Translation: from greek to english

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εἰσὶν ἄνθρωποι

  • 1 ἐφάμερος

    ἐφᾱμερος, -ιος; ἐπᾱμερος, -ιος (v. Forssman, 11ff., Fränkel, W & F, 23ff.)
    a adj.
    I by day

    καίπερ ἐφαμερίαν οὐκ εἰδότες οὐδὲ μετὰ νύκτας ἄμμε πότμος ἅντιν' ἔγραψε δραμεῖν ποτὶ στάθμαν N. 6.6

    II daily, i. e. of the day, day by day

    τερπνὸν ἐφάμερον διώκων I. 7.40

    b subs., creature of a day, mortal ἐπάμεροι (sc. εἰσὶν ἄνθρωποι) P. 8.95 ὦ τάλας ἐφάμερε (Hermann: ἐφήμερε codd.: Silenos speaks to Olympos) fr. 157. ὦ πόποι, ο ἀπατᾶται φροντὶς ἐπαμερίων fr. 182.

    Lexicon to Pindar > ἐφάμερος

  • 2 ἐφάμεριος

    ἐφᾱμερος, -ιος; ἐπᾱμερος, -ιος (v. Forssman, 11ff., Fränkel, W & F, 23ff.)
    a adj.
    I by day

    καίπερ ἐφαμερίαν οὐκ εἰδότες οὐδὲ μετὰ νύκτας ἄμμε πότμος ἅντιν' ἔγραψε δραμεῖν ποτὶ στάθμαν N. 6.6

    II daily, i. e. of the day, day by day

    τερπνὸν ἐφάμερον διώκων I. 7.40

    b subs., creature of a day, mortal ἐπάμεροι (sc. εἰσὶν ἄνθρωποι) P. 8.95 ὦ τάλας ἐφάμερε (Hermann: ἐφήμερε codd.: Silenos speaks to Olympos) fr. 157. ὦ πόποι, ο ἀπατᾶται φροντὶς ἐπαμερίων fr. 182.

    Lexicon to Pindar > ἐφάμεριος

  • 3 ἐπάμεριος

    ἐφᾱμερος, -ιος; ἐπᾱμερος, -ιος (v. Forssman, 11ff., Fränkel, W & F, 23ff.)
    a adj.
    I by day

    καίπερ ἐφαμερίαν οὐκ εἰδότες οὐδὲ μετὰ νύκτας ἄμμε πότμος ἅντιν' ἔγραψε δραμεῖν ποτὶ στάθμαν N. 6.6

    II daily, i. e. of the day, day by day

    τερπνὸν ἐφάμερον διώκων I. 7.40

    b subs., creature of a day, mortal ἐπάμεροι (sc. εἰσὶν ἄνθρωποι) P. 8.95 ὦ τάλας ἐφάμερε (Hermann: ἐφήμερε codd.: Silenos speaks to Olympos) fr. 157. ὦ πόποι, ο ἀπατᾶται φροντὶς ἐπαμερίων fr. 182.

    Lexicon to Pindar > ἐπάμεριος

  • 4 άνθρωποι

    ἄνθρωπος
    man: masc nom /voc pl
    ——————
    ἄνθρωποι, ἄνθρωπος
    man: masc nom /voc pl

    Morphologia Graeca > άνθρωποι

  • 5 ανθρωποί

    ἀνθρωπόομαι
    to have the concept: pres subj mp 2nd sg
    ἀνθρωπόομαι
    to have the concept: pres ind mp 2nd sg

    Morphologia Graeca > ανθρωποί

  • 6 είσιν

    εἰσιν, εἰμί
    sum: pres ind act 3rd pl
    ——————
    εἴσειμι
    enter: imperf ind act 3rd pl (epic)
    εἶμι
    ibo: pres ind act 3rd sg

    Morphologia Graeca > είσιν

  • 7 εισίν

    εἰσιν, εἰμί
    sum: pres ind act 3rd pl

    Morphologia Graeca > εισίν

  • 8 εἴσιν

    Βλ. λ. είσιν

    Morphologia Graeca > εἴσιν

  • 9 ἄνθρωποι

    Morphologia Graeca > ἄνθρωποι

  • 10 εισιν

    εἰμί
    sum: pres ind act 3rd pl

    Morphologia Graeca > εισιν

  • 11 άνθρωποι

    people

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά νέο λεξικό (Greek-English new dictionary) > άνθρωποι

  • 12 εἰμί

    A sum), [dialect] Aeol. [full] ἔμμι Sapph.2.15, Theoc.20.32; Cret. [full] ἠμί GDI 4959a; [ per.] 2sg. εἶ, [dialect] Ep. and [dialect] Ion.

    εἰς Od.17.388

    , al., [dialect] Aeol. ἔσσι, [dialect] Ep. and [dialect] Dor.

    ἐσσί Il.1.176

    , Pi.O.6.90, Sophr.134;

    ἐσί GDI4959a

    ; [ per.] 3sg. ἐστί, [dialect] Dor.

    ἐντί IG12(1).677

    ([place name] Rhodes), Theoc.1.17, etc.; [ per.] 3 dual

    ἐστόν Th.3.112

    ; [ per.] 1pl. ἐσμέν, [dialect] Ep. and [dialect] Ion. εἰμέν (also in Pi.P.3.60),

    ἐμέν Call.Fr. 294

    , [dialect] Dor.

    εἰμές Theoc.15.73

    , but

    ἠμέν GDI5178.34

    ; [ per.] 3pl. εἰσί ([etym.] - ίν), [dialect] Ep. and [dialect] Ion. ἔασι ([etym.] - ιν) Il.7.73, Xenoph.8.1, Antim.29, Herod.4.84, [dialect] Dor.

    ἐντί Pi.N.1.24

    , Theoc.11.45, IG9(1).32.22 ([place name] Phocis), etc.: imper. ἴσθι (

    ἔσθι Hecat.361

    J.), [dialect] Ep. and Lyr. also in [voice] Med. form

    ἔσσο Od.3.200

    , Sapph.1.28, Maced.Pae.31, late Prose

    ἔσο Plu.2.241d

    , M.Ant.3.5, Hld.5.12, Porph.Marc.34; [ per.] 3sg. ἔστω (

    ἤτω LXXPs.103.31

    , and late Inscrr., CIG2664, al.; but in Pl.R. 361c leg. ἴτω), [dialect] Dor. εἴτω, ἤτω, Heraclid. ap. Eust.1411.21, Elean

    ἤστω Schwyzer 424

    ; [ per.] 3pl. ἔστωσαν, but

    ἔστων Hom.

    , Pl.R. 502a,

    ὄντων Id.Lg. 879b

    , and early [dialect] Att. Inscrr., IG12.22, etc. ( ἔστωσαν first in ii B. C., ib.22.1328), [dialect] Dor. ἐόντων ib.1126: subj. ὦ, ᾖς, ᾖ, [dialect] Ep.

    ἔω Od.9.18

    ; [ per.] 3sg.

    ἔῃ Il.12.300

    ,al. (also

    ἔῃσι 2.366

    , al., ᾖσι ([etym.] ν) 19.202, Hes.Op. 294), also [dialect] Boeot.

    ἔνθω IG7.3172.165

    ,

    μετείω Il.23.47

    and perh.

    εἴῃ 9.245

    , etc.; [dialect] Dor. [ per.] 3pl.

    ὦντι SIG940.3

    ([place name] Crete),

    ἔωντι GDI5040.14

    ([place name] Hierapytna), [dialect] Boeot.

    ἴωνθι IG7.3171.46

    (iii B. C.): opt. εἴην, -ης (

    εἴησθα Thgn.715

    ), -η, also ἔοις, ἔοι, Il.9.284, 142, al., cf. Hdt.7.6; [ per.] 3pl.

    εἴοισαν Ἀρχ. Ἐφ. 1911.133

    ([place name] Gonni); [ per.] 3 dual

    εἴτην Pl. Prm. 149e

    , Sph. 243e; [ per.] 1pl.

    εἶμεν E.Alc. 921

    (lyr.), Pl.; [ per.] 2pl.

    εἶτε Od. 21.195

    ; [ per.] 3pl.

    εἶεν Il.2.372

    , etc.,

    εἴησαν Hdt.1.2

    , etc.; Elean ἔα, = εἴη, SIG9 (vi B. C.), and σύν-εαν, = συνεῖεν, GDI 1149 (vi B. C.): inf. εἶναι, Arc.

    ἦναι SIG306.9

    (Tegea, iv B. C.); [dialect] Ep. ἔμμεναι (also [dialect] Aeol.

    ἔμμεν' Sapph.34

    ), ἔμμεν (also Pi.P.6.42, S.Ant. 623 (lyr.)), ἔμεναι, ἔμεν, also

    ἔμειν SIG1166

    ([place name] Dodona); [dialect] Dor. εἶμεν Foed. ap. Th.5.77,79, IG7.1.7 ([place name] Megara),

    ἦμεν Test.Epict.5.16

    , Tab.Heracl.1.75, Cret. ἦμεν or

    ἤμην Leg.Gort.1.15

    , al., GDI4998i 2, al., Megar.

    εἴμεναι Ar.Ach. 775

    ,

    εἴμειν IG12(1).155.100

    ([place name] Rhodes), 14.952 ([place name] Agrigentum); εἶν ib. 12(9).211.10 ([place name] Eretria), SIG135.4 ([place name] Olynthus), etc.: part. ὤν, [dialect] Ep. ἐών, ἐοῦσα, ἐόν, Cypr.

    ἰών Inscr.Cypr.135.23

    H.; [dialect] Boeot. fem.

    ἰῶσα IG 7.3172.116

    (Orchom.), [dialect] Aeol. and [dialect] Dor. fem.

    ἔσσα Sapph.75.4

    , IG4.952.2 (Epid.), Theoc.28.16,

    ἐοῖσα Pi.P.4.265

    ,

    ἔασσα Lyr.Alex.Adesp. 9

    , Diotog. ap. Stob.4.7.62,

    εὖσα Erinn.5.5

    (also [dialect] Ion., Herod.5.16,

    εὔντων 2.85

    ),

    ἐᾶσα Ti.Locr.96d

    , IG5(1).1470.8 ([place name] Messene),

    ἴαττα Leg.Gort.8.47

    ; acc. sg.

    εὖντα Theoc.2.3

    ; nom. sg. εἴς in Heraclid. ap. Eust.1756.13, pl.

    ἔντες Tab.Heracl.1.117

    ; dat. pl. ἔντασσι ib.104; gen. pl.

    παρ-έντων Alcm. 64

    : [tense] impf.

    ἦν Il.2.77

    , etc., [dialect] Ep. ἔον (also [dialect] Aeol., Alc.127, Sapph.Oxy. 1787 Fr.3 ii 21), in [dialect] Att. (dub. in [dialect] Aeol., Alc. Supp.14.9), Ar.Pl.77, Pl.Phd. 61b, etc., but usu. altered to ἦν in codd. (and ἦν is required by metre in E. Ion 280), [var] contr. from [dialect] Ep. and [dialect] Ion. ἦα (Il.5.808, al., IG12(8).449.2 ([place name] Thasos), whence Hom.and later [dialect] Ion.

    ἔᾱ Il.4.321

    , al.,

    ἔας Hdt.1.187

    ,

    ἔατε Id.4.119

    ); [dialect] Ep. [ per.] 3sg. ἦεν, always with ν in Hom.; ἔην as [ per.] 1sg., only Il.11.762 (s. v.l., al. ἔον), freq. as [ per.] 3sg. (generally before a consonant, so that ἔεν is possible), sts. also ἤην; [ per.] 2sg. ἦσθα, later ἦς (wh. is v.l. in Pi.I.1.26), sts. in LXX (Jd. 11.35, Ru.3.2,al.), cf. Pl.Ax. 365e, Erinn.4.4, Ev.Matt.25.21, al.,

    ἦσθας Men.Epit. 156

    , [dialect] Ep. ἔησθα; [ per.] 3sg. ἦν, [dialect] Ep. ἔην, ἤην, ἦεν (v. supr.), [dialect] Dor. and [dialect] Aeol.

    ἦς Alc.Supp.30.1

    , Epich.102, Sophr.59, Theoc.2.90, SIG241.145 (Delph.); [ per.] 3 dual

    ἤστην Il.5.10

    , E.Hipp. 387, Ar.Eq. 982, Pl.Euthd. 272a, al.; [dialect] Dor. [ per.] 1pl.

    ἦμες Plu.Lyc.21

    ; [ per.] 2pl.

    ἦτε Pl.Euthd. 276c

    ,

    ἦστε Ar. Pax 821

    , Ec. 1086; [ per.] 3pl. ἦσαν, [dialect] Ion. and Poet. ἔσαν (in Hes.Th. 321, 825, ἦν is not pl. for ἦσαν, but is rather a peculiarity of syntax, v. infr. v, but is [ per.] 3pl. in Epich.46, al., SIG560.15 (Epidamnus, iii B. C.)); [dialect] Aeol.

    ἔον Schwyzer 644.12

    ; later

    ἤμην PSI4.362.21

    (iii B. C.), SIG527.46 (Crete, iii B. C.), IGRom.4.1740 ([place name] Cyme), always in LXX as Ba.1.19, cf. Ev.Matt.23.30, Plu.2.174a, etc., and sts. in codd. of earlier writers, Lys.7.34, Trag.Adesp. 124 (cited from E. Hel. 931 by Choerob. and from Id.Tr. 474 by Aps.), X.Cyr.6.1.9, Hyp.Ath.26, [ per.] 2sg.

    ἦσο Epigr.Gr.379

    ([place name] Aezani), [ per.] 3sg.

    ἦστο Supp.Epigr. 1.455.7

    ([place name] Phrygia), [ per.] 1pl.

    ἤμεθα PPetr.2p.11

    (iii B. C.), LXX Ba.1.19, 1 Ki.25.16, Ep.Eph.2.3; subj.

    ὦμαι PBaden 48.12

    (ii B. C.), ἦται GDI 1696, ἦνται prob. in IG5(1).1390.83 ([place name] Andania); [dialect] Ion. and [dialect] Ep. also ἔσκον, used by A.Pers. 656 (lyr.): [tense] fut. ἔσομαι, ἔσται, [dialect] Ep. and [dialect] Aeol. also ἔσσομαι, ἔσεται, ἔσσεται; [dialect] Aeol. [ per.] 2sg. ἔσσῃ prob. in Alc.67,87; [dialect] Dor. 2 and [ per.] 3sg. ἐσσῇ, ἐσσεῖται, Il.2.393, 13.317, Theoc.10.5, [ per.] 3pl. ἐσσοῦνται Foed. ap. Th.5.77 codd. (but

    ἔσσονται Tab.Heracl.1.113

    ), inf.

    ἐσσεῖσθαι Sophr.57

    .—All forms of the [tense] pres.ind. are enclitic (exc. [ per.] 2sg. εἶ and [ per.] 3pl. ἔασι); but [ per.] 3sg. is written ἔστι when it begins a sentence or verse, or when it immediately follows οὐκ, καί, εἰ, ὡς, ἀλλά, or τοῦτ', Hdn.Gr.1.553 (also μή acc. to EM301.3); later Gramm. wrote ἔστι as Subst. Verb, Phot., Eust.880.22.
    A as the Subst. Verb,
    I of persons, exist,

    οὐκ ἔσθ' οὗτος ἀνήρ, οὐδ' ἔσσεται Od.16.437

    ; ἔτ' εἰσί they are still in being, 15.433, cf. S.Ph. 445, etc.;

    τεθνηῶτος.. μηδ' ἔτ' ἐόντος Od.1.289

    ; οὐκέτ' ἐστί he is no more, E.Hipp. 1162; οὐδὲ δὴν ἦν he was not long- lived, Il.6.131; ὁ οὐκ ὤν, οἱ οὐκ ὄντες, of those who are no more, Th.2.45,44; οἱ ὄντες the living, Plb.9.29.2; ὁ ὤν the Eternal, LXX Ex.3.14, al., Ph.1.289;

    θεοὶ αἰὲν ἐόντες Il.1.290

    ; ἐσσόμενοι posterity, 2.119;

    κἀγὼ γὰρ ἦ ποτ', ἀλλὰ νῦν οὐκ εἴμ' ἔτι E.Hec. 284

    ; ὡς ἂν εἶεν ἅνθρωποι might continue in being, Pl.Smp. 190c;

    ζώντων καὶ ὄντων Ἀθηναίων D.18.72

    , cf. Arist.GC 318b25; of things, εἰ ἔστι ἀληθέως [ἡ τράπεζα] Hdt.3.17, etc.; of cities,

    ὄλωλεν, οὐδ' ἔτ' ἐστὶ Τροία E.Tr. 1292

    , cf. Heracl. 491; δοκεῖ μοι Καρχηδόνα μὴ εἶναι censeo Carthaginem esse delendam, Plu.Cat.Ma.27; ἂν ᾖ τὸ στράτευμα be in existence, D.8.17; of money, to be in hand,

    τῶν ὄντων χρημάτων καὶ τῶν προσιόντων IG12.91.25

    ; τὰ ὄντα property, Pl.Grg. 511a, Plu.Ant.24, etc.; τὸ ἐσόμενον ἐκ .. future revenue from.., BCH46.420 (Olymos, i B. C.); of place, τὴν οὖσαν ἐκκλησίαν the local church, Act.Ap.13.1; of time, τοῦ ὄντος μηνός in the current month, BGU146.4, etc.; in office,

    ἱερέων τῶν ὄντων PPar.5.4

    (ii B. C.); αἱ οὖσαι [ἐξουσίαι] the powers that be, Ep. Rom.13.1.
    II of the real world, be, opp. become,

    γίγνεται πάντα ἃ δή φαμεν εἶναι Pl.Tht. 152d

    , etc.; τὸ ὄν Being, Parm.8.35, Protag.2, Pl.Ti. 27d, etc.; opp. τὸ μὴ ὄν, Gorg.Fr.3 D., etc.;

    οὐδὲν γίνεται ἐκ τοῦ μὴ ὄντος Epicur.Ep. 1p.5U.

    ;

    ἐξ οὐκ ὄντων ἐποίησεν αὐτὰ ὁ θεός LXX 2 Ma.7.28

    ; τὰ ὄντα the world of things, Heraclit.7, Emp.129.5, etc.; ὄνindecl., τῶν ὂν εἰδῶν species of Being, Plot.6.2.10.
    2 of circumstances, events, etc., to happen,

    τά τ' ἐόντα, τά τ' ἐσσόμενα, πρό τ' ἐόντα Il.1.70

    ;

    ἡ ἐσβολὴ ἔμελλεν ἔσεσθαι Th.2.13

    , etc.; τῆς προδοσίας οὔσης since treachery was there, Id.4.103; ἕως ἂν ὁ πόλεμος ᾖ so long as it last, Id.1.58;

    αἱ σπονδαὶ ἐνιαυτὸν ἔσονται Id.4.118

    ; τί ἐστιν; what is it? what's the matter? Ar.Th. 193; τί οὖν ἦν τοῦτο; how came it to pass? Pl.Phd. 58a: repeated with a relat. to avoid a positive assertion, ἔστι δ' ὅπῃ νῦν ἔ. things are as they are, i.e. are ill, A.Ag.67.
    III be the fact or the case, διπλασίαν ἂν τὴν δύναμιν εἰκάζεσθαι ἤ ἐστιν twice as large as it really is, Th.1.10; αὐτὸ ὅ ἐστι καλόν beauty in its essence, Pl.Smp. 211c, cf. Phd. 74b; freq. in part., τὸν ἐόντα λόγον λέγειν or φαίνειν the true story, Hdt.1.95, 116; τῷ ἐόντι χρήσασθαι tell the truth, ib. 30;

    τὰ ὄντα ἀπαγγέλλειν Th.7.8

    ; σκῆψιν οὐκ οὖσαν, λόγον οὐκ ὄντα, S.El. 584, Ar.Ra. 1052; τῷ ὄντι in reality, in fact, Pl.Prt. 328d, etc.; to apply a quotation to a case in point, τῷ ὄντι κλαυσίγελως real 'smiles through tears' (with allusion to Il.6.484), X.HG7.2.9, cf. Pl. La. 196d; κατὰ τὸ ἐόν according to the fact, rightly, Hdt.1.97; πᾶν τὸ ἐόν the whole truth, Id.9.11;

    τοῦ ἐόντος ἀποτεύξεται Hp.VM 2

    .
    IV folld. by the relat., οὐκ ἔστιν ὅς or ὅστις no one,

    οὐκ ἔσθ' ὃς.. ἀπαλάλκοι Il.22.348

    ;

    οὐκ ἔ. οὐδεὶς ὅς E.El. 903

    ; οὐκ ἔ. ὅτῳ, = οὐδενί, A.Pr. 293 (anap.), cf. 989: freq. in pl., εἰσὶν οἵ, = Lat. sunt qui, used exactly like ἔνιοι, Th.6.88, 7.44, Pl.Men. 77d, Grg. 503a, etc. ( εἰσί τινες οἵ .. Th.3.24); ἐστὶν ἃ χωρία, πολίσματα, Id.1.12,65;

    ἐστὶν ἃ εἰπεῖν Id.2.67

    ;

    ἦσαν οἵ X.An.5.2.14

    ; the sg. Verb is used even with masc. and fem. pl., ἐστὶν οἵ, αἵ, Hp.Fract.1, VC4, X.Cyr.2.3.16; more freq. in oblique cases,

    ποταμῶν ἐστὶ ὧν Hdt.7.187

    ;

    ἐστὶν ἀφ' ὧν Th.8.65

    ; ἐστὶ παρ' οἷς, ἐστὶν ἐν οἷς, Id.1.23, 5.25: in questions ὅστις is used, ἔστιν ἥντινα δόξαν.. ἀπεκρίνατο; Pl.Men. 85b: with relat. Particles, ἐστὶν ἔνθα, = Lat. est ubi, X.Cyr.7.4.15, etc.; ἐ. ὅπῃ, ἔσθ' ὅπου, somehow, somewhere, Pl.Prt. 331d, A.Eu. 517, S.OT 448, etc.; in questions expecting a neg. answer, ἐ. ὁπόθεν, ὅπως; Pl.Phlb. 35a, R. 493e, etc.;

    οὐ γάρ ἐσθ' ὅπως Pi.Fr.61

    , cf. Hdt.7.102, A.Ag. 620; οὐκ ἔ. ὅπως οὐ in any case, necessarily, Ar. Pax 188;

    οὐκ ἔ. ὡς Pl. Men. 76e

    , etc.; ἐ. ὅτε, ἔσθ' ὅτε, sometimes, Pi.Fr.180.2, S.Aj.56, Th. 7.21, etc.
    V ἦν is sts. used with pl. masc. and fem., usu. at the beginning of a sentence, there was,

    τῆς δ' ἦν τρεῖς κεφαλαί Hes.Th. 321

    ; (but in

    ἦν δ' ἐρῳδιοί τε πολλοί Epich.46

    , cf. 59, al., it may be taken as [dialect] Dor. [ per.] 3pl.);

    ἦν δ' ἀμφίπλεκτοι κλίμακες S.Tr. 520

    (lyr.); ἦν ἄρα κἀκεῖνοι ταλακάρδιοι Epigr. ap. Aeschin.3.184; less freq.

