Translation: from greek

δευτέρα ῥώμη

  • 201 δεύτερος

    Grammatical information: adj.
    Meaning: `second', in order and time, also in status (Il.).
    Derivatives: δευτεραῖος `belonging to the second day' (Hdt.; from ἡ δευτέρα [ ἡμέρα], cf. Schwyzer 596); δευτερεῖα (sc. ἆθλα) n. pl., later also - ον and as adjective (Hdt.; after ἀριστεῖα); δευτερίας ( οἶνος) bad wine, made from the draff, the στέμφυλα (Nikopho [?], Dsc.; after the wines in - ίας, Chantr. Form. 94f.; also δευτερίναρ [Lac.] H.); δευτέριον `afterbirth' (Aq.). - Denomin. δευτερεύω `be second' (Plb.), δευτεριάζω `id.' (Ar. Ek. 634); δευτερόω `repeat' (LXX) with δευτέρωσις (LXX) and δευτέρωμα (Eust.). - Beside δεύτερος rarely the superlative δεύτατος (Τ 51, Mosch.).
    Origin: GR [a formation built with Greek elements]
    Etymology: Prop. `the one who stays back, the following', comparative to δεύομαι, s. 2. δέω. - Ruijgh, Lingua 28 (1970)317f. finds - τερος after a verbal stem improbable, and suggests that it was added to an adverbial stem *δευ, perhaps seen in δεῦτε.
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    Greek-English etymological dictionary (Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά ετυμολογική λεξικό) > δεύτερος

  • 202 σμερδαλέος

    Grammatical information: adj.
    Meaning: `terrible, grisly, frightening, fearsome', of appearance, cry and shouting (ep. Il.).
    Other forms: σμερδνος `id.' (Il., h. Hom., A. Pr. 355, Nic.).
    Origin: IE [Indo-European] [736, 970] * (s)merd- `rub (open)'
    Etymology: With σμερδαλέος cf. λευγαλέος, ἀργαλέος a. o.; σμερδνός like δεινός a. o. The pair σμερδ-αλέος: σμερδ-νός shows a suffixal interchange l: n (as ἰσχαλέος: ἰσχνός a. o.; Benveniste Origines 45f.). An agreeing s-stem (as θαρσαλέος: θάρσος) is indeed found σμέρδ[ν]ος λῆμα, ῥώμη, δύναμις, ὅρμημα and εὑσμερδής εὔρωστος H.; on the meaning cf. δεινότης also `power, force, dexterity'. -- Since Ebel KZ 7, 227 (cf. also Curtius 692 f.) one onnects a primary Germ. verb, OHG smerzan, OE smeortan `hurt', to which with ablaut (PGm. * smart- \< IE * smord-) OE smeart `painful', NEng. smart `biting, stinging, sharp, witty, elegant'. For further combinations with Lat. mordeō `bite' etc. (IE *( s)merd- `rub (open)') s. W.-Hofmann s. v. with rich lit. -- Diff. Bolling Stud. in hon. of H. Collitz (Baltimore, 1930) 43ff.: to Lith. smirdė́ti `stink', Goth. smarnos acc. pl. f. ' σκύβαλα', Lat. merda f. `dirt, muck'. On the attempts to connect IE *( s)mer-d- `rub (open)' with * smerd- `stink', s. WP. 2, 279 a. 691, Pok. 736f. a. 970, W.-Hofmann s. merda and mordeō; everywhere with further forms and lit. -- Cf. σμορδοῦν.
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    Greek-English etymological dictionary (Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά ετυμολογική λεξικό) > σμερδαλέος

