Dieu et sa Venue (Jesus, Paul) ’38 and ’59; JTheissing, D. Lehre Jesu v. d. ew. Seligkeit ’40; FGrant, The Gospel of the Kgdm. ’40; JWellhagen, Anden och Riket ’41 (Lk); WMichaelis, D. Herr verzieht nicht d. Verheissung ’42; RLiechtenhan, D. Kommen des RGs nach dem NT ’44; GKnight, From Moses to Paul, ’49, 173–87; WArndt, CTM 21, ’50, 8–29; JBright, The Kgdm. of God: The Biblical Concept and Its Mng. for the Church ’53; RSchnackenburg, Gottes Herrschaft u. Reich,4 ’65, tr. JMurray,2 ’68; ELadd, Jesus and the Kgdm., ’64; NPerrin, The Kgdm. of God in the Teaching of Jesus, ’66; MWolter, NTS 41, ’95, 541–63 [Lk].—OT background: WSchmidt, Königtum Gottes in Ugarit u. Israel, ’61; KBernhardt, D. Problem der altorientalischen Königs-Ideologie im AT, VetusT Suppl. 8, ’61.—Patristics: GLampe, JTS 49, ’48, 58–73.
    territory ruled by a king, kingdom (Diod S 4, 68, 4; Appian, Mithrid. 105 §496 ἡ βας. ὅλη=the whole kingdom; OGI 383, 25 [I B.C.]; Ps 67:33; 134:11; Bar 2:4; Tob 1:21; 1 Macc 1:6; 3:27; 2 Macc 9:25; 3 Macc 6:24 al. LXX) Mt 12:25f; 24:7; Mk 3:24; 6:23 (Socrat., Ep. 1, 10 τ. βασιλείας μέρος διδόναι); 13:8; Lk 11:17f; 21:10; αἱ β. τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου IRo 6:1. In the account of the temptation Mt 4:8; Lk 4:5 (in a manner very different from Jesus, Alexander [Diod S 17, 51, 2] asks his father, Zeus Ammon, for τὴν ἁπάσης τῆς γῆς ἀρχήν and finds a hearing).—EDNT. DELG s.v. βασιλεύς. M-M. TW. Spicq. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > βασιλεία

  • 11 γεννάω

    γεννάω fut. γεννήσω; 1 aor. ἐγέννησα; pf. γεγέννηκα. Pass.: fut. pl. γεννηθήσεσθε Sir 41:9; 1 aor. ἐγεννήθην; pf. γεγέννημαι (Pind., Hdt.+).—See ARahlfs, Genesis 1926, 39. Gener., to cause someth. to come into existence, primarily through procreation or parturition.
    become the parent of, beget
    by procreation (oft. LXX, fr. Gen 4:18 on) Mt 1:2–20 (cp. Diod S 4, 67, 2–68, 6, the genealogy of the Aeolians: 67, 4 Ἄρνη ἐγέννησεν Αἰόλον κ. Βοιωτόν; 67, 7 Ἱππάλκιμος ἐγέννησε Πηνέλεων; 68:1 Σαλμωνεὺς ἐγέννησε θυγατέρα … Τυρώ; 68, 3 Ποσειδῶν ἐγέννησε Πελίαν κ. Νηλέα; 68, 6 Νηλεὺς παῖδας ἐγέννησε δώδεκα. Interchanged with ἐγέννησε are ἐτέκνωσε, ἦν υἱός, παῖδες ἐγένοντο, etc.; cp. PMich 155, 7. The continuity is not formalized to the degree in Mt, but in Diod S 4, 69, 1–3 ἐγέννησε is repeated six times in a short space, and 4, 75, 4f ἐγέννησε occurs four times with the names of fathers and sons; Did., Gen. 144, 27); Ac 7:8, 29. ἐκ w. gen. of the mother (Hdt. 1, 108, 2; Diod S 4, 2, 1; 4, 62, 1; Palaeph. 44; PLond V, 1730, 10 οἱ ἐξ αὐτῆς γεννηθέντες υἱοί; Tob 1:9; 2 Esdr 10:44; Demetr.: 722 Fgm. 2, 2 Jac.; TestJob 1:6; Jos, Ant. 12, 189) Mt 1:3, 5f.—Pass. be fathered (Orig., C. Cels. 8, 66, 23) ἐκ τῆς παιδίσκης κατὰ σάρκα w. the slave-woman, according to the flesh (i.e. in line with human devising; opp. διʼ ἐπαγγελίας) Gal 4:23. ὁ κατὰ σάρκα γεννηθείς he that was fathered by human design, opp. ὁ κατὰ πνεῦμα he that was fathered by the Spirit’s design, i.e. in keeping with the divine promise, vs. 23) vs. 29. τὸ ἐν αὐτῇ γεννηθὲν ἐκ πνεύματός ἐστιν that which is conceived in her is of the Spirit Mt 1:20 (τὸ γεννηθέν of that which is yet unborn: Diod S 17, 77, 3). Here the male principle is introduced by ἐκ (Lucian, Dial. Deor. 20, 14 ἐκ κύκνου γεγεννημένη; Phlegon: 257 Fgm. 36, 2, 4 Jac.; Ps-Callisth. 1, 30, 3 ἐξ Ἄμμωνος ἐγεννήθη; TestSim 2:2) as J 1:13 (ἐγενήθ. P75et al.); but in 3:6 the imagery is complex, involving a maternal aspect in vs. 4. W. ἀπό (En 15:8 οἱ γίγαντες οἱ γεννηθέντες ἀπὸ τ. πνευμάτων κ. σαρκός) ἀφʼ ἑνὸς ἐγεννήθησαν they were fathered by one man Hb 11:12 (numerous edd. ἐγενήθησαν). ἐκ πορνείας οὐ γεγεννήμεθα (v.l. ἐγεννήθημεν) J 8:41 (cp. StudPal XX, 4, 30 ἐξ ἀγράφων γάμων γεγεννῆσθαι). ἐν ἁμαρτίαις σὺ ἐγεννήθης ὅλος you’re a born sinner, totally! 9:34.—Lk 1:35 (where mng. 2 is also prob. [as in τὸ γεννώμενον Philo, Plant. 15]. S. AFridrichsen, SymbOsl 6, 1928, 33–36; HAlmqvist, Plut. u. d. NT ’46, 60f).
    by exercising the role of a parental figure, ext. of 1a (Philo, Leg. ad Gai. 58 μᾶλλον αὐτὸν τῶν γονέων γεγέννηκα), of a teacher on pupils ἐν Χ. Ἰ. διὰ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου ὑμᾶς ἐγέννησα I became your father as Christians through the gospel 1 Cor 4:15; Phlm 10 (s. Ltzm. and JWeiss on 1 Cor 4:15; ADieterich, Mithraslit. 1903, 146ff).—Pass. ἐκ (τοῦ) θεοῦ γεννᾶσθαι J 1:13 (on the rdg. of the Lat. ms. b, s. JPryor, NovT 27, ’85, 296–318); 1J 2:29; 3:9; 4:7; 5:1, 4, 18. On γεννᾶσθαι ἐξ ὕδατος κ. πνεύματος J 3:5 cp. 1QS 4:20–22 and s. YYadin, JBL 74, ’55, 40–43. Also ἄνωθεν γ. J 3:3, 7. πᾶς ὁ ἀγαπῶν τὸν γεννήσαντα ἀγαπᾷ τὸν γεγεννημένον ἐξ αὐτοῦ everyone who loves the father (=God) loves the child (=Christ or one’s fellow Christian) 1J 5:1 (on γεννᾶσθαι ἐκ θεοῦ s. Hdb. on J 3:3 and 1J 3:9 and the sources and lit. listed there; s. also παλιγγενεσία). Cp. σήμερον γεγέννηκά σε (Ps 2:7) 1 Cl 36:4; GEb 18, 37; Ac 13:33 (held by some to have been the orig. rdg. Lk 3:22 v.l.; s. JHillmann, Die Kindheitsgesch. Jesu nach Lucas: Jahrbücher f. Protestantische Theologie 17/2, 1891, 192–261; HUsener, D. Weihnachtsfest2 1911, 38ff); Hb 1:5; 5:5.
    to give birth to, bear (Aeschyl., Suppl. 48; X., De Rep. Lac. 1, 3; Lucian, Sacrif. 6; Plut., Mor., 3c; Ps.-Callisth. 1, 9, 2 ἐκ θεοῦ γεννήσασα παῖδα=a woman who has borne a child to a god; BGU 132 II, 5; Judg 11:1 B; Is 66:9; 4 Macc 10:2) Lk 1:13, 57; 23:29; J 16:21 w. τίκτειν; AcPl Ha 8, 28 εἰς δουλείαν γεννῶσα who bears children for slavery Gal 4:24. Pass. be born (ἐκ παρθένου Did., Gen. 96, 13) ἐγεννήθη Μωϋσῆς Ac 7:20; cp. Hb 11:23. γεγεννημένος ἐν Ταρσῷ Ac 22:3; μήπω … γεννηθέντων Ro 9:11; πρὶν ἡμᾶς γεννηθῆναι before we were born 1 Cl 38:3. εἰς τὸν κόσμον come into the world J 16:21; Mt 2:1, 4; 19:12; 26:24 (=1 Cl 46:8); Mk 14:21 (cp. En 38:2); Lk 1:35 (1a is also prob.; a v.l. adds ἐκ σοῦ, which can be rendered ‘the child to whom you give birth’). ἐκ Μαρίας ἐγεννήθη AcPlCor 1:14; 2:5 (cp. Mt 1:16); J 3:4; 9:2, 19f, 32; IEph 18:2; ITr 11:2; ἀληθῶς γ. be in fact born (in opp. to Docetism) 9:1. γεγεννημένα (v.l. γεγενημένα) εἰς ἅλωσιν 2 Pt 2:12. εἰς τοῦτο for this purpose J 18:37. διάλεκτος ἐν ᾑ ἐγεννήθημεν the language in which we were born i.e., which we have spoken fr. infancy Ac 2:8. ἐγὼ δὲ καὶ γεγέννημαι but I was actually born a Roman citizen 22:28. οὗτος ἐγεννήθη βασιλεύς born a king GJs 20:4 codd. γεννῶνται και γεννῶσιν Lk 20:34 v.l.
    to cause someth. to happen, bring forth, produce, cause, fig. of various kinds of production (Pla. et al.; Polyb. 1, 67, 2 στάσις ἐγεννᾶτο; Philo, De Jos. 254; Jos., Ant. 6, 144) 2 Ti 2:23.—γ. καρπόν produce fruit (Philo, Op. M. 113) ITr 11:1. Forged writing γεγεννημένον for γεγενημένον GJs 24:3.—B. 280. DELG s.v. γίγνομαι p. 222. M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > γεννάω