    ἔστι, ἔστι δὲ μεταξὺ.. ἑπτὰ στάδιοι Hdt.1.26

    , cf. 7.34;

    ἔστι.. ἄρχοντές τε καὶ δῆμος Pl.R. 463a

    ; before dual Nouns, Ar.V.58, Pl.Grg. 500d.
    VI ἔστι impers., c. inf., it is possible,

    ἔστι γὰρ ἀμφοτέροισιν ὀνείδεα μυθήσασθαι Il.20.246

    ;

    ἔστι μὲν εὕδειν, ἔστι δὲ τερπομένοισιν ἀκούειν Od. 15.392

    ; εἴ τί πού ἐστι (sc. πιθέσθαι) 4.193;

    τοιάδε.. ἐστὶν ἀκοῦσαι A. Pr. 1055

    (anap.);

    ἔστι τεκμήρια ὁρᾶν X.An.3.2.13

    , cf. Ar.Ra. 1163, Aeschin.3.105, D.18.272, Arist.Ath.53.6, etc.; so in imper., opt., and subj.,

    ἔστω ἀποφέρεσθαι τῷ βουλομένῳ IG12.10.7

    ;

    μυρία ἂν εἴη λέγειν Pl.Plt. 271e

    ;

    ὅπως ἂν ᾖ δρᾶν IG2.1054.91

    : more freq. in neg. clauses, Il.6.267, etc.; folld. by ὥστε c. inf., S.Ph. 656: c. acc. et inf.,

    ἁδόντα δ' εἴη με τοῖς ἀγαθοῖς ὁμιλεῖν Pi.P.2.96

    ;

    ἔστιν ἐκπεσεῖν ἀρχῆς Δία A.Pr. 757

    : sts. not impers. in this sense,

    θάλασσα δ' οὐκέτ' ἦν ἰδεῖν Id.Pers. 419

    .
    B most freq., to be, the Copula connecting the predicate with the Subject, both being in the same case: hence, signify, import,

    τὸ γὰρ εἴρειν λέγειν ἐστίν Pl.Cra. 398d

    ; esp. in the phrase τοῦτ' ἔστι, hoc est;

    Σκαιόλαν, ὅπερ ἐστὶ Λαϊόν Plu.Publ.17

    : with numerals, τὰ δὶς πέντε δέκα ἐστίν twice five are ten, X.Mem.4.4.7; εἶναί τις or τι, to be somebody, something, be of some consequence, v. τις; οὐδὲν εἶναι Pl.R. 562d, etc.
    2 periphr. with the Participle to represent the finite Verb: with [tense] pf. part. once in Hom., τετληότες εἰμέν, for τετλήκαμεν, Il.5.873; so in Trag. and [dialect] Att., ἦν τεθνηκώς, for ἐτεθνήκει, A. Ag. 869; ἔσται δεδορκώς ib. 1179;

    εἰμὶ γεγώς S.Aj. 1299

    ;

    πεφυκός ἐστι Ar.Av. 1473

    ;

    δεδρακότες εἰσίν Th.3.68

    ;

    κατακεκονότες ἔσεσθε X.An.7.6.36

    : with [tense] aor. part., once in Hom.,

    βλήμενος ἦν Il.4.211

    ; so προδείσας εἰμί, οὐ σιωπήσας ἔσει; S.OT90, 1146, cf. A.Supp. 460: with [tense] pres. part.,

    ἦν προκείμενον Id.Pers. 371

    ;

    φεύγων Ὀρέστης ἐστίν Id.Ch. 136

    ;

    εἴην οὐκ ἂν εὖ φρονῶν S.Aj. 1330

    ; τί δ' ἐστί.. φέρον; Id.OT 991, cf. 274, 708;

    λέγων ἐστίν τις E.Hec. 1179

    ;

    ἦν τίς σ' ὑβρίζων Id.HF 313

    ;

    πόρρω ἤδη εἶ πορευόμενος Pl.Ly. 204b

    ;

    βαδίζων εἰμί Ar.Ra. 36

    ; freq. in Hdt.,

    ἦσαν ἱέντες 1.57

    , al.; even

    εἰσὶ διάφοροι ἐόντες 3.49

    (s.v.l.):— if the Art. is joined with the Part., the noun is made emphatic, Κᾶρές εἰσι οἱ καταδέξαντες the persons who showed her were Carians, Id.1.171;

    αὐτὸς ἦν ὁ μαρτυρῶν A.Eu. 798

    ;

    δόλος ἦν ὁ φράσας S.El. 197

    (anap.).
    C εἶναι is freq. modified in sense by the addition of Advbs., or the cases of Nouns without or with Preps.:
    I εἶναι with Advbs., where the Adv. often merely represents a Noun and stands as the predicate,

    ἅλις δέ οἱ ἦσαν ἄρουραι Il.14.122

    , etc.; ἀκέων, ἀκήν εἶναι, to be silent, 4.22, Od.2.82;

    σῖγα πᾶς ἔστω λεώς E.Hec. 532

    ;

    διαγνῶναι χαλεπῶς ἦν ἄνδρα ἕκαστον Il.7.424

    ; ἀσφαλέως ἡ κομιδὴ ἔσται will go on safely, Hdt.4.134; ἐγγύς, πόρρω εἶναι, Th.6.88, Pl.Prt. 356e: freq. impers. with words implying good or ill fortune, Κουρήτεσσι κακῶς ἦν it fared ill with them, Il.9.551;

    εὖ γὰρ ἔσται E.Med.89

    , cf. Ar.Pl. 1188, etc.;

    ἡδέως ἂν αὐτοῖς εἴη D.59.30

    .
    II c. gen., to express descent or extraction,

    πατρὸς δ' εἴμ' ἀγαθοῖο Il.21.109

    ;

    αἵματός εἰς ἀγαθοῖο Od. 4.611

    , cf. Hdt.3.71, Th.2.71, etc.;

    πόλεως μεγίστης εἶ X.An.7.3.19

    .
    d to express that a thing belongs to another,

    Τροίαν Ἀχαιῶν οὖσαν A.Ag. 269

    ;

    τὸ πεδίον ἦν μέν κοτε Χορασμίων Hdt.3.117

    , etc.: hence, to be of the party of,

    ἦσαν.. τινὲς μὲν φιλίππου, τινὲς δὲ τοῦ βελτίστου D.9.56

    , cf. 37.53; to be de pendent upon, S.Ant. 737, etc.; to be at the mercy of,

    ἔστι τοῦ λέγοντος, ἢν φόβους λέγῃ Id.OT 917

    .
    e to express one's duty, business, custom, nature, and the like , οὔτοι γυναικός ἐστι 'tis not a woman's part, A.Ag. 940;

    τὸ ἐπιτιμᾶν παντὸς εἶναι D.1.16

    ; τὸ δὲ ναυτικὸν τέχνης ἐστίν is matter of art, requires art, Th.1.142, cf.83.
    III with the dat., ἐστί μοι I have, freq. in Hom., etc.
    3 with ἄσμενος, βουλόμενος, etc., added, ἐμοὶ δέ κεν ἀσμένῳ εἴη 'twould be to my delight, Il.14.108;

    οὐκ ἂν σφίσι βουλομένοις εἶναι Th.7.35

    ;

    προσδεχομένῳ Id.6.46

    ;

    θέλοντι S.OT 1356

    (lyr.);

    ἡδομένοις Pl.La. 187c

    .
    IV with Preps., εἶναι ἀπό τινος, = εἶναί τινος (supr. 11.a), X.Mem.1.6.9;

    εἰσὶν ἀπ' ἐναντίων αὗται πραγμάτων Pl.Phlb. 12d

    ; but εἶναι ἀπ' οἴκου to be away from.., Th.1.99.
    2 εἶναι ἔκ τινος to be sprung from, εἴμ' ἐκ Παιονίης, Μυρμιδόνων ἔξ εἰμι, Il.21.154, 24.397, etc.; ἔστιν ἐξ ἀνάγκης it is of necessity, i. e. necessary, Pl.Sph. 256d.
    3 εἶναι ἐν .. to be in a certain state,

    ἐν εὐπαθείῃσι Hdt.1.22

    ; ἐν ἀθυμία, etc., Th.6.46, etc.;

    ἐν ταραχαῖς D.18.218

    ; εἶναι ἐν ἀξιώματι to be in esteem, Th.1.130; οἱ ἐν τέλεϊ ἐόντες those in office, Hdt.3.18, etc.; but εἶναι ἐν τέχνῃ, ἐν φιλοσοφία to be engaged in.., S.OT 562, Pl.Phd. 59a.
    b ἐν σοί ἐστι it depends on thee, Hdt.6.109, S.Ph. 963;

    ἐν σοὶ γάρ ἐσμεν Id.OT 314

    ; so also

    ἐπί τινι Id.Ph. 1003

    , X.Cyr.1.6.2, etc.
    4 εἶναι διά .., much like εἶναι ἐν .., εἶναι διὰ φόβου, = φοβεῖσθαι, Th.6.34; εἶναι δι' ὄχλου, = ὀχληρὸν εἶναι, Id.1.73;

    εἶναι διὰ μόχθων X.Cyr.1.6.25

    ; εἶναι δι' αἰτίας, = αἰτιᾶσθαι, D.H.1.70; Geom., pass through,

    διὰ τᾶς ἑτέρας διαμέτρου ἐόντος τοῦ ἐπιπέδου Archim.Con.Sph.20

    .
    6 εἶναι πρός τινος to be in one's favour, Th.4.10,29, etc.; to suit, X.An. 1.2.11, etc.; εἶναι πρός τινι engaged in, Pl.Phd. 84c, Philostr.VA5.31; πρὸς τοῖς ἰδίοις mind one's own affairs, Arist.Pol. 1309a6, Ath.16.3;

    εἶναι πρὸς τὸ κωλύειν Plb.1.26.3

    ; πρὸς τὸ πονεῖν Telesp.46 H.;

    εἶναι περί τι X.An.3.5.7

    , etc.
    7 εἶναι παρά τινι or τινα, = παρειναι, Id.Cyr.6.2.15, Hdt.8.140.ά (s.v.l.).
    8 εἶναι ὑπό τινα or τινι to be subject to.., X.HG5.2.17 (s.v.l.), 6.2.4.
    9 περὶ τούτων ἐστίν that is the question, Men.Epit.30.
    10 εἶναι ἀπό .., in Geom., to be constructed upon, Archim.Sph.Cyl.2.9, Con.Sph.7.
    D ἐστί is very freq. omitted, mostly in the [tense] pres. ind. before certain predicates, as ἀνάγκη, ἄξιον, δυνατόν, εἰκός, ἕτοιμον, οἷόν τε, ῥᾴδιον, χρεών, etc., and after the neut. of Verbals in - τέος, and such forms as θαυμαστὸν ὅσον: less freq. with other persons and moods, εἰμί omitted, S.OT92, Aj. 813; εἶ, Od.4.206; ἐσμέν, S.Ant. 634; ἐστέ, Od.10.463; εἰσί, S.OT 499 (lyr.), IG2.778 B; subj. , Il.14.376, E.Hipp. 659, Antipho 5.32; opt. εἴη, IG22.1183.12; [tense] impf. ἦν, ib.2.778 B; [tense] fut. ἔσονται, Od.14.394.
    E the Inf. freq. seems redundant,
    1 in phrases implying power or will to do a thing, ἑκὼν εἶναι (v. ἑκών)

    κατὰ δύναμιν εἶναι Is.2.32

    ;

    εἰς δύναμιν εἶναι Pl.Plt. 300c

    ; τὸ ἐπ' ἐκείνοις εἶναι, quantum in illis esset, Th.8.48, X.HG3.5.9, cf. Lys.13.58;

    τὸ ἐπὶ σφᾶς εἶναι Th.4.28

    ;

    τὸ κατὰ τοῦτον εἶναι X.An.1.6.9

    ;

    κατὰ τοῦτο εἶναι Pl.Prt. 317a

    ; τὸ τήμερον, τὸ νῦν εἶναι, Id.Cra. 396e, La. 201c, Theopomp. Com.98, Decr. ap. Arist.Ath.31.2, etc.
    F [tense] impf. ἦνissts. used where other languages take the [tense] pres.,
    1 after ἄρα, to express a fact which is and has always been the same, δέρμα δὲ ἀνθρώπου.. ἦν ἄρα σχεδὸν δερμάτων πάντων λαμπρότατον human skin then it appears is.., Hdt.4.64;

    Κύπρις οὐκ ἄρ' ἦν θεός E. Hipp. 359

    ; ὡς ἄρ' ἦσθ' ἐμὸς πατὴρ ὀρθῶς ib. 1169;

    ἦ πολύμοχθον ἄρ' ἦν γένος.. ἁμερίων Id.IA 1330

    ;

    ἦ στωμύλος ἦσθα Theoc.5.79

    ; so also when there is reference to a past thought, τουτὶ τί ἦν; what is this? Ar.Ach. 157, cf. Pl.Cra. 387c: so in the Aristotelian formula τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι (APo.82b38, al.), used to express the essential nature of a thing, where τί ἦν (for ἐστί) takes the place of the dat. in such phrases as τὸ ἀγαθῷ εἶναι, τὸ μεγέθει εἶναι, APr.67b12, de An.429b10.
    G ἐγώ εἰμι, in LXX, pleonastic for

    ἐγώ, ἐγώ εἰμι οὐχ ἥμαρτον Jd. 11.27

    , cf. 6.18; also

    ἔσται πᾶς ἀποκτενεῖ με Ge.4.14

    .

    Greek-English dictionary (Αγγλικά Ελληνικά-λεξικό) > εἰμί

  • 13 νῦν

    νῦν (for [full] νυν, [full] νυ, v. infr. II), Adv.
    A now, both of the present moment, and of the present time generally, οἳ ν. βροτοί εἰσιν mortals of our day, Il.1.272 ; so in [dialect] Ion. and [dialect] Att., οἱ ν. [ἄνθρωποι] men of the present day, Hdt.1.68 ;

    οἵ γε ν. Pi.O.1.105

    , B.5.4, cf. Arist.Metaph. 1069a26 ; ὁ ν. τρόπος, τὸ ν. βαρβαρικόν, Th.1.6 ; Βοιωτοὶ οἱ ν. ib.12 ;

    ὁ ν. παρὼν χρόνος S.Tr. 174

    , al., Pl.Prm. 141e ;

    ἡμέρα ἡ ν. S.OT 351

    ;

    νὺξ ἡ ν. Id.Ant.16

    ;

    ἡ ν. ὁδός Id.El. 1295

    ;

    τὸ ν.

    the present,

    Arist.Ph. 218a6

    , al. ;

    ἀπὸ τοῦ ν. Pl.Prm. 152c

    , LXXGe.46.30, etc. ;

    ἀπὸ ν. AP5.40

    (Rufin.) ;

    ἕως τοῦ ν. LXXGe.46.34

    ; μέχρι ν. (v.l. μ. τοῦ ν.) D.S.17.110 ; τὰ ν. simply, = ν., Hdt.7.104, E.Heracl. 641, etc. ;

    τό περ ν. Pi. N.7.101

    ;

    τὰ δὲ ν. S.OC 133

    (lyr.) ;

    τὸ ν. εἶναι Pl.R. 506e

    , X.Cyr.5.3.42, Arist.Ath.31.2 ;

    τὸ ν. ἔχον Act.Ap.24.25

    .
    2 of the immediate past, just now, but now,

    ν. Μενέλαος ἐνίκησεν Il.3.439

    , cf. 13.772, Od. 1.43, S.OC84, X.Cyr.4.5.48 ;

    ν. γοῦν ἐπεχείρησας Pl.R. 341c

    ;

    ἡλίκα ν. ἐτραγῴδει D.18.13

    .
    3 of the future, presently,

    ν. αὖτ' ἐγχείῃ πειρήσομαι Il.5.279

    , cf. 20.307, Od.1.200 ;

    ν. φεύξομαι, τόθ' ἁγνὸς ὤν E.El. 975

    ; cf. νῦν δή, νυνί.
    4 sts. opp. to what might have been under other circumstances, as it is (or was), as the case stands (or stood), as a matter offact,

    ν. δ' ὁ μὲν ὣς ἀπόλωλε Od.1.166

    ;

    εἰ μὲν ὑπώπτευον, οὐκ ἂν.. ἐποιούμην· ν. δὲ κτλ. Th.4.126

    , cf. 1.122, 3.113, Pl. Cra. 384b, D.18.195, etc. ; καὶ ν. even so, X.An.7.4.24,7.7.17.
    5 coupled with other Particles,

    τὰ ν. γε S.Ph. 245

    , etc. ;

    ν. γε μάν Pi. P.1.50

    ; ν. δή, v. h. v. : with other expressions of Time, ν... σήμερον, ν. ἡμέρη ἥδε, Il.7.29, 13.828 ;

    ν. ἤδη

    henceforth,

    S.Ant. 801

    (anap.), etc. ;

    ν... ἄρτι

    but now,

    Pl.Cra. 396c

    .
    II enclit. (but see below) νυν, νυ. [νυ only [dialect] Ep., [dialect] Boeot., and Cypr. (also Arc. in ὅνυ, q. v.) ; νῠν twice in Hom., Il.10.105, 23.485 : ῡ?νῦνX in Trag. ([pron. full] A.Th. 242, 246, S.Ant. 705, E.Or. 1678, etc. ; [pron. full] S.Tr.92, E.Andr.91, etc.), [pron. full] in Com. (Ar.V. 1381, Pl. 975, al.), exc. Cratin.144, Ar.Th. 105 (lyr., citing Agatho), and perh. Nu.141 ; both quantities in τοίνυν, q.v.]
    1 rarely of Time, now, perh. so used in Il.10.105, cf. Parm.19.1, Pi. P.11.44, al., Epich.170.6.
    2 in [dialect] Ep. mostly as a particle of emphasis,

    ἧκε δ' ἐπ' Ἀργείοισι κακὸν βέλος· οἱ δέ νυ λαοὶ θνῇσκον Il.1.382

    , etc.: freq. coupled with other Particles or Conjs.,

    ἦ ῥά ν. 4.93

    ;

    καί νύ κεν 3.373

    ; οὔ ν., μή νύ τοι, 10.165, 1.28 ; ἐπεί νύ τοι ib. 416 ;

    ὥς νύ περ 2.258

    .
    3 in commands or entreaties,

    μή ν. μοι νεμεσήσετ' 15.115

    : freq. with other Advbs., δεῦρό ν. come now ! 23.485 ;

    ἐνταῦθά ν. ὕβριζε A.Pr.82

    , cf. Ar.Th. 1001, V. 149, Pl. 724 ;

    εἶά ν. Id. Pax 467

    , V. 430, Pl. 316 : freq. with imper., φέρε ν. ib. 789 ;

    ἄγε ν. Id. Pax 1056

    , V. 381 ;

    σπεῦδέ ν. Id.Pl. 414

    ;

    σίγαν. S.Aj.87

    , Cratin.l.c. ;

    περίδου ν. Ar.Nu. 644

    , cf. X.Cyr.5.3.21, etc. ;

    ὕφαινέ ν. B.18.8

    ; so in [dialect] Boeot.,

    ν. ἔνθω IG7.3172.88

    (Orchom.) ; also in Cypr. with opt. in commands, δυϝάνοι ν., δώκοι ν., Inscr.Cypr.135.6,16 H. ([place name] Idalion).
    4 in questions, τίς ν. ; τί ν. ; who, what, why now? Il.5.373, 1.414,4.31 ; ἦ νυ.. ; Od.6.125. [In signf. I always perispom. In signf. II perispom. exc. when short, Hdn.Gr.2.39, al. ; enclit. when short, sts. in codd., as Il.23.485 (Pap. in AJP21.304, etc. ; oxyt. when = δή, Tyrannioap.Hdn.Gr.2.27 ; καθ' ὁμαλισμόν or κατ' ἔγκλισιν when=δή, Sch.Ar.Pl. 414, Sch.A.R.1.664). In codd. usu. perispom. in both senses, A.Pr.82, Th. 242, 246, S.Ant. 705,El. 324, Ar.Pl. 414, V. 758, 922, etc. ; even νῠν is written νῦν in codd. vett. Pi. passim, also in S.Aj.87, Tr.92, etc. ; hence νυν may freq. be restored where the sense requires it. The accent of τοίνῡ?νῦνXν perh. shows that both νῠν and νῡν could be enclitic.—Position: in signf. I νῦν can occupy any position ; in signf. II it prefers (like other enclitics, but also like ἄν, δέ, γάρ, etc.) the second place in the sentence, e.g.

    πρός νύν σε πατρός S.Ph. 468

    , cf. OC 1333 ;

    ἀπό νύν με λείπετ' ἤδη Id.Ph. 1177

    (lyr.) ;

    μετά νυν δός E.Supp.56

    (lyr.) ; νυ (always enclitic) precedes other enclitics and allows only δέ to precede.] (Cf. Skt. nú, n[umacracute], nūnám, OE. 'now', etc.)

    Greek-English dictionary (Αγγλικά Ελληνικά-λεξικό) > νῦν

  • 14 ξένος

    ξένος, , [dialect] Ep. and [dialect] Ion. [full] ξεῖνος (also freq. in Pi., N.7.61, al., used by Trag. metri gr. even in trim., mostly in voc., S.OC33, al., E.IT 798 codd., El. 247), [dialect] Aeol. [full] ξέννος Hdn.Gr.2.302 ; scanned [pron. full] ¯ ?ξένοςX and written ξεῖνος in Theoc.28.6, 30.17: [dialect] Aeol. [comp] Sup. ξεννότατος Sch. Tz. in An. Ox. 3.356.18 (sed v. fin.).
    I guest-friend, applied to persons and states bound by a treaty or tie of hospitality, Od.1.313, etc. ;

    ξεῖνοι δὲ.. εὐχόμεθ' εἶναι ἐκ πατέρων φιλότητος 15.196

    ;

    ξ. πατρώϊός ἐσσι παλαιός Il.6.215

    ;

    ξ. δ' ἀλλήλων πατρώϊοι εὐχόμεθ' εἶναι Od.1.187

    ;

    φησὶ δ' Ὀδυσσῆος ξεῖνος πατρώϊος εἶναι 17.522

    ; later freq. coupled with

    φίλος, Πλούταρχος ὁ τούτου ξένος καὶ φίλος D.21.110

    , cf. 18.46, X.An.2.1.5, Lys. 19.19 ;

    βασιλέως πατρικὸς ξ. Pl.Men. 78d

    .
    2 of parties giving or receiving hospitality, Od.8.145, etc. ; mostly of the guest, opp. the host, ξεινοδόκοι καὶ ξεῖνος ib. 543, etc. ; ἁ ξείνα the visitor, Theoc.2.154 ; of guests at a club, opp. σύνδειπνοι, PTeb.118.4 (ii B. C.) : less freq. of the host, Il.15.532, A.R.1.208, Ep.Rom.16.23, etc.: c. dat.,

    ξεῖνός τινι Hdt.1.20

    ,22, cf. Th.2.13, X.An.1.1.10, etc. ; also ξ. τινός ib. 2.4.15.
    II stranger, esp. wanderer, refugee (under the protection of Ζεὺς ξένιος), sts. coupled with

    ἱκέτης, Ζεὺς ἐπιτιμήτωρ ἱκετάων τε ξείνων τε ξείνιος Od.9.270

    , cf. 8.546; with

    πτωχός, πρὸς γὰρ Διός εἰσιν ἅπαντες ξεῖνοί τε πτωχοί τε 6.208

    .
    III generally, stranger, foreigner, opp. ἔνδημος, Hes.Op. 225; opp. ἀστός, Pi.O.7.90, S.OC13, And.4.10, etc. ;

    πολιατᾶν καὶ ξ. Pi.I.1.51

    , cf. A. Th. 924 (lyr.), Pl.Grg. 473d, etc. ; opp. ἐπιχώριος, Id.Men. 94d: coupled with μέτοικος, Th. 4.90, cf. IG12.39.53 ; with ἔπηλυς, Luc.Herm.24 ; opp. a member of the family, PMasp.169.10 (vi A. D.), etc.
    b as a term of address to any stranger,

    ὦ ξένε E. Ion 247

    , Mosch.1.5, etc. ;

    ὦ ξένη Pl.Smp. 204c

    .
    2 = βάρβαρος, at Sparta, Hdt.9.11,55.
    IV hireling, Od.14.102 ; esp. mercenary soldier, IG12.949.89, X.An.1.1.10, D.18.152, etc. ;

    ξ. ναυβάται Th.1.121

    : rarely simply, ally, X.Lac. 12.3.
    B as Adj. [full] ξένος, η, ον (also ος, ον E.Supp.94), [dialect] Ion. [full] ξεῖνος, η, ον, foreign, not in Hom. (in the phrases

    ξεῖνε πάτερ Od.7.28

    ,

    ἄνθρωποι ξεῖνοι Il.24.202

    , both words are Subst.) ; freq. in later writers,

    ξείνα γαῖα Pi.P.4.118

    codd.;

    ξένης ἐπὶ χθονός S.OC 1256

    ; γᾶς ἐπὶ ξένας ib. 1705 (lyr., cf. ξένη); ἐν ξένῃσι χερσί by foreign hands, Id.El. 1141 ; ξ. δόμοι, πόλις, etc., E.Ph. 339 (lyr.), 369, etc. ; of alien property,

    ξ. ἄρουραι PMasp.295.22

    (vi A.D.).
    II c. gen. rei, strange to a thing, unacquainted with, ignorant of it,

    ξ. τοῦ λόγου S.OT 219

    , cf. AP4.3a.37 (Agath.);

    ξ. τῶν διαθηκῶν τῆς ἐπαγγελίας Ep.Eph.2.12

    , cf. BGU405.12 (iv A. D.). Adv. ξένως, ἔχω τῆς ἐνθάδε λέξεως I am a stranger to the mode of speech, Pl.Ap. 17d ;

    ἔχειν τῆς διαλέκτου Them. Or.21.253c

    .
    III strange, unusual,

    λόγοι A.Pr. 688

    (lyr.) ;

    τιμωρίαι Ti.Locr.104d

    ;

    ποιεῖν ξένην τὴν διάλεκτον Arist.Rh. 1404b11

    , cf. 1415a7 ;

    οὐδὲν ξ. ἐν τῷ παντὶ ἀποτελεῖται Epicur.Fr. 266

    ;

    τοῖς νέοις ποιεῖν ξένα τὰ φαῦλα Arist.Pol. 1336b34

    ;

    ξένα ταῖς ὄψεσι D.S.3.15

    ; ὡς ξένου συμβαίνοντος I Ep.Pet.4.12 ;

    διδαχαὶ ποικίλαι καὶ ξ. Ep.Hebr.13.9

    ;

    ξ. δαιμόνια Act.Ap.17.18

    : [comp] Sup.,

    πράξεων ὡς -οτάτων Phld.Herc.1251.5

    ;

    ξ. αὐτῷ δοκεῖ τὸ πρᾶγμα Luc.Cont.13

    , etc. Adv.

    ξένως, λαλεῖν Phld.P0.5.12

    .
    2 τοῦ πνεύματος.. ῥύσις ὡς -ωτάτη air as fresh as possible, Hp.Nat.Hom.9. (From ξένϝος, cf.

    πρόξενϝος IG9(1).867

    , Ξενϝάρης ib.869, Ξενϝοκλῆς, Ξένϝων, ib.4.315,348: hence it is improb. that the [dialect] Aeol. form was ξέννος.)

    Greek-English dictionary (Αγγλικά Ελληνικά-λεξικό) > ξένος

  • 15 τε

    τε, enclitic Particle, with two main uses (v. infr. A, B).
    A as a Conjunction,
    I τε.. τε, both.. and, joining single words, phrases, clauses, or sentences, the first τε merely pointing forward to the second,

    ἀνδρῶν τε θεῶν τε Il.1.544

    ;

    ἀγαθῶν τε κακῶν τε Hes.Op. 669

    ;

    δίψῃ τε λιμῷ τε A.Pers. 491

    , cf. S.Aj.34,35, Ar.Ach. 370, 375;

    τήν τε νῆσον τήν τε ἤπειρον Th.4.8

    , cf. Antipho 2.3.3, Pl. R. 373b;

    λυσόμενός τε θύγατρα, φέρων τ' ἀπερείσι' ἄποινα Il.1.13

    ; παῖδά τε σοὶ ἀγέμεν Φοίβῳ θ' ἱερὴν ἑκατόμβην ῥέξαι ib. 443; the elements joined by τε.. τε are usu. short in Hom., longer in later Gr., e.g.

    ἐπειδὴ πρόξενοί τέ εἰσιν Ἀθηναίων καὶ εὐεργέται.., ἔν τε τῇ στήλῃ γέγραπται IG12.103.7

    ;

    ἥ τε γὰρ γῆ.. εὔυδρός ἐστι, ποταμοί τε δι' αὐτῆς ῥέουσι Hdt.4.47

    ; χρὴ.. τούς τε πρεσβυτέρους ὁμοιωθῆναι τοῖς πρὶν ἔργοις, τούς τε νεωτέρους.. μὴ αἰσχῦναι κτλ. Th.4.92, cf. Pl.R. 474c, X.Cyr.1.4.25, Is.1.50; τά τε γὰρ ληφθέντα πάντ' ἂν σῴζοιτο οἵ τ' ἀδικήσαντες κατ' ἀξίαν λάβοιεν τὰ ἐπιτίμια Aen. Tact.16.8, cf. Gp.2.49.1, 12.3.2-3;

    τούτου γὰρ γενομένου.. τά τε ἐχφόρια Χρυσέρμῳ δυνήσομαι ἀποδοῦναι, ἐγώ τε ἔσομαι παρὰ σοῦ φιλανθρωπίας τετευχώς PEnteux.60.11

    (iii B.C.);

    κλείειν τε τὰ βλέφαρα δεομένων ἐλπιζόντων τε κοιμηθήσεσθαι Gal.16.494

    , cf. 495,501; this use is common at all times in οὔτε.. οὔτε, μήτε.. μήτε, εἴτε.. εἴτε (qq.v.); τε may be used three or more times,

    ἔν τ' ἄρα οἱ φῦ χειρί, ἔπος τ' ἔφατ' ἔκ τ' ὀνόμαζεν Od.15.530

    , cf. Il.1.177, 2.58, A.Pr. 89sq., B.17.19sq., Lys. 19.17, X.Cyr.3.3.36:— ἑνδεκάτη τε δυωδεκάτη τε prob. means the eleventh or twelfth, Od.2.374, 4.588:—sts. τε.. τε couples alternatives,

    ἀπόρως εἶχε δοῦναί τε μὴ δοῦναί τε E.IA56

    , cf. Heracl. 153, El. 391; hence we find τε.. ἢ.., Pl.Tht. 143c, Ion 535d; on (or ) .. τε in Il.2.289 and A.Eu. 524 (lyr.) v. 1.3.
    2 the first clause may be negative, the second affirmative, as

    ἐκκλησίαν τε οὐκ ἐποίει.., τήν τε πόλιν ἐφύλασσε Th.2.22

    ; but οὔτε.. τε is more freq., as

    οὔτε ποσίν εἰμι ταχύς.., γιγνώσκω τε X.Cyr.2.3.6

    (v.