  • 203 Βαβυλών

    Βαβυλών, ῶνος, ἡ (Alcaeus Lyr. [VII/VI B.C.] 82, 10 D. [48, 10 L-P.]; Aeschyl., Pers. 52 et al.; LXX, ParJer, Philo, Joseph., SibOr; TestSol 26:6 B; Just.—בָּבֶל Gen 11:9; Babyl. Bâb-îlu or Bâbili, which the Babylonians interpreted by folk etymology to mean ‘gate of the gods’) Babylon, capital of Babylonia (Diod S 19, 100, 7 Βαβυλῶνα τὴν πόλιν); used also for the country (Bar 1:1, 4, 9, 11 al.; 1 Esdr 1:53; 2:11; 4:44 al.), so μετοικεσία Βαβυλῶνος deportation to Babylonia (B-D-F §166) Mt 1:11f, 17; cp. Ac 7:43 (cp. Ps.-Callisth. 3, 33, 15 ἐπάνω τῆς Βαβυλωνίας).—Among Israelites Rome began to take on the name and many of the characteristics of Babylon as a world-power hostile to God, denounced by the prophets (SyrBar 67, 7; SibOr 5, 143; 159; Billerb. III 816). So also 1 Pt 5:13 (s. the v.l. Ῥώμῃ and also CHunzinger, HHertzberg Festschr., ’65, 67–77 [Bab., Ro and 1 Pt].—Others, incl. GManley, EvQ 16, ’44, 138–46 and RAltheim-Stiehl, Christentum am Roten Meer II, ’73, 298, argue with less probability for the Bab. in Egypt [Diod S 1, 56, 3; Strabo 17, 1, 30; Jos., Ant. 2, 315]. The Bab. in Mesopotamia is also suggested by some, but at the time of Diod S [2, 9, 9], i.e. I B.C., it was almost entirely uninhabited). The association w. Rome is preferred by most for Rv (otherwise GAvan den Bergh van Eysinga, NThT 16, 1927, 33ff; JOman, Book of Rv 1923, 29 al.; JSickenberger, BZ 17, 1926, 270–82; Lohmeyer), where B. is always called the Great (cp. Da 4:30; Jos., Ant. 8, 153; Alcaeus, loc. cit., spoke of Βαβύλωνος ἵρας=holy Babylon) Rv 16:19; 17:5; 18:10, 21; ἔπεσεν, ἔπεσεν Β. 14:8; 18:2 (cp. Is 21:9; Jer 28:8).—RAC I 1118–34. M-M. TW.

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  • 204 βασίλισσα

    βασίλισσα, ης, ἡ (for Attic βασιλίς [τῇ βασιλίδι Ῥώμῃ Just., A I, 26, 2; 56, 2] and βασίλεια [Phryn. p. 225 Lob.; Moeris 192], first in Alcaeus Comicus [V/IV B.C.] 6 and X., Oec. 9, 15, later freq., incl. ins [SIG and OGI index; Meisterhans-Schw. 101, 5; Schweizer, 140; Nachmanson 121]; pap [Mayser 214; 222; 255]; APF 2, 1903, 541; 6, 1920, 453; LXX, TestSol, JosAs; EpArist 41; Philo, Congr. Erud. Gr. 45; Jos., Bell. 1, 76, Ant. 11, 190 al.; Tat. 33, 3) a female ruler within a specific area and with authority to pass her ruling power on to a successor, queen Mt 12:42; Lk 11:31 (TestSol 19:3; 21:1); Ac 8:27; Rv 18:7.—DELG s.v. βασιλεύς. M-M. TW.

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  • 205 β´

    β´ numerical sign = 2 (δύο: Jos., C. Ap. 1, 157; Ar. [Milne 76, 28]) Hs 8, 9, 1 (cod. A for δύο) Lk 10:35 P75 (β̄); or 2d (δευτέρα), i.e. ἐπιστολή (in the superscriptions of 2 Cor, 2 Th, 2 Ti, 2 Pt, 2J, 2 Cl, and in the subscriptions of 2 Th, 2 Ti, 2J), or ὅρασις (in the superscr. of Hv 2), or ἐντολή (in the superscr. of Hm 2).