  • 12 διά

    διά prep. w. gen. and acc. (Hom.+) (for lit. s. ἀνά, beg.); the fundamental idea that finds expression in this prep. is separation, esp. in the gen., with the gener. sense ‘through’; in the acc. the gener. sense also is ‘through’ (cp. the semantic range in Eng.), but primarily with a causal focus ‘owing to’.
    A. w. gen.
    marker of extension through an area or object, via, through
    w. verbs of going διέρχεσθαι διὰ πάντων (sc. τόπων, EpArist 132) go through all the places Ac 9:32; cp. Mt 12:43; Lk 11:24. ἀπελεύσομαι διʼ ὑμῶν εἰς I will go through your city on the way to Ro 15:28; cp. 2 Cor. 1:16. διαβαίνειν Hb 11:29. διαπορεύεσθαι διὰ σπορίμων Lk 6:1. εἰσέρχεσθαι διὰ τῆς πύλης (Jos., Ant. 13, 229) Mt 7:13a; τ. θύρας J 10:1f; cp. vs. 9. παρέρχεσθαι διὰ τ. ὁδοῦ pass by along the road Mt 8:28; cp. 7:13b. παραπορεύεσθαι Mk 2:23; 9:30. περιπατεῖν διὰ τοῦ φωτός walk about through or in the light Rv 21:24. ὑποστρέφειν διὰ Μακεδονίας return through M. Ac 20:3.—Ἰης. ὁ ἐλθὼν διʼ ὕδατος καὶ αἵματος 1J 5:6 first of all refers quite literally to Jesus’ passing through water at the hand of John and through blood at his death (on the expression ‘come through blood’ in this sense cp. Eur., Phoen. 20 in Alex. Aphr., Fat. 31 II 2 p. 202, 10, of the oracle to Laius the father of Oedipus, concerning the bloody downfall of his house: πᾶς σὸς οἶκος βήσεται διʼ αἵματος). But mng. 3c may also apply: Jesus comes with the water of baptism and with the blood of redemption for his own.—AKlöpper, 1J 5:6–12: ZWT 43, 1900, 378–400.—The ῥῆμα ἐκπορευόμενον διὰ στόματος θεοῦ Mt 4:4 (Dt 8:3) is simply the word that proceeds out of the mouth of God (cp. Theognis 1, 18 Diehl3 τοῦτʼ ἔπος ἀθανάτων ἦλθε διὰ στομάτων; Pittacus in Diog. L. 1, 78 διὰ στόματος λαλεῖ; Chrysippus argues in Diog. L. 7, 187: εἴ τι λαλεῖς, τοῦτο διὰ τοῦ στόματός σου διέρχεται, i.e. if one e.g. says the word ἅμαξα, a wagon passes through the person’s lips; TestIss 7:4 ψεῦδος οὐκ ἀνῆλθε διὰ τ. χειλέων μου. Cp. also δέχεσθαι διὰ τῶν χειρῶν τινος Gen 33:10 beside δέχ. ἐκ τ. χειρ. τινος Ex 32:4).
    w. other verbs that include motion: οὗ ὁ ἔπαινος διὰ πασῶν τ. ἐκκλησιῶν (sc. ἀγγέλλεται) throughout all the congregations 2 Cor 8:18. διαφέρεσθαι διʼ (v.l. καθʼ) ὅλης τῆς χώρας be spread through the whole region Ac 13:49. διὰ τ. κεράμων καθῆκαν αὐτόν they let him down through the tile roof Lk 5:19. διὰ τοῦ τείχους καθῆκαν through an opening in the wall (Jos., Ant. 5, 15) Ac 9:25; cp. 2 Cor 11:33. (σωθήσεται) ὡς διὰ πυρός as if he had come through fire 1 Cor 3:15. διασῴζεσθαι διʼ ὕδατος be brought safely through the water 1 Pt 3:20.—διʼ ὅλου J 19:23 s. ὅλος 2.
    of a whole period of time, to its very end throughout, through, during διὰ παντός (sc. χρόνου. Edd. gener. write διὰ παντός, but Tdf. writes διαπαντός exc. Mt 18:10) always, continually, constantly (Hdt. 1, 122, 3; Thu. 1, 38, 1; Vett. Val. 220, 1; 16; PLond I, 42, 6 [172 B.C.] p. 30; BGU 1078, 2; PGM 7, 235; LXX; GrBar 10:7; EpArist index; Jos., Ant. 3, 281; SibOr Fgm. 1, 17; Just., D. 6, 2; 12, 3 al.) Mt 18:10; Mk 5:5; Lk 24:53; Ac 2:25 (Ps 15:8); 10:2; 24:16; Ro 11:10 (Ps 68:24); 2 Th 3:16; Hb 9:6; 13:15; Hm 5, 2, 3; Hs 9, 27, 3. διὰ νυκτός during the night, overnight (νύξ 1b) Ac 23:31. διʼ ὅλης νυκτός the whole night through Lk 5:5; J 21:6 v.l. (X., An. 4, 2, 4; Diod S 3, 12, 3 διʼ ὅλης τῆς νυκτός; PGM 4, 3151; Jos., Ant. 6, 37; cp. διʼ ἡμέρας all through the day: IPriene 112, 61 and 99; 1 Macc 12:27; 4 Macc 3:7). διʼ ἡμερῶν τεσσεράκοντα Ac 1:3 means either for forty days (Philo, Vi. Cont. 35 διʼ ἓξ ἡμερῶν. So AFridrichsen, ThBl 6, 1927, 337–41; MEnslin, JBL 47, 1928, 60–73) or (s. b below) now and then in the course of 40 days (B-D-F §223, 1; Rob. 581; WMichaelis, ThBl 4, 1925, 102f; Bruce, Acts). διὰ παντὸς τοῦ ζῆν throughout the lifetime Hb 2:15 (cp. διὰ παντὸς τοῦ βίου: X., Mem. 1, 2, 61; Pla., Phileb. 39e; Dionys. Hal. 2, 21; διʼ ὅλου τοῦ ζῆν EpArist 130; 141; 168).
    of a period of time within which someth. occurs during, at (PTebt 48, 10) διὰ (τῆς) νυκτός at night, during the night (Palaeph. 1, 10; PRyl 138, 15 κατέλαβα τοῦτον διὰ νυκτός; Jos., Bell. 1, 229. S. νύξ 1b end) Ac 5:19; 16:9; 17:10. διὰ τῆς ἡμέρας during the day Lk 9:37 D (Antig. Car. 128 διὰ πέμπτης ἡμέρας=on the fifth day). διὰ τριῶν ἡμερῶν within three days Mt 26:61; Mk 14:58.
    of an interval of time, after (Hdt. 6, 118, 3 διʼ ἐτέων εἴκοσι; Thu. 2, 94, 3; X., Mem. 2, 8, 1; Diod S 5, 28, 6 of transmigration of souls: διʼ ἐτῶν ὡρισμένων [=after the passing of a certain number of years] πάλιν βιοῦν; OGI 56, 38; 4 Macc 13:21; Jos., Ant. 4, 209): διʼ ἐτῶν πλειόνων after several years Ac 24:17. διὰ δεκατεσσάρων (s. under δέκα) ἐτῶν after 14 years Gal 2:1. διʼ ἡμερῶν several days afterward Mk 2:1. διὰ ἱκανοῦ χρόνου after (quite) some time Ac 11:2 D (X., Cyr. 1, 4, 28 διὰ χρόνου).
    marker of instrumentality or circumstance whereby someth. is accomplished or effected, by, via, through
    of means or instrument γράφειν διά χάρτου καὶ μέλανος write w. paper and ink 2J 12; cp. 3J 13 (Plut., Sol. 87 [17, 3]). διὰ πυρὸς δοκιμάζειν test by fire 1 Pt 1:7. διὰ χρημάτων κτᾶσθαι Ac 8:20. Hebraistically in expr. denoting activity διὰ χειρῶν τινος (LXX) Mk 6:2; Ac 5:12; 14:3; 19:11, 26. Differently γράφειν διὰ χειρός τινος write through the agency of someone 15:23; cp. 11:30. εἰπεῖν διὰ στόματός τινος by the mouth of someone (where the usage discussed in A1a is influential) 1:16; 3:18, 21; 4:25. εὔσημον λόγον διδόναι διὰ τῆς γλώσσης utter intelligible speech with the tongue 1 Cor 14:9. διὰ τοῦ νοὸς λαλεῖν speak, using one’s reason (=consciously; opp., ecstatic speech) vs. 19 v.l. Of the work of Christ: περιποιεῖσθαι διὰ τοῦ αἵματος obtain through his blood Ac 20:28; cp. Eph 1:7; Col 1:20. Also διὰ τοῦ θανάτου Ro 5:10; Col 1:22; Hb 2:14; διὰ τοῦ σώματος Ro 7:4; διὰ τῆς ἰδίας σαρκός AcPlCor 2:6; cp. 2:15; διὰ τοῦ σταυροῦ Eph 2:16; διὰ τῆς θυσίας Hb 9:26; διὰ τῆς προσφορᾶς τοῦ σώματος Ἰησοῦ through the offering of the body of Jesus 10:10; διὰ παθημάτων 2:10.
    of manner, esp. w. verbs of saying: ἀπαγγέλλειν διὰ λόγου by word of mouth Ac 15:27; cp. 2 Th 2:15. διʼ ἐπιστολῶν by letter (POxy 1066, 9; 1070, 14f πολλάκις σοι γράψας διὰ ἐπιστολῶν πολλῶν; Tat. 12:3 δια γραφῆς in writing) 1 Cor 16:3; 2 Cor 10:11; cp. 2 Th 2:2, 15. διὰ λόγου πολλοῦ w. many words Ac 15:32. διʼ ὁράματος εἰπεῖν in a vision 18:9. διὰ παραβολῆς in an illustrative way, in a parable Lk 8:4. διὰ προσευχῆς καὶ δεήσεως προσεύχεσθαι call on (God) w. prayer and supplication Eph 6:18. διὰ βραχέων ἐπιστέλλειν write briefly Hb 13:22 (cp. 1 Pt 5:12 P72; Isocr. 14, 3; Lucian, Tox. 56; EpArist 128; Ath. 17:1 σκέψασθε … διὰ βρ.). Also διʼ ὀλίγων γράφειν 1 Pt 5:12 (Pla., Phileb. 31d; UPZ 42, 9 [162 B.C.]; 2 Macc 6:17).
    of attendant or prevailing circumstance (Kühner-G. I 482f; X., Cyr. 4, 6, 6 διὰ πένθους τὸ γῆρας διάγων; Just., D. 105, 2 διʼ οὗ πάθους ἔμελλενἀποθνῄσκειν; PTebt 35, 9 [111 B.C.] διὰ τῆς γνώμης τινός=with someone’s consent; Jos., Bell. 4, 105) σὲ τὸν διὰ γράμματος καὶ περιτομῆς παραβάτην νόμου you who, (though provided) with the written code and circumcision, are a transgressor/violator of the law Ro 2:27. διʼ ὑπομονῆς 8:25. διὰ προσκόμματος eat with offense (to the scruples of another) 14:20. διʼ ἀκροβυστίας in a state of being uncircumcised 4:11. διὰ πολλῶν δακρύων with many tears 2 Cor 2:4. Cp. 6:7. διὰ τῆς ἐπιγνώσεως 2 Pt 1:3 ( through recognition [of God as source of the gifts], s. Danker, Benefactor 457). διὰ πυρός in fiery form AcPlCor 2:13.—Here prob. belongs σωθήσεται διὰ τῆς τεκνογονίας 1 Ti 2:15 (opp. of the negative theme in Gen. 3:16), but s. d next. On 1J 5:6 s. A1a above.
    of efficient cause via, through διὰ νόμου ἐπίγνωσις ἁμαρτίας ( only) recognition of sin comes via the law Ro 3:20; cp. 4:13. τὰ παθήματα τὰ διὰ τοῦ νόμου passions aroused via the law 7:5. διὰ νόμου πίστεως by the law of faith 3:27; Gal 2:19. ἀφορμὴν λαμβάνειν διὰ τῆς ἐντολῆς Ro 7:8, 11; cp. 13. διὰ τ. εὐαγγελίου ὑμᾶς ἐγέννησα (spiritual parenthood) 1 Cor 4:15. Perh. 1 Ti 2:15 but s. c, above. διὰ τῆς σοφίας with its wisdom 1 Cor 1:21; opp. διὰ τῆς μωρίας τοῦ κηρύγματος through the folly of proclamation = foolish proclamation ibid. διὰ τῆς Λευιτικῆς ἱερωσύνης Hb 7:11. Freq. διὰ (τῆς) πίστεως Ro 1:12; 3:22, 25, 30f; Gal 2:16; 3:14, 26; Eph 2:8; 3:12, 17 al. Cp. AcPl Cor 2:8. πίστις διʼ ἀγάπης ἐνεργουμένη faith which works through (=expresses itself in) deeds of love Gal 5:6. διὰ θελήματος θεοῦ if God is willing Ro 15:32; by the will of God 1 Cor 1:1; 2 Cor 1:1; 8:5; Eph 1:1; Col 1:1; 2 Ti 1:1.
    of occasion διὰ τῆς χάριτος by virtue of the grace Ro 12:3; Gal 1:15 (Just., D. 100, 2).—3:18; 4:23; Phlm 22. διὰ δόξης καὶ ἀρετῆς in consequence of his glory and excellence 2 Pt 1:3 v.l.
    in wording of urgent requests διὰ τῶν οἰκτιρμῶν τοῦ θεοῦ by the mercy of God Ro 12:1; cp. 15:30; 1 Cor 1:10; 2 Cor 10:1.
    marker of pers. agency, through, by
    with focus on agency through ( the agency of), by (X., An. 2, 3, 17 διʼ ἑρμηνέως λέγειν; Menand., Fgm. 210, 1 οὐθεὶς διʼ ἀνθρώπου θεὸς σῴζει … ἑτέρου τόν ἕτερον; Achilles Tat. 7, 1, 3 διʼ ἐκείνου μαθεῖν; Just., D. 75, 4 διὰ παρθένου γεννηθῆναι; PMert 5, 8 γεομετρηθῆναι διʼ αὐτοῦ) ῥηθὲν διὰ τοῦ προφήτου Mt 1:22; 2:15, 23; 4:14 al. (cp. Just., A I, 47, 5 διὰ Ἠσαίου τοῦ πρ.). γεγραμμένα διὰ τῶν προφητῶν Lk 18:31; cp. Ac 2:22; 10:36; 15:12 al. διʼ ἀνθρώπου by human agency Gal 1:1. διὰ Μωϋσέως through Moses (Jos., Ant. 7, 338; Mel., P. 11, 77 διὰ χειρὸς Μωυσέως) J 1:17; under Moses’ leadership Hb 3:16. διʼ ἀγγέλων by means of divine messengers (TestJob 18:5 διὰ τοῦ ἀγγέλου; cp. Jos., Ant. 15, 136, but s. n. by RMarcus, Loeb ed., ad loc.) Gal 3:19; Hb 2:2. πέμψας διὰ τ. μαθητῶν εἶπεν sent and said through his disciples Mt 11:2f. Cp. the short ending of Mk. γράφειν διά τινος of the bearer IRo 10:1; IPhld 11:2; ISm 12:1, but also of pers. who had a greater or smaller part in drawing up some document (Dionys. of Cor. in Eus., HE 4, 23, 11) 1 Pt 5:12 (on the practice s. ERichards, The Secretary in the Letters of Paul ’91). In this case διά comes close to the mng. represented by (LWenger, D. Stellvertretung im Rechte d. Pap. 1906, 9ff; Dssm., LO 98 [LAE 123f]). So also κρίνει ὁ θεὸς διὰ Χρ. Ἰ. God judges, represented by Christ Jesus Ro 2:16. Christ as intermediary in the creation of the world J 1:3, 10; 1 Cor 8:6; Col 1:16.—εὐχαριστεῖν τ. θεῷ διὰ Ἰ. Χρ. thank God through Jesus Christ Ro 1:8; 7:25; Col 3:17.—Occasionally the mediation becomes actual presence (references for this usage in BKeil, Anonymus Argentinensis 1902, p. 192, 1; 306 note) διὰ πολλῶν μαρτύρων in the presence of many witnesses 2 Ti 2:2 (Simplicius in Epict. p. 114, 31 διὰ θεοῦ μέσου=in the presence of God as mediator; Philo, Leg. ad Gai. 187 τὸ διὰ μαρτύρων κλαίειν=weeping in the presence of witnesses).
    with focus on the originator of an action (Hom. et al.; pap, LXX, EpArist)
    α. of human activity (PSI 354, 6 [254 B.C.] τὸν χόρτον τὸν συνηγμένον διʼ ἡμῶν=by us; 500, 5; 527, 12; 1 Esdr 6:13; 2 Macc 6:21; 4 Macc 1:11) 2 Cor 1:11 (where διὰ πολλῶν resumes ἐκ πολλῶν προσώπων). ᾧ παρέλαβε κανόνι διὰ τῶν μακαρίων προφήτων καὶ τοῦ ἁγίου εὐαγγελίου AcPlCor 2:36.
    β. of divine activity:—of God (Aeschyl., Ag. 1485; Pla., Symp. 186e ἡ ἰατρικὴ πᾶσα διὰ τ. θεοῦ τούτου [Asclepius] κυβερνᾶται; Ael. Aristid., Sarap. [Or. 8 Dind.=45 Keil] 14 K. πάντα γὰρ πανταχοῦ διὰ σοῦ τε καὶ διὰ σὲ ἡμῖν γίγνεται; Zosimus in CALG p. 143 and a magic ring in introd. 133; EpArist 313) 1 Cor 1:9 διʼ οὗ ἐκλήθητε (v.l. ὑπό s. καλέω 4); Ro 11:36 (s. Norden, Agn. Th. 240–50; 347f); Hb 2:10b (s. B 2a, below; cp. Ar. 1:5 διʼ αὐτοῦ … τὰ πάντα συνέστηκεν).—Of Christ Ro 1:5; 5:9, 17f, 21; 8:37; 2 Cor 1:20 al. (ASchettler, D. paulin. Formel ‘durch Christus’ 1907; GJonker, De paulin. formule ‘door Christus’: ThSt 27, 1909, 173–208).—Of the Holy Spirit Ac 11:28; 21:4; Ro 5:5.
    At times διά w. gen. seems to have causal mng. (Rdm. 142; POxy 299, 2 [I A.D.] ἔδωκα αὐτῷ διὰ σοῦ=because of you; Achilles Tat. 3, 4, 5 διὰ τούτων=for this reason; in Eng. cp. Coleridge, Anc. Mariner 135–36: Every tongue thro’ utter drouth Was wither’d at the root, s. OED s.v. ‘through’ I B 8) διὰ τῆς σαρκός because of the resistance of the flesh Ro 8:3.—2 Cor 9:13.—On the use of διά w. gen. in Ro s. Schlaeger, La critique radicale de l’épître aux Rom.: Congr. d’ Hist. du Christ. II 111f.
    B. w. acc.
    marker of extension through an area, through (Hom. and other early Gk. only in poetry, e.g. Pind. P. 9, 123 διʼ ὅμιλον ‘through the throng’; Hellenistic prose since Dionys. Hal. [JKäser, D. Präpositionen b. Dionys. Hal., diss. Erlangen 1915, 54]; ISyriaW 1866b τὸν πάτρωνα διὰ πάντα of the governor of a whole province) διήρχετο διὰ μέσον Σαμαρείας καὶ Γαλιλαίας Lk 17:11 (cp. SibOr 3, 316 ῥομφαία διελεύσεται διὰ μέσον σεῖο).
    marker of someth. constituting cause
    the reason why someth. happens, results, exists: because of, for the sake of (do something for the sake of a divinity: UPZ 62, 2 [161 B.C.] διὰ τὸν Σάραπιν; JosAs 1:10 διʼ αὐτήν; ApcSed 3:3 διὰ τὸν ἄνθρωπον; Tat. 8:2 διὰ τὸν … Ἄττιν; Ath. 30, 1 διὰ τὴν Δερκετώ) hated because of the name Mt 10:22; persecution arises because of teaching 13:21; because of unbelief vs. 58; because of a tradition 15:3; διὰ τὸν ἄνθρωπον (the sabbath was designed) for people Mk 2:27; because of Herodias Mk 6:17 (cp. Just. D. 34, 8 διὰ γυναῖκα); because of a crowd Lk 5:19; 8:19 al; because of Judeans Ac 16:3. διὰ τὸν θόρυβον 21:34; because of rain 28:2. Juristically to indicate guilt: imprisoned for insurrection and murder Lk 23:25. διʼ ὑμᾶς on your account=through your fault Ro 2:24 (Is 52:5). διὰ τὴν πάρεσιν because of the passing over 3:25 (but s. WKümmel, ZTK 49, ’52, 164). διὰ τὰ παραπτώματα on account of transgressions 4:25a (cp. Is 53:5; PsSol 13:5); but διὰ τὴν δικαίωσιν in the interest of justification vs. 25b; s. 8:10 for a sim. paired use of διὰ. διὰ τὴν χάριν on the basis of the grace 15:15. διʼ ἀσθένειαν τῆς σαρκός because of a physical ailment (cp. POxy 726, 10f [II A.D.] οὐ δυνάμενος διʼ ἀσθένειαν πλεῦσαι. Cp. ἀσθένεια 1) Gal 4:13. διὰ τὸ θέλημα σου by your will Rv 4:11. διὰ τὸν χρόνον according to the time = by this time Hb 5:12 (Aelian, VH 3, 37 δ. τὸν χρ.=because of the particular time-situation).—W. words denoting emotions out of (Diod S 5, 59, 8 διὰ τὴν λύπην; 18, 25, 1 διὰ τὴν προπέτειαν=out of rashness; Appian, Celt. 1 §9 διʼ ἐλπίδα; 2 Macc 5:21; 7:20; 9:8; 3 Macc 5:32, 41; Tob 8:7): διὰ φθόνον out of envy Mt 27:18; Phil 1:15. διὰ σπλάγχνα ἐλέους out of tender mercy Lk 1:78. διὰ τ. φόβον τινός out of fear of someone J 7:13. διὰ τὴν πολλὴν ἀγάπην out of the great love Eph 2:4. διὰ τ. πλεονεξίαν in their greediness B 10:4.—Of God as the ultimate goal or purpose of life, whereas διά w. gen. (s. A4bβ above) represents God as Creator, Hb 2:10a (s. Norden, op. cit.; PGM 13, 76 διὰ σὲ συνέστηκεν … ἡ γῆ). Cp. J 6:57 (s. Bultmann ad loc.) PtK 2.
    in direct questions διὰ τί; why? (Hyperid. 3, 17; Dio Chrys. 20 [37], 28; Ael. Aristid. 31 p. 597 D.; oft. LXX; TestJob 37:8; TestLevi 2:9; GrBar, Tat; Mel., Fgm. 8b, 42) mostly in an interrogative clause Mt 9:11, 14; 13:10; 15:2f; 17:19; 21:25; Mk 2:18; 11:31; Lk 5:30; 19:23, 31; 20:5; 24:38; J 7:45; 8:43, 46; 12:5; 13:37; Ac 5:3; 1 Cor 6:7; Rv 17:7. Simply διὰ τί; (Hyperid. 3, 23) Ro 9:32; 2 Cor 11:11. Also διατί (always in t.r. and often by Tdf.; TestJob 46:2) B 8:4, 6; Hm 2:5; Hs 5, 5, 5. Kvan Leeuwen Boomkamp, Τι et Διατι dans les évangiles: RevÉtGr 39, 1926, 327–31.—In real and supposed answers and inferences διὰ τοῦτο therefore (X., An. 1, 7, 3; 7, 19; oft. LXX; JosAs 7:7; Ar. 12, 2; Just., A I, 44, 5 al.; Demetr.: 722 Fgm. 2, 3 Jac.) Mt 6:25; 12:27, 31; 13:13, 52; 14:2; 18:23; 21:43; 23:13 v.l.; 24:44; Mk 11:24; 12:24; Lk 11:19 al. Also διὰ ταῦτα (Epict.) Eph 5:6. διὰ τοῦτο ὅτι for this reason, (namely) that J 5:16, 18; 8:47; 10:17; 12:18, 39; 15:19; 1J 3:1. διὰ τοῦτο ἵνα for this reason, (in order) that (Lucian, Abdic. 1) J 1:31; 2 Cor 13:10; 1 Ti 1:16; Phlm 15. Also διὰ τοῦτο ὅπως Hb 9:15.
    διά foll. by inf. or acc. w. inf., representing a causal clause, because (Gen 39:9; Dt 1:36; 1 Macc 6:53; GrBar 8:4; Demetr.: 722 fgm 1:1 al.) διὰ τὸ μὴ ἔχειν βάθος because it had no depth Mt 13:5f; Mk 4:5f (διὰ τὸ μή w. inf.: X., Mem. 1, 3, 5; Hero Alex. I 348, 7; III 274, 19; Lucian, Hermot. 31); because lawlessness increases Mt 24:12; διὰ τὸ εἶναι αὐτὸν ἐξ οἴκου Δ.. Lk 2:4; because it was built well 6:48 al. διὰ τὸ λέγεσθαι ὑπό τινων because it was said by some Lk 9:7 (for the constr. cp. Herodian 7, 12, 7 διὰ τὸ τὰς ἐξόδους ὑπὸ τ. πυρὸς προκατειλῆφθαι=because the exit-routes were blocked by the fire).
    instead of διά w. gen. to denote the efficient cause we may have διά, by
    α. w. acc. of thing (schol. on Pind., N. 4, 79a; 2 Macc 12:11; EpArist 77) διὰ τὸ αἷμα by the blood Rv 12:11. διὰ τὰ σημεῖα by the miracles 13:14.
    β. w. acc. of pers. and freq. as expr. of favorable divine action (Aristoph., Plut. 468; Dionys. Hal. 8, 33, 3, 1579 μέγας διὰ τ. θεούς ἐγενόμην; Ael. Aristid. 24, 1 K.=44 p. 824 D.: διʼ οὓς [= θεούς] ἐσώθην; SIG 1122; OGI 458, 40; PGM 13, 579 διῳκονομήθη τ. πάντα διὰ σέ; EpArist 292; Sir 15:11; 3 Macc 6:36: other exx. in SEitrem and AFridrichsen, E. christl. Amulett auf Pap. 1921, 24). ζῶ διὰ τὸν πατέρα J 6:57 (cp. PKöln VI, 245, 16 of Isis σὺ κυρεῖς τὰ πάντα, διὰ σὲ δʼ εἰσορῶ φαός ‘you are responsible for everything and thanks to you I can see light’). διὰ τὸν ὑποτάξαντα by the one who subjected it Ro 8:20.—DELG. M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > διά