    οὔτε 11.4

    ); we also find οὐ.. τε.. , as

    οὐχ ἡσύχαζον.., παρεκάλουν τε τοὺς ξυμμάχους Th.1.67

    ; and μὴ.. τε.. , as ἵνα μή τι διαφύγῃ ἡμᾶς, εἴ τέ τι βούλει κτλ. Pl.Phd. 95e.
    3 τε ( both) sts. corresponds to a following δέ ( and), or τε ( and) to a preceding μέν, e.g.
    a τε.. δὲ.. , as

    κόμισαί τέ με, δὸς δέ μοι ἵππους Il.5.359

    , cf. 7.418, S.OC 367, Tr. 285, E.Ph. 1625;

    ἐσθὰς ἀμφότερόν νιν ἔχεν, ἅ τε.. ἐπιχώριος.., ἀμφὶ δὲ παρδαλέᾳ στέγετο Pi.P.4.80

    ;

    διήκουέ τε.., ἔπειτα δὲ καὶ ἐπῄνεσε X.Cyr.4.4.3

    ; so with ἅμα δὲ καὶ.., ὡσαύτως δὲ καὶ.., Th.1.25, Pl.Smp. 186e:—so τε.., ἀτὰρ οὖν καὶ.., Id.Hp.Ma. 295e.
    b

    μὲν.. τε.., ἄνδρα μὲν.., τρεῖς τε κασιγνήτους Il.19.291

    -3, cf. Od.22.475-6, Pi.O.6.88, 7.88, A.Th. 924, Ch. 585 (lyr.), S.Ant. 963 (lyr.), E.Heracl. 337 codd., Cyc.41 (lyr.), Ar.Nu. 563(lyr.), Pl.Phdr. 266c, Lg. 927b: v. μέν A. 11.6c.
    4 a single τε ( and) joins a word, phrase, or (esp. later) clause or sentence to what precedes,

    τελευτὴν κεφαλήν τε Pl.Ti. 69a

    ; θνητὰ ἀθάνατά τε ib.c;

    Ζεῦ ἄλλοι τε θεοί Il.6.476

    ;

    κύνεσσιν οἰωνοῖσί τε πᾶσι 1.5

    ; ῥίγησέν τ' ἂρ ἔπειτα ἄναξ ἀνδρῶν Ἀγαμέμνων v.l. for δ' ἂρ in 11.254; ἕν τε οὐδὲν κατέστη ἴαμα.., σῶμά τε αὔταρκες ὂν οὐδὲν διεφάνη.., Th.2.51; τά τε ἱερὰ.. νεκρῶν πλέα ἦν.. ib.52; νόμοι τε πάντες ξυνεταράχθησαν ibid.;

    δάκνει σ' ἀδελφὸς ὅ τε θανὼν ἴσως πατήρ E.El. 242

    , cf. 253, 262, al.;

    εἴς τε τὰς ἄλλας.. ἀθροίζεσθαι Aen.Tact.3.5

    ; τῶν τε ἀρχόντων.. ib.6, cf. 10.8, al.;

    ὅ τε γραφεὶς κύκλος.. Archim.Spir.11

    Def.7;

    πρός τε τούτοις φησὶν.. PEnteux.63.18

    (iii B.C.);

    χωρίς τε τούτων Plb.2.56.13

    , 61.1, 3.17.7;

    ταῦτά τ' ἐγίνετο.. Id.2.43.6

    , cf. 3.70.4;

    ἀπαιτούμενός τε ὑπ' ἐμοῦ τὰ ἔρια οὐκ ἀποδίδωσί PEnteux.2.6

    , cf. 8.4, al. (iii B.C.); γράψαι Ἀγαθοκλεῖ τῷ ἐπιστάτῃ διασαφῆσαί τε αὐτῷ ib.81.21 (iii B.C.);

    καθόλου τε.. Arr.Epict.1.19.13

    , cf. 2.2.17;

    ἀταράχους τήν τε δύναμιν ἀκαθαιρέτους Sor.1.21

    , cf. 24, al.;

    ὄξει βαφικῷ στυπτηρίᾳ τε PHolm. 1.4

    , cf. Gem.16.6;

    χρὴ.. λαχάνων ἅπτεσθαι, κοιλίαν τε λύειν Gp.1.12.19

    , cf. 2.2.2, al.; this τε may be used any number of times, Od.4.149- 150, 14.75, 158-9, Men.Pk.15,16,20, Hipparch.1.9.8, Act.Ap.2.43,46, 4.13, 14, al.
    II τε.. καὶ.. , or τε καὶ.. , both.. and.., where τε points forward to καί, and usu. need not be translated, e.g.

    Ἀτρείδης τε ἄναξ ἀνδρῶν καὶ δῖος Ἀχιλλεύς Il.1.7

    ; εἰ δὴ ὁμοῦ πόλεμός τε δαμᾷ καὶ λοιμὸς Ἀχαιούς ib.61; δειλός τε καὶ οὐτιδανὸς καλεοίμην ib. 293;

    ζωόν τε καὶ ἀρτεμέα 7.308

    , cf. 327, 338, al.;

    τῆς τε γῆς ἐούσης ἐπιτηδέης καὶ τῶν ποταμῶν ἐόντων σφι συμμάχων Hdt.4.47

    ;

    βούλεταί τε καὶ ἐπίσταται Th.2.35

    ;

    ὁ φύς τε καὶ τραφείς Pl.R. 396c

    ;

    βάσιν τε γὰρ πάλιν τὴν αὐτὴν ἔχουσι τὴν ΖΒ καὶ.. Euc.1.47

    ; sts. the elements joined by τε.. καὶ.. are joined in order to be compared or contrasted rather than simply joined,

    κάκιστος νῦν τε καὶ πάλαι δοκεῖ S.Ant. 181

    ;

    μεσαμβρίη τέ ἐστι καὶ τὸ κάρτα γίνεται ψυχρόν Hdt.4.181

    ;

    ἔτυχόν τε ὕσταται ἐξαναχθεῖσαι καί κως κατεῖδον Id.7.194

    ; ἐπαύσατό τε ὁ ἄνεμος καὶ τὸ κῦμα ἔστρωτο ib. 193;

    ταὐτὰ.. νῦν τε καὶ τότε Ar.Av. 24

    ;

    χωρὶς τό τ' εἰπεῖν πολλὰ καὶ τὰ καίρια S.OC 808

    ;

    ὅσον τό τ' ἄρχειν καὶ τὸ δουλεύειν δίχα A.Pr. 927

    ; sts. (like τε.. τε) even used of alternatives,

    διάνδιχα μερμήριξεν, ἵππους τε στρέψαι καὶ ἐναντίβιον μαχέσασθαι Il.8.168

    ;

    ἐν δίκᾳ τε καὶ παρὰ δίκαν Pi.O.2.16

    ;

    θεοῦ τε.. θέλοντος καὶ μὴ θέλοντος A.Th. 427

    ;

    πείσας τε.. καὶ μὴ τυχών Th.3.42

    :—on οἵ τε ἄλλοι καὶ.. , e.g.

    τοῖς τε ἄλλοις ἅπασι καὶ Λακεδαιμονίοις Isoc.12.249

    , and ἄλλως τε καὶ.. , v. ἄλλος 11.6,

    ἄλλως 1.3

    .
    2 in this sense τ' ἠδέ is only [dialect] Ep.,

    σκῆπτρόν τ' ἠδὲ θέμιστας Il.9.99

    , cf. 1.400, al.; also

    τε.., ἰδέ, χαλκόν τε ἰδὲ λόφον 6.469

    , cf. 8.162.
    3 καὶ.. τε, both.. and.., is occasionally found, as καὶ μητέρα πατέρα τ' E.Alc. 646.
    b καὶ.. τε perh. means and.. also in

    καὶ ναυτικῷ τε ἅμα Th.1.9

    ;

    καὶ πρός τε τοὺς Ῥηγίνους Id.6.44

    ;

    καὶ αὐτός τε Id.8.68

    ; v. infr. c. 10.
    4 τε.. τε or τε.. καὶ.. sts. join elements which are not syntactically parallel, esp. a part. and a finite verb, ἰοῖσίν τε τιτυσκόμενοι λάεσσί τ' ἔβαλλον (for βάλλοντες) Il.3.80;

    ἄλλα τε ἐπιφραζόμενος καὶ δὴ καὶ ἐπεπόμφεε Hdt.1.85

    ;

    ἀλλῳ τε τρόπῳ πειράζοντες καὶ μηχανὴν προσήγαγον Th.4.100

    ;

    τῆς τε ὥρας.. ταύτης οὔσης.., καὶ τὸ χωρίον.. χαλεπὸν ἦν Id.7.47

    , cf. 4.85, 8.81, 95.
    5 the copulative τε becomes rare in later Gr.; it is found about 340 times in LXX, mostly in the Pentateuch and 1-4 Ma., only 3 times in Ps.; in the NT it is found about 150 times in Act.Ap., 20 times in Ep.Hebr., and very rarely in the other books.
    B In [dialect] Ep. (more rarely in other dactylic verse, v. infr. 11) τε stands in general or frequentative statements or in statements of what is well known; such statements are freq. made as justifications of a preceding particular statement or of a preceding exhortation to a particular person or persons; the sense of τε thus approaches that of τοι (cf. τοι and τε in Od.2.276-7, and cf. Il.13.115 with 15.203); although associated with numerous particles and other words of particular types (v. infr.) its meaning remains independent of these and applies to the whole sentence in which it stands:

    αἶψά τε φυλόπιδος πέλεται κόρος ἀνθρώποισιν Il.19.221

    ;

    οὐ γάρ τ' αἶψα θεῶν τρέπεται νόος αἰὲν ἐόντων Od.3.147

    ;

    θεοὶ δέ τε πάντα ἴσασιν 4.379

    , cf. 5.79, 447, 10.306, 17.485, Il.9.497, 16.688, 17.176, 21.264;

    ξυνὸς Ἐνυάλιος καί τε κτανέοντα κατέκτα 18.309

    , cf. Od.11.537, Il.24.526;

    ἤ τ' ἔβλητ' ἤ τ' ἔβαλ' ἄλλον 11.410

    ;

    οὐ μὲν γάρ τε κακὸν βασιλευέμεν Od.1.392

    ;

    οἳ φύλλοισιν ἐοικότες ἄλλοτε μέν τε ζαφλεγέες τελέθουσιν.. ἄλλοτε δὲ.. Il.21.464

    ;

    ἄλλος γάρ τ' ἄλλοισιν ἀνὴρ ἐπιτέρπεται ἔργοις Od.14.228

    , cf. 8.169, 170, 15.400; τοῦ γάρ τε ξεῖνος μιμνήσκεται ἤματα πάντα, ἀνδρὸς ξεινοδόκου, ὅς κεν φιλότητα παράσχῃ ib.54, cf. 17.322;

    ῥεχθὲν δέ τε νήπιος ἔγνω Il.17.32

    ;

    παθὼν δέ τε νήπιος ἔγνω Hes.Op. 218

    ;

    αἰεὶ γάρ τε νεώτεροι ἀφραδέουσιν Od. 7.294

    ; δύσζηλοι γάρ τ' εἰμὲν ἐπὶ χθονὶ φῦλ' ἀνθρώπων ib. 307;

    τοῦ δέ τε πολλοὶ ἐπαυρίσκοντ' ἄνθρωποι, καί τε πολέας ἐσάωσε Il.13.733

    -4; τοῦ μὲν γάρ τε κακοῦ τρέπεται χρὼς ἄλλυδις ἄλλῃ, ἐν δέ τέ οἱ κραδίη στέρνοισι πατάσσει.., πάταγος δέ τε γίγνετ' ὀδόντων ib. 279-83;

    ὀλίγη δέ τ' ἀνάπνευσις πολέμοιο 18.201

    ;

    νέῳ δέ τε πάντ' ἐπέοικεν.. κεῖσθαι 22.71

    ;

    κατέλεξεν ἅπαντα κήδε' ὅσ' ἀνθρώποισι πέλει, τῶν ἄστυ ἁλώῃ· ἄνδρας μὲν κτείνουσι, πόλιν δέ τε πῦρ ἀμαθύνει, τέκνα δέ τ' ἄλλοι ἄγουσι, βαθυζώνους τε γυναῖκας 9.592

    -4, cf. 22.492, 495, 499;

    νεμεσσῶμαί γε μὲν οὐδέν· καὶ γάρ τίς τ' ἀλλοῖον ὀδύρεται ἄνδρ' ὀλέσασα.. ἢ Ὀδυσῆ' Od.19.265

    ;

    σχέτλιε, καὶ μέν τίς τε χερείονι πείθεθ' ἑταίρῳ.., αὐτὰρ ἐγὼ θεός εἰμι 20.45

    , cf. 23.118, Il.2.292, 9.632; νῦν δὲ μνησώμεθα δόρπου· καὶ γάρ τ' ἠΰκομος Νιόβη ἐμνήσατο σίτου κτλ. 24.602 (where a general inference is implied);

    ὃν Βριάρεων καλέουσι θεοί, ἄνδρες δέ τε πάντες Αἰγαίων' 1.403

    , cf. 2.814, 5.306, 10.258, 14.290; sts. of repeated action by particular persons,

    ἄλλοτε μέν τε γόῳ φρένα τέρπομαι Od.4.102

    ;

    οὐ μὰ γὰρ Ἀπόλλωνα Διὶ φίλον, ᾧ τε σύ, Κάλχαν, εὐχόμενος.. θεοπροπίας ἀναφαίνεις Il.1.86

    ; ἡ δὲ.. μ' αἰεὶ.. νεικεῖ, καί τέ μέ φησι μάχῃ Τρώεσσιν ἀρήγειν ib. 521;

    μήτηρ γάρ τέ μέ φησι θεά, Θέτις ἀργυρόπεζα, διχθαδίας κῆρας φερέμεν θανάτοιο τέλοσδε 9.410

    .
    2 in exhortations addressed to an individual, a subsidiary sentence or relative clause in which he is reminded of his special or characteristic sphere of activity is marked by τε, e.g.

    Ἑρμεία, σοὶ γάρ τε μάλιστά γε φίλτατόν ἐστιν ἀνδρὶ ἑταιρίσσαι καί τ' ἔκλυες ᾧ κ' ἐθέλῃσθα, βάσκ' ἴθι.. Il.24.334

    ;

    Ἀτρεΐδη, σοὶ γάρ τε μάλιστά γε λαὸς Ἀχαιῶν πείσονται μύθοισι.., νῦν δ' ἀπὸ πυρκαϊῆς σκέδασον.. 23.156

    ;

    δεῦρο δὴ ὄρσο, γρηῢ.., ἥ τε γυναικῶν δμῳάων σκοπός ἐσσι.., ἔρχεο Od. 22.395

    , cf. Il.17.249.
    3 similarly in general and frequentative statements consisting of two clauses (one of which may be a relative clause, freq. containing the subj. or opt.), in which the fulfilment of the condition stated in the subsidiary or subordinate clause is declared to be generally or always followed by the result stated in the principal clause, either or both clauses may contain τε:
    a the principal clause alone contains τε

    , ὅς κε θεοῖς ἐπιπείθηται, μάλα τ' ἔκλυον αὐτοῦ Il.1.218

    ;

    ὃς δ' ἂν ἀμύμων αὐτὸς ἔῃ καὶ ἀμύμονα εἰδῇ, τοῦ μέν τε κλέος εὐρὺ διὰ ξεῖνοι φορέουσι πάντας ἐπ' ἀνθρώπους, πολλοί τέ μιν ἐσθλὸν ἔειπον Od.19.333

    ;

    εἴ περ γὰρ θυμῷ γε μενοινάᾳ πολεμίζειν, ἀλλά τε λάθρῃ γυῖα βαρύνεται.., βλάβεται δέ τε γούνατ' ἰόντι Il.19.165

    -6;

    ᾧ μέν κ' ἀμμείξας δώῃ Ζεὺς τερπικέραυνος, ἄλλοτε μέν τε κακῷ ὅ γε κύρεται ἄλλοτε δ' ἐσθλῷ 24.530

    .
    b the subordinate clause alone contains τε

    , λάζετο δ' ἔγχος.. τῷ δάμνησι στίχας ἀνδρῶν ἡρώων οἷσίν τε κοτέσσεται ὀβριμοπάτρη 5.747

    ;

    ῥεῖα δ' ἀρίγνωτος γόνος ἀνέρος ᾧ τε Κρονίων ὄλβον ἐπικλώση Od.4.207

    ;

    ἀντί νυ πολλῶν λαῶν ἐστιν ἀνὴρ ὅν τε Ζεὺς κῆρι φιλήσῃ Il.9.117

    , cf. 7.298, Od.6.287, 7.74, 8.547, 18.276; with opt.,

    ἀλλὰ πολὺ πρώτιστος.. ἕλεσκον ἀνδρῶν δυσμενέων ὅ τέ μοι εἴξειε πόδεσσι 14.221

    : it is prob. that τε has been replaced by κε in the text of Hom. in Il.1.218, 9.510 (cf. 508), and some other passages in which κε seems to be used, exceptionally, in general relative clauses.
    c both clauses contain τε

    , ὃς μέν τ' αἰδέσεται κούρας Διὸς ἆσσον ἰούσας, τὸν δὲ μέγ' ὤνησαν καί τ' ἔκλυον εὐχομένοιο Il.9.508

    -9;

    εἴ περ γάρ τε χόλον γε καὶ αὐτῆμαρ καταπέψῃ, ἀλλά τε καὶ μετόπισθεν ἔχει κότον 1.82

    -3.
    4 in the subordinate clause of a collective sentence, in which the principal clause states something to be true of all those (i.e. each individual) to whom the predicate of the subordinate clause applies,

    ὑπόσχωμαι.. κτήματα.. πάντα μάλ' ὅσσα τ' Ἀλέξανδρος.. ἠγάγετο Τροίηνδ'.. δωσέμεν Il.22.115

    ;

    πάντων ὅσσα τε γαῖαν ἔπι πνείει τε καὶ ἕρπει 17.447

    , cf. Od.18.131, Il.19.105;

    βάλλειν ἄγρια πάντα τά τε τρέφει οὔρεσιν ὕλη 5.52

    , cf. 18.485.
    5 in relative clauses (and in parenthetic principal clauses) which indicate what is customary, ἐπεὶ οὐχ ἱερήϊον οὐδὲ βοείην ἀρνύσθην, ἅ τε ποσσὶν ἀέθλια γίγνεται ἀνδρῶν which are the usual prizes.., Il.22.160;

    ἔργ' ἀνδρῶν τε θεῶν τε, τά τε κλείουσιν ἀοιδοί Od.1.338

    , cf. 3.435, 4.85, 13.410, 14.226, 17.423, Il.5.332;

    κύματος ἐξαναδύς, τά τ' ἐρεύγεται ἤπειρόνδε Od.5.438

    ;

    μολπή τ' ὀρχηστύς τε, τὰ γάρ τ' ἀναθήματα δαιτός 1.152

    : similarly in clauses with

    οἷά τε (πολλά), κῆτος ἐπισσεύῃ μέγα δαίμων ἐξ ἁλός, οἷά τε πολλὰ τρέφει.. Ἀμφιτρίτη 5.422

    ;

    οὐ γάρ σ' οὐδέ.. δαήμονι φωτὶ ἐΐσκω ἄθλων, οἷά τε πολλὰ μετ' ἀνθρώποισι πέλονται 8.160

    , cf. 11.364, 14.63, 15.324, 379.
    6 in relative clauses indicating what is true of all persons or things denoted by the same word, οὐ γάρ τις νήσων ἱππήλατος οὐδ' εὐλείμων αἵ θ' ἁλὶ κεκλίαται no one of the islands which lie in the sea (as all islands do, i.e. no island at all), Od.4.608;

    ἡμίονον.. ἥ τ' ἀλγίστη δαμάσασθαι Il.23.655

    ;

    ἐσθλὸς ἐὼν γαμβρὸς ἢ πενθερός, οἵ τε μάλιστα κήδιστοι τελέθουσι Od.8.582

    ;

    αἰετοῦ οἴματ' ἔχων.. ὅς θ' ἅμα κάρτιστός τε καὶ ὤκιστος πετεηνῶν Il.21.252

    , cf. 24.294;

    οὐδέ μιν εἰσοιχνεῦσι κυνηγέται, οἵ τε καθ' ὕλην ἄλγεα πάσχουσιν Od.9.120

    ;

    δικασπόλοι, οἵ τε θέμιστας πρὸς Διὸς εἰρύαται Il.1.238

    , cf. Od.5.67, 101, Il.1.279, 19.31, 24.415;

    οἶνός σε τρώει.., ὅς τε καὶ ἄλλους βλάπτει Od.21.293

    , cf. 14.464;

    πάρφασις, ἥ τ' ἔκλεψε νόον πύκα περ φρονεόντων Il.14.217

    ;

    οἰκωφελίη, ἥ τε τρέφει ἀγλαὰ τέκνα Od.14.223

    .
    7 when the antecedent is a definite group of gods or men, the relative clause with τε indicates an essential characteristic of the antecedent,

    Ἐρινύες, αἵ θ' ὑπὸ γαῖαν ἀνθρώπους τείνυνται Il.19.259

    ;

    Σειρῆνας.., αἵ ῥά τε πάντας ἀνθρώπους θέλγουσιν Od.12.39

    ;

    Φαίηκές μ' ἄγαγον ναυσίκλυτοι, οἵ τε καὶ ἄλλους ἀνθρώπους πέμπουσιν 16.227

    , cf. 20.187;

    νυμφάων αἵ τ' ἄλσεα καλὰ νέμονται καὶ πηγὰς ποταμῶν Il.20.8

    ;

    Λωτοφάγων, οἵ τ' ἄνθινον εἶδαρ ἔδουσι Od.9.84

    : similarly when the antecedent is an individual person (incl. god) or thing, the relative clause with τε indicates one of his or its general or essential characteristics or aspects,

    οὐ μὰ Ζῆν' ὅς τίς τε θεῶν ὕπατος καὶ ἄριστος Il.23.43

    , cf. 2.669, Od.5.4;

    Ἑρμείαο ἕκητι διακτόρου, ὅς ῥά τε πάντων ἀνθρώπων ἔργοισι χάριν καὶ κῦδος ὀπάζει 15.319

    ;

    Λάμπον καὶ Φαέθονθ', οἵ τ' Ἠῶ πῶλοι ἄγουσι 23.246

    ;

    Τειρεσίαο μάντιος ἀλαοῦ, τοῦ τε φρένες ἔμπεδοί εἰσι 10.493

    ;

    τεύχεα δύνεις ἀνδρὸς ἀριστῆος, τόν τε τρομέουσι καὶ ἄλλοι Il.17.203

    , cf. 7.112; κεῖται ἀνὴρ ὅν τ' (v.l. ὃν)

    ἶσον ἐτίομεν Ἕκτορι δίῳ, Αἰνείας 5.467

    ; the relative clause sts. indicates what is customary,

    οὐδέ σε λήθω τιμῆς ἧς τέ μ' ἔοικε τετιμῆσθαι μετ' Ἀχαιοῖς 23.649

    ;

    ἔνθα δ' ἀνὴρ ἐνίαυε πελώριος, ὅς ῥά τε μῆλα οἶος ποιμαίνεσκε Od.9.187

    ;

    τῶν πάντων οὐ τόσσον ὀδύρομαι.. ὡς ἑνός, ὅς τέ μοι ὕπνον ἀπεχθαίρει καὶ ἐδωδὴν μνωομένῳ 4.105

    ;

    σῆς ἀλόχου.. ἥ τέ τοι αὔτως ἧσται ἐνὶ μεγάροισιν 13.336

    ;

    καὶ κήρυκα Μέδοντα σαώσομεν, ὅς τέ μευ αἰεὶ.. κηδέσκετο 22.357

    , cf. 346.
    8 τε is used in descriptions of particular places or things when attention is called to their peculiar or characteristic features, or their position, e.g.