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > β´

  • 206 δεύτερος

    δεύτερος, α, ον (Hom.+) ‘second’
    next to the first in a sequence or series, second. In a numerical sequence: Mt 22:26 of the second of seven brothers; J 4:54 second sign (a similar close in Appian, Bell. Civ. 1, 33 §150 τρίτον τόδε ἔργον ἦν); D 2:1. In a series (cp. Just., A I, 13, 3 χριστὸν … ἐν δευτέρᾳ χώρᾳ ἔχοντες =holding Christ in second position [in the Trinity] 60, 7; Ath. 35, 1 τὸ πρότερον … τὸ δεύτερον of two charges made against Christians): Mt 22:39; Mk 12:31; Lk 19:18; 1 Cor 15:47; 2 Pt 3:1; Rv 4:7; 6:3; 16:3; 21:19. δευτέρα (sc. ἐπιστολή) in the subscr. of 2 Th and 2 Ti. Of position: the second sentinel’s post Ac 12:10; the second curtain Hb 9:3; cp. vs. 7. Of that which comes later in time (cp. Just., D. 110, 2 δ. παρουσία) as the second item in a class: Hb 8:7; 10:9; Rv 2:11; 11:14; 20:14; 21:8; 2 Cor 1:15; Tit 3:10; ὥρα δ. Hs 9, 11, 7 (cp. Jos., Vi. 220); φυλακὴ δ. second watch in the night (Arrian, Anab. 6, 25, 5; Jos., Bell. 5, 510) Lk 12:38. δευτέρᾳ (sc. ἡμέρᾳ) on the second (day of the month) MPol 21.
    neut. δεύτερον, τὸ δεύτερον used as adv. for the second time (Sappho [POxy 1231 Fgm. 1 col. 1, 11=Campbell p. 64]; Hdt. et al.; Appian to Fronto [I p. 537f Viereck-R.] §6; OGI 82, 7 [III B.C.]; Gen 22:15; Jer 40:1; Jos., Bell. 1, 25, Vi. 389; s. MBoismard, Le chapitre 21 de StJean: RB 54, ’47, 480) δ. εἰσελθεῖν J 3:4; παρὼν τὸ δ. 2 Cor 13:2; δ. εἴρηκαν they said for the second time Rv 19:3. Also ἐκ δευτέρου (Diosc. 5, 41; Galen, CMG VII 159, 15 al.; PTebt 297, 19; PHolm 1, 32; Jon 3:1; Jer 1:13; 1 Macc 9:1; JosAs 14:6; 4 [6] Esdr [POxy 1010]; Jos., Ant. 6, 94; TestAbr A 7 p. 84, 9f [Stone p. 16]; Ath. 32, 3 [Resch, Agrapha 137] on caution with respect to kissing) Mk 14:72; J 9:24; Ac 11:9; Hb 9:28; 2 Ti subscr.; making πάλιν more definite (Heraclit. Sto. 32 p. 48, 8 ἐκ δευτέρου πάλιν; reversed 4 [6] Esdr [POxy 1010]) Mt 26:42; Ac 10:15; also πάλιν δεύτερον (cp. Herodas 5, 47) J 21:16; ἐν τῷ δ. the second time Ac 7:13 (TestJob 36:6). In enumerations secondly (PTebt 56, 9–11 [II B.C.] εὐχαριστῆσαι πρῶτον μὲν τοῖς θεοῖς, δεύτερον δὲ σῶσαι ψυχάς; Sir 23:23; 2 Macc 14:8; Tat. 40, 1; 42, 1) 1 Cor 12:28; D 1:2; Hm 10, 3, 2. τὸ δ. ἀπώλεσεν the second time he destroyed Jd 5 (NRSV renders ‘afterward’, but this is not to be construed as a difft. mng. for Jude’s use of δ.: in Jude’s pregnant statement the point lies in a contrast between two special moments of display of divine power, one in salvation, and the second in destruction).—DELG. M-M. Sv.