  • 13 δικαιόω

    δικαιόω fut. δικαιώσω; 1 aor. ἐδικαίωσα. Pass.: 1 fut. δικαιωθήσομαι; 1 aor. ἐδικαιώθην, subj. δικαιωθῶ, ptc. δικαιωθείς; pf. δεδικαίωμαι Ro 6:7; 1 Cor 4:4; ptc. δεδικαιωμένος Lk 18:14 (Soph., Hdt.; Aristot., EN 1136a; et al.; pap, LXX; En 102:10; TestAbr A 13 p. 93, 14 [Stone p. 34]; Test12Patr; ApcSed, 14:8 p. 136, 15 Ja.; Jos., Ant. 17, 206; Just.; Ath., R. 53, 1; 65, 14) to practice δικαιοσύνη.
    to take up a legal cause, show justice, do justice, take up a cause τινά (Polyb. 3, 31, 9 ὑμᾶς δὲ αὐτοὺς … δικαιώσεσθε ‘you will (find it necessary to) take up your own cause’ = you will sit in judgment on yourselves; Cass. Dio 48, 46 ‘Antony was not taking Caesar’s side’ in the matter; 2 Km 15:4; Ps 81:3) δικαιῶσαι δίκαιον take up the cause of an upright pers. 1 Cl 16:12 (Is 53:11); τινί χήρᾳ (χήραν v.l.) 8:4 (Is 1:17 ‘take up the cause of the widow’).
    to render a favorable verdict, vindicate.
    as activity of humans justify, vindicate, treat as just (Appian, Liby. 17 §70; Gen 44:16; Sir 10:29; 13:22; 23:11 al.) θέλων δ. ἑαυτόν wishing to justify himself Lk 10:29; δ. ἑαυτὸν ἐνώπιόν τινος j. oneself before someone=‘you try to make out a good case for yourselves before the public’ 16:15 (δ. ἐαυτόν as En 102:10; but s. JJeremias, ZNW 38, ’39, 117f [against him SAalen, NTS 13, ’67, 1ff]). ὁ δικαιούμενός μοι the one who vindicates himself before (or against) me B 6:1 (cp. Is 50:8). τελῶναι ἐδικαίωσαν τὸν θεόν βαπτισθέντες tax-collectors affirmed God’s uprightness and got baptized i.e. by ruling in God’s favor they admitted that they were in the wrong and took a new direction (opp. τὴν βουλὴν τ. θεοῦ ἀθετεῖν) Lk 7:29 (cp. PsSol 2:15; 3:5; 8:7, 23; 9:2).
    of experience or activity of transcendent figures, esp. in relation to humans
    α. of wisdom ἐδικαιώθη ἀπὸ τῶν τέκνων αὐτῆς is vindicated by her children (on δικ. ἀπό cp. Is 45:25. S. also Appian, Basil. 8: δικαιόω=consider someth. just or correct) Lk 7:35; also ἀπὸ τῶν ἔργων αὐτῆς Mt 11:19 (v.l. τέκνων). On this saying s. DVölter, NThT 8, 1919, 22–42; JBover, Biblica 6, 1925, 323–25; 463–65; M-JLagrange, ibid. 461–63. Of an angel Hm 5, 1, 7.
    β. of God be found in the right, be free of charges (cp. TestAbr A 13 p. 93, 14 [Stone p. 34] ‘be vindicated’ in a trial by fire) Mt 12:37 (opp. καταδικάζειν). δεδικαιωμένος Lk 18:14; GJs 5:1; δεδικαιωμένη (Salome) 20:4 (not pap). Ac 13:39 (but s. 3 below); Rv 22:11 v.l; Dg 5:14.—Paul, who has influenced later wr. (cp. Iren. 3, 18, 7 [Harv. II 102, 2f]), uses the word almost exclusively of God’s judgment. As affirmative verdict Ro 2:13. Esp. of pers. δικαιοῦσθαι be acquitted, be pronounced and treated as righteous and thereby become δίκαιος, receive the divine gift of δικαιοσύνη through faith in Christ Jesus and apart from νόμος as a basis for evaluation (MSeifrid, Justification by Faith—The Origin and Development of a Central Pauline Theme ’92) 3:20 (Ps 142:2), 24, 28; 4:2; 5:1, 9; 1 Cor 4:4; Gal 2:16f (Ps 142:2); 3:11, 24; 5:4; Tit 3:7; Phil 3:12 v.l.; B 4:10; 15:7; IPhld 8:2; Dg 9:4; (w. ἁγιάζεσθαι) Hv 3, 9, 1. οὐ παρὰ τοῦτο δεδικαίωμαι I am not justified by this (after 1 Cor 4:4) IRo 5:1. ἵνα δικαιωθῇ σου ἡ σάρξ that your flesh (as the sinful part) may be acquitted Hs 5, 7, 1; δ. ἔργοις by (on the basis of) works, by what one does 1 Cl 30:3; cp. Js 2:21, 24f (ἔργον 1a and πίστις 2dδ); διʼ ἐαυτῶν δ. by oneself=as a result of one’s own accomplishments 1 Cl 32:4. (cp. κατὰ νόμον Hippol., Ref. 7, 34, 1).—Since Paul views God’s justifying action in close connection with the power of Christ’s resurrection, there is sometimes no clear distinction between the justifying action of acquittal and the gift of new life through the Holy Spirit as God’s activity in promoting uprightness in believers. Passages of this nature include Ro 3:26, 30; 4:5 (on δικαιοῦν τὸν ἀσεβῆ cp. the warning against accepting δῶρα to arrange acquittal Ex 23:7 and Is 5:23; δικαιούμενοι δωρεάν Ro 3:24 is therefore all the more pointed); 8:30, 33 (Is 50:8); Gal 3:8; Dg 9:5. For the view (held since Chrysostom) that δ. in these and other pass. means ‘make upright’ s. Goodsp., Probs. 143–46, JBL 73, ’54, 86–91.
    to cause someone to be released from personal or institutional claims that are no longer to be considered pertinent or valid, make free/pure (the act. Ps 72:13) in our lit. pass. δικαιοῦμαι be set free, made pure ἀπό from (Sir 26:29; TestSim 6:1, both δικ. ἀπὸ [τῆς] ἁμαρτίας) ἀπὸ πάντων ὧν οὐκ ἠδυνήθητε ἐν νόμω Μωϋσέως δικαιωθῆναι from everything fr. which you could not be freed by the law of Moses Ac 13:38; cp. vs. 39. ὁ ἀποθανὼν δεδικαίωται ἀπὸ τ. ἁμαρτίας the one who died is freed fr. sin Ro 6:7 (s. KKuhn, ZNW 30, ’31, 305–10; EKlaar, ibid. 59, ’68, 131–34). In the context of 1 Cor 6:11 ἐδικαιώθητε means you have become pure.—In the language of the mystery religions (Rtzst., Mysterienrel.3 258ff) δικαιοῦσθαι refers to a radical inner change which the initiate experiences (Herm. Wr. 13, 9 χωρὶς γὰρ κρίσεως ἰδὲ πῶς τὴν ἀδικίαν ἐξήλασεν. ἐδικαιώθημεν, ὦ τέκνον, ἀδικίας ἀπούσης) and approaches the sense ‘become deified’. Some are inclined to find in 1 Ti 3:16 a similar use; but see under 4.
    to demonstrate to be morally right, prove to be right, pass. of God is proved to be right Ro 3:4; 1 Cl 18:4 (both Ps 50:6). Of Christ 1 Ti 3:16.—Lit. s. on δικαιοσύνη 3c.—HRosman, Iustificare (δικαιοῦν) est verbum causativum: Verbum Domini 21, ’41, 144–47; NWatson, Δικ. in the LXX, JBL 79, ’60, 255–66; CCosgrove, JBL 106, ’87, 653–70.—DELG s.v. δίκη. M-M. EDNT. TW. Spicq.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > δικαιόω