    Λιβύην, ἵνα τ' ἄρνες ἄφαρ κεραοὶ τελέθουσι Od.4.85

    ;

    ἔνθα δέ τ' ὄρνιθες τανυσίπτεροι εὐνάζοντο 5.65

    , cf. 9.124, 13.99, 100, 107, 109, 244; ἓξ δέ τέ οἱ (sc. Σκύλλῃ)

    δειραὶ περιμήκεες 12.90

    , cf. 93,99, 105; ἐν δέ τε Γοργείη κεφαλή (in Athena's αἰγίς) Il.5.741; χαλεπὸν δέ τ' ὀρύσσειν ἀνδράσι γε θνητοῖσι (sc. μῶλυ) Od. 10.305;

    δοιαὶ γάρ τε πύλαι ἀμενηνῶν εἰσὶν ὀνείρων 19.562

    ; sts. τε draws attention to a well-known custom or permanent feature,

    ἀρξάμενοι τοῦ χώρου, ὅθεν τέ περ οἰνοχοεύει 21.142

    ;

    ἦ μένετε Τρῶας σχεδὸν ἐλθέμεν, ἔνθα τε νῆες εἰρύατ' εὔπρυμνοι Il.4.247

    , cf. Od. 6.266;

    ἐν ποταμῷ, ὅθι τ' ἀρδμὸς ἔην πάντεσσι βοτοῖσιν Il.18.521

    , cf. Od.14.353.
    9 a part of the anatomy is defined by a clause (containing τε) which indicates a feature which universally belongs to it,

    κατ' ἰσχίον, ἔνθα τε μηρὸς ἰσχίῳ ἐνστρέφεται Il.5.305

    , cf. 8.83, 13.547, 16.481, 20.478; similarly a point of time is defined,

    ὥρῃ ἐν εἰαρινῇ, ὅτε τ' ἤματα μακρὰ πέλονται Od.18.367

    .
    10 τε is used in relative clauses which define a measurement of a particular thing or action by reference to the measurement (in general) of some thing or action well known in daily life,

    γεφύρωσεν δὲ κέλευθον μακρὴν ἠδ' εὐρεῖαν, ὅσον τ' ἐπὶ δουρὸς ἐρωὴ γίγνεται Il.15.358

    ;

    τοῦ δ' ἤτοι κλέος ἔσται ὅσον τ' ἐπικίδναται ἠώς 7.451

    ;

    ὅτε τόσσον ἀπῆν ὅσσον τε γέγωνε βοήσας Od.9.473

    , cf. 3.321, al.; more rarely the definition is by reference to the measurement of a particular thing or action, ἤσθιε.. ἕως ὅ τ' ἀοιδὸς ἐνὶ μεγάροισιν ἄειδεν (s.v.l.) 17.358;

    ἥ τις δὴ τέτληκε τόσα φρεσίν, ὅσσα τ' ἐγώ περ 19.347

    .
    11 the freq. use of τε B in similes is to be explained under one or other of the foregoing heads, e.g. when reference is made to generally known kinds of things or natural phenomena, to human experience in daily life, or to well-known phenomena of the animal world, Il.2.456, 459, 463, 468, 470, 471, 474, 481, 3.23-5,33, 11.415-7, al.; or when universal characteristics of gods, men, animals, etc., are indicated by relative clauses introduced by ὅς τε, ὅς ῥά τε, etc., 3.61, 151, 198, al.; or by ὥς τε, ἠΰτε, ὥς τίς τε, etc., e.g. 5.136, 17.133, Od.4.535,

    ὡς εἴ τε 9.314

    , 14.254, etc.
    II in post-Hom. Gr. this use of τε is more restricted; outside of [dialect] Ep. and other early dactylic verse (Hes.Op.30, 214, 233, al., Xenoph.13.3, Thgn.148, 359, etc.) it is not found except with relatives, and with these it has scarcely any discernible sense, so that ὅς τε in Lyr. and Trag. is for the most part only = ὅς, e.g. (possibly generalizing)

    Μοῖρ', ἅ τε πατρώϊον τῶνδ' ἔχει τὸν εὔφρονα πότμον Pi.O.2.35

    , cf. 14.2, A.Eu. 1024, E.Hec. 445 (lyr.), etc. (v. ὅστε); without generalizing force, Pi.N.9.9, A.Pers. 297, Ch. 615, etc.; Hdt. has

    τά πέρ τε 1.74

    ,

    ὅκως τε 2.108

    codd., ὅσον τε (without a verb, as in Od.9.325, al.) 1.126, 2.96, 3.5, al.,

    οἷά τε 1.93

    codd. (adverbially 2.175, 5.11): in [dialect] Att. Prose and Com. even these uses disappear and we find only a few phrases, as ἅτε, ὥστε, ἐφ' ᾧτε, οἷός τε; in later Gr. we find exceptionally

    ἔνθεν τε Hp.Ep.17

    ;

    ἀφ' οὗ τε UPZ62.8

    (ii B.C.);

    ἀπ' οὗ τε PCair.Zen.291.3

    (iii B.C.);

    οἵ τε GDI215.23

    (Erythrae, ii B.C.); ἥ τ' PMag.Par.1.2962;

    ὅσον τε ὀκτὼ στάδια Paus.6.26.1

    ; καὶ ἔστιν ἔπη Μαντικὰ ὁπόσα τε (= which)

    ἐπελεξάμεθα καὶ ἡμεῖς Id.9.31.5

    ;

    οἷόν τε καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς κύων φωνῆς θεωροῦμεν S.E.M.11.28

    .
    C in Hom. τε is also (but less freq.) used in conjunction with other particles in contexts (mainly particular statements) such as the following:
    1 in assurances, statements on oath, and threats,

    σχέτλιος, ἦ τ' ἐκέλευον ἀπωσάμενον δήϊον πῦρ ἂψ ἐπὶ νῆας ἴμεν Il.18.13

    ;

    ἐξ αὖ νῦν ἔφυγες θάνατον, κύον· ἦ τέ τοι ἄγχι ἦλθε κακόν 11.362

    ; ἦ τε is similarly used in 11.391, 17.171, 236, Od.24.28, 311, al.; ἦ τ' ἄν in Il.12.69, al.; γάρ τε (s. v.l.) in

    οὐ γάρ τ' οἶδα 6.367

    , cf. Od.10.190; νύ τε in 1.60, 347 (but τ' more prob. = τοι, v. σύ) ; δέ τε in

    ἀγορῇ δέ τ' ἀμείνονές εἰσι καὶ ἄλλοι Il.18.106

    ;

    σὲ δέ τ' ἐνθάδε γῦπες ἔδονται 16.836

    ; μέν τε in

    σφὼ μέν τε σαώσετε λαὸν Ἀχαιῶν 13.47

    , cf. 4.341; εἴ πέρ τε in

    οὔ τοι ἔτι δηρόν γε φίλης ἀπὸ πατρίδος αἴης ἔσσεται, οὐδ' εἴ πέρ τε σιδήρεα δέσματ' ἔχῃσιν Od.1.204

    , cf. 188, Il.12.223, 245.
    2 also in commands, warnings, and admonitions,

    σίγα, μή τίς τ' ἄλλος Ἀχαιῶν τοῦτον ἀκούσῃ μῦθον Il.14.90

    , cf. Od.19.486;

    ὣς ἄγαγ' ὡς μήτ' ἄρ τις ἴδῃ μήτ' ἄρ τε νοήσῃ Il.24.337

    ; τούσδε τ' (v.l. δ')

    ἐᾶν 16.96

    (nisi leg. τούσδ' ἔτ')

    ; δὸς δέ τέ μ' ἄνδρα ἑλεῖν 5.118

    ; μηδέ τ' ἐρώει (nisi leg. μηδ' ἔτ') 2.179, 22.185.
    3 also in passionate utterances, in clauses which indicate the cause of the speaker's passion or a circumstance which might have caused others to behave more considerately towards him,

    ὤ μοι ἐγὼ δειλή.. ἥ τ'.. τὸν μὲν.. θρέψασα.. ἐπιπροέηκα Il.18.55

    ;

    σχέτλιοί ἐστε, θεοί, ζηλήμονες ἔξοχον ἄλλων, οἵ τε θεαῖς ἀγάασθε.. ἤν τίς τε.. Od.5.119

    , 120, cf. 21.87, Il.15.468, 17.174; ἡμεῖς δ' αὖ μαχόμεσθ', οἵ πέρ τ' ἐπίκουροι ἔνειμεν and we, who ( mark you) are only allies (not γαμβροί and κασίγνητοι), are fighting, 5.477; τρεῖς γάρ τ' ἐκ Κρόνου εἰμὲν ἀδελφεοί for we, let me tell you, are three brothers, sons of Cronos (and Zeus has no prior title to power), 15.187;

    ποῖόν δε ἔπος φύγεν ἕρκος ὀδόντων δεινόν τ' ἀργαλέον τε· νεμεσσῶμαι δέ τ' ἀκούων Od.21.169

    ;

    οὐ μήν οἱ τό γε κάλλιον οὐδέ τ' ἄμεινον Il.24.52

    .
    4 in descriptions of particular events and things where there is no general reference,

    κνίση μὲν ἀνήνοθεν, ἐν δέ τε φόρμιγξ ἠπύει Od.17.270

    ; ὥς (= so)

    τέ μοι ὑβρίζοντες ὑπερφιάλως δοκέουσιν δαίνυσθαι κατὰ δῶμα 1.227

    ;

    τοὺς μέν τ' ἰητροὶ πολυφάρμακοι ἀμφιπένονται.. σὺ δ' ἀμήχανος ἔπλευ, Ἀχιλλεῦ Il.16.28

    ; πόλιν πέρι δινηθήτην καρπαλίμοισι πόδεσσι, θεοὶ δέ τε πάντες ὁρῶντο dub. l. in 22.166;

    εὗρε δ' ἐνὶ σπῆϊ γλαφυρῷ Θέτιν, ἀμφὶ δέ τ' ἄλλαι εἵαθ' ὁμηγερέες ἅλιαι θεαί 24.83

    (s.v.l.);

    ἐν δέ τε φάρμακον ἧκε Od.10.317

    ;

    νῶϊ δέ τ' ἄψορροι κίομεν Il.21.456

    ;

    πολλὰς γὰρ δὴ νύκτας.. ἄεσα καί τ' ἀνέμεινα.. Ἠῶ Od.19.342

    ;

    δέελον δ' ἐπὶ σῆμά τ' ἔθηκε Il.10.466

    ;

    ἐν δέ τε οἶνον κρητῆρσιν κερόωντο Od.20.252

    ; so with οὐδέ τ' (nisi leg. οὐδ' ἔτ')

    , τὸν καὶ ὑπέδδεισαν μάκαρες θεοὶ οὐδέ τ' ἔδησαν Il.1.406

    ;

    οὐδέ τ' ἔληγε μέγας θεός, ὦρτο δ' ἐπ' αὐτόν 21.248

    ;

    οὐδέ τ' ἄειρε 23.730

    ;

    οὐδέ τ' ἔασεν 11.437

    , 21.596, cf. 15.709.
    5 ὅτε τε ( when) freq. introduces a temporal clause defining a point of time in the past by means of a well-known event which occurred then, ἦ οὐ μέμνῃ ὅτε τ' ἐκρέμω ὑψόθεν; Il.15.18;

    ὅτε τε Κρόνον.. Ζεὺς γαίης νέρθε καθεῖσε 14.203

    ;

    ἤματι τῷ ὅτε τ' ἦλθον Ἀμαζόνες 3.189

    (but ἤματι τῷ ὅτε τε is general in 13.335; so also ὅτε πέρ τε.. κέρωνται in 4.259);

    ὅτε τ' ἤλυθε νόσφιν Ἀχαιῶν ἄγγελος ἐς Θήβας 5.803

    , cf. 10.286, 22.102, Od.7.323, 18.257.
    6 in ὅ τε ( that or because) the τε has no observable meaning,

    χωόμενος ὅ τ' ἄριστον Ἀχαιῶν οὐδὲν ἔτισας Il.1.244

    , cf. 412, 4.32, 6.126, Od.5.357, al.
    8 where τ' ἄρ occurs in questions, e.g. πῇ τ' ἂρ μέμονας καταδῦναι ὅμιλον; Il.13.307, cf. 1.8, 18.188, al., ταρ (q.v.) should prob. be read, since ἄρ ([etym.] α) usu. precedes a τε which is not copulative; so perh. ταρα should be read for τ' ἄρα in Od.1.346.
    9 in

    ἣ θέμις ἐστὶν.. ἤ τ' ἀνδρῶν ἤ τε γυναικῶν Il.9.276

    , it is not clear whether τε is copulative (τε A) or generalizing (τε B) or neither (τε C); is prob. = (accented as in ἤτοι (; ἤ τ' ἀλκῆς ἤ τε φόβοιο is dub. l. in 17.42; ἤ τ' = or is found in 19.148, = than in Od.16.216.
    10 Rarer and later uses;
    a also, esp. with

    ἄλλος, Ἑρμεία, σὺ γὰρ αὖτε τά τ' ἄλλα περ ἄγγελός ἐσσι Od.5.29

    , cf. 17.273, Il.23.483;

    ἐπεὶ τά τε ἄλλα πράττουσιν καλῶς, ἀναθεῖναι αὐτοὺς καὶ στήλην IG22.1298.9

    , cf. Lycurg.100 (s.v.l.);

    ἐκομισάμην τὸ παρὰ σοῦ ἐπιστόλιον, ἐν ᾧ ὑπέγραψάς μοι τήν τε παρὰ Ζήνωνος πρὸς Ἰεδδοῦν γεγραμμένην PCair.Zen.18.1

    (iii B.C.); εἰ οὖν περὶ τούτων ἐπιστροφὴν μὴ ποιήσει, οἵ τε λοιποί μοι τὰς χεῖρας προσοίσουσιν (- σωσιν Pap.) PPetr.2p.10 (iii B.C.);

    τῶν δὲ παρὰ ταῦτα ποιησόντων τά τε κτήνη ὑπὸ στέρεσιν ἀχθήσεσθαι πρὸς τὰ ἐκφόρια PTeb.27.74

    (ii B.C.); v. supr. A. 11.3b.
    b with ὅδε, adding a slight emphasis to the preceding word,

    εἰ δὴ τήνδε τε γαῖαν ἀνείρεαι Od.13.238

    , cf. 15.484.
    c τε γάρ rarely = καὶ γάρ or γάρ, Arist.APo. 75b41, de An. 405a4, PA 661b28, Pol. 1318b33, 1333a2; ἐάν τε γάρ for even if, 2 Ep.Cor.10.8; τήν τε γὰρ ἐπιθυμίαν οὐκ ᾔδειν for I had not known even lust. Ep.Rom.7.7.
    D Position of τε:
    1 in signf. A, as an enclitic, it stands second word in the sentence, clause, or phrase, regardless of the meaning: ἐγγύθι τε Πριάμοιο καὶ Ἕκτορος near both Priam and Hector, Il.6.317;

    ἡμέτεραί τ' ἄλοχοι καὶ νήπια τέκνα 2.136

    , cf. 4.505, 7.295;

    αἰεί τε δὴ νηλὴς οὺ καὶ θράσους πλέως A.Pr.42

    codd., cf. 291 (anap.);

    ἄνευ τε δόλου καὶ ἀπάτης Hdt.1.69

    ;

    ὑπέρ τε σοῦ καὶ τῆς ἀδελφῆς PEnteux.6.6

    (iii B.C.);

    τοῖς τε πόνοις καὶ μαθήμασι Pl.R. 537a

    , cf. Ti. 70b; hence in E.Or. 897 πόλεος must be taken with what precedes (Porson ad loc.): but article + noun, preposition + noun are freq. regarded as forming a unity indivisible by τε

    , τοῖς κτανοῦσί τε A.Ch.41

    (lyr.);

    πρὸς βίαν τε Id.Pr. 210

    ; also the order is freq. determined by the meaning, τε being placed immediately after the word (or first word of a phrase or clause) which it joins to what precedes or to what follows,

    πατὴρ ἀνδρῶν τε θεῶν τε Il.1.544

    ;

    ἔξω δόμων τε καὶ πάτρας A.Pr. 665

    ; the copulative or preparatory τε precedes many other particles, e.g. τε γάρ, τ' ἄρα, τέ τις.
    2 τε is enclitic in signfs. B, C also, and stands early in its sentence, clause, or phrase (v. supr.), but many particles which follow τε in signf. A precede it in signfs. B, C, e.g. in signfs. B, C we have δέ τε, μέν τε, γάρ τε, ἀλλά τε, δ' ἄρα τε, ὅς ῥά τε, οὔτ' ἄρ τε, καὶ γάρ τίς τε, ὅς τίς τε, καί τε.
    E Etymology: signf. A is found also in Skt. ca, Lat. - que; for signfs. B and c cf. Skt. ca in yá[hudot ] káś ca 'whosoever (with following verb)', Lat. - que in quisque, ubique, plerique, usque, neque, nec (= non in necopinans, etc.), Goth. ni-h 'not' (also 'and not'), Lat. namque (= nam).

    Greek-English dictionary (Αγγλικά Ελληνικά-λεξικό) > τε

  • 16 ὥρα

    ὥρα or [full] ὤρα (B), only in [dialect] Ion. form [full] ὥρη, or [full] ὤρη, some part of a sacrificial victim,
    A

    λάψεται γλῶσσαν, ὀσφῦν δασέαν, ὤρην SIG1037.2

    (Milet., iv/iii B.C.); τοὺς Ἴωνας λέγειν φασὶ τὴν κωλῆν ὥρην καὶ ὡραίαν Sch.HQ Od.12.89: but distd. fr. κωλῆ, λάψεται.. κωλῆν ἀντὶ τῆς ὤρης SIGl.c.5; cf. ἄωρος(B). (Perh. cogn. with Lat. sūra.)
    ------------------------------------
    ὥρα (C), [dialect] Ion. [full] ὥρη, : [dialect] Ep. gen. pl. ὡράων, [dialect] Ion. ὡρέων: loc. pl. ὥρασι, q. v.
    A any period, fixed by natural laws and revolutions, whether of the year, month, or day (the sense 'day' is implied in the compd. ἑπτάωρος, q. v.),

    νυκτός τε ὥραν καὶ μηνὸς καὶ ἐνιαυτοῦ X.Mem. 4.7.4

    , cf. E.Alc. 449(lyr.), Pl.R. 527d;

    τοῦ γνώμονος ἡ σκιὰ ἐπιοῦσα ἐπὶ τὰς γραμμὰς σημαίνει τὰς ὥρας τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ καὶ τῆς ἡμέρας IG12(8).240

    ([place name] Samothrace): but specially,
    I in Hom., part of the year, season; mostly in pl., the seasons,

    ὅτε τέτρατον ἦλθεν ἔτος καὶ ἐπήλυθον ὧραι Od.2.107

    , 19.152;

    ἀλλ' ὅτε δὴ μῆνές τε καὶ ἡμέραι ἐξετελεῦντο, ἂψ περιτελλομένου ἔτεος, καὶ ἐπήλυθον ὧραι 11.295

    , 14.294;

    ἀλλ' ὅτε δή ῥ' ἐνιαυτὸς ἔην, περὶ δ' ἔτραπον ὧραι 10.469

    , cf. Hes. Th. 58;

    Διὸς ὧραι Od.24.344

    , cf. Pi.O.4.2;

    ὁ κύκλος τῶν ὡρέων ἐς τὠυτὸ περιιών Hdt.2.4

    , cf. 1.32;

    δυώδεκα μέρεα δασαμένους τῶν ὡρέων ἐς [τὸν ἐνιαυτόν] Id.2.4

    ; οὐ μεταλλάσσουσι αἱ ὧραι ib.77;

    περιτελλομέναις ὥραις S.OT 156

    (lyr.); πάσαις ὥραις at all seasons, Id.Fr.592.6 (lyr.), Ar.Av. 696 (anap.);

    ὧραι ἐτῶν καὶ ἐνιαυτῶν Pl.Lg. 906c

    , cf. Smp. 188a, etc.;

    τῆς.. ὥρας τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ ταύτης οὔσης, ἐν ᾗ ἀσθενοῦσιν ἄνθρωποι μάλιστα Th.7.47

    ; χαλεπὴ ὥ. a bad season, Pl.Prt. 344d;

    ἀ δ' ὤρα χαλέπα Alc.39

    ; ἡ ὥ. αὕτη this season, X.Cyn.7.1, cf. 5.6; κατὰ τὰς ὥρας according to the seasons, Arist.GA 786a31;

    οἱ περὶ τὴν ὥραν χρόνοι Id.Pol. 1335a37

    .—Hom. and Hes. distinguish three seasons, and express each by the sg. ὥρη, with a word added to specify each:
    a spring,

    ἔαρος.. ὥρη Il.6.148

    ;

    ὥρη εἰαρινή 2.471

    , 16.643, Od.18.367, etc.; so in Trag. and [dialect] Att., ἦρος ὥρα or ὧραι, Ar.Nu. 1008 (anap.), E.Cyc. 508 (lyr.);

    ὥρα νέα Ar.Eq. 419

    ;

    νεᾶνις E.Ph. 786

    (lyr.); v. infr. 2.
    b summer,

    θέρεος ὥρη Hes.Op. 584

    , 664;

    ὥρα θερινή X.Cyn.9.20

    , Pl.Epin. 987a, etc.
    c winter,

    χείματος ὥρη Hes.Op. 450

    ;

    ὥρῃ χειμερίῃ Od.5.485

    , Hes.Op. 494; χειμῶνος ὥρᾳ in winter, And.1.137;

    χιονοβόλος Plu.2.182e

    .—A. also names three seasons, Pr. 454sq.; an Egyptian division of the year, acc. to D.S.1.26.—A fourth first appears in Alcm.76, θέρος καὶ χεῖμα κὠπώραν τρίταν καὶ τέτρατον τὸ ϝῆρ; and in Hp.Vict.3.68,

    χειμών, ἦρ, θέρος, φθινόπωρον; ὥρας φαίνομεν ἡμεῖς ἦρος χειμῶνος ὀπώρας Ar.Av. 709

    (anap.); τετράμορφοι ὧραι E(?).Fr. 943 (hex.): later, seven seasons are named,

    ἔαρ, θέρος, ὀπώρα, φθινόπωρον, σπορητός, χειμών, φυταλιά Gal.17(1).17

    .
    b in historians, the campaigning season,

    τὸν τῆς ὥρας εἰς τὸν περίπλουν χρόνον X.HG6.2.13

    ; esp. in the phrase ὥρα ἔτους, Th.2.52, 6.70, Pl.Phdr. 229a, Lg. 952e, D.50.23, Thphr.CP3.23.2; εἰς ἔτους ὥραν next season, Plu.Per.10.
    3 the year generally,

    τῆς ὥρης μέσον θέρος Hdt.8.12

    ; ἐν τῇ πέρυσιν ὥρᾳ last year, D.56.3; εἰς ὥρας next year, Philem.116, Pl.Ep. 346c, LXX Ge.18.10, AP11.17 (Nicarch.), cf. Plu.Ages.22; also

    εἰς ἄλλας ὥρας

    hereafter,

    E.IA 122

    (lyr.);

    ἐς τὰς ὥρας τὰς ἑτέρας Ar.Nu. 562

    (lyr.);

    ἐκ τῶν ὡρῶν εἰς τὰς ὥρας Id.Th. 950

    (anap.); κἠς ὥρας κἤπειτα next year and for ever, Theoc.15.74; also

    ὥραις ἐξ ὡρᾶν Isyll.25

    ; cf. ὥρασιν.
    4 in pl., of the climate of a country, as determined by its seasons, Hdt.1.142, cf. 149, 4.199 (here perh. three harvest seasons);

    τὰς ὥ. κάλλιστα κεκρημένας Id.3.106

    ; cf. Pl.Criti. 111e, Phd. 111b; climatic conditions, Hdt.2.26.
    II time of day,

    νυκτὸς ἐν ὥρῃ h.Merc.67

    , 155, 400; αἱ ὧ. τῆς ἡμέρας the times of day, i.e. morning, noon, evening, and night, X.Mem.4.3.4; δι' ὥραν ἡμέρας by the time of day (fixed for meetings), D.Prooem.49, etc.;

    πᾶσαν ὥ. τῆς ἡμέρας Arist.Mete. 371b31

    ;

    μεσονυκτίοις ποθ' ὥραις Anacreont.31.1

    : without ἡμέρας or

    νυκτός, ἑκάστης ἡμέρας μέχρι τρίτου μέρους ὥρας Pl. Lg. 784a

    ;

    τῆς ὥρας μικρὸν πρὸ δύντος ἡλίου X.HG7.2.22

    ; ψευσθεὶς τῆς ὥ. having mistaken the hour, And.1.38; ἐποίησαν ἔξω μέσων νυκτῶν τὴν ὥραν, i.e. they prolonged the day beyond midnight, D.54.26;

    τῆς ὥρας ἐγίγνετ' ὀψέ Id.21.84

    ;

    ὀψίτερον τῆς ὥ. PTeb. 793 xi 12

    (ii B. C.);

    πολλῆς ὥρας

    it being late,

    Plb.5.8.3

    ;

    ἤδη ὥρα πολλή Ev.Marc.6.35

    ; ἄχρι πολλῆς ὥρας till late in the day, D.H.2.54.
    b duration, interval or lapse of time,

    μετὰ ἱκανὴν ὥραν τοῦ κατενεχθῆναι τὸν πέλεκυν ἐξακούεται ἡ τῆς πληγῆς φωνή S.E.M.5.69

    ; length of time, term, Ἄρτεμις ἐννέ' ἐτῶν δεκάδας βίον Ἀρτεμιδώρῳ ἔκχρησεν, τρεῖς δ' ὥραι(date.)

    ἔτι προσέθηκε Προνοίη IG12(3).1350.3

    (Thera, ii B. C.); ἐπὶ πολλὴν ὥ. for a long time, J.AJ8.4.4.
    b in ordinary life the day from sunrise to sunset was divided into twelve equal parts called ὧραι ( ὧραι καιρικαί when it was necessary to distinguish them from the ὧραι ἰσημεριναί, v. καιρικός 2 c),

    ἡμέρα ἡ.. δωδεκάωρος, τουτέστιν ἡ ἀπὸ ἀνατολῆς μέχρι δύσεως S.E.M.10.182

    ;

    οὐχὶ δώδεκά εἰσιν ὧραι τῆς ἡμέρας; Ev.Jo.11.9

    ;

    ὡράων ἀμφὶ δυωδεκάδι AP9.782

    (Paul.Sil.); the time of day was commonly given without the Art.,

    ὥρᾳ ᾱ PHamb.1.96.3

    (ii A. D.),

    τρίτης ὥρας Plu.Rom.12

    ; ὀγδόης, ἐνάτης, δεκάτης ὥ., Id.Alex.60, Aem.22, Ant.68, etc.; but we have περὶ τὴν τρίτην ὥραν, περὶ τὴν ἑνδεκάτην, Ev.Matt.20.3,6, beside περὶ ἕκτην καὶ ἐννάτην ὥ. ib.5;

    χθὲς ὥραν ἑβδόμην Ev.Jo.4.52

    , cf. IG5(1).1390.109 (Andania, i B. C.), etc.; ἐρωτᾷ σε Χαιρήμων δειπνῆσαι.. αὔριον, ἥτις ἐστὶν ιε, ἀπὸ ὥρας θ ¯ - to-morrow the 15th at 9 o'clock, POxy.110 (ii A. D.): prov., δωδεκάτης ὥ., as we say 'at the eleventh hour', Plu.Crass.17.
    c

    τὰ δυώδεκα μέρεα τῆς ἡμέρης παρὰ Βαβυλωνίων ἔμαθον οἱ Ἕλληνες Hdt. 2.109

    ; here ἡμέρη means the νυχθήμερον, and the μέρεα were each = 2 ὧραι ἰσημεριναί; these double hours (Assyr. kaš-bu) are called ὧραι by Eudox.,

    ἥμισυ ζῳδίου.., ὅ ἐστιν ὥρας ἥμισυ Ars14.11

    , cf. 16.2; cf.

    δωδεκάωρος 11

    .
    III Astrol., degree of the zodiac rising at the nativity (cf.