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  • 207 διαθήκη

    διαθήκη, ης, ἡ (Democr., Aristoph.+; ins, pap, LXX, En, TestSol, TestAbr, Test12Patr; ParJer 6:21; ApcEsdr, ApcMos; AssMos Fgm. a; Philo, Joseph., Just.; Mel., HE 4, 26, 14) apart from the simplex θήκη ‘case, chest’, for the mng. of this word one must begin with the mid. form of the verb διατίθεμαι, which is freq. used in legal and commercial discourse of disposition of things (s. L-S-J-M s.v. διατιθημι B), w. implication of promissory obligation. Disposition of one’s personal effects would naturally come under testamentary law, hence
    last will and testament (so exclusively in Hellenistic times, Eger [s. 3 below] 99 note; exx. e.g. in Riggenbach 292ff; Behm 10, 1; 2; Philo, Joseph., Test12Patr; loanw. in rabb.) Hb 9:16f; δ. κεκυρωμένη a will that has been ratified Gal 3:15; cp. 17, where δ. shades into mng. 2 (s. κυρόω 1, προκυρόω); s. also EBammel, below, and JSwetnam, CBQ 27, ’65, 373–90. On Jewish perspective s. RKatzoff, An Interpretation of PYadin 19—A Jewish Gift after Death: ProcXXCongPap 562–65.
    As a transl. of בְּרִית in LXX δ. retains the component of legal disposition of personal goods while omitting that of the anticipated death of a testator. A Hellenistic reader would experience no confusion, for it was a foregone conclusion that gods were immortal. Hence a δ. decreed by God cannot require the death of the testator to make it operative. Nevertheless, another essential characteristic of a testament is retained, namely that it is the declaration of one person’s initiative, not the result of an agreement betw. two parties, like a compact or a contract. This is beyond doubt one of the main reasons why the LXX rendered בְּרִית by δ. In the ‘covenants’ of God, it was God alone who set the conditions; hence covenant (s. OED s.v. ‘covenant’ sb. 7) can be used to trans. δ. only when this is kept in mind. So δ. acquires a mng. in LXX which cannot be paralleled w. certainty in extra-Biblical sources, namely ‘decree’, ‘declaration of purpose’, ‘set of regulations’, etc. Our lit., which is very strongly influenced by LXX in this area, seems as a rule to have understood the word in these senses (JHughes, NovT 21, ’79, 27–96 [also Hb 9:16–20; Gal 3:15–17]). God has issued a declaration of his purpose Ro 11:27 (Is 59:21); 1 Cl 15:4 (Ps 77:37); 35:7 (Ps 49:16), which God bears in mind (cp. Ps 104:8f; 105:45 al.) Lk 1:72; it goes back to ancestral days Ac 3:25 (PsSol 9:10; ParJer 6:21). God also issued an ordinance (of circumcision) 7:8 (cp. Gen 17:10ff). Since God’s holy will was set forth on more than one occasion (Gen 6:18; 9:9ff; 15:18; 17:2ff; Ex 19:5 and oft.), one may speak of διαθῆκαι decrees, assurances (cp. διαθῆκαι πατέρων Wsd 18:22; 2 Macc 8:15.—But the pl. is also used for a single testament: Diog. L. 4, 44; 5, 16. In quoting or referring to Theophr. sometimes the sing. [Diog. L. 5, 52; 56] is used, sometimes the pl. [5, 51; 57]) Ro 9:4; Eph 2:12. Much emphasis is laid on the δ. καινή, mentioned as early as Jer 38:31, which God planned for future disposition (Hb 8:8–10; 10:16). God’s decree or covenant directed toward the Christians is a καινὴ δ. (δ. δευτέρα Orig., C. Cels. 2, 75) Lk 22:20; 1 Cor 11:25; 2 Cor 3:6; Hb 8:8; 9:15a; PtK 2 p. 15, 5, or δ. νέα Hb 12:24; PtK 2 p. 15, 6 which, as a δ. αἰώνιος (cp. Jer 39:40; En 99:2) Hb 13:20, far excels 7:22; 8:6 the παλαιὰ δ. 2 Cor 3:14, or πρώτη δ. Hb 9:15b, with which it is contrasted. Both are mentioned (Did., Gen. 46, 4; 235, 26) Gal 4:24; B 4:6ff (Ex 34:28; 31:18; Just., D. 67, 9). Blood was shed when the old covenant was proclaimed at Sinai Hb 9:20 (Ex 24:8); the same is true of the new covenant Hb 10:29. τὸ αἷμά μου τ. διαθήκης Mt 26:28; Mk 14:24 (ELohse, Märtyrer u. Gottesknecht2, ’63, 122–29) is prob. to be understood in connection w. this blood (s. WWrede, ZNW 1, 1900, 69–74; TRobinson, My Blood of the Covenant: KMarti Festschr. 1925, 232–37; for a critique of this view s. GWalther, Jesus, D. Passalamm des Neuen Bundes, ’50, 22–27 and JJeremias TLZ, ’51, 547. For Syriac background JEmerton, JTS 13, ’62, 111–17; s. also ÉDelebrecque, Études grecques sur l’vangile de Luc ’76, 109–21).—The v.l. Lk 22:29 may be derived from Jer 39:40 or Is 55:3 LXX (for the cognate acc. s. Aristoph., Aves 440).—δ. may also be transl. decree in the Ep. of Barnabas (4:6ff; 6:19; 9:6; 13:1, 6; 14:1ff δ. δοῦναί τινι); but the freq. occurrence of the idea of inheritance (6:19; 13:1, 6; 14:4f), makes it likely that the ‘decree’ is to be thought of as part of a will.
    The mng. compact, contract seems firmly established for Gr-Rom. times (FNorton, A Lexicographical and Historical Study of Διαθήκη, Chicago 1908, 31ff; EBruck, D. Schenkung auf d. Todesfall im griech. u. röm. Recht I 1909, 115ff; JWackernagel, D. Kultur d. Gegenw. I 82 1907, 309). It remains doubtful whether this mng. has influenced our lit. here and there (exc. quite prob. Lk 22:29 v.l. with its administrative tenor; the phrase διατίθεμαι δ. as Aristoph., Av. 440 of a treaty agreement), but the usage of the term δ. in such sense would again serve as a bridge to LXX usage.—The expr. ἡ κιβωτὸς τ. διαθήκης covenant chest i.e. the sacred box (Eng. ‘ark’ as loanw. from Lat. arca) that symbolized God’s pledge of presence w. Israel (Ex 31:7; 39:14 al.) Hb 9:4; Rv 11:19 or αἱ πλάκες τ. διαθ. (Ex 34:28; Dt 9:9, 11) Hb 9:4 would have required some acquaintance with Israelite tradition on the part of ancient readers.—ERiggenbach, D. Begriff d. Διαθήκη im Hb: Theol. Stud. f. TZahn 1908, 289ff, Hb2 1922, 205ff al.; ACarr, Covenant or Testament?: Exp. 7th ser., 7, 1909, 347ff; JBehm, D. Begriff D. im NT 1912; ELohmeyer, Diatheke 1913; WFerguson, Legal Terms Common to the Macedonian Inscr. and the NT, 1913, 42–46 (testamentary exhibits); HKennedy, Exp. 8th ser., 10, 1915, 385ff; GVos, Hebrews, the Epistle of the Diatheke: PTR 13, 1915, 587–632; 14, 1916, 1–61; OEger, ZNW 18, 1918, 84–108; EBurton, ICC Gal 1921, 496–505; LdaFonseca, Διαθήκη foedus an testamentum?: Biblica 8, 1927; 9, 1928; EBammel, Gottes διαθήκη (Gal 3:15–17) u. d. jüd. Rechtsdenken, NTS 6, ’60, 313–19; NDow, A Select Bibliography on the Concept of Covenant, Austin Seminary Bulletin 78, 6, ’63; CRoetzel, Biblica 51, ’70, 377–90 (Ro 9:4); DMcCarthy, Berit and Covenant (Deut.), ’72, 65–85; EChristiansen, The Covenant in Judaism and Paul ’95.—DELG s.v. θήκη. M-M. TW. Sv.