  • 14 εἰμί

    εἰμί (Hom.+) impv. ἴσθι, ἔσο IPol 4:1, ἔστω—also colloq. ἤτω (BGU 276, 24; 419, 13; POxy 533, 9; Ps 103:31; 1 Macc 10:31) 1 Cor 16:22; Js 5:12; 1 Cl 48:5; Hv 3, 3, 4;—3 pers. pl. ἔστωσαν (ins since 200 B.C. Meisterhans3-Schw. 191; PPetr III, 2, 22 [237 B.C.]) Lk 12:35; 1 Ti 3:12; GJs 7:2. Inf. εἶναι. Impf. 1 pers. only mid. ἤμην (Jos., Bell. 1, 389; 631; s. further below); ἦν only Ac 20:18 D, 2 pers. ἦσθα (Jos., Ant. 6, 104) Mt 26:69; Mk 14:67 and ἦς (Lobeck, Phryn. 149 ‘say ἦσθα’; Jos., Ant. 17, 110 al.; Sb 6262, 16 [III A.D.]) Mt 25:21, 23 al., 3 sg. ἦν, 1 pl. ἦμεν. Beside this the mid. form ἤμην (pap since III B.C.; Job 29:16; Tob 12:13 BA), s. above, gives the pl. ἤμεθα (pap since III B.C.; Bar 1:19) Mt 23:30; Ac 27:37; Eph 2:3. Both forms in succession Gal. 4:3. Fut. ἔσομαι, ptc. ἐσόμενος. The mss. vary in choice of act. or mid., but like the edd. lean toward the mid. (W-S. §14, 1; Mlt-H. 201–3; Rob. index; B-D-F §98; Rdm.2 99; 101f; Helbing 108f; Reinhold 86f). Also s. ἔνι.
    be, exist, be on hand a pred. use (for other pred. use s. 3a, 4, 5, 6, 7): of God (Epicurus in Diog. L. 10, 123 θεοί εἰσιν; Zaleucus in Diod S 12, 20, 2 θεοὺς εἶναι; Wsd 12:13; Just., D. 128, 4 angels) ἔστιν ὁ θεός God exists Hb 11:6; cp. 1 Cor 8:5. ὁ ὢν καὶ ὁ ἦν the one who is and who was (cp. SibOr 3, 16; as amulet PMich 155, 3 [II A.D.] ὁ ὢν θεὸς ὁ Ἰάω κύριος παντοκράτωρ=the god … who exists.) Rv 11:17; 16:5. ὁ ὢν καὶ ὁ ἦν καὶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος, in this and the two preceding passages ἦν is treated as a ptc. (for the unusual use of ἦν cp. Simonides 74 D.: ἦν ἑκατὸν φιάλαι) 1:4; 4:8 (cp. Ex 3:14; Wsd 13:1; Paus. 10, 12, 10 Ζεὺς ἦν, Ζ. ἔστι, Ζ. ἔσσεται; cp. Theosophien 18. S. OWeinreich, ARW 19, 1919, 178f). οὐδʼ εἶναι θεὸν παντοκράτορα AcPlCor 1:11. ἐγώ εἰμι (ins in the Athena-Isis temple of Saïs in Plut., Is. et Os. 9, 354c: ἐγώ εἰμι πᾶν τὸ γεγονὸς κ. ὸ̓ν κ. ἐσόμενον. On the role of Isis in Gk. rel. s. IBergman, Ich bin Isis ’68; RMerkelbach, Isis Regina—Zeus Sarapis ’95; for further lit. s. MGustafson in: Prayer fr. Alexander to Constantine, ed. MKiley et al. ’97, 158.) Rv 1:8 (s. ἐγώ beg.). ὁ ὤν, … θεός Ro 9:5 is classed here and taken to mean Christ by JWordsworth ad loc. and HWarner, JTS 48, ’47, 203f. Of the λόγος: ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν ὁ λ. J 1:1 (for ἦν cp. Herm. Wr. 1, 4; 3, 1b ἦν σκότος, Fgm. IX 1 p. 422, 23 Sc. γέγονεν ἡ ὕλη καὶ ἦν).—Of Christ πρὶν Ἀβραὰμ γενέσθαι, ἐγὼ εἰμί before Abraham was born, I am 8:58 (on the pres. εἰμί cp. Parmenides 8, 5: of the Eternal we cannot say ἦν οὐδʼ ἔσται, only ἔστιν; Ammonius Hermiae [Comm. in Aristotl. IV 5 ed. ABusse 1897] 6 p. 172: in Timaeus we read that we must not say of the gods τὸ ἦν ἢ τὸ ἔσται μεταβολῆς τινος ὄντα σημαντικά, μόνον δὲ τὸ ἔστι=‘was’ or ‘will be’, suggesting change, but only ‘is’; Ps 89:2; DBall, ‘I Am’ in John’s Gospel [JSNT Suppl. 124] ’96).—Of the world πρὸ τοῦ τὸν κόσμον εἶναι before the world existed 17:5. Satirically, of the beast, who parodies the Lamb, ἦν καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν Rv 17:8. Of God’s temple: ἔστιν B 16:6f it exists. τὸ μὴ ὄν that which does not exist, the unreal (Sallust. 17 p. 32, 7 and 9; Philo, Aet. M. 5; 82) Hm 1:1. τὰ ὄντα that which exists contrasted w. τὰ μὴ ὄντα Ro 4:17; cp. 1 Cor 1:28; 2 Cl 1:8. Of God κτίσας ἐκ τοῦ μὴ ὄντος τὰ ὄντα what is out of what is not Hv 1, 1, 6 (on the contrast τὰ ὄντα and τὰ μὴ ὄντα cp. Ps.-Arist. on Xenophanes: Fgm. 21, 28; Artem. 1, 51 p. 49, 19 τὰ μὴ ὄντα ὡς ὄντα; Ocellus Luc. 12; Sallust. 17, 5 p. 30, 28–32, 12; Philo, Op. M. 81; PGM 4, 3077f ποιήσαντα τὰ πάντα ἐξ ὧν οὐκ ὄντων εἰς τὸ εἶναι; 13, 272f τὸν ἐκ μὴ ὄντων εἶναι ποιήσαντα καὶ ἐξ ὄντων μὴ εἶναι; Theoph. Ant. 1, 4 [p. 64, 21] τὰ πάντα ὁ θεὸς ἐποίησεν ἐξ οὐκ ὄντων εἰς τὸ εἶναι).—Of existing in the sense be present, available, provided πολλοῦ ὄχλου ὄντος since a large crowd was present Mk 8:1. ὄντων τῶν προσφερόντων those are provided who offer Hb 8:4. οὔπω ἦν πνεῦμα the Spirit had not yet come J 7:39. ἀκούσας ὄντα σιτία when he heard that grain was available Ac 7:12.—Freq. used to introduce parables and stories (once) there was: ἄνθρωπός τις ἦν πλούσιος there was (once) a rich man Lk 16:1, 19. ἦν ἄνθρωπος ἐκ τ. Φαρισαίων there was a man among the Pharisees J 3:1.There is, there are ὥσπερ εἰσὶν θεοὶ πολλοί as there are many gods 1 Cor 8:5. διαιρέσεις χαρισμάτων εἰσίν there are various kinds of spiritual gifts 12:4ff; 1J 5:16 al. Neg. οὐκ ἔστι there is (are) not, no (Ps 52:2; Simplicius in Epict. p. 95, 42 as a quot. from ‘tragedy’ οὐκ εἰσὶν θεοί) δίκαιος there is no righteous man Ro 3:10 (Eccl 7:20). ἀνάστασις νεκρῶν οὐκ ἔστιν there is no resurr. of the dead 1 Cor 15:12; οὐδʼ εἶναι ἀνάστασιν AcPlCor 1:12; 2:24; cp. Mt 22:23; Ac 23:8 (cp. 2 Macc 7:14). εἰσὶν οἵ, or οἵτινες there are people who (Hom. et al.; LXX; Just., D. 47, 2 εἰ μήτι εἰσὶν οἱ λέγοντες ὅτι etc.—W. sing. and pl. combined: Arrian, Ind. 24, 9 ἔστι δὲ οἳ διέφυγον=but there are some who escaped) Mt 16:28; 19:12; Mk 9:1; Lk 9:27; J 6:64; Ac 11:20. Neg. οὐδείς ἐστιν ὅς there is no one who Mk 9:39; 10:29; Lk 1:61; 18:29. As a question τίς ἐστιν ὅς; who is there that? Mt 12:11—In an unusual (perh. bureaucratic terminology) participial construction Ac 13:1 ἡ οὖσα ἐκκλησία the congregation there (cp. Ps.-Pla., Eryx. 6, 394c οἱ ὄντες ἄνθρωποι=the people with whom he has to deal; PLond III 1168, 5 p. 136 [18 A.D.] ἐπὶ ταῖς οὔσαις γειτνίαις=on the adjoining areas there; PGen 49; PSI 229, 11 τοῦ ὄντος μηνός of the current month); cp. 14:13.—αἱ οὖσαι (sc. ἐξουσίαι) those that exist Ro 13:1 (cp. UPZ 180a I, 4 [113 B.C.] ἐφʼ ἱερέων καὶ ἱερειῶν τῶν ὄντων καὶ οὐσῶν).
    to be in close connection (with), is, freq. in statements of identity or equation, as a copula, the equative function, uniting subject and predicate. On absence of the copula, Mlt-Turner 294–310.
    gener. πραΰς εἰμι I am gentle Mt 11:29. ἐγώ εἰμι Γαβριήλ Lk 1:19. σὺ εἶ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ Mk 3:11; J 1:49 and very oft. ἵνα … ὁ πονηρὸς … ἐλεγχθῇ [το? s. app. in Bodm.] μὴ ὢν θεός AcPlCor 2:15 (Just., D. 3, 3 φιλολόγος οὖν τις εἶ σύ).—The pred. can be supplied fr. the context: καὶ ἐσμέν and we are (really God’s children) 1J 3:1 (Eur., Ion 309 τ. θεοῦ καλοῦμαι δοῦλος εἰμί τε. Dio Chrys. 14 [31], 58 θεοφιλεῖς οἱ χρηστοὶ λέγονται καὶ εἰσίν; Epict. 2, 16, 44 Ἡρακλῆς ἐπιστεύθη Διὸς υἱὸς εἶναι καὶ ἦν.—The ptc. ὤν, οὖσα, ὄν used w. a noun or adj.and serving as an if-, since-, or although-clause sim. functions as a copula πονηροὶ ὄντες Mt 7:11; 12:34.—Lk 20:36; J 3:4; 4:9; Ac 16:21; Ro 5:10; 1 Cor 8:7; Gal 2:3 al.).—W. adv. of quality: οὕτως εἶναι be so preceded by ὥσπερ, καθώς or followed by ὡς, ὥσπερ Mt 13:40; 24:27, 37, 39; Mk 4:26; Lk 17:26. W. dat. of pers. οὕτως ἔσται ὁ υἱὸς τ. ἀ. τῇ γενεᾷ ταύτῃ so the Human One (Son of Man) will be for this generation 11:30. εἰμὶ ὡσ/ὥσπερ I am like Mt 6:5; Lk 18:11. W. dat. ἔστω σοι ὥσπερ τελώνης he shall be to you as a tax-collector Mt 18:17. εἰμὶ ὥς τις I am like someone of outward and inward similarity 28:3; Lk 6:40; 11:44; 22:27 al. καθώς εἰμι as I am Ac 22:3; 1J 3:2, 7; 4:17.—W. demonstr. pron. (Just., A I, 16, 1 ἃ ἔφη, ταῦτά ἐστι: foll. by a quotation; sim. 48, 5 ἔστι δὲ ταῦτα; and oft.) τὰ ὀνόματά ἐστιν ταῦτα Mt 10:2. αὕτη ἐστὶν ἡ μαρτυρία J 1:19. W. inf. foll. θρησκεία αὕτη ἐστίν, ἐπισκέπτεσθαι Js 1:27. W. ὅτι foll. αὕτη ἐστὶν ἡ κρίσις, ὅτι τὸ φῶς ἐλήλυθεν J 3:19; cp. 21:24; 1J 1:5; 3:11; 5:11. W. ἵνα foll. τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ ἔργον, ἵνα πιστεύητε J 6:29; cp. vs. 39f; 15:12; 17:3; 1J 3:11, 23; 5:3. W. τηλικοῦτος: τὰ πλοῖα, τηλικαῦτα ὄντα though they are so large Js 3:4. W. τοσοῦτος: τοσοῦτων ὄντων although there were so many J 21:11. W. τοιοῦτος: τοιοῦτος ὤν Phlm 9 (cp. Just., A I, 18, 4 ὅσα ἄλλα τοιαῦτά ἐστι).—W. interrog. pron. ὑμεῖς τίνα με λέγετε εἶναι; who do you say I am? Mt 16:15; cp. 21:10; Mk 1:24; 4:41; 8:27, 29; Lk 4:34 al.; σὺ τίς εἶ; J 1:19; 8:25; 21:12 al. (cp. JosAs 14:6 τίς εἶ συ tell me ‘who you are’). σὺ τίς εἶ ὁ κρίνων; (Pla., Gorg. 452b; Strabo 6, 2, 4 σὺ τίς εἶ ὁ τὸν Ὅμηρον ψέγων ὡς μυθογράφον;) Ro 14:4; ἐγὼ τίς ἤμην; (cp. Ex 3:11) Ac 11:17; τίς εἰμι ἐγὼ ὅτι who am I, that GJs 12:2 (Ex 3:11). W. πόσος: πόσος χρόνος ἐστίν; how long a time? Mk 9:21. W. ποταπός of what sort Lk 1:29.—W. relative pron. οἷος 2 Cor 10:11; ὁποῖος Ac 26:29; 1 Cor 3:13; Gal 2:6; ὅς Rv 1:19; ὅστις Gal 5:10, 19.—W. numerals ἦσαν οἱ φαγόντες πεντακισχίλιοι ἄνδρες 6:44 (cp. Polyaenus 7, 25 ἦσαν οἱ πεσόντες ἀνδρῶν μυριάδες δέκα); cp. Ac 19:7; 23:13. Λάζαρος εἷς ἦν ἐκ τῶν ἀνακειμένων L. was one of those at the table J 12:2; cp. Gal 3:20; Js 2:19. τῶν πιστευσάντων ἦν καρδία καὶ ψυχὴ μία Ac 4:32. εἷς εἶναι be one and the same Gal 3:28. ἓν εἶναι be one J 10:30; 17:11, 21ff; 1 Cor 3:8.—οὐδʼ εἶναι τὴν πλάσιν τὴν τῶν ἀνθρώπων τοῦ θεοῦ (that) the creation of humankind is not God’s doing AcPlCor 1:13.—To establish identity the formula ἐγώ εἰμι is oft. used in the gospels (corresp. to Hebr. אֲנִי הוּא Dt 32:39; Is 43:10), in such a way that the predicate must be understood fr. the context: Mt 14:27; Mk 6:50; 13:6; 14:62; Lk 22:70; J 4:26; 6:20; 8:24, 28; 13:19; 18:5f and oft.; s. on ἐγώ.—In a question μήτι ἐγώ εἰμι; surely it is not I? Mt 26:22, 25.