    ὡρονόμος 11

    ,

    ὡροσκόπος 11

    ), ὥ. μεροποσπόρος, τεκνοσπόρος, Man.4.577, 597; ἐξ ὥρης ἐσορῶν Ζεὺς Ἑρμείην Jupiter in the ascendant in aspect with Mercury, Id.3.186, cf. 32, al.
    B the fitting time or season for a thing (mostly without Art., even in [dialect] Att.), freq. in Hom. (v. infr.);

    ὥρα συνάπτει Pi.P.4.247

    ;

    ὧραι ἐπειγόμεναι Id.N.4.34

    ;

    ὅταν ὥ. ἥκῃ X.Mem.2.1.2

    ; but with Art.,

    τῆς ὥ. ἐνθυμεῖσθαι Id.Cyn.8.6

    : freq. in later writers,

    τῆς ὥρας ἐπιγενομένης Plb.2.34.3

    , etc.
    2 c. gen. rei, ὥρη κοίτοιο, μύθων, ὕπνου, the time for bed, tale-telling, or sleep, Od.3.334, 11.379, cf. Hdt.1.10;

    ὥρη δόρποιο Od.14.407

    ;

    περὶ ἀρίστου ὥραν Th.7.81

    , X.HG1.1.13;

    πολυηράτου ἐς γάμου ὥρην Od.15.126

    ;

    ἐς γάμου ὥρην ἀπικέσθαι Hdt. 6.61

    ;

    γάμων ἔχειν ὥραν D.H.5.32

    ; so εἰς ἀνδρὸς ὥραν ἥκουσα time for a husband, Pl.Criti. 113d; ὥρη ἀρότου, ἀμήτου, Hes.Op. 460, 575;

    μέχρι ἀρότου ὥρης IG7.235.3

    (Oropus, iv B. C.);

    καρπῶν ὧραι Ar.Ra. 1034

    (anap.);

    ἡ ὥρα τῆς ὀχείας Arist.HA 509b20

    ; τοῦ φωλεύειν ib. 579a26, etc.; also ὥραν εἶχον παιδεύεσθαι I was of age to.. Is.9.28.
    3 ὥρα [ἐστίν] c. inf., it is time to do a thing,

    ἀλλὰ καὶ ὥρη εὕδειν Od.11.330

    , cf. 373; so also in Trag. and [dialect] Att., E.Ph. 1584, Heracl. 288 (anap.), Ar.Ec.30, Pl.Prt. 361e, 362a; so

    δοκεῖ οὐχ ὥρα εἶναι καθεύδειν X.An.1.3.11

    , cf. HG7.2.13 (dub. l.): c. acc. et inf.,

    ὥρα δ' ἐμπόρους καθιέναι ἄγκυραν A.Ch. 661

    , cf. S.OT 466 (lyr.): c. dat. et inf., X.Cyr.4.5.1, Pl.Tht. 145b: in these phrases the inf. [tense] pres. is almost universal; the [tense] aor., however, occurs in Od.21.428, S.Aj. 245 (lyr.), Ar.Ach. 393 (where also ἐστί is added to ὥρα, as in Philyll.3, ἀφαιρεῖν ὥρα 'στὶν ἤδη τὰς τραπέζας); and the [tense] pf. in

    ὥρα πεπαῦσθαι Plu.2.728d

    : sts. the inf. must be supplied,

    οὐδέ τί σε χρή, πρὶν ὥρη, καταλέχθαι Od.15.394

    , cf. E.El. 112 (lyr.), Ar.Ec. 877; ὥρα κἠς οἶκον (i. e. ἰέναι εἰς οἶκον) Theoc.15.147.
    4 in various adverb. usages,

    τὴν ὥρην

    at the right time,

    Hdt.2.2

    , 8.19, X.Oec.20.16: but τὴν ὥ. at that hour, Hes.Sc. 401; ταύτην τὴν ὥραν at this season, X.Cyn.9.1;

    [ἡ ἶρις] πᾶσαν ὥραν γίγνεται τῆς ἡμέρας Arist.Mete. 371b31

    ;

    δείελον ὥρην παύομαι ἀμήτοιο A.R. 3.417

    ; ὥραν οὐδενὸς κοινὴν θεῶν at an hour.., A.Eu. 109, cf. E.Ba. 724, Aeschin.1.9; αὐτῆς ὥρας immediately, PMich. in Class.Phil.22.255(iii A. D.); ἐν ὥρῃ in due season, in good time, Od.17.176, Hdt. 1.31, cf. Pi.O.6.28, Ar.V. 242, etc.; also αἰεὶ εἰς ὥρας in successive seasons, Od.9.135; ἐς τὰς ὥρας for all time, Ar.Ra. 382 (lyr. cf. supr. A. 1.3) (hence in an acclamation [ε] ἰς ὥρας πᾶσι τοῖς τὴν πόλιν φιλοῦσιν hurrah for.., POxy.41.29 (iii/iv A. D.));

    οἱ ὧδε χέζοντες εἰς ὥ. μὴ ἔλθοιεν Milet.2(3)

    No.406, cf.

    ὥρασι; καθ' ὥραν Theoc.18.12

    , Plb.1.45.4, cf. 3.93.6, etc.; opp.

    παρ' ὥρην AP7.534

    (Alex.Aet. or Autom.), cf. Plu.2.784b, etc.:—

    πρὸ τῆς ὥρας X.Oec.20.16

    ;

    πρὸ ὥρας Luc.Luct.13

    ;

    πρὸ ὥρας τελευτῆσαι IG42(1).84.26

    (Epid., i A. D.);

    πρὶν ὥρας Pi.P.4.43

    (cf.

    πρίν A. 11.4

    ).
    II metaph., the spring-time of life, the bloom of youth, Mimn.3.1;

    ὥραν ἐχούσας A.Supp. 997

    , cf. Th.13, 535;

    παῖδας πρὸς τέρμασιν ὥρας Ar.Av. 705

    (anap.);

    πάντες οἱ ἐν ὥρᾳ Pl.R. 474d

    ; οὐκ ἐνὥ., = πρεσβύτερος, Id.Phdr. 240d;

    ἐὰν ἐπὶ ὥρᾳ ᾖ Id.R. 474e

    ;

    ἕως ἂν ἐν ὥρᾳ ὦσι Id.Men. 76b

    ; παυσαμένου τῆς ὥ. prob. in Id.Phdr. 234a;

    ἀνθεῖν ἐν ὥ. Id.R. 475a

    ;

    τὴν ὥ. διαφυλάξαι ἄβατον τοῖς πονηροῖς Isoc.10.58

    ; λήγειν ὥρας, opp. ἀνθεῖν, Pl.Alc.1.131e;

    ἑς ἐπιγινόμενόν τι τέλος, οἷον τοῖς ἀκμαίοις ἡ ὥρα Arist.EN 1174b33

    , cf. 1157a8.
    2 freq. involving an idea of beauty,

    φεῦ φεῦ τῆς ὥρας τοῦ κάλλους Ar.Av. 1724

    (lyr.);

    ὥρᾳ.. ἡλικίας λαμπρός Th.6.54

    ;

    κάλλει καὶ ὥρᾳ διενεγκόντες Aeschin.1.134

    , cf. ib.158;

    καλὸς ὥρᾳ τε κεκραμένος Pi.O.10(11).104

    , cf. X.Mem. 2.1.22, Pl.Lg. 837b;

    ἀφ' ὥρας ἐργάζεσθαι

    quaestum corpore facere,

    Plu.

    Tim..14, cf. X.Mem..1.6.13, Smp.8.21;

    τὴν ὥ. πεπωληκότες Phld.Rh.1.344

    S.:—then,
    b generally, beauty, grace, elegance of style, D.H.Pomp.2, Plu.2.874b, etc.;

    γλυκύτης καὶ ὥ. Hermog.Id.2.3

    , cf. Men.Rh.p.335 S., Him.Or.1.2; of beauty in general,

    χάρις καὶ ὥρα Plu.2.128d

    .
    3 Ὥρα personified, like Ἥβη, Pi.N.8.1.
    III = τὰ ὡραῖα, the produce of the season, fruits of the year,

    ἀπὸ τῆς ὥρας ἐτρέφοντο X.HG2.1.1

    .
    C personified, αἱὯραι, the Hours, keepers of heaven's cloudgate, Il.5.749, 8.393; and ministers of the gods, ib. 433;

    Ζεῦ, τεαὶ.. Ὧραι Pi.O.4.2

    ; esp. of Aphrodite, h.Hom.6.5,12; also Ὧ. Διονυσιάδες, Καρνειάδες, Simon.148, Call.Ap.87; three in number, Eunomia, Dike, Eirene, daughters of Zeus and Themis, Hes.Th. 901;

    Ωραι πολυάνθεμοι Pi.O.13.17

    , cf. Alex.261.6, Theoc.1.150, etc.: freq. joined with the Χάριτες, h.Ap. 194, Hes.Op.75; worshipped at Athens, Paus.9.35.1; at Argos, Id.2.20.5; at Attaleia, BMus.Inscr. 1044 (i B. C.).