    to describe a special connection betw. the subject and a predicate noun ἡμεῖς ναὸς θεοῦ ἐσμεν ζῶντος we are a temple of the living God 2 Cor 6:16. ἡ ἐπιστολὴ ὑμεῖς ἐστε you are our letter (of recommendation) 3:2. σφραγίς μου τῆς ἀποστολῆς ὑμεῖς ἐστε you are the seal of my apostleship 1 Cor 9:2 and oft.
    in explanations:
    α. to show how someth. is to be understood is a representation of, is the equivalent of; εἰμί here, too, serves as copula; we usually translate mean, so in the formula τοῦτʼ ἔστιν this or that means, that is to say (Epict., Ench. 33, 10; Arrian, Tact. 29, 3; SIG 880, 50; PFlor 157, 4; PSI 298, 9; PMert 91, 9; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 16; ApcMos 19; Just., D. 56, 23; 78, 3 al.) Mk 7:2; Ac 19:4; Ro 7:18; 9:8; 10:6, 8; Phlm 12; Hb 7:5 al.; in the sense that is (when translated) (Polyaenus 8, 14, 1 Μάξιμος ἀνηγορεύθη• τοῦτο δʼ ἄν εἴη Μέγιστον) Mt 27:46; Ac 1:19. So also w. relative pron.: ὅ ἐστιν Mk 3:17; 7:11, 34; Hb 7:2. After verbs of asking, recognizing, knowing and not knowing (Antiphanes Com. 231, 1f τὸ ζῆν τί ἐστι;) μάθετε τί ἐστιν learn what (this) means Mt 9:13. εἰ ἐγνώκειτε τί ἐστιν 12:7; cp. Mk 1:27; 9:10; Lk 20:17; J 16:17f; Eph 4:9. W. an indir. question (Stephan. Byz. s.v. Ἀγύλλα: τὶς ἠρώτα τί ἂν εἴη τὸ ὄνομα) τί ἂν εἴη ταῦτα Lk 15:26; τί εἴη τοῦτο 18:36. τίνα θέλει ταῦτα εἶναι what this means Ac 17:20; cp. 2:12, where the question is not about the mng. of terms but the significance of what is happening.—Esp. in interpr. of the parables (Artem. 1, 51 p. 48, 26 ἄρουρα οὐδὲν ἄλλο ἐστὶν ἢ γυνή=field means nothing else than woman) ὁ ἀγρός ἐστιν ὁ κόσμος the field means the world Mt 13:38; cp. vss. 19f, 22f; Mk 4:15f, 18, 20; Lk 8:11ff (cp. Gen 41:26f; Ezk 37:11; Ath. 22, 4 [Stoic interpr. of myths]). On τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ σῶμά μου Mt 26:26; Mk 14:22; Lk 22:19 and its various interpretations, see lit. s.v. εὐχαριστία. Cp. Hipponax (VI B.C.) 45 Diehl αὕτη γάρ ἐστι συμφορή=this means misfortune.
    β. to be of relative significance, be of moment or importance, amount to someth. w. indef. pron. εἰδωλόθυτόν τί ἐστιν meat offered to idols means anything 1 Cor 10:19. Esp. εἰμί τι I mean someth. of pers. 1 Cor 3:7; Gal 2:6; 6:3; and of things vs. 15. εἰμί τις Ac 5:36.—Of no account ἐμοὶ εἰς ἐλάχιστόν ἐστιν (telescoped fr. ἐλάχ. ἐστιν and εἰς ἐλάχ. γίνεται, of which there are many exx. in Schmid, I 398; II 161, 237; III 281; IV 455) it is of little or no importance to me 1 Cor 4:3.
    be in reference to location, persons, condition, or time, be
    of various relations or positions involving a place or thing: w. ἀπό: εἶναι ἀπό τινος be or come from a certain place (X., An. 2, 4, 13) J 1:44.—W. ἐν: ἐν τοῖς τ. πατρός μου in my father’s house Lk 2:49 (cp. Jos., Ant. 16, 302 καταγωγὴ ἐν τοῖς Ἀντιπάτρου). ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ on the way Mk 10:32. ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ Mt 24:26. ἐν ἀγρῷ Lk 15:25. ἐν δεξιᾷ τ. θεοῦ at God’s right hand Ro 8:34; in heaven Eph 6:9.—W. εἰς: τὴν κοίτην Lk 11:7; τὸν κόλπον J1:18.—W. ἐπὶ w. gen. be on someth. of place, roof Lk 17:31; head J 20:7 (cp. 1 Macc 1:59); also fig., of one who is over someone (1 Macc 10:69; Jdth 14:13 ὁ ὢν ἐπὶ πάντων τῶν αὐτοῦ) Ro 9:5 (of the angel of death Mel., P. 20, 142 ἐπὶ τῶν πρωτοτόκων); also ἐπάνω τινός J 3:31.—W. dat. be at someth. the door Mt 24:33; Mk 13:29.—W. acc. be on someone: grace Lk 2:40; Ac 4:33; spirit (Is 61:1) Lk 2:25; εἶναι ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό be in the same place, together (Gen 29:2 v.l.) Ac 1:15; 2:1, 44; 1 Cor 7:5.—W. κατά w. acc. εἶναι κατὰ τὴν Ἰουδαίαν be in Judea Ac 11:1; εἶναι ἐν Ἀντιοχείᾳ κατὰ τὴν οὖσαν ἐκκλησίαν were at Antioch in the congregation there 13:1.—W. ὑπό w. acc. τι or τινα of place be under someth. J 1:48; 1 Cor 10:1.—W. παρά w. acc. παρὰ τὴν θάλασσαν by the sea- (i.e. lake-) shore Mk 5:21; Ac 10:6.—W. πρός τι be close to, facing someth. Mk 4:1.—W. adv. of place ἐγγύς τινι near someth. Ac 9:38; 27:8. μακρὰν (ἀπό) Mk 12:34; J 21:8; Eph 2:13; also πόρρω Lk 14:32. χωρίς τινος without someth. Hb 12:8. ἐνθάδε Ac 16:28. ἔσω J 20:26. ἀπέναντί τινος Ro 3:18 (Ps 35:2). ἐκτός τινος 1 Cor 6:18; ἀντίπερά τινος Lk 8:26; ὁμοῦ J 21:2; οὗ Mt 2:9; ὅπου Mk 2:4; 5:40. ὧδε Mt 17:4; Mk 9:5; Lk 9:33. Also w. fut. mng. (ESchwartz, GGN 1908, 161 n.; on the fut. use of the pres. cp. POxy 531, 22 [II A.D.] ἔστι δὲ τοῦ Τῦβι μηνὸς σοὶ ὸ̔ θέλεις) ὅπου εἰμί J 7:34, 36; 12:26; 14:3; 17:24. As pred., to denote a relatively long stay at a place, stay, reside ἴσθι ἐκεῖ stay there Mt 2:13, cp. vs. 15; ἐπʼ ἐρήμοις τόποις in lonely places Mk 1:45; ἦν παρὰ τὴν θάλασσαν he stayed by the lakeside 5:21.
    involving humans or transcendent beings: w. adv. ἔμπροσθέν τινος Lk 14:2. ἔναντί τινος Ac 8:21; ἐνώπιόν τινος Lk 14:10; Ac 4:19; 1 Pt 3:4; Rv 7:15; ἐντός τινος Lk 17:21; ἐγγύς τινος J 11:18; 19:20; Ro 10:8 (Dt 30:14).—W. prep. ἐν τινί equiv. to ἔκ τινος εἶναι be among Mt 27:56; cp. Mk 15:40; Ro 1:6. Of God, who is among his people 1 Cor 14:25 (Is 45:14; Jer 14:9); of the Spirit J 14:17. Of persons under Christ’s direction: ἐν θεῷ 1J 2:5; 5:20 (s. Norden, Agn. Th. 23, 1). ἔν τινι rest upon, arise from someth. (Aristot., Pol. 7, 1, 3 [1323b, 1] ἐν ἀρετῇ; Sir 9:16) Ac 4:12; 1 Cor 2:5; Eph 5:18.—εἴς τινα be directed, inclined toward Ac 23:30; 2 Cor 7:15; 1 Pt 1:21.—κατά w. gen. be against someone (Sir 6:12) Mt 12:30; Mk 9:40 and Lk 9:50 (both opp. ὑπέρ); Gal 5:23.—σύν τινι be with someone (Jos., Ant. 7, 181) Lk 22:56; 24:44; Ac 13:7; accompany, associate w. someone Lk 8:38; Ac 4:13; 22:9; take sides with someone (X., Cyr. 5, 4, 37; 7, 5, 77; Jos., Ant. 11, 259 [of God]) Ac 14:4.—πρός τινα be with someone Mt 13:56; Mk 6:3; J 1:1f. I am to be compared w. IMg 12.—μετά and gen. be with someone (Judg 14:11) Mt 17:17; Mk 3:14; 5:18; J 3:26; 12:17; ἔστω μεθʼ ὑμῶν εἰρήνη AcPlCor 2:40; of God, who is with someone (Gen 21:20; Judg 6:13 al.; Philo, Det. Pot. Ins. 4; Jos., Ant. 6, 181; 15, 138) Lk 1:66; J 3:2; 8:29; Ac 10:38 al.; also be with in the sense be favorable to, in league with (Ex 23:2) Mt 12:30; Lk 11:23; of punishment attending a pers. τὸ πῦρ ἐστι μετʼ αὐτοῦ AcPlCor 2:37.—παρά and gen. come from someone (X., An. 2, 4, 15; Just., D. 8, 4 ἔλεος παρὰ θεοῦ) fr. God J 6:46; 7:29; w. dat. be with, among persons Mt 22:25; Ac 10:6. W. neg. be strange to someone, there is no … in someone Ro 2:11; 9:14; Eph 6:9.—ὑπέρ w. gen. be on one’s side Mk 9:4 and Lk 9:50 (both opp. κατά); w. acc. be superior to (Sir 25:10; 30:16) Lk 6:40.
    of condition or circumstance: κατά w. acc. live in accordance with (Sir 28:10; 43:8; 2 Macc 9:20) κατὰ σάκρα, πνεῦμα Ro 8:5. οὐκ ἔστιν κατὰ ἄνθρωπον not human (in origin) Gal 1:11.—Fig. ὑπό w. acc. be under (the power of) someth. Ro 3:9; 6:14f; Gal 3:10, 25.—W. ἐν of existing ἐν τῷ θεῷ εἶναι of humankind: have its basis of existence in God Ac 17:28. Of states of being: ἐν δόξῃ 2 Cor 3:8; ἐν εἰρήνῃ Lk 11:21; ἐν ἔχθρᾳ at enmity 23:12; ἐν κρίματι under condemnation vs. 40. ἐν ῥύσει αἵματος suffer from hemorrhages Mk 5:25; Lk 8:43 (cp. Soph., Aj. 271 ἦν ἐν τῇ νόσῳ; cp. TestJob 35:1 ἐν πληγαῖς πολλαῖς). Periphrastically for an adj. ἐν ἐξουσίᾳ authoritative Lk 4:32. ἐν βάρει important 1 Th 2:7. ἐν τῇ πίστει true believers, believing 2 Cor 13:5. Be involved in someth. ἐν ἑορτῇ be at the festival=take part in it J 2:23. ἐν τούτοις ἴσθι devote yourself to these things 1 Ti 4:15 (cp. X., Hell. 4, 8, 7 ἐν τοιούτοις ὄντες=occupied w. such things; Jos., Ant. 2, 346 ἐν ὕμνοις ἦσαν=they occupied themselves w. the singing of hymns).—Fig., live in the light 1J 2:9; cp. vs. 11; 1 Th 5:4; in the flesh Ro 7:5; 8:8; AcPlCor 1:6. ἐν οἷς εἰμι in the situation in which I find myself Phil 4:11 (X., Hell. 4, 2, 1; Diod S 12, 63, 5; 12, 66, 4; Appian, Hann. 55 §228 ἐν τούτοις ἦν=he was in this situation; Jos., Ant. 7, 232 ἐν τούτοις ἦσαν=found themselves in this sit.; TestJob 35:6 ἐν τίνι ἐστίν; s. ZPE VIII 170). ἐν πολλοῖς ὢν ἀστοχήμασι AcPlCor 2:1. Of characteristics, emotions, etc. ἔν τινί ἐστιν, e.g. ἀδικία J 7:18; ἄγνοια Eph 4:18; ἀλήθεια J 8:44; 2 Cor 11:10 (cp. 1 Macc 7:18); ἁμαρτία 1J 3:5.
    of time ἐγγύς of καιρός be near Mt 26:18; Mk 13:28. πρὸς ἑσπέραν ἐστίν it is toward evening Lk 24:29 (Just., D. 137, 4 πρὸς δυσμὰς … ὁ ἥλιός ἐστι).
    to be alive in a period of time, live, denoting temporal existence (Hom., Trag., Thu. et al.; Sir 42:21; En 102:5 Philo, De Jos. 17; Jos., Ant. 7, 254) εἰ ἤμεθα ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις τῶν πατέρων ἡμῶν if we had lived in the days of our fathers Mt 23:30. ὅτι οὐκ εἰσὶν because they were no more 2:18 (Jer 38:15). ἦσαν ἐπὶ χρόνον ἱκανόν (those who were healed and raised by Christ) remained alive for quite some time Qua.
    to be the time at which someth. takes place w. indications of specific moments or occasions, be (X., Hell. 4, 5, 1, An. 4, 3, 8; Sus 13 Theod.; 1 Macc 6:49; 2 Macc 8:26; Jos., Ant. 6, 235 νουμηνία δʼ ἦν; 11, 251): ἦν ὥρα ἕκτη it was the sixth hour (=noon acc. to Jewish reckoning) Lk 23:44; J 4:6; 19:14.—Mk 15:25; J 1:39. ἦν ἑσπέρα ἤδη it was already evening Ac 4:3. πρωί̈ J 18:28. ἦν παρασκευή Mk 15:42. ἦν ἑορτὴ τῶν Ἰουδαίων J 5:1. σάββατόν ἐστιν vs. 10 et al. Short clauses (as Polyaenus 4, 9, 2 νὺξ ἦν; 7, 44, 2 πόλεμος ἦν; exc. 36, 8 ἦν ἀρίστου ὥρα; Jos., Ant. 19, 248 ἔτι δὲ νὺξ ἦν) χειμὼν ἦν J 10:22; ἦν δὲ νύξ (sim. Jos., Bell. 4, 64) 13:30; ψύχος it was cold 18:18; καύσων ἔσται it will be hot Lk 12:55.
    to take place as a phenomenon or event, take place, occur, become, be, be in (Hom., Thu. et al.; LXX; En 104:5; 106:6.—Cp. Just., D. 82, 2 of Christ’s predictions ὅπερ καὶ ἔστι ‘which is in fact the case’.) ἔσται θόρυβος τοῦ λαοῦ a popular uprising Mk 14:2. γογγυσμὸς ἦν there was (much) muttering J 7:12. σχίσμα there was a division 9:16; 1 Cor 1:10; 12:25. ἔριδες … εἰσίν quarrels are going on 1:11. δεῖ αἱρέσεις εἶναι 11:19. θάνατος, πένθος, κραυγή, πόνος ἔσται Rv 21:4. ἔσονται λιμοὶ κ. σεισμοί Mt 24:7. Hence τὸ ἐσόμενον what was going to happen (Sir 48:25) Lk 22:49. πότε ταῦτα ἔσται; when will this happen? Mt 24:3. πῶς ἔσται τοῦτο; how can this be? Lk 1:34. Hebraistically (הָיָה; s. KBeyer, Semitische Syntax im NT, ’62, 63–65) καὶ ἔσται w. fut. of another verb foll. and it will come about that Ac 2:17 (Jo 3:1); 3:23 (w. δέ); Ro 9:26 (Hos 2:1).—W. dat. ἐστί τινι happen, be granted, come, to someone (X., An. 2, 1, 10; Jos., Ant. 11, 255; Just., D. 8, 4 σοὶ … ἔλεος ἔσται παρὰ θεοῦ) Mt 16:22; Mk 11:24; Lk 2:10; GJs 1:1; 4:3; 8:3; τί ἐστίν σοι τοῦτο, ὅτι what is the matter with you, that GJs 17:2.—Of becoming or turning into someth. become someth. εἰς χολὴν πικρίας εἶναι become bitter gall Ac 8:23. εἰς σάρκα μίαν Mt 19:5; Mk 10:8; 1 Cor 6:16; Eph 5:31 (all Gen 2:24. Cp. Syntipas p. 42, 24 οὐκ ἔτι ἔσομαι μετὰ σοῦ εἰς γυναῖκα); τὰ σκολιὰ εἰς εὐθείας Lk 3:5 (Is 40:4); εἰς πατέρα 2 Cor 6:18; Hb 1:5 (2 Km 7:14; 1 Ch 22:10; 28:6); εἰς τὸ ἕν 1J 5:8. Serve as someth. (IPriene 50, 39 [c. II B.C.] εἶναι εἰς φυλακὴν τ. πόλεως; Aesop., Fab. 28 H.=18 P.; 26 Ch.; 18 H-H. εἰς ὠφέλειαν; Gen 9:13; s. also εἰς 4d) 1 Cor 14:22; Col 2:22; Js 5:3.—Of something being ἀνεκτότερον ἔσται it will be more tolerable τινί for someone Lk 10:12, 14.
    to exist as possibility ἔστιν w. inf. foll. it is possible, one can (Περὶ ὕψους 6; Diog. L. 1, 110 ἔστιν εὑρεῖν=one can find; Just., A I, 59, 10 ἔστι ταῦτα ἀκοῦσαι καὶ μαθεῖν; D. 42, 3 ἰδεῖν al.; Mel., P. 19, 127); neg. οὐκ ἔστιν νῦν λέγειν it is not possible to speak at this time Hb 9:5. οὐκ ἔστιν φαγεῖν it is impossible to eat 1 Cor 11:20 (so Hom. et al.; UPZ 70, 23 [152/151 B.C.] οὐκ ἔστι ἀνακύψαι με πώποτε … ὑπὸ τῆς αἰσχύνης; 4 Macc 13:5; Wsd 5:10; Sir 14:16; 18:6; EpJer 49 al.; EpArist 163; Jos., Ant. 2, 335; Ath. 22, 3 ἔστιν εἰπεῖν).
    to have a point of derivation or origin, be,/come from somewhere ἐκ τῆς ἐξουσίας Ἡρῴδου from Herod’s jurisdiction Lk 23:7; ἐκ Ναζαρέτ (as an insignificant place) J 1:46; ἐκ τῆς γῆς 3:31; ἐκ γυναικός 1 Cor 11:8 al. ἐξ οὐρανοῦ, ἐξ ἀνθρώπων be of heavenly (divine), human descent Mt 21:25; Mk 11:30; Lk 20:4. Be generated by (cp. Sb 8141, 21f [ins I B.C.] οὐδʼ ἐκ βροτοῦ ἤεν ἄνακτος, ἀλλὰ θεοῦ μεγάλου ἔκγονος; En 106:6) Mt 1:20. Esp. in Johannine usage ἐκ τοῦ διαβόλου εἶναι originate from the devil J 8:44; 1J 3:8. ἐκ τοῦ πονηροῦ 3:12; ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου J 15:19; 17:14, 16; 1J 4:5. ἐκ τῆς ἀληθείας εἶναι 2:21; J 18:37 etc. Cp. 9 end.
    to belong to someone or someth. through association or genetic affiliation, be, belong w. simple gen. (X., Hell. 2, 4, 36; Iambl., Vi. Pyth. 33, 230 τῶν Πυθαγορείων) οἱ τῆς ὁδοῦ ὄντες those who belong to the Way Ac 9:2. εἰμὶ Παύλου I belong to Paul 1 Cor 1:12; 3:4; cp. Ro 8:9; 2 Cor 10:7; 1 Ti 1:20; Ac 23:6. ἡμέρας εἶναι belong to the day 1 Th 5:8, cp. vs. 5. W. ἔκ τινος 1 Cor 12:15f; Mt 26:73; Mk 14:69f; Lk 22:58 al. (cp. X., Mem. 3, 6, 17; oft LXX). ἐκ τοῦ ἀριθμοῦ τῶν δώδεκα belong to the twelve 22:3. ὅς ἐστιν ἐξ ὑμῶν who is a fellow-countryman of yours Col 4:9.—To belong through origin 2 Cor 4:7. Of Mary: ἦν τῆς φυλῆς τοῦ Δαυίδ was of David’s line GJs 10:1. Cp. 8 above.
    to have someth. to do with someth. or someone, be. To denote a close relationship ἐξ ἔργων νόμου εἶναι rely on legal performance Gal 3:10. ὁ νόμος οὐκ ἔστιν ἐκ πίστεως the law has nothing to do with faith vs. 12.—To denote a possessor Mt 5:3, 10; l9:14; Mk 12:7; Lk 18:16; 1 Cor 6:19. Esp. of God who owns the Christian Ac 27:23; 1 Cor 3:23; 2 Ti 2:19 (Num 16:5). οὐδʼ εἶναι τὸν κόσμον θεοῦ, ἀλλὰ ἀγγέλων AcPlCor 1:15 (cp. Just., A II, 13, 4 ὅσα … καλῶς εἴρηται, ἡμῶν τῶν χριστιανῶν ἐστι).—W. possess. pron. ὑμετέρα ἐστὶν ἡ βασιλεία Lk 6:20. οὐκ ἔστιν ἐμὸν δοῦναι Mk 10:40 (cp. Just., A I, 4, 2 ὑμέτερον ἀγωνιᾶσαί ἐστι ‘it is a matter for your concern’).—To denote function (X., An. 2, 1, 4) οὐχ ὑμῶν ἐστιν it is no concern of yours Ac 1:7—Of quality παιδεία οὐ δοκεῖ χαρᾶς εἶναι discipline does not seem to be (partake of) joy Hb 12:11.—10:39.
    as an auxiliary: very commonly the simple tense forms are replaced by the periphrasis εἶναι and the ptc. (B-D-F §352–55; Mlt. 225–27, 249; Mlt-H. 451f; Rdm.2 102, 105, 205; Kühner-G. I 38ff; Rob. 374–76, 1119f; CTurner, Marcan Usage: JTS 28, 1927 349–51; GKilpatrick, BT 7, ’56, 7f; very oft. LXX).
    (as in Hom et al.) w. the pf. ptc. to express the pf., plpf. and fut. pf. act. and pass. (s. Mayser 329; 377) ἦσαν ἐληλυθότες they had come Lk 5:17. ἦν αὐτῶν ἡ καρδία πεπωρωμένη their hearts were hardened Mk 6:52. ἠλπικότες ἐσμέν we have set our hope 1 Cor 15:19. ὁ καιρὸς συνεσταλμένος ἐστίν the time has become short 7:29. ἦν ἑστώς (En 12:3) he was standing (more exactly he took his stand) Lk 5:1.
    w. pres. ptc. (B-D-F §353).
    α. to express the pres. ἐστὶν προσαναπληροῦσα τὰ ὑστερήματα supplies the wants 2 Cor 9:12 (Just., A I, 26, 5 Μαρκίων … καὶ νῦν ἔτι ἐστὶ διδάσκων; Mel., P. 61, 441 ἐστὶν … κηρυσσόμενον).
    β. impf. or aor. ἦν καθεύδων he was sleeping Mk 4:38. ἦσαν ἀναβαίνοντες … ἦν προάγων 10:32; cp. Lk 1:22; 5:17; 11:14 al. (JosAs 1:3 ἦν συνάγων τὸν σίτον; Mel., P. 80, 580 ἦσθα εὐφραινόμενος). ἦν τὸ φῶς τὸ ἀλήθινόν … ἐρχόμενον εἰς τὸν κόσμον the true light entered the world J 1:9, w. ἦν introducing a statement in dramatic contrast to the initial phrase of vs. 8.—To denote age (Demetr.: 722 Fgm. 1, 2 al. Jac.; POxy 275, 9 [66 A.D.] οὐδέπω ὄντα τῶν ἐτῶν; Tob 14:11) Mk 5:42; Lk 3:23; Ac 4:22; GJs 12:3.—Mussies 304–6.
    γ. fut. ἔσῃ σιωπῶν you will be silent Lk 1:20; cp. 5:10; Mt 24:9; Mk 13:13; Lk 21:17, 24 al.; 2 Cl 17:7 Bihlm. (the child) shall serve him (God).
    w. aor. ptc. as plpf. (Aelian, NA 7, 11; Hippiatr. 34, 14, vol. I p. 185, 3 ἦν σκευάσας; ISyriaW 2070b ἦν κτίσας; AcThom 16; 27 [Aa II/2 p. 123, 2f; p. 142, 10]; B-D-F §355 m.—JVogeser, Z. Sprache d. griech. Heiligenlegenden, diss. Munich 1907, 14; JWittmann, Sprachl. Untersuchungen zu Cosmas Indicopleustes, diss. Munich 1913, 20; SPsaltes, Gramm. d. byzant. Chroniken 1913, 230; Björck [διδάσκω end] 75; B-D-F §355). ἦν βληθείς had been thrown Lk 23:19; J 18:30 v.l.—GPt 6:23; 12:51. (Cp. Just., A II, 10, 2 διʼ εὑρέσεως … ἐστὶ πονηθέντα αὐτοῖς ‘they achieved through investigation’).
    Notice esp. the impersonals δέον ἐστίν it is necessary (Pla. et al.; POxy 727, 19; Sir praef. ln. 3; 1 Macc 12:11 δέον ἐστὶν καὶ πρέπον) Ac 19:36; εἰ δέον ἐστίν if it must be 1 Pt 1:6 (s. δεῖ 2a); 1 Cl 34:2; πρέπον ἐστίν it is appropriate (Pla. et al.; POxy 120, 24; 3 Macc 7:13) Mt 3:15; 1 Cor 11:13.
    In many cases the usage w. the ptc. serves to emphasize the duration of an action or condition (BGU 183, 25 ἐφʼ ὸ̔ν χρόνον ζῶσα ᾖ Σαταβούς); JosAs 2:1 ἦν … ἐξουθενοῦσα καὶ καταπτύουσα πάντα ἄνδρα). ἦν διδάσκων he customarily taught Mk 1:22; Lk 4:31; 19:47. ἦν θέλων he cherished the wish 23:8. ἦσαν νηστεύοντες they were keeping the fast Mk 2:18. ἦσαν συλλαλοῦντες they were conversing for a while 9:4. ἦν προσδεχόμενος he was waiting for (the kgdm.) 15:43. ἦν συγκύπτουσα she was bent over Lk 13:11.
    to emphasize the adjectival idea inherent in the ptc. rather than the concept of action expressed by the finite verb ζῶν εἰμι I am alive Rv 1:18. ἦν ὑποτασσόμενος he was obedient Lk 2:51. ἦν ἔχων κτήματα πολλά he was very rich Mt 19:22; Mk 10:22. ἴσθι ἐξουσίαν ἔχων you shall have authority Lk 19:17 (Lucian, Tim. 35 ἴσθι εὐδαιμονῶν). ἦν καταλλάσσων (God) was reconciling 2 Cor 5:19 (cp. Mel., P. 83, 622 οὗτος ἦν ὁ ἐκλεξάμενός σε; Ath. 15, 2 οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ … καρπούμενος).—LMcGaughy, Toward a Descriptive Analysis of ΕΙΝΑΙ as a Linking Verb in the Gk. NT, diss. Vanderbilt, ’70 (s. esp. critique of treatment of εἰμί in previous edd. of this lexicon pp. 12–15).—Mlt. 228. B. 635. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > εἰμί