    Greek-English dictionary (Αγγλικά Ελληνικά-λεξικό) > ὥρα

  • 17 εἰμί

    εἰμί (Hom.+) impv. ἴσθι, ἔσο IPol 4:1, ἔστω—also colloq. ἤτω (BGU 276, 24; 419, 13; POxy 533, 9; Ps 103:31; 1 Macc 10:31) 1 Cor 16:22; Js 5:12; 1 Cl 48:5; Hv 3, 3, 4;—3 pers. pl. ἔστωσαν (ins since 200 B.C. Meisterhans3-Schw. 191; PPetr III, 2, 22 [237 B.C.]) Lk 12:35; 1 Ti 3:12; GJs 7:2. Inf. εἶναι. Impf. 1 pers. only mid. ἤμην (Jos., Bell. 1, 389; 631; s. further below); ἦν only Ac 20:18 D, 2 pers. ἦσθα (Jos., Ant. 6, 104) Mt 26:69; Mk 14:67 and ἦς (Lobeck, Phryn. 149 ‘say ἦσθα’; Jos., Ant. 17, 110 al.; Sb 6262, 16 [III A.D.]) Mt 25:21, 23 al., 3 sg. ἦν, 1 pl. ἦμεν. Beside this the mid. form ἤμην (pap since III B.C.; Job 29:16; Tob 12:13 BA), s. above, gives the pl. ἤμεθα (pap since III B.C.; Bar 1:19) Mt 23:30; Ac 27:37; Eph 2:3. Both forms in succession Gal. 4:3. Fut. ἔσομαι, ptc. ἐσόμενος. The mss. vary in choice of act. or mid., but like the edd. lean toward the mid. (W-S. §14, 1; Mlt-H. 201–3; Rob. index; B-D-F §98; Rdm.2 99; 101f; Helbing 108f; Reinhold 86f). Also s. ἔνι.
    be, exist, be on hand a pred. use (for other pred. use s. 3a, 4, 5, 6, 7): of God (Epicurus in Diog. L. 10, 123 θεοί εἰσιν; Zaleucus in Diod S 12, 20, 2 θεοὺς εἶναι; Wsd 12:13; Just., D. 128, 4 angels) ἔστιν ὁ θεός God exists Hb 11:6; cp. 1 Cor 8:5. ὁ ὢν καὶ ὁ ἦν the one who is and who was (cp. SibOr 3, 16; as amulet PMich 155, 3 [II A.D.] ὁ ὢν θεὸς ὁ Ἰάω κύριος παντοκράτωρ=the god … who exists.) Rv 11:17; 16:5. ὁ ὢν καὶ ὁ ἦν καὶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος, in this and the two preceding passages ἦν is treated as a ptc. (for the unusual use of ἦν cp. Simonides 74 D.: ἦν ἑκατὸν φιάλαι) 1:4; 4:8 (cp. Ex 3:14; Wsd 13:1; Paus. 10, 12, 10 Ζεὺς ἦν, Ζ. ἔστι, Ζ. ἔσσεται; cp. Theosophien 18. S. OWeinreich, ARW 19, 1919, 178f). οὐδʼ εἶναι θεὸν παντοκράτορα AcPlCor 1:11. ἐγώ εἰμι (ins in the Athena-Isis temple of Saïs in Plut., Is. et Os. 9, 354c: ἐγώ εἰμι πᾶν τὸ γεγονὸς κ. ὸ̓ν κ. ἐσόμενον. On the role of Isis in Gk. rel. s. IBergman, Ich bin Isis ’68; RMerkelbach, Isis Regina—Zeus Sarapis ’95; for further lit. s. MGustafson in: Prayer fr. Alexander to Constantine, ed. MKiley et al. ’97, 158.) Rv 1:8 (s. ἐγώ beg.). ὁ ὤν, … θεός Ro 9:5 is classed here and taken to mean Christ by JWordsworth ad loc. and HWarner, JTS 48, ’47, 203f. Of the λόγος: ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν ὁ λ. J 1:1 (for ἦν cp. Herm. Wr. 1, 4; 3, 1b ἦν σκότος, Fgm. IX 1 p. 422, 23 Sc. γέγονεν ἡ ὕλη καὶ ἦν).—Of Christ πρὶν Ἀβραὰμ γενέσθαι, ἐγὼ εἰμί before Abraham was born, I am 8:58 (on the pres. εἰμί cp. Parmenides 8, 5: of the Eternal we cannot say ἦν οὐδʼ ἔσται, only ἔστιν; Ammonius Hermiae [Comm. in Aristotl. IV 5 ed. ABusse 1897] 6 p. 172: in Timaeus we read that we must not say of the gods τὸ ἦν ἢ τὸ ἔσται μεταβολῆς τινος ὄντα σημαντικά, μόνον δὲ τὸ ἔστι=‘was’ or ‘will be’, suggesting change, but only ‘is’; Ps 89:2; DBall, ‘I Am’ in John’s Gospel [JSNT Suppl. 124] ’96).—Of the world πρὸ τοῦ τὸν κόσμον εἶναι before the world existed 17:5. Satirically, of the beast, who parodies the Lamb, ἦν καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν Rv 17:8. Of God’s temple: ἔστιν B 16:6f it exists. τὸ μὴ ὄν that which does not exist, the unreal (Sallust. 17 p. 32, 7 and 9; Philo, Aet. M. 5; 82) Hm 1:1. τὰ ὄντα that which exists contrasted w. τὰ μὴ ὄντα Ro 4:17; cp. 1 Cor 1:28; 2 Cl 1:8. Of God κτίσας ἐκ τοῦ μὴ ὄντος τὰ ὄντα what is out of what is not Hv 1, 1, 6 (on the contrast τὰ ὄντα and τὰ μὴ ὄντα cp. Ps.-Arist. on Xenophanes: Fgm. 21, 28; Artem. 1, 51 p. 49, 19 τὰ μὴ ὄντα ὡς ὄντα; Ocellus Luc. 12; Sallust. 17, 5 p. 30, 28–32, 12; Philo, Op. M. 81; PGM 4, 3077f ποιήσαντα τὰ πάντα ἐξ ὧν οὐκ ὄντων εἰς τὸ εἶναι; 13, 272f τὸν ἐκ μὴ ὄντων εἶναι ποιήσαντα καὶ ἐξ ὄντων μὴ εἶναι; Theoph. Ant. 1, 4 [p. 64, 21] τὰ πάντα ὁ θεὸς ἐποίησεν ἐξ οὐκ ὄντων εἰς τὸ εἶναι).—Of existing in the sense be present, available, provided πολλοῦ ὄχλου ὄντος since a large crowd was present Mk 8:1. ὄντων τῶν προσφερόντων those are provided who offer Hb 8:4. οὔπω ἦν πνεῦμα the Spirit had not yet come J 7:39. ἀκούσας ὄντα σιτία when he heard that grain was available Ac 7:12.—Freq. used to introduce parables and stories (once) there was: ἄνθρωπός τις ἦν πλούσιος there was (once) a rich man Lk 16:1, 19. ἦν ἄνθρωπος ἐκ τ. Φαρισαίων there was a man among the Pharisees J 3:1.There is, there are ὥσπερ εἰσὶν θεοὶ πολλοί as there are many gods 1 Cor 8:5. διαιρέσεις χαρισμάτων εἰσίν there are various kinds of spiritual gifts 12:4ff; 1J 5:16 al. Neg. οὐκ ἔστι there is (are) not, no (Ps 52:2; Simplicius in Epict. p. 95, 42 as a quot. from ‘tragedy’ οὐκ εἰσὶν θεοί) δίκαιος there is no righteous man Ro 3:10 (Eccl 7:20). ἀνάστασις νεκρῶν οὐκ ἔστιν there is no resurr. of the dead 1 Cor 15:12; οὐδʼ εἶναι ἀνάστασιν AcPlCor 1:12; 2:24; cp. Mt 22:23; Ac 23:8 (cp. 2 Macc 7:14). εἰσὶν οἵ, or οἵτινες there are people who (Hom. et al.; LXX; Just., D. 47, 2 εἰ μήτι εἰσὶν οἱ λέγοντες ὅτι etc.—W. sing. and pl. combined: Arrian, Ind. 24, 9 ἔστι δὲ οἳ διέφυγον=but there are some who escaped) Mt 16:28; 19:12; Mk 9:1; Lk 9:27; J 6:64; Ac 11:20. Neg. οὐδείς ἐστιν ὅς there is no one who Mk 9:39; 10:29; Lk 1:61; 18:29. As a question τίς ἐστιν ὅς; who is there that? Mt 12:11—In an unusual (perh. bureaucratic terminology) participial construction Ac 13:1 ἡ οὖσα ἐκκλησία the congregation there (cp. Ps.-Pla., Eryx. 6, 394c οἱ ὄντες ἄνθρωποι=the people with whom he has to deal; PLond III 1168, 5 p. 136 [18 A.D.] ἐπὶ ταῖς οὔσαις γειτνίαις=on the adjoining areas there; PGen 49; PSI 229, 11 τοῦ ὄντος μηνός of the current month); cp. 14:13.—αἱ οὖσαι (sc. ἐξουσίαι) those that exist Ro 13:1 (cp. UPZ 180a I, 4 [113 B.C.] ἐφʼ ἱερέων καὶ ἱερειῶν τῶν ὄντων καὶ οὐσῶν).
    to be in close connection (with), is, freq. in statements of identity or equation, as a copula, the equative function, uniting subject and predicate. On absence of the copula, Mlt-Turner 294–310.
    gener. πραΰς εἰμι I am gentle Mt 11:29. ἐγώ εἰμι Γαβριήλ Lk 1:19. σὺ εἶ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ Mk 3:11; J 1:49 and very oft. ἵνα … ὁ πονηρὸς … ἐλεγχθῇ [το? s. app. in Bodm.] μὴ ὢν θεός AcPlCor 2:15 (Just., D. 3, 3 φιλολόγος οὖν τις εἶ σύ).—The pred. can be supplied fr. the context: καὶ ἐσμέν and we are (really God’s children) 1J 3:1 (Eur., Ion 309 τ. θεοῦ καλοῦμαι δοῦλος εἰμί τε. Dio Chrys. 14 [31], 58 θεοφιλεῖς οἱ χρηστοὶ λέγονται καὶ εἰσίν; Epict. 2, 16, 44 Ἡρακλῆς ἐπιστεύθη Διὸς υἱὸς εἶναι καὶ ἦν.—The ptc. ὤν, οὖσα, ὄν used w. a noun or adj.and serving as an if-, since-, or although-clause sim. functions as a copula πονηροὶ ὄντες Mt 7:11; 12:34.—Lk 20:36; J 3:4; 4:9; Ac 16:21; Ro 5:10; 1 Cor 8:7; Gal 2:3 al.).—W. adv. of quality: οὕτως εἶναι be so preceded by ὥσπερ, καθώς or followed by ὡς, ὥσπερ Mt 13:40; 24:27, 37, 39; Mk 4:26; Lk 17:26. W. dat. of pers. οὕτως ἔσται ὁ υἱὸς τ. ἀ. τῇ γενεᾷ ταύτῃ so the Human One (Son of Man) will be for this generation 11:30. εἰμὶ ὡσ/ὥσπερ I am like Mt 6:5; Lk 18:11. W. dat. ἔστω σοι ὥσπερ τελώνης he shall be to you as a tax-collector Mt 18:17. εἰμὶ ὥς τις I am like someone of outward and inward similarity 28:3; Lk 6:40; 11:44; 22:27 al. καθώς εἰμι as I am Ac 22:3; 1J 3:2, 7; 4:17.—W. demonstr. pron. (Just., A I, 16, 1 ἃ ἔφη, ταῦτά ἐστι: foll. by a quotation; sim. 48, 5 ἔστι δὲ ταῦτα; and oft.) τὰ ὀνόματά ἐστιν ταῦτα Mt 10:2. αὕτη ἐστὶν ἡ μαρτυρία J 1:19. W. inf. foll. θρησκεία αὕτη ἐστίν, ἐπισκέπτεσθαι Js 1:27. W. ὅτι foll. αὕτη ἐστὶν ἡ κρίσις, ὅτι τὸ φῶς ἐλήλυθεν J 3:19; cp. 21:24; 1J 1:5; 3:11; 5:11. W. ἵνα foll. τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ ἔργον, ἵνα πιστεύητε J 6:29; cp. vs. 39f; 15:12; 17:3; 1J 3:11, 23; 5:3. W. τηλικοῦτος: τὰ πλοῖα, τηλικαῦτα ὄντα though they are so large Js 3:4. W. τοσοῦτος: τοσοῦτων ὄντων although there were so many J 21:11. W. τοιοῦτος: τοιοῦτος ὤν Phlm 9 (cp. Just., A I, 18, 4 ὅσα ἄλλα τοιαῦτά ἐστι).—W. interrog. pron. ὑμεῖς τίνα με λέγετε εἶναι; who do you say I am? Mt 16:15; cp. 21:10; Mk 1:24; 4:41; 8:27, 29; Lk 4:34 al.; σὺ τίς εἶ; J 1:19; 8:25; 21:12 al. (cp. JosAs 14:6 τίς εἶ συ tell me ‘who you are’). σὺ τίς εἶ ὁ κρίνων; (Pla., Gorg. 452b; Strabo 6, 2, 4 σὺ τίς εἶ ὁ τὸν Ὅμηρον ψέγων ὡς μυθογράφον;) Ro 14:4; ἐγὼ τίς ἤμην; (cp. Ex 3:11) Ac 11:17; τίς εἰμι ἐγὼ ὅτι who am I, that GJs 12:2 (Ex 3:11). W. πόσος: πόσος χρόνος ἐστίν; how long a time? Mk 9:21. W. ποταπός of what sort Lk 1:29.—W. relative pron. οἷος 2 Cor 10:11; ὁποῖος Ac 26:29; 1 Cor 3:13; Gal 2:6; ὅς Rv 1:19; ὅστις Gal 5:10, 19.—W. numerals ἦσαν οἱ φαγόντες πεντακισχίλιοι ἄνδρες 6:44 (cp. Polyaenus 7, 25 ἦσαν οἱ πεσόντες ἀνδρῶν μυριάδες δέκα); cp. Ac 19:7; 23:13. Λάζαρος εἷς ἦν ἐκ τῶν ἀνακειμένων L. was one of those at the table J 12:2; cp. Gal 3:20; Js 2:19. τῶν πιστευσάντων ἦν καρδία καὶ ψυχὴ μία Ac 4:32. εἷς εἶναι be one and the same Gal 3:28. ἓν εἶναι be one J 10:30; 17:11, 21ff; 1 Cor 3:8.—οὐδʼ εἶναι τὴν πλάσιν τὴν τῶν ἀνθρώπων τοῦ θεοῦ (that) the creation of humankind is not God’s doing AcPlCor 1:13.—To establish identity the formula ἐγώ εἰμι is oft. used in the gospels (corresp. to Hebr. אֲנִי הוּא Dt 32:39; Is 43:10), in such a way that the predicate must be understood fr. the context: Mt 14:27; Mk 6:50; 13:6; 14:62; Lk 22:70; J 4:26; 6:20; 8:24, 28; 13:19; 18:5f and oft.; s. on ἐγώ.—In a question μήτι ἐγώ εἰμι; surely it is not I? Mt 26:22, 25.
    to describe a special connection betw. the subject and a predicate noun ἡμεῖς ναὸς θεοῦ ἐσμεν ζῶντος we are a temple of the living God 2 Cor 6:16. ἡ ἐπιστολὴ ὑμεῖς ἐστε you are our letter (of recommendation) 3:2. σφραγίς μου τῆς ἀποστολῆς ὑμεῖς ἐστε you are the seal of my apostleship 1 Cor 9:2 and oft.
    in explanations:
    α. to show how someth. is to be understood is a representation of, is the equivalent of; εἰμί here, too, serves as copula; we usually translate mean, so in the formula τοῦτʼ ἔστιν this or that means, that is to say (Epict., Ench. 33, 10; Arrian, Tact. 29, 3; SIG 880, 50; PFlor 157, 4; PSI 298, 9; PMert 91, 9; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 16; ApcMos 19; Just., D. 56, 23; 78, 3 al.) Mk 7:2; Ac 19:4; Ro 7:18; 9:8; 10:6, 8; Phlm 12; Hb 7:5 al.; in the sense that is (when translated) (Polyaenus 8, 14, 1 Μάξιμος ἀνηγορεύθη• τοῦτο δʼ ἄν εἴη Μέγιστον) Mt 27:46; Ac 1:19. So also w. relative pron.: ὅ ἐστιν Mk 3:17; 7:11, 34; Hb 7:2. After verbs of asking, recognizing, knowing and not knowing (Antiphanes Com. 231, 1f τὸ ζῆν τί ἐστι;) μάθετε τί ἐστιν learn what (this) means Mt 9:13. εἰ ἐγνώκειτε τί ἐστιν 12:7; cp. Mk 1:27; 9:10; Lk 20:17; J 16:17f; Eph 4:9. W. an indir. question (Stephan. Byz. s.v. Ἀγύλλα: τὶς ἠρώτα τί ἂν εἴη τὸ ὄνομα) τί ἂν εἴη ταῦτα Lk 15:26; τί εἴη τοῦτο 18:36. τίνα θέλει ταῦτα εἶναι what this means Ac 17:20; cp. 2:12, where the question is not about the mng. of terms but the significance of what is happening.—Esp. in interpr. of the parables (Artem. 1, 51 p. 48, 26 ἄρουρα οὐδὲν ἄλλο ἐστὶν ἢ γυνή=field means nothing else than woman) ὁ ἀγρός ἐστιν ὁ κόσμος the field means the world Mt 13:38; cp. vss. 19f, 22f; Mk 4:15f, 18, 20; Lk 8:11ff (cp. Gen 41:26f; Ezk 37:11; Ath. 22, 4 [Stoic interpr. of myths]). On τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ σῶμά μου Mt 26:26; Mk 14:22; Lk 22:19 and its various interpretations, see lit. s.v. εὐχαριστία. Cp. Hipponax (VI B.C.) 45 Diehl αὕτη γάρ ἐστι συμφορή=this means misfortune.
    β. to be of relative significance, be of moment or importance, amount to someth. w. indef. pron. εἰδωλόθυτόν τί ἐστιν meat offered to idols means anything 1 Cor 10:19. Esp. εἰμί τι I mean someth. of pers. 1 Cor 3:7; Gal 2:6; 6:3; and of things vs. 15. εἰμί τις Ac 5:36.—Of no account ἐμοὶ εἰς ἐλάχιστόν ἐστιν (telescoped fr. ἐλάχ. ἐστιν and εἰς ἐλάχ. γίνεται, of which there are many exx. in Schmid, I 398; II 161, 237; III 281; IV 455) it is of little or no importance to me 1 Cor 4:3.
    be in reference to location, persons, condition, or time, be
    of various relations or positions involving a place or thing: w. ἀπό: εἶναι ἀπό τινος be or come from a certain place (X., An. 2, 4, 13) J 1:44.—W. ἐν: ἐν τοῖς τ. πατρός μου in my father’s house Lk 2:49 (cp. Jos., Ant. 16, 302 καταγωγὴ ἐν τοῖς Ἀντιπάτρου). ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ on the way Mk 10:32. ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ Mt 24:26. ἐν ἀγρῷ Lk 15:25. ἐν δεξιᾷ τ. θεοῦ at God’s right hand Ro 8:34; in heaven Eph 6:9.—W. εἰς: τὴν κοίτην Lk 11:7; τὸν κόλπον J1:18.—W. ἐπὶ w. gen. be on someth. of place, roof Lk 17:31; head J 20:7 (cp. 1 Macc 1:59); also fig., of one who is over someone (1 Macc 10:69; Jdth 14:13 ὁ ὢν ἐπὶ πάντων τῶν αὐτοῦ) Ro 9:5 (of the angel of death Mel., P. 20, 142 ἐπὶ τῶν πρωτοτόκων); also ἐπάνω τινός J 3:31.—W. dat. be at someth. the door Mt 24:33; Mk 13:29.—W. acc. be on someone: grace Lk 2:40; Ac 4:33; spirit (Is 61:1) Lk 2:25; εἶναι ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό be in the same place, together (Gen 29:2 v.l.) Ac 1:15; 2:1, 44; 1 Cor 7:5.—W. κατά w. acc. εἶναι κατὰ τὴν Ἰουδαίαν be in Judea Ac 11:1; εἶναι ἐν Ἀντιοχείᾳ κατὰ τὴν οὖσαν ἐκκλησίαν were at Antioch in the congregation there 13:1.—W. ὑπό w. acc. τι or τινα of place be under someth. J 1:48; 1 Cor 10:1.—W. παρά w. acc. παρὰ τὴν θάλασσαν by the sea- (i.e. lake-) shore Mk 5:21; Ac 10:6.—W. πρός τι be close to, facing someth. Mk 4:1.—W. adv. of place ἐγγύς τινι near someth. Ac 9:38; 27:8. μακρὰν (ἀπό) Mk 12:34; J 21:8; Eph 2:13; also πόρρω Lk 14:32. χωρίς τινος without someth. Hb 12:8. ἐνθάδε Ac 16:28. ἔσω J 20:26. ἀπέναντί τινος Ro 3:18 (Ps 35:2). ἐκτός τινος 1 Cor 6:18; ἀντίπερά τινος Lk 8:26; ὁμοῦ J 21:2; οὗ Mt 2:9; ὅπου Mk 2:4; 5:40. ὧδε Mt 17:4; Mk 9:5; Lk 9:33. Also w. fut. mng. (ESchwartz, GGN 1908, 161 n.; on the fut. use of the pres. cp. POxy 531, 22 [II A.D.] ἔστι δὲ τοῦ Τῦβι μηνὸς σοὶ ὸ̔ θέλεις) ὅπου εἰμί J 7:34, 36; 12:26; 14:3; 17:24. As pred., to denote a relatively long stay at a place, stay, reside ἴσθι ἐκεῖ stay there Mt 2:13, cp. vs. 15; ἐπʼ ἐρήμοις τόποις in lonely places Mk 1:45; ἦν παρὰ τὴν θάλασσαν he stayed by the lakeside 5:21.
    involving humans or transcendent beings: w. adv. ἔμπροσθέν τινος Lk 14:2. ἔναντί τινος Ac 8:21; ἐνώπιόν τινος Lk 14:10; Ac 4:19; 1 Pt 3:4; Rv 7:15; ἐντός τινος Lk 17:21; ἐγγύς τινος J 11:18; 19:20; Ro 10:8 (Dt 30:14).—W. prep. ἐν τινί equiv. to ἔκ τινος εἶναι be among Mt 27:56; cp. Mk 15:40; Ro 1:6. Of God, who is among his people 1 Cor 14:25 (Is 45:14; Jer 14:9); of the Spirit J 14:17. Of persons under Christ’s direction: ἐν θεῷ 1J 2:5; 5:20 (s. Norden, Agn. Th. 23, 1). ἔν τινι rest upon, arise from someth. (Aristot., Pol. 7, 1, 3 [1323b, 1] ἐν ἀρετῇ; Sir 9:16) Ac 4:12; 1 Cor 2:5; Eph 5:18.—εἴς τινα be directed, inclined toward Ac 23:30; 2 Cor 7:15; 1 Pt 1:21.—κατά w. gen. be against someone (Sir 6:12) Mt 12:30; Mk 9:40 and Lk 9:50 (both opp. ὑπέρ); Gal 5:23.—σύν τινι be with someone (Jos., Ant. 7, 181) Lk 22:56; 24:44; Ac 13:7; accompany, associate w. someone Lk 8:38; Ac 4:13; 22:9; take sides with someone (X., Cyr. 5, 4, 37; 7, 5, 77; Jos., Ant. 11, 259 [of God]) Ac 14:4.—πρός τινα be with someone Mt 13:56; Mk 6:3; J 1:1f. I am to be compared w. IMg 12.—μετά and gen. be with someone (Judg 14:11) Mt 17:17; Mk 3:14; 5:18; J 3:26; 12:17; ἔστω μεθʼ ὑμῶν εἰρήνη AcPlCor 2:40; of God, who is with someone (Gen 21:20; Judg 6:13 al.; Philo, Det. Pot. Ins. 4; Jos., Ant. 6, 181; 15, 138) Lk 1:66; J 3:2; 8:29; Ac 10:38 al.; also be with in the sense be favorable to, in league with (Ex 23:2) Mt 12:30; Lk 11:23; of punishment attending a pers. τὸ πῦρ ἐστι μετʼ αὐτοῦ AcPlCor 2:37.—παρά and gen. come from someone (X., An. 2, 4, 15; Just., D. 8, 4 ἔλεος παρὰ θεοῦ) fr. God J 6:46; 7:29; w. dat. be with, among persons Mt 22:25; Ac 10:6. W. neg. be strange to someone, there is no … in someone Ro 2:11; 9:14; Eph 6:9.—ὑπέρ w. gen. be on one’s side Mk 9:4 and Lk 9:50 (both opp. κατά); w. acc. be superior to (Sir 25:10; 30:16) Lk 6:40.
    of condition or circumstance: κατά w. acc. live in accordance with (Sir 28:10; 43:8; 2 Macc 9:20) κατὰ σάκρα, πνεῦμα Ro 8:5. οὐκ ἔστιν κατὰ ἄνθρωπον not human (in origin) Gal 1:11.—Fig. ὑπό w. acc. be under (the power of) someth. Ro 3:9; 6:14f; Gal 3:10, 25.—W. ἐν of existing ἐν τῷ θεῷ εἶναι of humankind: have its basis of existence in God Ac 17:28. Of states of being: ἐν δόξῃ 2 Cor 3:8; ἐν εἰρήνῃ Lk 11:21; ἐν ἔχθρᾳ at enmity 23:12; ἐν κρίματι under condemnation vs. 40. ἐν ῥύσει αἵματος suffer from hemorrhages Mk 5:25; Lk 8:43 (cp. Soph., Aj. 271 ἦν ἐν τῇ νόσῳ; cp. TestJob 35:1 ἐν πληγαῖς πολλαῖς). Periphrastically for an adj. ἐν ἐξουσίᾳ authoritative Lk 4:32. ἐν βάρει important 1 Th 2:7. ἐν τῇ πίστει true believers, believing 2 Cor 13:5. Be involved in someth. ἐν ἑορτῇ be at the festival=take part in it J 2:23. ἐν τούτοις ἴσθι devote yourself to these things 1 Ti 4:15 (cp. X., Hell. 4, 8, 7 ἐν τοιούτοις ὄντες=occupied w. such things; Jos., Ant. 2, 346 ἐν ὕμνοις ἦσαν=they occupied themselves w. the singing of hymns).—Fig., live in the light 1J 2:9; cp. vs. 11; 1 Th 5:4; in the flesh Ro 7:5; 8:8; AcPlCor 1:6. ἐν οἷς εἰμι in the situation in which I find myself Phil 4:11 (X., Hell. 4, 2, 1; Diod S 12, 63, 5; 12, 66, 4; Appian, Hann. 55 §228 ἐν τούτοις ἦν=he was in this situation; Jos., Ant. 7, 232 ἐν τούτοις ἦσαν=found themselves in this sit.; TestJob 35:6 ἐν τίνι ἐστίν; s. ZPE VIII 170). ἐν πολλοῖς ὢν ἀστοχήμασι AcPlCor 2:1. Of characteristics, emotions, etc. ἔν τινί ἐστιν, e.g. ἀδικία J 7:18; ἄγνοια Eph 4:18; ἀλήθεια J 8:44; 2 Cor 11:10 (cp. 1 Macc 7:18); ἁμαρτία 1J 3:5.
    of time ἐγγύς of καιρός be near Mt 26:18; Mk 13:28. πρὸς ἑσπέραν ἐστίν it is toward evening Lk 24:29 (Just., D. 137, 4 πρὸς δυσμὰς … ὁ ἥλιός ἐστι).
    to be alive in a period of time, live, denoting temporal existence (Hom., Trag., Thu. et al.; Sir 42:21; En 102:5 Philo, De Jos. 17; Jos., Ant. 7, 254) εἰ ἤμεθα ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις τῶν πατέρων ἡμῶν if we had lived in the days of our fathers Mt 23:30. ὅτι οὐκ εἰσὶν because they were no more 2:18 (Jer 38:15). ἦσαν ἐπὶ χρόνον ἱκανόν (those who were healed and raised by Christ) remained alive for quite some time Qua.
    to be the time at which someth. takes place w. indications of specific moments or occasions, be (X., Hell. 4, 5, 1, An. 4, 3, 8; Sus 13 Theod.; 1 Macc 6:49; 2 Macc 8:26; Jos., Ant. 6, 235 νουμηνία δʼ ἦν; 11, 251): ἦν ὥρα ἕκτη it was the sixth hour (=noon acc. to Jewish reckoning) Lk 23:44; J 4:6; 19:14.—Mk 15:25; J 1:39. ἦν ἑσπέρα ἤδη it was already evening Ac 4:3. πρωί̈ J 18:28. ἦν παρασκευή Mk 15:42. ἦν ἑορτὴ τῶν Ἰουδαίων J 5:1. σάββατόν ἐστιν vs. 10 et al. Short clauses (as Polyaenus 4, 9, 2 νὺξ ἦν; 7, 44, 2 πόλεμος ἦν; exc. 36, 8 ἦν ἀρίστου ὥρα; Jos., Ant. 19, 248 ἔτι δὲ νὺξ ἦν) χειμὼν ἦν J 10:22; ἦν δὲ νύξ (sim. Jos., Bell. 4, 64) 13:30; ψύχος it was cold 18:18; καύσων ἔσται it will be hot Lk 12:55.
    to take place as a phenomenon or event, take place, occur, become, be, be in (Hom., Thu. et al.; LXX; En 104:5; 106:6.—Cp. Just., D. 82, 2 of Christ’s predictions ὅπερ καὶ ἔστι ‘which is in fact the case’.) ἔσται θόρυβος τοῦ λαοῦ a popular uprising Mk 14:2. γογγυσμὸς ἦν there was (much) muttering J 7:12. σχίσμα there was a division 9:16; 1 Cor 1:10; 12:25. ἔριδες … εἰσίν quarrels are going on 1:11. δεῖ αἱρέσεις εἶναι 11:19. θάνατος, πένθος, κραυγή, πόνος ἔσται Rv 21:4. ἔσονται λιμοὶ κ. σεισμοί Mt 24:7. Hence τὸ ἐσόμενον what was going to happen (Sir 48:25) Lk 22:49. πότε ταῦτα ἔσται; when will this happen? Mt 24:3. πῶς ἔσται τοῦτο; how can this be? Lk 1:34. Hebraistically (הָיָה; s. KBeyer, Semitische Syntax im NT, ’62, 63–65) καὶ ἔσται w. fut. of another verb foll. and it will come about that Ac 2:17 (Jo 3:1); 3:23 (w. δέ); Ro 9:26 (Hos 2:1).—W. dat. ἐστί τινι happen, be granted, come, to someone (X., An. 2, 1, 10; Jos., Ant. 11, 255; Just., D. 8, 4 σοὶ … ἔλεος ἔσται παρὰ θεοῦ) Mt 16:22; Mk 11:24; Lk 2:10; GJs 1:1; 4:3; 8:3; τί ἐστίν σοι τοῦτο, ὅτι what is the matter with you, that GJs 17:2.—Of becoming or turning into someth. become someth. εἰς χολὴν πικρίας εἶναι become bitter gall Ac 8:23. εἰς σάρκα μίαν Mt 19:5; Mk 10:8; 1 Cor 6:16; Eph 5:31 (all Gen 2:24. Cp. Syntipas p. 42, 24 οὐκ ἔτι ἔσομαι μετὰ σοῦ εἰς γυναῖκα); τὰ σκολιὰ εἰς εὐθείας Lk 3:5 (Is 40:4); εἰς πατέρα 2 Cor 6:18; Hb 1:5 (2 Km 7:14; 1 Ch 22:10; 28:6); εἰς τὸ ἕν 1J 5:8. Serve as someth. (IPriene 50, 39 [c. II B.C.] εἶναι εἰς φυλακὴν τ. πόλεως; Aesop., Fab. 28 H.=18 P.; 26 Ch.; 18 H-H. εἰς ὠφέλειαν; Gen 9:13; s. also εἰς 4d) 1 Cor 14:22; Col 2:22; Js 5:3.—Of something being ἀνεκτότερον ἔσται it will be more tolerable τινί for someone Lk 10:12, 14.
    to exist as possibility ἔστιν w. inf. foll. it is possible, one can (Περὶ ὕψους 6; Diog. L. 1, 110 ἔστιν εὑρεῖν=one can find; Just., A I, 59, 10 ἔστι ταῦτα ἀκοῦσαι καὶ μαθεῖν; D. 42, 3 ἰδεῖν al.; Mel., P. 19, 127); neg. οὐκ ἔστιν νῦν λέγειν it is not possible to speak at this time Hb 9:5. οὐκ ἔστιν φαγεῖν it is impossible to eat 1 Cor 11:20 (so Hom. et al.; UPZ 70, 23 [152/151 B.C.] οὐκ ἔστι ἀνακύψαι με πώποτε … ὑπὸ τῆς αἰσχύνης; 4 Macc 13:5; Wsd 5:10; Sir 14:16; 18:6; EpJer 49 al.; EpArist 163; Jos., Ant. 2, 335; Ath. 22, 3 ἔστιν εἰπεῖν).
    to have a point of derivation or origin, be,/come from somewhere ἐκ τῆς ἐξουσίας Ἡρῴδου from Herod’s jurisdiction Lk 23:7; ἐκ Ναζαρέτ (as an insignificant place) J 1:46; ἐκ τῆς γῆς 3:31; ἐκ γυναικός 1 Cor 11:8 al. ἐξ οὐρανοῦ, ἐξ ἀνθρώπων be of heavenly (divine), human descent Mt 21:25; Mk 11:30; Lk 20:4. Be generated by (cp. Sb 8141, 21f [ins I B.C.] οὐδʼ ἐκ βροτοῦ ἤεν ἄνακτος, ἀλλὰ θεοῦ μεγάλου ἔκγονος; En 106:6) Mt 1:20. Esp. in Johannine usage ἐκ τοῦ διαβόλου εἶναι originate from the devil J 8:44; 1J 3:8. ἐκ τοῦ πονηροῦ 3:12; ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου J 15:19; 17:14, 16; 1J 4:5. ἐκ τῆς ἀληθείας εἶναι 2:21; J 18:37 etc. Cp. 9 end.
    to belong to someone or someth. through association or genetic affiliation, be, belong w. simple gen. (X., Hell. 2, 4, 36; Iambl., Vi. Pyth. 33, 230 τῶν Πυθαγορείων) οἱ τῆς ὁδοῦ ὄντες those who belong to the Way Ac 9:2. εἰμὶ Παύλου I belong to Paul 1 Cor 1:12; 3:4; cp. Ro 8:9; 2 Cor 10:7; 1 Ti 1:20; Ac 23:6. ἡμέρας εἶναι belong to the day 1 Th 5:8, cp. vs. 5. W. ἔκ τινος 1 Cor 12:15f; Mt 26:73; Mk 14:69f; Lk 22:58 al. (cp. X., Mem. 3, 6, 17; oft LXX). ἐκ τοῦ ἀριθμοῦ τῶν δώδεκα belong to the twelve 22:3. ὅς ἐστιν ἐξ ὑμῶν who is a fellow-countryman of yours Col 4:9.—To belong through origin 2 Cor 4:7. Of Mary: ἦν τῆς φυλῆς τοῦ Δαυίδ was of David’s line GJs 10:1. Cp. 8 above.
    to have someth. to do with someth. or someone, be. To denote a close relationship ἐξ ἔργων νόμου εἶναι rely on legal performance Gal 3:10. ὁ νόμος οὐκ ἔστιν ἐκ πίστεως the law has nothing to do with faith vs. 12.—To denote a possessor Mt 5:3, 10; l9:14; Mk 12:7; Lk 18:16; 1 Cor 6:19. Esp. of God who owns the Christian Ac 27:23; 1 Cor 3:23; 2 Ti 2:19 (Num 16:5). οὐδʼ εἶναι τὸν κόσμον θεοῦ, ἀλλὰ ἀγγέλων AcPlCor 1:15 (cp. Just., A II, 13, 4 ὅσα … καλῶς εἴρηται, ἡμῶν τῶν χριστιανῶν ἐστι).—W. possess. pron. ὑμετέρα ἐστὶν ἡ βασιλεία Lk 6:20. οὐκ ἔστιν ἐμὸν δοῦναι Mk 10:40 (cp. Just., A I, 4, 2 ὑμέτερον ἀγωνιᾶσαί ἐστι ‘it is a matter for your concern’).—To denote function (X., An. 2, 1, 4) οὐχ ὑμῶν ἐστιν it is no concern of yours Ac 1:7—Of quality παιδεία οὐ δοκεῖ χαρᾶς εἶναι discipline does not seem to be (partake of) joy Hb 12:11.—10:39.
    as an auxiliary: very commonly the simple tense forms are replaced by the periphrasis εἶναι and the ptc. (B-D-F §352–55; Mlt. 225–27, 249; Mlt-H. 451f; Rdm.2 102, 105, 205; Kühner-G. I 38ff; Rob. 374–76, 1119f; CTurner, Marcan Usage: JTS 28, 1927 349–51; GKilpatrick, BT 7, ’56, 7f; very oft. LXX).
    (as in Hom et al.) w. the pf. ptc. to express the pf., plpf. and fut. pf. act. and pass. (s. Mayser 329; 377) ἦσαν ἐληλυθότες they had come Lk 5:17. ἦν αὐτῶν ἡ καρδία πεπωρωμένη their hearts were hardened Mk 6:52. ἠλπικότες ἐσμέν we have set our hope 1 Cor 15:19. ὁ καιρὸς συνεσταλμένος ἐστίν the time has become short 7:29. ἦν ἑστώς (En 12:3) he was standing (more exactly he took his stand) Lk 5:1.
    w. pres. ptc. (B-D-F §353).
    α. to express the pres. ἐστὶν προσαναπληροῦσα τὰ ὑστερήματα supplies the wants 2 Cor 9:12 (Just., A I, 26, 5 Μαρκίων … καὶ νῦν ἔτι ἐστὶ διδάσκων; Mel., P. 61, 441 ἐστὶν … κηρυσσόμενον).
    β. impf. or aor. ἦν καθεύδων he was sleeping Mk 4:38. ἦσαν ἀναβαίνοντες … ἦν προάγων 10:32; cp. Lk 1:22; 5:17; 11:14 al. (JosAs 1:3 ἦν συνάγων τὸν σίτον; Mel., P. 80, 580 ἦσθα εὐφραινόμενος). ἦν τὸ φῶς τὸ ἀλήθινόν … ἐρχόμενον εἰς τὸν κόσμον the true light entered the world J 1:9, w. ἦν introducing a statement in dramatic contrast to the initial phrase of vs. 8.—To denote age (Demetr.: 722 Fgm. 1, 2 al. Jac.; POxy 275, 9 [66 A.D.] οὐδέπω ὄντα τῶν ἐτῶν; Tob 14:11) Mk 5:42; Lk 3:23; Ac 4:22; GJs 12:3.—Mussies 304–6.
    γ. fut. ἔσῃ σιωπῶν you will be silent Lk 1:20; cp. 5:10; Mt 24:9; Mk 13:13; Lk 21:17, 24 al.; 2 Cl 17:7 Bihlm. (the child) shall serve him (God).
    w. aor. ptc. as plpf. (Aelian, NA 7, 11; Hippiatr. 34, 14, vol. I p. 185, 3 ἦν σκευάσας; ISyriaW 2070b ἦν κτίσας; AcThom 16; 27 [Aa II/2 p. 123, 2f; p. 142, 10]; B-D-F §355 m.—JVogeser, Z. Sprache d. griech. Heiligenlegenden, diss. Munich 1907, 14; JWittmann, Sprachl. Untersuchungen zu Cosmas Indicopleustes, diss. Munich 1913, 20; SPsaltes, Gramm. d. byzant. Chroniken 1913, 230; Björck [διδάσκω end] 75; B-D-F §355). ἦν βληθείς had been thrown Lk 23:19; J 18:30 v.l.—GPt 6:23; 12:51. (Cp. Just., A II, 10, 2 διʼ εὑρέσεως … ἐστὶ πονηθέντα αὐτοῖς ‘they achieved through investigation’).
    Notice esp. the impersonals δέον ἐστίν it is necessary (Pla. et al.; POxy 727, 19; Sir praef. ln. 3; 1 Macc 12:11 δέον ἐστὶν καὶ πρέπον) Ac 19:36; εἰ δέον ἐστίν if it must be 1 Pt 1:6 (s. δεῖ 2a); 1 Cl 34:2; πρέπον ἐστίν it is appropriate (Pla. et al.; POxy 120, 24; 3 Macc 7:13) Mt 3:15; 1 Cor 11:13.
    In many cases the usage w. the ptc. serves to emphasize the duration of an action or condition (BGU 183, 25 ἐφʼ ὸ̔ν χρόνον ζῶσα ᾖ Σαταβούς); JosAs 2:1 ἦν … ἐξουθενοῦσα καὶ καταπτύουσα πάντα ἄνδρα). ἦν διδάσκων he customarily taught Mk 1:22; Lk 4:31; 19:47. ἦν θέλων he cherished the wish 23:8. ἦσαν νηστεύοντες they were keeping the fast Mk 2:18. ἦσαν συλλαλοῦντες they were conversing for a while 9:4. ἦν προσδεχόμενος he was waiting for (the kgdm.) 15:43. ἦν συγκύπτουσα she was bent over Lk 13:11.
    to emphasize the adjectival idea inherent in the ptc. rather than the concept of action expressed by the finite verb ζῶν εἰμι I am alive Rv 1:18. ἦν ὑποτασσόμενος he was obedient Lk 2:51. ἦν ἔχων κτήματα πολλά he was very rich Mt 19:22; Mk 10:22. ἴσθι ἐξουσίαν ἔχων you shall have authority Lk 19:17 (Lucian, Tim. 35 ἴσθι εὐδαιμονῶν). ἦν καταλλάσσων (God) was reconciling 2 Cor 5:19 (cp. Mel., P. 83, 622 οὗτος ἦν ὁ ἐκλεξάμενός σε; Ath. 15, 2 οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ … καρπούμενος).—LMcGaughy, Toward a Descriptive Analysis of ΕΙΝΑΙ as a Linking Verb in the Gk. NT, diss. Vanderbilt, ’70 (s. esp. critique of treatment of εἰμί in previous edd. of this lexicon pp. 12–15).—Mlt. 228. B. 635. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > εἰμί