  • 15 ζάω

    ζάω contr. ζῶ (Hom.+) impf. ἔζων (Ro 7:9 B ἔζην; on this form s. Schwyzer I 675; B-D-F §88; Mlt-H. 194, both w. ref.); fut. ζήσω (uniformly attested Ro 6:2; Hb 12:9); the later (since Hippocr. VII p. 536 L.; LXX; AscIs 3:9; Jos., Ant. 1, 193 al.) form ζήσομαι (B-D-F §77; Rob. 356) is more common (on the fut. forms s. JLee, NovT 22, ’80, 289–98; GKilpatrick, ibid. 25, ’83, 146–51); 1 aor. ἔζησα. On the LXX usage s. Thackeray 269; for forms in pap, Gignac II 370.
    to be alive physically, live
    of physical life in contrast to death
    α. gener. Ac 22:22; Ro 7:1, 2, 3; 14:8ac; 1 Cor 7:39; 2 Cor 5:15a; 6:9; Hb 9:17. ψυχὴ ζῶσα a living soul (Gen 1:20 al.; Just., D. 6, 1 ζῇ ψυχῇ) 1 Cor 15:45 (Gen 2:7); Rv 16:3 v.l. ὅσα ἔτη ζῇ as many years as he lives B 10:6 (cp. SIG 663, 6; Sb 173, 6 Αὐρήλιος ζήσας ἔτη νε´; En 10:10). τὸ ζῆν life (Attic wr., ins, pap, LXX) ὥστε ἐξαπορηθῆναι ἡμᾶς καὶ τοῦ ζῆν so that we even despaired of life 2 Cor 1:8. διὰ παντὸς τοῦ ζῆν during the whole lifetime Hb 2:15 (cp. Diod S 1, 74, 3 διατελεῖν πάντα τὸν τοῦ ζῆν χρόνον; 4, 46, 4). ἔτι ζῶν while he was still living= before his death Mt 27:63 (CB I/2 660 no. 618 Ζώσιμος ἔτι ζῶν κατεσκεύασεν; 3 Km 12:6). ζῶντες ἐβλήθησαν … εἰς τὴν λίμνην τοῦ πυρός they were thrown alive into the lake of fire Rv 19:20. ζῶσα τέθνηκεν though alive she is dead 1 Ti 5:6 (cp. Sextus 7). ἡμεῖς οἱ ζῶντες we during our (earthly) life 2 Cor 4:11; the same phrase= we who are still living 1 Th 4:15, 17. Here the opp. is νεκροί, as in Mt 22:32; Mk 12:27; Lk 20:38a. ζῶντες καὶ νεκροί the living and the dead Ac 10:42; Ro 14:9b; 2 Ti 4:1; 1 Pt 4:5; 2 Cl 1:1; B 7:2.—Occasionally the contrast betw. νεκρός and ζῆν is used fig. with ref. to the realm of religion and ethics Lk 15:24 v.l., 32.
    β. of dead persons who return to life become alive again: of humans in general (3 Km 17:23) Mt 9:18; Ac 9:41; 20:12; Rv 20:4, 5; AcPl Ha 11, 7. Of Jesus Mk 16:11; Lk 24:5, 23; Ac 1:3; 25:19; Ro 14:9a; 2 Cor 13:4a; Rv 1:18b; 2:8 (Just., D. 69, 6 νεκροὺς … ζῆν ποιήσας).
    γ. of sick persons, if their illness terminates not in death but in recovery be well, recover (Artem. 4, 4 ἔζησεν ὁ παῖς=became well; 5, 71; 72; PGM 1, 188; 4 Km 1:2; 8:8 εἰ ζήσομαι ἐκ τῆς ἀρρωστίας μου ταύτης; Jos., Vi. 421) Mk 5:23; J 4:50, 51, 53.—Of removal of anxiety 1 Th 3:8.
    δ. also of healthy persons live on, remain alive (X., An. 3, 2, 39 ὅστις δὲ ζῆν ἐπιθυμεῖ πειράσθω νικᾶν; Ep. 56 of Apollonius of Tyana [Philostrat. I 359, 14]; ApcMos 31 διὰ τί σὺ ἀποθνῄσκεις καγὼ ζῶ;) Ac 25:24; 28:4. ἐὰν ὁ κύριος θελήσῃ ζήσομεν Js 4:15. ὸ̓ς ἔχει τὴν πληγὴν τῆς μαχαίρης καὶ ἔζησεν Rv 13:14.
    ε. of beings that in reality, or as they are portrayed, are not subject to death: of Melchizedek Hb 7:8 (opp. ἀποθνῄσκοντες ἄνθρωποι). Jesus as everlasting high priest πάντοτε ζῶν 7:25.—In this sense it is most comprehensively applied to God (s. CBurchard, Untersuch. zu JosAs p. 103) (ὁ) θεὸς (ὁ) ζῶν (cp. 4 Km 19:4, 16; Is 37:4, 17; Hos 2:1; Da 6:21 Theod.; 3 Macc 6:28; TestAbr A 17 p. 99, 10 [Stone p. 46]; TestJob 37:2; JosAs 49:3 al.; SibOr 3, 763; POxy 924, 11 [IV A.D., Gnostic]; PGM 4, 1038 ὁ μέγας ζῶν θεός; 7, 823; 12, 79; Philo, Decal. 67 ὁ ζῶν ἀεὶ θεός; Orig., C. Cels. 8, 59, 18.—The phrase ‘the living God’ is not found in Joseph.) Mt 16:16; 26:63; J 6:69 v.l.; Ac 14:15; Ro 9:26 (Hos 2:1); 2 Cor 3:3; 6:16; 1 Th 1:9; 1 Ti 3:15; 4:10; 6:17 v.l.; Hb 3:12; 9:14; 10:31; 12:22; Rv 1:18a; 4:10; 7:2; 10:6; 2 Cl 20:2; GJs 20:1; AcPl Ha 2, 32; also ὁ ζῶν πατήρ J 6:57. W. the addition εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων Rv 15:7; cp. 4:9 (cp. Tob 13:2; Sir 18:1). God takes a sovereign oath in the words ζῶ ἐγώ as surely as I live (Num 14:28 al.) Ro 14:11 (Is 49:18; classical parallels GStählin, NovT 5, ’62, 142 n. 2). ζῇ κύριος ὁ θεός [μου] as surely as the Lord my God lives GJs 4:1; 6:1; 13:3; 15:3; 19:3 (Judg 8:19; 1 Km 25:34 al; GrBar 1:7; cp. ApcEsdr 2:7); in expanded form καὶ ζῇ ὁ Χριστὸς αὐτοῦ 15:4 (s. deStrycker ad loc.).—Christ lives διὰ τὸν πατέρα because of the Father J 6:57b (s. Bultmann, comm. ad loc.).
    w. mention of that upon which life depends ἐπί τινι on the basis of someth. (Andoc. 1, 100; Isocr. 10, 18; Ael. Aristid. 28, 103 K.=49 p. 525 D.) ζ. ἐπʼ ἄρτῳ live on bread Mt 4:4; Lk 4:4 (both Dt 8:3). ζ. ἔκ τινος obtain one’s living fr. someth. (Aristoph., Eccl. 591; Demosth. 57, 36; POxy 1117, 19; 1557, 12; TestJob 47:1f) 1 Cor 9:14.
    w. more precise mention of the sphere (Artem. 3, 62 ἐν ἀγορᾷ ζ.=spend his life in the marketplace) ζ. ἐν σαρκί live in the flesh in contrast to the heavenly life Phil 1:22; Gal 2:20c; ζ. ἐν κόσμῳ live in the world Col 2:20. ζ. ἐν θεῷ, live in God (as the Being who penetrates and embraces everything) Ac 17:28 (s. κινέω 3). For AcPl Ha 1, 15 s. 2a end.
    to live in a transcendent sense, live, of the sanctified life of a child of God (ζῆν in the sense of a higher type of life than the animal: X., Mem. 3, 3, 11; Cass. Dio 69, 19: after years of public service, Similis retires and prepares this epitaph: Σίμιλις ἐνταύθα κεῖται βιοὺς μὲν ἔτη τόσα, ζήσας δὲ ἔτη ἑπτά=Here lies Similis, existing for so many years, but alive for only seven.).
    in the world ἐγὼ ἔζων χωρὶς νόμου ποτέ I was once (truly) alive without law (this has been interpr. to mean when no law existed; Paul is then regarded as speaking fr. the viewpoint of humanity in paradise before the command Gen 2:16 f; 3:3. Another interpr. thinks of Paul as referring to the period in his life when he was not conscious of the existence and significance of the law. In view of Paul’s climactic affirmation in Ro 7:25, Paul probably illustrates in the first person the perils of a Christian who succumbs to the illusion that moral action is connected with law rather than with the ‘spirit of life in Christ’ Ro 8:2) Ro 7:9. Even now those who listen to the voice of the Son of God enjoy this life J 5:25; cp. 11:26; likew. those who receive him into their being ὁ τρώγων τὸν ἄρτον 6:57c; cp. Ro 6:11, 13 (ἐκ νεκρῶν ζῶντας); Gal 2:19; Rv 3:1. This heavenly life on earth is a ζ. πνεύματι Gal 5:25 or a life not of mere human achievement, but of Christ who lives in Christians 2:20ab. Also of the superhuman power of the apostle ζήσομεν σὺν αὐτῷ ἐκ δυνάμεως θεοῦ εἰς ὑμᾶς we shall live with him (Christ) through God’s power in our dealings with you 2 Cor 13:4. ὁ κύριος βούλεται ζῆν ἡμᾶς ἐν θεῷ=the Lord wills that we live under God’s direction AcPl Ha 1, 15 (opp. ἀποθανεῖν ἐν ἁμαρτίαις; s. 1c end)
    in the glory of the life to come (Sir 48:11; cp. Dt 4:1; 8:1; 30:16).
    α. abs. Lk 10:28; J 11:25; 14:19; Ro 8:13b; Hb 12:9. ἐμοὶ τ. ζῆν Χριστός= life is possible for me only where Christ is (hence death is gain) Phil 1:21 (s. OSchmitz, GHeinrici Festschr. 1914, 155–69). Another common interpr. is for me to live is Christ, i.e. while I am alive I experience real life in connection with Christ; w. death comes life in all fullness in the presence of Jesus.
    β. More specifically εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα have eternal life (Ps.-Lucian, Philopatr. 17 ζῆν εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα; PsSol 14:2) J 6:51, 58 (in J the blessed life which the follower of Jesus enjoys here and now in the body is simply continued in the heavenly life of the future. In other respects also the dividing line betw. the present and the future life is somet. nonexistent or at least not discernible); B 6:3; 8:5; 9:2; 11:10f; ἅμα σὺν αὐτῷ (i.e. Χριστῷ) ζ. live together with Christ 1 Th 5:10; ζ. διʼ αὐτοῦ (i.e. Chr.) 1J 4:9; ζ. κατὰ θεὸν πνεύματι live, as God (lives), in the Spirit 1 Pt 4:6. ὁ δίκαιος ἐκ πίστεως ζήσεται (cp. Hab 2:4) he that is just through faith will have life Ro 1:17 (AFeuillet, NTS 6, ’59, 52–80; but s. Fitzmyer, Ro [AB] ad loc.); Gal 3:11; Hb 10:38. This life is τὸ ἀληθινὸν ζῆν ITr 9:2; IEph 11:1. Christ is called τὸ ἀδιάκριτον ἡμῶν ζῆν our unshakable or inseparable life 3:2. τὸ διὰ παντὸς ἡμῶν ζῆν our total life 1 Mg 1:2—The law-directed pers. believes concerning legal performance: ὁ ποιήσας αὐτὰ ζήσεται ἐν αὐτοῖς (Lev 18:5) Gal 3:12; cp. Ro 10:5 (cp. Dio Chrys. 58 [75], 1 οἱ τοῦτον [= τ. νόμον] φυλάττοντες ἔχονται τῆς σωτηρίας=those who observe law have a firm grip on security).
    to conduct oneself in a pattern of behavior, live (Hom. et al.)
    used w. adverbs or other modifiers: adv. (Sallust. 19 p. 34, 25 κακῶς ζῆν [Just., A I, 4, 7]; SIG 889, 13ff; Wsd 14:28; Philo; Jos., Ant. 12, 198; Ath. 3, 1 δίκην θηρίων) ἀσώτως Lk 15:13. ἐθνικῶς and ἰουδαϊκῶς Gal 2:14. εὐσεβῶς 2 Ti 3:12. πανούργως Hm 3, 3. σωφρόνως κ. δικαίως κ. εὐσεβῶς Tit 2:12 (Plut., Mor. 1108c ζῆν σωφρόνως κ. δικαίως; cp. Diog. L. 10, 132; 140; Ar. 15, 10).—Φαρισαῖος live as a Pharisee Ac 26:5. ἐν πίστει Gal 2:20d. ἐν ἁμαρτίᾳ Ro 6:2; ζ. ἐν τούτοις live in these (sins) Col 3:7. κατὰ ἀλήθειαν in keeping w. the truth IEph 6:2 (cp. Philo, Post. Cai. 73 κατὰ βούλημα τὸ τοῦ θεοῦ ζ.; Jos., Ant. 4, 302 κατὰ τ. νόμους ζ.; Just., D. 47, 4 κατὰ τὸν νόμον; Orig., C. Cels. 7, 12, 7 κατὰ τὰς θείας γραφάς). κατὰ θεόν 8:1 (cp. SIG 910 A and B). κατὰ Ἰησοῦν Χριστόν IPhld 3:2. κατὰ Χριστιανισμόν live in accordance w. (our) commitment to Christ IMg 10:1. κατὰ σάρκα Ro 8:12f; Dg 5:8; κατὰ κυριακὴν ζ. (opp. σαββατίζειν) include the observance of the Lord’s day in one’s life IMg 9:1. Of a married woman ζ. μετὰ ἀνδρός live w. her husband Lk 2:36 (for the added acc. of extent of time cp. Ael. Aristid. 46 p. 332 D.; Pr 28:16; ἥτις ἔζησεν καλῶς μετʼ ἐμοῦ ἔτη 28, μῆνας 4, ἡμέρας 5: SEG II, 384, 6–8 [restored]; s. also FDanker, Jesus and the New Age ’88, 71).
    τινί live for someone or someth., for the other’s benefit (Hom. et al.; Demosth. 7, 17 οἳ οὐκ αἰσχύνονται Φιλίππῳ ζῶντες καὶ οὐ τῇ ἑαυτῶν πατρίδι; Dionys. Hal. 3, 17 … παῖδες, τῷ πατρὶ ζῶντες) ζ. τῷ θεῷ (4 Macc 7:19; 16:25; Philo, Mut. Nom. 13, Rer. Div. Her. 111; s. SAalen, NTS 13, ’67, 10) Lk 20:38b (cp. Soph., Ajax 970); Ro 6:10, 11; Gal 2:19; Hm 3:5; AcPl Ha 10, 7; τῷ κυρίῳ Ro 14:8b (cp. Plut., Cleom. 819 [31, 5]). For Christ 2 Cor 5:15; τῷ ἐμῷ βασιλεῖ AcPl Ha 9, 26 (restored after Aa I 112, 14) τῇ δικαιοσύνῃ ζ. 1 Pt 2:24; ἑαυτῷ ζ. live for oneself (Menand., Fgm. 646 Kö. οὐχ ἑαυτῷ ζῆν μόνον; Diod S 10, 33, 2 ζ. ἑαυτοῖς=live for themselves) Ro 14:7.
    to be full of vitality, be lively the ptc. is used fig. w. respect to things (cp. τῶν δένδρων τῶν ζῶντων ParJer 9:3), of spring water in contrast w. cistern water ὕδωρ ζῶν (Gen 26:19; Lev 14:5; Jer 2:13 v.l.; Zech 14:8.—Stagnant water is called ὕ. νεκρόν: Synes., Ep. 114, 254d) J 4:10f (Hdb. exc. on J 4:14); 7:38; D 7:1f (Wengst p. 77 n. 57). ζώσας πηγάς Rv 7:17 v.l.
    to be life-productive, offer life ptc. used w. respect to things (SIG 1173 [138 A.D.], 5 ζῶσαι ἀρεταὶ ἐγένοντο=miracles full of divine life occurred) λόγια ζῶντα words that meant life Ac 7:38. λόγος ζῶν θεοῦ 1 Pt 1:23; cp. Hb 4:12. ὁδὸς ζῶσα a living way 10:20. ἐλπὶς ζῶσα a living hope 1 Pt 1:3.—ζ. is also used of things which serve as descriptions of pers. who communicate divine life: of Christ ὁ ἄρτος ὁ ζῶν J 6:51a. λίθος ζῶν 1 Pt 2:4. Of Christians: θυσία ζῶσα a living sacrifice Ro 12:1. λίθοι ζῶντες 1 Pt 2:5.—τὰ παρὰ ζώσης φωνῆς καὶ μενούσης the (words) of a living and abiding voice Papias (2:4) (opp. ἐκ τῶν βιβλίων).—Lit. s. ζωή end. DELG s.v. ζώω.M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ζάω