  • 18 πολύς

    πολύς, πολλή, πολύ, gen. πολλοῦ, ῆς, οῦ (Hom.+; ins, pap, LXX, pseudepigr., Philo, Joseph., apolog.) ‘much’.—Comparative πλείων, πλεῖον (18 times in the NT, 4 times in the Apost. Fathers [including Hv 3, 6, 4; Hs 8, 1, 16] and Ath. 12, 3) or πλέον (Lk 3:13 and Ac 15:28 μηδὲν πλέον; otherwise, πλέον in the NT only J 21:15; 14 times in the Apost. Fathers [incl. μηδὲν πλέον Hs 1, 1, 6]; Ar. twice; Just. 6 times; Tat. once; Ath. 7 times), ονος; pl. πλείονες, and acc. πλείονας contracted πλείους, neut. πλείονα and πλείω (the latter Mt 26:53 [πλεῖον, πλείου vv.ll.]; B-D-F §30, 2; Mlt-H. 82; Thackeray p. 81f; Mayser p. 68f) ‘more’ (Hom.+; ins, pap, LXX; TestAbr B 7 p. 111, 27=Stone p. 70 [πλείον]; TestJob 35:2; TestGad 7:2 [πλεῖον]; AscIs 3:8; [πλέον]; EpArist; apolog. exc. Mel.).—Superlative πλεῖστος, η, ον ‘most’ (Hom.+).
    pert. to being a large number, many, a great number of
    positive πολύς, πολλή, πολύ
    α. adj., preceding or following a noun (or ptc. or adj. used as a noun) in the pl. many, numerous δυνάμεις πολλαί many mighty deeds Mt 7:22b. δαιμονιζόμενοι πολλοί 8:16. Cp. vs. 30; 9:10; 13:17; 24:11; 27:52, 55; Mk 2:15a; 6:13; 12:41; Lk 4:25, 27; 7:21b; 10:24; J 10:32; 14:2; Ac 1:3; 2:43; 8:7b; 14:22; Ro 4:17f (Gen 17:5); 8:29; 12:4; 1 Cor 8:5ab; 11:30; 12:12a, 20; 1 Ti 6:12; 2 Ti 2:2; Hb 2:10; 1J 4:1; 2J 7; Rv 5:11; 9:9; 10:11; 1 Cl 55:3ab. ἔτη πολλά many years: Lk 12:19b (εἰς ἔτη π.); Ac 24:10 (ἐκ π. ἐτῶν); Ro 15:23 (ἀπὸ π. [v.l. ἱκανῶν] ἐτῶν).—αἱ ἁμαρτίαι αἱ πολλαί Lk 7:47a. αἱ εὐεργεσίαι αἱ π. 1 Cl 21:1.—πολλὰ καὶ βαρέα αἰτιώματα many serious charges Ac 25:7 (cp. Ps.-Pla., Sisyph. 1, 387a πολλά τε καὶ καλὰ πράγματα; B-D-F §442, 11; Rob. 655). πολλὰ καὶ ἄλλα σημεῖα J 20:30 (on the form X., Hell. 5, 4, 1 πολλὰ μὲν οὖν … καὶ ἄλλα λέγειν καὶ Ἑλληνικὰ καὶ βαρβαρικά; Dionys. Hal. 2, 67, 5; Ps.-Demetr. 142 πολλὰς κ. ἄλλας χάριτας; Jos., Ant. 3, 318; Tat. 38, 1. On the subject-matter Bultmann 540, 3; also Porphyr., Vi. Pyth. 28 after a miracle-story: μυρία δʼ ἕτερα θαυμαστότερα κ. θειότερα περὶ τἀνδρὸς … εἴρηται κτλ.).—ἄλλοι πολλοί many others IRo 10:1. ἄλλαι πολλαί Mk 15:41. ἄλλα πολλά (Jos., Bell. 6, 169, Ant. 9, 242; Just., D. 8, 1) J 21:25. ἕτεροι πολλοί Ac 15:35. ἕτερα πολλά (Jos., Vi. 39) Lk 22:65.—Predicative: πολλοί εἰσιν οἱ ἐισερχόμενοι Mt 7:13.—Mk 5:9; 6:31; Gal 4:27 (Is 54:1). AcPl Ha 5, 16.—οὐ πολλοί not many=( only) a few οὐ πολλαὶ ἡμέραι (Jos., Ant. 5, 328, Vi. 309) Lk 15:13; J 2:12; Ac 1:5; AcPl Ha 11, 1. οὐ πολλοὶ σοφοί not many wise (people) 1 Cor 1:26a; cp. bc. οὐ πολλοί πατέρες not many fathers 4:15.
    β. subst.
    א. πολλοί many i.e. persons—without the art. Mt 7:22; 8:11; 12:15; 20:28; 24:5ab; 26:28; Mk 2:2; 3:10 (Mt 12:15 has ascensive πάντας; other passages to be compared in this connection are Mk 10:45=Mt 20:28 πολλῶν and 1 Ti 2:6 πάντων. Cp. the double tradition of the saying of Bias in Clem. of Alex., Strom. 1, 61, 3 πάντες ἄνθρωποι κακοὶ ἢ οἱ πλεῖστοι τ. ἀνθρώπων κακοί.—On Mk 10:45 s. OCullmann, TZ 4, ’48, 471–73); 6:2; 11:8; Lk 1:1 (cp. Herm. Wr. 11, 1, 1b and see JBauer, NovT 4, ’60, 263–66), 14; J 2:23; 8:30; Ac 9:42; Ro 16:2; 2 Cor 11:18; Gal 3:16 (πολλοί= a plurality); Tit 1:10; Hb 12:15; 2 Pt 2:2. AcPl Ha 5, 8; 7, 5; 11, 3. Opp. ὀλίγοι Mt 22:14; 20:16 v.l. (cp. Pla., Phd. 69c ναρθηκοφόροι μὲν πολλοί, βάκχοι δέ τε παῦροι=the thyrsus-bearers [officials] are many, but the truly inspired are few)—W. a partitive gen. πολλοὶ τῶν Φαρισαίων Mt 3:7. π. πῶν υἱῶν Ἰσραήλ Lk 1:16.—J 4:39; 12:11; Ac 4:4; 8:7a; 13:43; 18:8; 19:18; 2 Cor 12:21; Rv 8:11.—W. ἐκ and gen. (AscIs 3:1; Jos., Ant. 11, 151) πολλοὶ ἐκ τῶν μαθητῶν J 6:60, 66.—10:20; 11:19, 45; 12:42; Ac 17:12. ἐκ τοῦ ὄχλου πολλοί J 7:31 (Appian, Iber. 78 §337 πολλοὶ ἐκ τοῦ πλήθους).
    ב. πολλά—many things, much without the art.: γράφειν write at length B 4:9. διδάσκειν Mk 4:2; 6:34b. λαλεῖν Mt 13:3. μηχανᾶσθαι MPol 3. πάσχειν (Pind., O. 13, 63 al.; Jos., Ant. 13, 268; 403) Mt 16:21; Mk 5:26a; 9:12; Lk 9:22; 17:25; B 7:11; AcPl Ha 8, 19. ποιεῖν Mk 6:20 v.l. United w. another neut. by καί (Lucian, Icar. 20 πολλὰ κ. δεινά; Ael. Aristid. 46 p. 345 D.: πολλὰ κ. καλά; Ps.-Demetr., El. 70 πολλὰ κ. ἄλλα; likew. Appian, Bell. Civ. 5, 13 §53; Arrian, Anab. 6, 11, 2) πολλὰ κ. ἕτερα many other things Lk 3:18. πολλὰ ἂν κ. ἄλλα εἰπεῖν ἔχοιμι Dg 2:10 (Eur., Ep. 3, 2, πολλὰ κ. ἕτερα εἰπεῖν ἔχω; Diod S 17, 38, 3 πολλὰ δὲ καὶ ἄλλα … διαλεχθείς). ἐν πολλοῖς in many ways (Diod S 26, 1, 2; OGI 737, 7 [II B.C.]; Just., D. 124, 4 [of line of proof]) 2 Cor 8:22a. ἐπὶ πολλῶν (opp. ἐπὶ ὀλίγα) over many things Mt 25:21, 23.—W. art. (Pla., Apol. 1, 17a) τὰ πολλὰ πράσσειν transact a great deal of business Hs 4:5b.
    γ. elliptical δαρήσεται πολλά (sc. πληγάς) will receive many (lashes) Lk 12:47 (B-D-F §154; 241, 6).
    comparative πλείων, πλεῖον
    α. adj. w. a plural (Diod S 14, 6, 1 μισθοφόρους πλείους=many mercenaries) πλείονας πόνους (opp. οὐχ ἕνα οὐδὲ δύο) 1 Cl 5:4. ἐπὶ ἡμέρας πλείους for a (large) number of days, for many days (Jos., Ant. 4, 277; cp. Theophr. in Apollon. Paradox. 29 πλείονας ἡμ.) Ac 13:31.—21:10 (Jos., Ant. 16, 15); 24:17; 25:14; 27:20. οἱ μὲν πλείονές εἰσιν γεγονότες ἱερεῖς the priests of former times existed in greater numbers Hb 7:23. ἑτέροις λόγοις πλείοσιν in many more words (than have been reported) Ac 2:40. ταῦτα καὶ ἕτερα πλείονα MPol 12:1.—W. a gen. of comparison (Just., A I 53, 3; Tat. 3, 2) ἄλλους δούλους πλείονας τῶν πρώτων other slaves, more than (he had sent) at first Mt 21:36. πλείονα σημεῖα ὧν more signs than those which J 7:31. Also w. ἤ: πλείονας μαθητὰς ἤ more disciples than 4:1. After πλείονες (-α) before numerals the word for ‘than’ is omitted (B-D-F §185, 4; Kühner-G. II 311; Rob. 666; Jos., Ant. 14, 96) ἐτῶν ἦν πλειόνων τεσσεράκοντα ὁ ἄνθρωπος the man was more than 40 years old Ac 4:22. πλείους τεσσεράκοντα 23:13, 21. Cp. 24:11; 25:6 (Jos., Ant. 6, 306 δέκα οὐ πλείους ἡμέρας).—The ref. is to relative extent (cp. 2bα) in τὰ ἔργα σου τὰ ἕσχατα πλείονα τῶν πρώτων your deeds, the latter of which are greater than the former Rv 2:19.
    β. subst.
    א. (οἱ) πλείονες, (οἱ) πλείους the majority, most (Diog. L. 1, 20; 22; Jos., Ant. 10, 114) Ac 19:32; 27:12. W. ἐξ: ἐξ ὧν οἱ πλείονες most of whom 1 Cor 15:6. W. gen. and a neg. (litotes) οὐκ ἐν τ. πλείοσιν αὐτῶν ηὐδόκησεν ὁ θεός God was pleased with only a few of them 10:5. This is perh. (s. ג below) the place for 1 Cor 9:19; 2 Cor 2:6; 9:2. Phil 1:14; MPol 5:1.
    ב. (οἱ) πλείονες, (οἱ) πλείους (even) more πλείονες in even greater numbers Ac 28:23. πολλῷ πλείους ἐπίστευσαν many more came to believe J 4:41.—διὰ τῶν πλειόνων to more and more people=those who are still to be won for Christ 2 Cor 4:15.
    ג. (οἱ) πλείονες, (οἱ) πλείους. In contrast to a minority οἱ πλείονες can gain the sense the others, the rest (so τὰ πλείονα Soph., Oed. Col. 36; τὸ πλέον Thu. 4, 30, 4; Jos., Ant. 12, 240; B-D-F §244, 3). So perh. (s. א above) ἵνα τ. πλείονας κερδήσω (opp. the apostle himself) 1 Cor 9:19; 2 Cor 2:6 (opp. the one who has been punished too severely.—In this case [s. א above] his punishment would have been determined by a unanimous vote of the Christian assembly rather than by a majority). Cp. 9:2; Phil 1:14; MPol 5:1.
    ד. πλείονα (for πλεῖον) more Mt 20:10 v.l.; various things Lk 11:53. ἐκ τοῦ ἑνὸς πλείονα 1 Cl 24:5 (s. as adv. ParJer 7:26).
    superl. adj. πλείστη w. a plural most of αἱ πλεῖσται δυνάμεις Mt 11:20 (difft. B-D-F §245, 1).
    pert. to being relatively large in quantity or measure, much, extensive
    positive πολύς, πολλή, πολύ
    α. adj. preceding or following a noun (or ptc. or adj. used as a noun)
    א. in the sg. much, large, great πολὺς ἀριθμός Ac 11:21. W. words that in themselves denote a plurality (Appian, Bell. Civ. 5, 80 §338 στρατὸς πολύς) πολὺς ὄχλος (s. ὄχ. 1a) Mt 14:14; 20:29; 26:47; Mk 5:21, 24; 6:34a; 8:1; 9:14; 12:37 (ὁ π. ὄχ.); Lk 5:29; 6:17a; 8:4; J 6:2, 5 (for the expression ὁ ὄχλος πολύς, in which π. follows the noun, J 12:9, 12, cp. Arrian, Anab. 1, 9, 6 ὁ φόνος πολύς); Ac 6:7; Rv 7:9; 19:1, 6. πολὺ πλῆθος (s. pl. 2bα) Mk 3:7f; Lk 5:6; 6:17b; 23:27; Ac 14:1; 17:4; 1 Cl 6:1. λαὸς πολύς many people Ac 18:10. Of money and its value, also used in imagery μισθὸς πολύς Mt 5:12; Lk 6:23, 35 (all three predicative, as Gen 15:1). ἐργασία π. Ac 16:16. π. κεφάλαιον 22:28. χρυσοῦ πολλοῦ … τρυφῆς πολλῆς AcPl Ha 2, 19.—Of things that occur in the mass or in large quantities (Diod S 3, 50, 1 πολλὴ ἄμπελος) γῆ πολλή Mt 13:5; Mk 4:5; θερισμὸς π. Mt 9:37; Lk 10:2 (both pred.). χόρτος π. J 6:10; καρπὸς π. (Cyranides p. 121, 11) 12:24; 15:5, 8.—λόγος π. a long speech (Diod S 13, 1, 2; Just., D. 123, 7) Ac 15:32; 20:2. περὶ οὗ πολὺς ἡμῖν ὁ λόγος about this we have much to say Hb 5:11 (cp. Pla., Phd. 115d).—Of time: πολὺς χρόνος a long time (Hom. et al.; Demetr.(?): 722 Fgm. 7; Jos., Ant. 8, 342; 19, 28; Just., A II, 2, 11) J 5:6 (s. ἔχω 7b); Hs 6, 4, 4 (pred.). μετὰ πολὺν χρόνον (Jos., Ant. 12, 324) Mt 25:19. Differently Mk 6:35ab (s. 3aα).
    ב. adj. w. a noun in the pl. many, large, great, extensive, plentiful ὄχλοι πολλοί great crowds or probably better many people (as Diod S 20, 59, 2; Ps.-Clem., Hom. 10, 3. For the corresponding mng. of ὄχλοι s. ὄχλος 1a) Mt 4:25; 8:1; 13:2; 15:30a; 19:2; Lk 5:15; 14:25. κτήματα πολλά a great deal of property Mt 19:22; Mk 10:22 (cp. Da 11:28 χρήματα π.). ὕδατα πολλά much water, many waters (Maximus Tyr. 21, 3g of the Nile ὁ πολὺς ποταμός, likew. Procop. Soph., Ep. 111) J 3:23; Rv 1:15; 14:2; 17:1; 19:6b. θυμιάματα πολλά a great deal of incense 8:3. τὰ πολλὰ γράμματα Ac 26:24. πολλοὶ χρόνοι long periods of time (Plut., Thes. 6, 9). πολλοῖς χρόνοις for long periods of time (SIG 836, 6; pap) Lk 8:29; 1 Cl 44:3. χρόνοις πολλοῖς AcPlCor 2:10. ἐκ πολλῶν χρόνων (Diod S 3, 47, 8; Jos., Ant. 14, 110; 17, 204) 1 Cl 42:5.
    β. subst.
    א. πολλοί many i.e. pers.—w. the art. οἱ πολλοί the many, of whatever appears in the context Mk 6:2 v.l. (the many people who were present in the synagogue); 9:26b (the whole crowd). Opp. ὁ εἷς Ro 5:15ac, 19ab; the many who form the ἓν σῶμα the one body 12:5; 1 Cor 10:17. Paul pays attention to the interests of the many rather than to his own vs. 33 (cp. Jos., Ant. 3, 212).—The majority, most (X., An. 5, 6, 19; Appian, Maced. 7, Bell. Civ. 4, 73 §309; 2 Macc 1:36; En 104:10; AscIs 3:26; Jos., Ant. 17, 72; Just., D. 4, 3) Mt 24:12; Hb 12:15 v.l. W. a connotation of disapproval most people, the crowd (Socrat., Ep. 6, 2; Dio Chrys. 15 [32], 8; Epict. 1, 3, 4; 2, 1, 22 al.; Plut., Mor. 33a; 470b; Plotinus, Enn. 2, 9, 9; Philo, Rer. Div. Her. 42) 2 Cor 2:17; Pol 2:1; 7:2.—Jeremias, The Eucharistic Words of Jesus3, tr. NPerrin, ’66, 179–82; 226–31, and TW VI 536–45: πολλοί.
    ב. πολύ much ᾧ ἐδόθη πολύ, πολὺ ζητηθήσεται παρʼ αὐτοῦ, καὶ ᾧ παρέθεντο πολὺ κτλ. Lk 12:48 (Just., A I, 17, 4 twice πλέον). Cp. 16:10ab; 2 Cl 8:5; καρποφορεῖν π. bear much fruit Hs 2:3. πολὺ κατὰ πάντα τρόπον much in every way Ro 3:2 (Ael. Aristid. 34, 43 K.=50 p. 562 D. gives answer to a sim. quest. asked by himself: πολλὰ καὶ παντοῖα).—Js 5:16.—As gen. of price πολλοῦ for a large sum of money (Menand., Fgm. 197 Kö.; PRyl 244, 10. S. στρουθίον.) Mt 26:9.—Of time: ἐπὶ πολύ ( for) a long time (JosAs 19:3; Ar. 65, 3; s. also ἐπί 18cβ) Ac 28:6; AcPl Ha 10, 21. μετʼ οὐ πολύ soon afterward Ac 27:14 (μετά B 2c).—ἐπὶ πολύ more than once, often (Is 55:7) Hm 4, 1, 8.—Before a comp. (as Hom. et al.; B-D-F §246; Rob. 664) in the acc. πολὺ βέλτιον much better Hs 1:9. π. ἐλάττων v 3, 7, 6 (Ar. 6, 2). π. μᾶλλον much more, to a much greater degree (Dio Chrys. 2, 10; 17; 64 al.; Ael. Aristid. 34, 9 K.=50 p. 549 D.; Just., A II, 8, 3; D. 95, 1 al.) Hb 12:9, 25 (by means of a negative it acquires the mng. much less; cp. Diod S 7, 14, 6 πολὺ μᾶλλον μὴ … =even much less); Dg 2:7b. π. πλέον 2:7a (Ar. 11, 7). π. σπουδαιότερος 2 Cor 8:22b. Cp. π. τιμώτερον 1 Pt 1:7 v.l.; in the dat. of degree of difference πολλῷ μᾶλλον (Thu. 2, 51, 4; UPZ 42, 48 [162 B.C.]; EpArist 7; 24 al.; Sir prol. ln. 14; Jos., Ant. 18, 184; Just., A I, 68, 9; Tat. 17, 4) Mt 6:30; Mk 10:48b; Lk 18:39; Ro 5:9f, 15b, 17; 1 Cor 12:22; 2 Cor 3:9, 11; Phil 2:12. πολλῷ μᾶλλον κρείσσον 1:23 (v.l. without μᾶλλον). πολλῷ πλείους J 4:41. πολλῷ στρουθίων as v.l. Mt 20:31 and Lk 12:7 (both N.25 app.; on the strong ms. support for this rdg. s. RBorger, TRu 52, ’87, 21–24).—W. the art. τὸ πολύ (opp. τὸ ὀλίγον as X., An. 7, 7, 36) 2 Cor 8:15 (cp. Ex 16:18).
    ג. πολύς (Diod S 14, 107, 4 πολὺς ἦν ἐπὶ τῇ τιμωρίᾳ=he was strongly inclined toward punishing) μὴ πολὺς ἐν ῥήμασιν γίνου do not be profuse in speech, do not gossip 1 Cl 30:5 (Job 11:3).—Παπίας ὁ πολύς Papias (7), prob. to be understood as ὁ πάνυ; s. πάνυ d.
    comp. πλείων, πλεῖον; adv. πλειόνως
    α. adj., w. a singular (TestJob 35:2 διὰ πλείονος εὐωδίας) καρπὸν πλείονα more fruit J 15:2, 8 P66; Hs 5, 2, 4. τὸ πλεῖον μέρος τοῦ ὄχλου the greater part of the throng 8, 1, 16. ἐπὶ πλείονα χρόνον for a longer time (PTebt 6:31 [II B.C.]) Ac 18:20. Foll. by gen. of comparison: πλείονα τιμήν more honor Hb 3:3b.—IPol 1:3a. Foll. by παρά τινα for comparison Hb 3:3a; 11:4; Hs 9, 18, 2. ὅσῳ πλείονος κατηξιώθημεν γνώσεως, τοσούτῳ μᾶλλον 1 Cl 41:4.—τὸ πλεῖον μέρος as adv. acc. for the greater part Hv 3, 6, 4a.
    β. as subst. πλεῖον, πλέον more τὸ πλεῖον the greater sum (cp. Diod S 1, 82, 2=the greater part; Ps 89:10) Lk 7:43. πλεῖον λαμβάνειν receive a larger sum Mt 20:10. W. partitive gen. ἐπὶ πλεῖον προκόψουσιν ἀσεβείας they will arrive at an ever greater measure of impiety=become more and more deeply involved in impiety 2 Ti 2:16. W. a gen. of comparison πλεῖον τῆς τροφῆς someth. greater (more important) than food Mt 6:25; Lk 12:23. πλεῖον Ἰωνᾶ Mt 12:41; cp. vs. 42; Lk 11:31, 32. ἡ χήρα πλεῖον πάντων ἔβαλεν the widow put in more than all the rest Mk 12:43; Lk 21:3. μηδὲν πλέον nothing more (Jos., Bell. 1, 43; cp. Just., D. 2, 3 οὐδὲν πλέον); the words than, except following are expressed by παρά and the acc. Lk 3:13 or by πλήν w. gen. Ac 15:28, w. εἰ μή Hs 1:6.—The acc. is used as an adv. more, in greater measure, to a greater degree (Herm. Wr. 13, 21 Nock after the mss.) Lk 7:42; IRo 1:1; IEph 6:2; w. a gen. of comparison Mt 5:20 (περισσεύω 1aβ); J 21:15; IPol 5:2 (s. Ad’Alès, RSR 25, ’35, 489–92). τριετίαν ἢ καὶ πλεῖον for three years or even more Ac 20:18 D (cp. TestAbr B 7 p. 111, 27 [Stone p. 70, 27]).—ἐπὶ πλεῖον any farther (of place) Ac 4:17 (TestGad 7:2; Ath. 12 [ἐπί 4bβ]); (of time) at length Ac 20:9 (ἐπί 18cβ) or any longer, too long 24:4; 1 Cl 55:1 (ἐπί 18cβ); any more, even more (ἐπί 13) 2 Ti 3:9; 1 Cl 18:3 (Ps 50:4). Strengthened πολὺ πλέον much more, much rather (4 Macc 1:8; cp. X., An. 7, 5, 15; BGU 180, 12f [172 A.D.] πολλῷ πλεῖον; Ar. 11, 7 πολλῷ πλεῖον) Dg 2:7; 4:5.—Also w. indications of number (s. 1bα) πλεῖον ἢ ἄρτοι πέντε Lk 9:13 (the words πλ. ἤ outside the constr. as X., An. 1, 2, 11). In πλείω δώδεκα λεγιῶνας ἀγγέλων more than twelve legions of angels Mt 26:53 the text is uncertain (B-D-F §185, 4; s. Rob. 666).—The adv. can also be expressed by πλειόνως (Aeneas Tact. 237; Jos., Ant. 17, 2; Leontios 24, p. 52, 10) more ὅσον … πλειόνως the more … the more IEph 6:1.
    superl. πλεῖστος, ον
    α. adj.
    א. superlative proper τὸ πλεῖστον μέρος the greatest part w. partitive gen. Hs 8, 2, 9; 9, 7, 4. As adv. acc. for the greatest part 8, 5, 6; 8, 10, 1 (s. μέρος 1d).
    ב. elative (s. Mayser II/1, 1926, 53) very great, very large (ὁ) πλεῖστος ὄχλος Mt 21:8 (ὁ πλεῖστος ὄχλος could also be the greatest part of the crowd, as Thu. 7, 78, 2; Pla., Rep. 3, 397d); Mk 4:1.
    β. subst. οἱ πλεῖστοι the majority, most Ac 19:32 D (Just., D. 1, 4; cp. D. 48, 4 πλεῖστοι).
    pert. to being high on a scale of extent
    positive πολύς, πολλή, πολύ
    α. as simple adj., to denote degree much, great, strong, severe, hard, deep, profound (Diod S 13, 7, 4 πολὺς φόβος; schol. on Apollon. Rhod. 4, 57; 58 p. 265, 3 πολλὴ δικαιοσύνη; Eccl 5:16 θυμὸς π.; Sir 15:18 σοφία; TestAbr A 20 p. 103, 4 [Stone p. 54] ἀθυμία; Just., D. 3, 1 ἠρεμία) ἀγάπη Eph 2:4. ἀγών 1 Th 2:2. ἄθλησις Hb 10:32. ἁπλότης Hv 3, 9, 1. ἀσιτία Ac 27:21. βία 24:6 [7] v.l. γογγυσμός J 7:12. διακονία Lk 10:40. δοκιμή 2 Cor 8:2. δόξα Mt 24:30; Hv 1, 3, 4; 2, 2, 6. δύναμις Mk 13:26. ἐγκράτεια strict self-control Hv 2, 3, 2. εἰρήνη complete or undisturbed peace (Diod S 3, 64, 7; 11, 38, 1) Ac 24:2. ἔλεος 1 Pt 1:3. ἐπιθυμία 1 Th 2:17. ζημία Ac 27:10. ζήτησις 15:7. θλῖψις 2 Cor 2:4a; 1 Th 1:6. καύχησις 2 Cor 7:4b (pred.). μακροθυμία Ro 9:22. ὀδυρμός Mt 2:18. παράκλησις 2 Cor 8:4. παρρησία (Wsd 5:1) 3:12; 7:4a (pred.); 1 Ti 3:13; Phlm 8. πεποίθησις 2 Cor 8:22c. πλάνη 2 Cl 1:7. πληροφορία 1 Th 1:5. πόνος Col 4:13. σιγή a great or general hush (X., Cyr. 7, 1, 25; Arrian, Anab. 5, 28, 4) Ac 21:40. στάσις 23:10. τρόμος 1 Cor 2:3. φαντασία Ac 25:23. χαρά 8:8; Phlm 7. ὥρα πολλή late hour (Polyb. 5, 8, 3; Dionys. Hal. 2, 54; Jos., Ant. 8, 118) Mk 6:35ab.
    β. subst. πολλά in the acc. used as adv. greatly, earnestly, strictly, loudly, often etc. (X., Cyr. 1, 5, 14; Diod S 13, 41, 5; Lucian, Dial. Deor. 19, 2; Aelian, VH 1, 23; 4 Km 10:18; Is 23:16; TestSol 1:1; GrBar; ApcMos; Jos., Ant. 14, 348) ἀλαλάζειν πολλά Mk 5:38 (s. ἀλαλάζω). πολλὰ ἁμαρτάνειν Hs 4:5c (ApcMos 32). π. ἀνακρίνειν Ac 28:18 v.l. π. ἀπορεῖν Mk 6:20 (Field, Notes 29). π. ἀσπάζεσθαι 1 Cor 16:19 (s. ἀσπάζομαι 1a). δεηθῆναι π. (GrBar 4:14; Jos., Vi. 173; 343) Hs 5, 4, 1. διαστέλλεσθαι Mk 5:43 (s. διαστέλλω). π. ἐπιτιμᾶν 3:12. π. ἐρωτᾶν earnestly pray Hv 2, 2, 1. κατηγορεῖν π. Mk 15:3 (s. κατηγορέω 1a). κηρύσσειν π. talk freely 1:45. κλαίειν bitterly Ac 8:24 D (ApcMos 39). κοπιᾶν (ApcMos 24; CIG IV 9552, 5 … μοι πολλὰ ἐκοπίασεν, cp. Dssm., LO 266, 5 [LAE 317]) work hard Ro 16:6, 12; 2 Cl 7:1b. νηστεύειν π. fast often Mt 9:14a. ὀμνύναι π. Mk 6:23. παρακαλεῖν Mk 5:10, 23; Ac 20:1 D; 1 Cor 16:12. π. πταίειν make many mistakes Js 3:2. π. σπαράσσειν convulse violently Mk 9:26a.—W. the art. ἐνεκοπτόμην τὰ πολλά I have been hindered these many times (cp. Ro 1:13 πολλάκις) Ro 15:22 (v.l. πολλάκις here too).
    γ. subst. πολύ in the acc. used as adv. greatly, very much, strongly (Da 6:15, 24 Theod.) ἀγαπᾶν πολύ show much affection, love greatly Lk 7:47b. κλαίειν π. weep loudly Rv 5:4.—Mk 12:27; Ac 18:27.
    superlative, the neut. acc. πλεῖστον, α as adv. (sing. Hom. et al.; pl. Pind. et al.)
    α. pl. πλεῖστα in the formula of greeting at the beginning of a letter πλεῖστα χαίρειν (POxy 742; 744; 1061 [all three I B.C.]; PTebt 314, 2 [II A.D.] and very oft. in pap.—Griech. pap ed. Ltzm.: Kl. Texte 142, 1910, p. 4, 5, 6, 7 al.; Preis. II s.v. πλεῖστος) heartiest greeting(s) IEph ins; IMg ins; ITr ins; IRo ins; ISm ins; IPol ins.
    β. sing. τὸ πλεῖστον at the most (Aristoph., Vesp. 260; Diod S 14, 71, 3 πεμπταῖοι ἢ τὸ πλ. ἑκταῖοι; POxy 58, 17; PGiss 65:9) κατὰ δύο ἢ τὸ πλ. τρεῖς (word for word like Περὶ ὕψους 32, 1) 1 Cor 14:27.—B. 922f. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > πολύς