  • 16 καταπέμπω

    καταπέμπω 1 aor. κατέπεμψα (Hes., Theog. 515; PEleph 10, 7 [III B.C.]; Joseph.; Just., D. 2, 1; Ath. 34, 2) send down, dispatch ὁ θεὸς … κατέπεμψε πνεῦμα διὰ πυρὸς εἰς Μαρίαν God sent down the (holy) Spirit via fire into Mary AcPlCor 2:13. πνεῦμα δυνάμεως … κατέπεμψεν εἰς σάρκα, τοῦτʼ ἔστιν εἰς τὴν Μαρίαν (God) sent down a spirit of power into (human) flesh, that is, into Mary AcPl Ha 8, 25–27.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > καταπέμπω

  • 17 κατασκηνόω

    κατασκηνόω (s. next entry and σκηνόω; X. et al.; oft. in Polyb. and Plut.; LXX; PsSol 7:6; JosAs cod. A 15:6, 16 [p. 61, 11; 65, 17 Bat.]; Mel., P. 45, 321) inf. κατασκηνοῦν Mt 13:32 and Mk 4:32 (-σκηνοῖν v.l. in these two pass.; B-D-F §91; W-S. §13, 25; Rdm.2 95; Mlt. 53; Mlt-H. 197) fut. κατασκηνώσω; 1 aor. κατεσκήνωσα.; pf 3 sg. κατεσκήνωκεν (Mel., P. 45, 321f [Ch.;-σεν Bodm. p. 76, ln. 9])
    to provide with an abode, cause to dwell, trans. (Ps 22:2) of the name in the hearts D 10:2.
    to take up an abode, live, settle, intr. (so mostly; Philo, Leg. All. 3, 46; Jos., Ant. 3, 202) of birds (Ps 103:12): ἐν τοῖς κλάδοις nest in the branches (Da 4:21 Theod.) Mt 13:32; Lk 13:19 (cp. JosAs 15). ὑπὸ τὴν σκιάν Mk 4:32.—Of humans live, dwell (Diod S 13, 96, 2; 14, 62, 3 ἐν τῷ νεῷ; 19, 94, 10 ἐν οἰκίαις; Ps 14:1; Jos., Ant. 9, 34) 1 Cl 58:1. ἡ σάρξ μου κατασκηνώσει ἐπʼ ἐλπίδι (Ps 15:9) my flesh will dwell ἐπʼ ἐλπίδι (ἐλπίς 1bα) Ac 2:26; cp. 1 Cl 57:7 (Pr 1:33). On a Christian gravestone (Sb 1540, 9 [408 A.D.]) κ. euphemistically means ‘rest’.—New Docs 3, 106. DELG s.v. σκεῦος. M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > κατασκηνόω

  • 18 κατευοδόω

    κατευοδόω (=εὐοδέω, ‘have free course or passage, prosper’, s. ὁδός; LXX; TestJud 1:6; ParJer 7:24 κατευοδόσῃ [C;-εύσῃ AB]) fut. 3 sg. κατευοδώσει Ps 67:20; 1 aor. pass. κατευοδώθην. Pass. in act. sense prosper (Achmes 13, 14; 39, 16; Cat. Cod. Astr. XII 128, 14; 162, 15) πάντα … κατευοδωθήσεται everything … will prosper B 11:6 (Ps 1:3). The same Ps pass. influences IMg 13:1, where the Gk. tradition κατευοδωθῆτε is to be preferred w. Lghtf., Funk, Bihlmeyer (Zahn changes it to κατευοδωθῇ): you prosper in everything you do, both in the flesh and in the spirit.—TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > κατευοδόω

  • 19 κατοικέω

    κατοικέω (s. four next entries) fut. κατοικήσω; 1 aor. κατῴκησα; pf. inf. κατῳκηκέναι (Just., D. 79, 2); aor. pass. subj. κατοικηθῶ LXX (s. οἰκέω; Soph., Hdt.+).
    to live in a locality for any length of time, live, dwell, reside, settle (down) intr.
    w. the place indicated by ἔν τινι (X., An. 5, 3, 7; IHierapJ 212 τῶν ἐν Ἱεραπόλει κατοικούντων Ἰουδαίων; PMagd 25, 2 [221 B.C.]; PTebt 5, 180; Lev 23:42; Gen 14:12; Philo, Sobr. 68; Jos., Vi. 31; PMert 63, 9) Lk 13:4 v.l.; Ac 1:20 (cp. Ps 68:26); 2:5 v.l. (for εἰς s. below); 7:2, 4a, 48; 9:22; 11:29; 13:27; 17:24; Hb 11:9; Rv 13:12; B 11:4; IEph 6:2; Hs 3:1. Also used w. εἰς and acc. (Ps.-Callisth. 1, 38, 3 εἰς φθαρτὰ σώματα ἀθανάτων ὀνόματα κατοικεῖ; schol. on Soph., Trach. 39 p. 281 Papag.; B-D-F §205; Rob. 592f) Mt 2:23; 4:13; Ac 2:5; 7:4b. εἰς τὰ τείχη Hs 8, 7, 3. εἰς τὸν πύργον 8, 8, 5. εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα τὸν ἐρχόμενον Hs 4:2. ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς live on the earth Rv 3:10; 6:10; 8:13; 11:10ab; 13:8, 14ab; 14:6 v.l.; 17:8. ἐπὶ παντὸς προσώπου τῆς γῆς live on the whole earth Ac 17:26. ἐπὶ ξένης (i.e. χώρας) Hs 1:6. ποῦ, ὅπου Rv 2:13ab. Abs. (CB I/2, 461 nos. 294 and 295 οἱ κατοικοῦντες Ῥωμαῖοι) ὑπὸ πάντων τῶν (sc. ἐκεῖ) κατοικούντων Ἰουδαίων by all the Jews who live there Ac 22:12.
    in relation to the possession of human beings by God, Christ, the Holy Spirit, and other transcendent beings, virtues, etc. (cp. Wsd 1:4; TestDan 5:1, TestJos 10:2f) ὁ θεὸς κ. ἐν ἡμῖν B 16:8. Of Christ Eph 3:17; cp. Hm 3:1. Of the Holy Spirit Hm 5, 2, 5; 10, 2, 5; Hs 5, 6, 5; ὁ κύριος ἐν τῇ μακροθυμίᾳ κ. m 5, 1, 3. ἐν αὐτῷ κ. πᾶν τὸ πλήρωμα τῆς θεότητος Col 2:9; cp. 1:19; ἐν οἷς δικαιοσύνη κ. 2 Pt 3:13 (cp. Is 32:16). ἡ μακροθυμία κατοικεῖ μετὰ τῶν τ. πίστιν ἐχόντων patience dwells with those who have faith Hm 5, 2, 3. Of spirit control or possession Mt 12:45; Lk 11:26 (κ. ἐκεῖ as Palaeph. 39 p. 44, 4).
    to make something a habitation or dwelling by being there, inhabit τὶ someth. (Demosth., Ep. 4, 7 τ. Ἰνδικὴν χώραν; Ps.-Aristot., Mirabilia 136; SIG 557, 17 τ. Ἀσίαν; PMagd 9, 1 [III B.C.]; PTor 4, 8 [117 B.C.] τὴν αὐτὴν πόλιν; Gen 13:7; Ezk 25:16; Philo, Leg. All. 3, 2; Jos., Vi. 27 Δαμασκόν) Ἰερουσαλήμ Lk 13:4; Ac 1:19; 2:14; 4:16. Cp. 2:9 (cp. Diod S 18, 11, 2 Μεσσήνιοι καὶ οἱ τὴν Ἀκτὴν κατοικοῦντες); 9:32, 35; 19:10, 17. οἱ κατοικοῦντες τὴν γῆν the inhabitants of the earth Rv 12:12 v.l.; 17:2. κ. πόλεις (Hdt. 7, 164) Dg 5:2. οἰκίας πηλίνας 1 Cl 39:5 (Job 4:19). ὅλον τὸν κόσμον Hs 9, 17, 1. Of God ὁ κ. τὸν ναόν the One who dwells in the temple (cp. Jos., Bell. 5, 458f) Mt 23:21; cp. Js 4:5 v.l.—DELG s.v. οἶκος II C. M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > κατοικέω

  • 20 κεράννυμι

    κεράννυμι 1 aor. ἐκέρασα. Pass.: aor. ἐκράθην, ptc. κερασθείς; pf. ptc. κεκερασμένος (Bel 11 LXX) (Hom. et al.; ins, pap, LXX, PsSol 8:14; Philo; SibOr 11, 126) gener. ‘mix’.
    to mix liquid components, mostly of water with wine (to dilute high alcoholic strength), mix, χολὴν μετὰ ὄξους=gall (mixed) with vinegar, supplied fr. the context containing the abs. κεράσαντες, GPt 5:16.—Fig. ἐν τῷ ποτηρίῳ ᾧ ἐκέρασεν κεράσατε αὐτῇ διπλοῦν in the cup in which she has mixed, mix her a double portion! Rv 18:6. But perh. κ. means pour (in), w. focus on the preparation of the drink, as 14:10 ἐκ τ. οἴνου τ. θυμοῦ τ. θεοῦ τ. κεκερασμένου ἀκράτου ἐν τῷ ποτηρίῳ τ. ὀργῆς αὐτοῦ (some) of the wine of God’s wrath, poured out unmixed (= full-strength [lit., in an oxymoron: ‘mixed unmixed’]; s. Jer 32:15) into the cup of God’s anger (cp. Anth. Pal. 11, 137, 12; Is 19:14; PsSol 8:14). See Charles, Comm. Rev. (ICC), ad loc.
    to make a mixture of various ingredients, make a mixture, fig. extension of mng. 1 (Oenomaus, Fgm. 6, in Eus., PE 5, 24, 7 ἐκέρασε τὸ λόγιον=he made the oracle a mixture [of favorable and unfavorable things]) κραθέντες τῇ σαρκὶ αὐτοῦ καὶ τῷ πνεύματι closely united w. his flesh and spirit ISm 3:2.—B. 335. DELG. M-M. TW.

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  • 2. THE HEIFER (al-Baqarah) — In the name of God, the Gracious, the Merciful. 1. Alif, Lam, Meem. 2. This is the Book in which there is no doubt, a guide for the righteous. 3. Those who believe in the unseen, and perform the prayers, and give from what We have provided for… …   Quran. Talal Itani translate

  • Mother of God —     The Blessed Virgin Mary     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► The Blessed Virgin Mary     The Blessed Virgin Mary is the mother of Jesus Christ, the mother of God.     In general, the theology and history of Mary the M …   Catholic encyclopedia

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