  • 19 πονηρός

    πονηρός, ά, όν (s. πονέω, πόνος; Hes., Thu.+) comp. πονηρότερος Mt 12:45; Lk 11:26; superl. πονηρότατος (Diod S 14, 4, 2; PRyl III, 493, 89) Hm 3:5.—Freq. in Gk. lit. the opp. of ἀγαθός/καλός or χρηστός.
    pert. to being morally or socially worthless, wicked, evil, bad, base, worthless, vicious, degenerate
    as adj.
    α. of humans or transcendent beings (since Trag. and Ps.-X., Rep. Ath. 1, 1; Is 9:16; Sir 25:16, 25; TestJob 43:5; ApcMos 21 γύναι; Philo, Joseph., Just.) ὁ πον. ἄνθρωπος (Plut., Alcib. 196 [13, 4]; cp. GrBar 13:1, 3; Philo, Exsecr. 149; Jos., Ant. 7, 291; Just., A II, 12, 3) Mt 12:35a; Lk 6:45a (where ἄνθρωπος is to be supplied); cp. 2 Th 3:2; 2 Ti 3:13. δοῦλος πον. (Comp. 120; Jos., Ant. 2, 55; 16, 296) Mt 18:32; 25:26; Lk 19:22 (cp. PFouad 25 verso I, 2 [II A.D.] address to an incompetent helper); γενεὰ πον. Mt 12:39, 45b; 16:4; Lk 11:29.—Mt 12:34. ἄνδρες πον. rowdies, ruffians Ac 17:5. People are called πονηροί in contrast to God Mt 7:11 (here the component of class distinction finds dramatic expression); Lk 11:13 (Iambl., Vi. Pyth. 18, 82 ἀληθέστατον … πονηροὶ οἱ ἄνθρωποι).—Of hostile spirits τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ πονηρόν (Cat. Cod. Astr. X 180, 16; 186, 4; cp. EGoodspeed, The Harrison Papyri, no. 1, 7: ClPh 5, 1910, 321) Ac 19:15f. Pl. (Cyranides p. 51, 14; Just., D. 30, 2 al.) Lk 7:21; 8:2; Ac 19:12f. Of the evil spirit that contends w. the Holy Spirit for a place in the human soul (cp. 1 Km 16:14–23) Hm 5, 1, 2 and 3. ἄγγελος πον. B 9:4 (Just., A II, 9, 4, D. 105, 3; cp. Paus. Attic. τ, 18 and Just., A I, 66, 4 πονηροὶ δαίμονες; Julian p. 371, 5; 11 Hertlein δαίμονες πονηροί; PLips 34 recto, 8 [375 A.D.] π. δαίμων. Did., Gen. 45, 4 αἱ π. δυνάμεις). ὁ πονηρὸς ἄρχων 4:13 (ἄρχων 1c).
    β. of things βουλή (Menand., Mon. 134 [568 Mei.]) B 6:7 (Is 3:9); 19:3; D 2:6; Hv 1, 2, 4b (βουλή 1). διαλογισμοί Mt 15:19; Js 2:4 (διαλογισμός 2). διδαχή Hm 6, 2, 7 (παντὶ ἔργῳ is dat. of disadvantage [Schwyzer II 150f]). δόλος (SIG 693, 6 [129 B.C.]) IEph 7:1. ἐπιθυμία (-αι: Dio Chrys. 4, 89) 2 Cl 16:2; Hv 1, 1, 8b; 1, 2, 4c; Hs 6, 2, 1 and oft. ἔργον 2 Ti 4:18; Hv 1, 2, 4b. (TestAbr A 6 p. 83, 28 [Stone p. 14] w. opp. ἀγαθόν.) ἔργα J 3:19; 7:7; Col 1:21; 1J 3:12b; 2J 11; Hv 3, 7, 6; 3, 8, 4 al. θησαυρός Mt 12:35b; Lk 6:45b (here θης. is to be supplied fr. the context). καρδία (ApcMos 13; cp. Menand., Fgm. 540, 8 [=538 Kö.], ψυχή) 1 Cl 3:4; καρδία πονηρὰ ἀπιστίας (gen. of quality; s. Schwyzer under πονηρία; B-D-F §165; definition Mlt. 74) Hb 3:12. καταλαλιά Hm 2:3. Arrogant καύχησις Js 4:16; λόγοι π. malicious words (Menand., Mon. 822 [542 Mei.]) 3J 10. Of the ὁδὸς τοῦ θανάτου D 5:1; cp. B 4:10 (PsSol 10:1). ὀφθαλμὸς π. (ὀφθαλμός 1 and s. 3 below) Mt 20:15; Mk 7:22. πρᾶγμα (Menand., Epitr. 1107 S. [749 Kö.]; Fgm. 530 Kö.; TestAbr A 4 p. 81, 5 [Stone p. 10]; Tat. 17, 3) Hv 1, 1, 8a; ῥᾳδιούργημα π. Ac 18:14. ῥῆμα π. slanderous, evil word (SIG 1175, 16; Jdth 8:8, 9) Mt 5:11 v.l. (the ῥ. is ‘bad’ because of the content consisting, as the context indicates, of false charges); Hs 5, 3, 6; συνείδησις π. evil, guilty conscience Hb 10:22 (the conscience is not itself intrinsically bad, but evil deeds load it with a bad content; B 19:12; D 4:14; Hm 3:4; ὑπόνοιαι π. 1 Ti 6:4. Cp. Ac 25:18 v.l. τὸ πονηρότατον ψεῦσμα the most wicked sin of lying Hm 3:5. Of a Christian’s name ἐκβάλλειν τὸ ὄνομα ὡς πονηρόν spurn the name as vile (i.e as held only by worthless persons) Lk 6:22 (cp. Ath. 2, 2).—In the judgment of Christians a close connection w. sin is the chief characteristic of this age: ἐκ τοῦ αἰῶνος τοῦ ἐνεστῶτος πονηροῦ Gal 1:4. Cp. αἱ ἡμέραι πονηραί εἰσιν Eph 5:16.—B 2:1. Sg. Eph 6:13.
    as subst.
    α. wicked or evil-intentioned person, evildoer (Dt 21:21; Esth 7:6; Just., A I, 27, 1; Ath. 2, 3; Theoph. Ant. 2, 37 [p. 198, 22]) ὁ πονηρός (the art. is generic) Mt 5:39; 1 Cor 5:13 (Dt 17:7, cp. 19:19 al.; PZaas, JBL 103, ’84, 259–61); B 19:11 v.l. (but τὸ πον. in text).—Pl. πονηροὶ καὶ ἀγαθοί (cp. Philo, Praem. 3; Jos., Ant. 6, 307; 8, 314 God ἀγαπᾷ τ. ἀγαθούς, μισεῖ δὲ τ. πονηρούς; Iren. 1, 24, 2 [Harv. I 198, 4]) Mt 5:45; 22:10. Opp. οἱ δίκαιοι 13:49 (cp. T. Kellis 22, 48f). W. οἱ ἀχάριστοι (s. ἀχάριστος; also Lucian, Timon 48, perh. fr. comedy [III p. 654 Kock]) Lk 6:35. W. ἁμαρτωλοί B 4:2.
    β. ὁ πονηρός the evil one=the devil (who is not defined as a sinner but as one who is morally destructive) Mt 13:19; J 17:15; Eph 6:16; 1J 2:13f; 5:18, 19 (κεῖμαι 3d); B 2:10; B 21:3; MPol 17:1; AcPlCor 2:2, 15) ἐκ τοῦ πονηροῦ εἶναι be a child of the evil one (ἐκ 3a, end) 1J 3:12a; cp. οἱ υἱοὶ τοῦ πονηροῦ Mt 13:38, in case πον. is masc. here.—The gen. τοῦ πονηροῦ Mt 5:37; 6:13 can also be taken as masc. (it is so taken by Ps.-Clem., Hom. 3, 55 p. 51, 19; 21; Tertullian, Cyprian, Origen, Chrysostom; KFritzsche, JWeiss; s. also Schniewind on Mt 6:13; Weymouth, Goodsp.;—it is taken as a neut. [s. γ] by Augustine: WMangold, De Ev. sec. Mt 6:13, 1886; BWeiss, Zahn, Wlh.; Harnack, SBBerlAk 1907, 944; PFiebig, D. Vaterunser 1927, 92; Betz, SM 380f; 405–13; Mft., NRSV marg.); Lk 11:4 v.l.; 2 Th 3:3; D 8:2. These passages may also belong under
    γ. τὸ πονηρόν (that which is) evil Lk 6:45c; Ro 12:9; 1 Th 5:22 (sim. Plut., Mor. 82c; s. also εἶδος 2); B 19:11. πᾶν πον. every kind of evil Mt 5:11; ποιεῖν τὸ πονηρὸν ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ κυρίου (cp. Dt 17:2; 4 Km 21:2, 20) Hm 4, 2, 2; cp. Ac 5:4 v.l.; 1 Cl 18:4 (Ps 50:6). τὸ πονηρὸν τοῦτο this shameful deed GJs 13:1. ἀγρυπνεῖν εἰς τὸ π. D 5:2 and ἐπὶ τὸ π. B 20:2 s. ἀγρυπνέω 2. ἐλάλησέν τι περὶ σοῦ πονηρόν Ac 28:21 (cp. JosAs 6:6).—Pl. wicked thoughts, evil deeds (Gen 6:5; 8:21) Mt 9:4; 12:35c; Mk 7:23; Lk 3:19; J 3:20 v.l.; Ac 25:18; 2 Cl 8:2. δύο καὶ πονηρά two evil things B 11:2 (Jer 2:13 v.l.).—πονηρόν ἐστίν τινι it is bad for someone Hm 5, 1, 4.—ῥύσασθαι ἀπὸ παντὸς πονηροῦ D 10, 5.
    pert. to being so deficient in quality in a physical sense as to be worthless, of poor quality, worthless (X., Pla. et al.) καρποί (Ael. Aristid. 23, 57K.=42 p. 787 D.) Mt 7:17f (the same idea 13:48; cp. Jer 24:8 τὰ σῦκα τὰ πονηρά).
    pert. to being in an unhealthy condition physically
    in ref. to a part of the body sick (Pla., Prot. 313a σῶμα; πονηρῶς ἔχειν ‘be badly off’, ‘be ill’ since Thu. 7, 83, 3) of the eye (cp. Pla., Hipp. Min. 374d πονηρία ὀφθαλμῶν) Mt 6:23; Lk 11:34 (Weizsäcker, BWeiss, HHoltzmann, Fitzmyer, Goodsp., NRSV. But see s.v. ἁπλοῦς, λύχνος b, ὀφθαλμός 1, also 1aβ above and the four articles ET 53, ’42, 181f; 354f; 54, ’42, 26; 26f).
    in ref. to the status of some ailment painful, virulent, serious (since Theognis 274) ἕλκος sore, ulcer (Dt 28:35; Job 2:7) Rv 16:2.—See Lofthouse s.v. κακός, end; WBrandt, ZNW 14, 1913, 189ff.—DELG s.v. πένομαι. M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > πονηρός

  • 20 τίς

    τίς, τί gen. τίνος, dat. τίνι, acc. τίνα, τί (Hom.+) interrogative pron. in direct, indirect and rhetorical questions (W-S. §25, 1ff; B-D-F §298f, al.; Rob. 735–40 al.)
    an interrogative ref. to someone or someth., who? which (one)? what?
    as subst.
    α. τίς;
    א. who? which one? τίς ὑπέδειξεν ὑμῖν; Mt 3:7; Lk 3:7. τίς ἐστιν ὁ παίσας σε; Mt 26:68 (FNeirynck, ETL 63, 5–47; RBrown, The Death of the Messiah ’94, II 578–80). τίνος υἱός ἐστιν; whose son is he? 22:42b. τίνα λέγουσιν οἱ ἄνθρωποι εἶναι τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου; 16:13. Cp. Mk 11:28; 12:16; 16:3; Lk 9:9, 18; J 18:4, 7 (cp. Jos., Ant. 9, 56). τίς σοφὸς … ἐν ὑμῖν; Js 3:13. τίς οὖν ἐστιν; who, then, is she? Hs 2, 4, 1.—Esp. in questions to which the answer ‘nobody’ is expected Ac 8:33 (Is 53:8); Ro 7:24; 8:24, 33–35; 9:19b; 10:16 (Is 53:1); 11:34ab (Is 40:13ab); 1 Cor 9:7abc; 2 Cor 11:29ab. Likew. τίς … εἰ μή; who … except (for), but? Mk 2:7; Lk 5:21b; 1J 2:22; 5:5 (PsSol. 5:3, 11). Pl. ὑμεῖς δὲ τίνες ἐστέ; Ac 19:15. Cp. 2 Ti 3:14; Hb 3:16–18; Rv 7:13.—Foll. by partitive gen. (JosAs 6:7 [τίς … ἀνθρώπων;]; Ar. 9, 5; Tat. 2, 1) τίς τούτων τῶν τριῶν; Lk 10:36. τίνος ὑμῶν υἱός; 14:5. τίνι τῶν ἀγγέλων; Hb 1:5. τίνα τῶν προφητῶν; Ac 7:52. Cp. Mt 22:28; Mk 12:23; Hb 1:13 al. For the part. gen. τίς ἐξ ὑμῶν; etc. Mt 6:27; Lk 11:5; 14:28.—Mt 21:31. τίνα ἀπὸ τῶν δύο; Mt 27:21.
    ב. who? in the sense what sort of person? (=ποῖος; cp. Ex 3:11; Jdth 12:14; Jos., Ant. 6, 298; Ath. 12, 2) τίς ἐστιν οὗτος ὸ̔ς λαλεῖ βλασφημίας; Lk 5:21a. Cp. 19:3; J 8:53; Ac 11:17 (cp. 4 Km 8:13); Ro 14:4; 1 Cor 3:5ab v.l. (in both); Js 4:12. σὺ τίς εἶ; (just) who are you? what sort of person are you? (Menand., Epitr. 391 S. [215 Kö.]; Epict. 3, 1, 22; 23; Herm. Wr. 1, 2; Job 35:2; Tat. 6, 2 τίς ἤμην, οὐκ ἐγίνωσκον) J 1:19; 8:25; 21:12. τίς εἰμι ἐγὼ ὅτι who am I, that GJs 12:2 (Ex 3:11).
    ג. which of two? (=πότερος) Mt 27:17; Lk 22:27; J 9:2.
    ד. as a substitute for the rel. pron. (Callimachus 28 [=30], 2; Ptolemaeus Euergetes in Athen. 10, 438e τίνι ἡ τύχη δίδωσι, λαβέτω. Cp. BGU 665 III, 13 [I A.D.]; 822, 4 [III A.D.] εὗρον γεοργόν, τίς αὐτὰ ἑλκύσῃ; Gen 38:25; Lev 21:17; Dt 29:17; s. 1aβו below and s. Kühner-G. II 517f; OImmisch, Leipz. Studien z. klass. Philol. 10, 1887, 309ff; KBuresch, RhM n.s. 46, 1891, 231ff; Mlt. 21 n. 1; 93f; Rob. 737f; Dssm., LO 266, 5 [CIG 9552—LAE 313, 6]; Mayser II/1, 1926, 80) τίνα με ὑπονοεῖτε εἶναι οὐκ εἰμὶ ἐγώ Ac 13:25 v.l. So also Js 3:13, if it is to be punctuated τίς σοφὸς ἐν ὑμῖν, δειξάτω.
    β. τί;
    א. what? τί σοι δοκεῖ; Mt 17:25a; cp. 18:12; 21:28. τί ποιήσει; vs. 40. Cp. Mk 9:33; 10:3, 17; Lk 10:26; J 1:22b; 18:38; Ac 8:36; Ro 10:8; 1 Cor 4:7b al. τίνι; to what (thing)? Lk 13:18ab; 20.—W. prepositions: διὰ τί; why? for what reason? cp. διά B 2b. εἰς τί; why? for what purpose? εἰς 4f. ἐν τίνι; with what? through whom? Mt 5:13; 12:27; Mk 9:50; Lk 11:19; 14:34; Ac 4:9. πρὸς τί; why? (X., Cyr. 6, 3, 20; 8, 4, 21) J 13:28. χάριν τίνος; why? lit. ‘because of what thing?’ 1J 3:12 (cp. Just., A II, 12, 5; Tat. 34, 3).
    ב. what sort of thing? (=ποῖον) τί ἐστιν τοῦτο; what sort of thing is this? (Ps.-Lucian, Halc. 1 τίς ἡ φωνή; Ex 16:15) Mk 1:27. τί τὸ πλοῦτος what sort of wealth Col 1:27; cp. Eph 1:19; 3:18.
    ג. which of two? (=πότερον; Pla., Phlb. 52d) Mt 9:5; 23:19; Mk 2:9; Lk 5:23; 1 Cor 4:21; Phil 1:22.
    ד. τί as pred. can go w. a subject that is in the pl. (Pla., Tht. 155c τί ἐστι ταῦτα; [so also TestAbr A 12 p. 91, 16=Stone p. 30, and TestLevi 2:9 v.l.]; Lucian, Dial. Deor. 11, 1; Synes., Prov. 2, 2 p. 118b; Laud. Therap. 18 τί μοι ταῦτα; cp. TestAbr A 7 p. 83, 32 [Stone p. 14] τί τὰ ὁραθέντα; GrBar 2:7 τί εἰσιν οἱ ἄνθρωποι οὗτοι; what’s the meaning of these people? Jos., Vi. 296 τί γεγόνασιν;) or that is not neut. gender (B-D-F §299, 1; 2; Rob. 736; cp. X., Hell. 2, 3, 17 τί ἔσοιτο ἡ πολιτεία, Mem. 4, 2, 21; GrBar 6:13 τί ἐστιν ἡ φωνὴ αὕτη; ApcMos 5 τί ἐστιν πόνος καὶ νόσος;): τί ἐστι ἄνθρωπος; (Epict. 2, 5, 26; 2, 9, 2) Hb 2:6 (Ps 8:5). ταῦτα τί ἐστιν εἰς τοσούτους; J 6:9. ἐπυνθάνετο τί ἂν εἴη ταῦτα Lk 15:26. τί ἐσόμεθα 1J 3:2. τί ἄρα ὁ Πέτρος ἐγένετο what had become of Peter Ac 12:18. οὗτος δὲ τί (ἔσται); what about this man? J 21:21. This pass. forms a transition to
    ה. elliptical expressions: τί οὐν; (X., Mem. 4, 2, 17; Teles p. 25, 13; Diod S 13, 26, 1; Ael. Aristid. 28, 17 K.=49 p. 496 D.; schol. on Pind., O. 12, 20c; Jos., Bell. 2, 364; Just., D. 3, 6; Ath. 15, 1.—1 Cor 14:15, 26 the expr. is given more fully τί οὖν ἐστιν; Ro 6:1; 7:7; 9:14, 30 τί οὖν ἐροῦμεν; 1 Cor 10:19 τί οὖν φημι;) J 1:21; Ro 3:9; 6:15 (Seneca, Ep. 47, 15 also introduces an absurd inference w. ‘quid ergo’); 11:7.—τί γάρ; what, then, is the situation? (Ps.-Pla., Erx. 1, 392b; Diod S 34 + 35 Fgm. 2, 38; Dio Chrys. 71 [21], 16; Lucian, Tyrannic. 13; Just., D. 1, 3) Ro 3:3; what does it matter? Phil 1:18. Also τί γάρ μοι (TestJob 23:8 τί γάρ μοι ἡ θρίξ) w. inf. foll. is it any business of mine? (Tat. 33, 2 τί γάρ μοι … λέγειν why should I take the time … to say something?—cp. without γάρ Epict. 2, 17, 14 καὶ τί μοι; 3, 22, 66 τί οὖν σοι; Maximus Tyr. 2, 10c) 1 Cor 5:12.—On τί πρὸς ἡμᾶς (πρός σε); s. πρός 3eγ. On τί ἐμοὶ καὶ σοί; s. ἐγώ, end; also Schwyzer II 143; Goodsp., Probs. 98–101; MSmith, JBL 64, ’45, 512f; JLilly, CBQ 8, ’46, 52–57. τί ἡμῖν καὶ σοί; has the same mng.: Mt 8:29; Mk 1:24a; Lk 4:34a (cp. Epict. 2, 19, 16; 2, 20, 11).—τί ὅτι;=τί γέγονεν ὅτι; (cp. J 14:22) what has happened that? why? (LXX; JosAs 16:5 τί ὅτι εἶπας … ;) Mk 2:16 v.l.; Lk 2:49; Ac 5:4, 9; Hs 9, 5, 2.—On ἵνα τί s. the entry ἱνατί.
    ו. as a substitute for the relative (SIG 543, 12; 705, 56; 736, 50; s. aαד above) οὐ τί ἐγὼ θέλω ἀλλὰ τί σύ Mk 14:36. Cp. 4:24; Lk 17:8; Ac 13:25. Pl. 1 Ti 1:7.—οὐκ ἔχουσιν τί φάγωσιν Mt 15:32; Mk 8:2 (cp. vs. 1) is prob. to be understood as an indirect question=‘they do not know what they are to eat’ (W-S. §24, 17b).
    γ. Two interrog. pronouns stand together without a conjunction (distributive; s. Kühner-G. II 521f; B-D-F §298, 5; Rob. 737) τίς τί ἄρῃ what each one should receive Mk 15:24. τίς τί διεπραγματεύσατο what each one gained in trading Lk 19:15 v.l. Cp. Hv 3, 8, 6; m 6, 1, 1 (s. also Ael. Aristid. 31 p. 598 D.: τί τίς ἂν λέγοι; Ps.-Clem., Hom. 2, 33).
    as adj. (TestAbr A 15 p. 96, 15 [Stone p. 40] τί ῥῆμα γενήσεται; TestJob 47:1 τίς οὖν χρεία; ApcEsdr 5:26 p. 30, 30 Tdf. τίς ἄρα ἄνθρωπος; Just., A I, 53, 2 al.) τίνα what (sort of) μισθὸν ἔχετε; Mt 5:46. τίς βασιλεύς; Lk 14:31. Cp. 15:4, 8; J 2:18; 18:29; Ac 10:29; 1 Cor 15:2; 2 Cor 6:14–16 (five times). 1 Th 4:2 οἰδατε γὰρ τίνα παραγγελία for you know what instructions (we gave you). In Ac 7:49 τί replaces ποῖο (as read by D, after Is 66:1); cp. 1 Pt 1:11, where τί and the following ποῖο are contrasted. τί περισσόν; etc.: Mt 5:47; 19:16; 27:23.
    interrogative expression of reason for, why? adv. τί (Hom., Pla., et al.; LXX; TestAbr A 8 p. 85, 23 [Stone p. 18]; B 7 p. 111, 4 [St. p. 70]; ApcEsdr 5:16 p. 30, 15 Tdf.; ApcSed 3:1; ApcMos 27; Just., A I, 20, 3; Tat. 10, 2; Ath. 17, 4) τί μεριμνᾶτε; why do you worry? Mt 6:28. Cp. 7:3; 19:17; Mk 2:7a, 8; 4:40; 11:3; Lk 2:48; 6:46; 19:33; 24:38a; J 7:19; 18:23; Ac 1:11; 14:15; 26:8; 1 Cor 4:7c; 10:30; Col 2:20. τί τοῦτο ἐποίησας; GJs 13:2; 15:3 (GrBar 1:2 τί ἐποίησας τοῦτο;). τί οὖν ὁ νόμος; why have the law, then=well then, what’s the use of the (Mosaic) law? Gal 3:19. τί καί; why, indeed? for what possible reason? 1 Cor 15:29b, 30. τί γινώσκω ποῦ ἐστιν ὁ υἱός μου; how should I know where my son is? GJs 23:1.
    exclamatory expression of extent or degree, how! adv. τί (transl. of Hebr. מָה; W-S. §21, 4; B-D-F §299, 4; Rob. 739; 1176; LXX [Ps 3:2; SSol 1:10; 7:7; 2 Km 6:20]; Basilius, Hexaëm. p. 8b MPG τί καλὴ ἡ τάξις [s. JTrunk, De Basilio Magno sermonis Attici imitatore: Wissensch. Beilage z. Jahresber. d. Gymn. Ehingen a. D. 1911, 36]) τί στενή Mt 7:14; τί θέλω Lk 12:49 (s. θέλω 1, end, and Black, Aramaic Approach3, ’67, 121–24).—M-M. EDNT.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > τίς

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