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  • 208 καρδία

    καρδία, ας, ἡ (since Hom. [καρδίη, κραδίη]. Rather rare in other wr. in the period of the Gk. Bible [s. Diod S 32, 20; Plut., Mor. p. 30a; 63a; Epict. 1, 27, 21; M. Ant. 2, 3, 3; 7, 13, 3; Ps.-Apollod. 1, 4, 1, 5; Lucian; pap, incl. PGM 5, 157; 13, 263; 833; 1066; s. below 1bη], but common LXX, pseudepigr.; Ar. 15, 3; Just., D. 39, 5; 46, 5 al.; Ath. 31, 3. On Philo and Joseph. s. ASchlatter, D. Theol. d. Judentums nach d. Bericht d. Jos. ’32, 21).
    heart as seat of physical, spiritual and mental life (as freq. in Gk. lit.), fig. extension of ‘heart’ as an organ of the body (Il. 13, 282 al.), a mng. not found in our lit.
    as the center and source of physical life (Ps 101:5; 103:15) ἐμπιπλῶν τροφῆς … τὰς κ. satisfying the hearts w. food Ac 14:17. τρέφειν τὰς κ. fatten the hearts Js 5:5.
    as center and source of the whole inner life, w. its thinking, feeling, and volition (νοῦν κ. φρένας κ. διάνοιαν κ. λογισμὸν εἶπέ τις ποιητὴς [Hes., Fgm. 247 Rz.] ἐν καρδίᾳ περιέχεσθαι=some poet said that the heart embraces perception, wit, intellect, and reflection), of humans whether in their pre-Christian or Christian experience
    α. in an all-inclusive sense: said of God’s or Christ’s awareness about the inner life of humans γινώσκειν τὰς καρδίας (cp. 1 Km 16:7; 1 Ch 28:9; s. also Did., Gen. 170, 24) Lk 16:15; δοκιμάζειν 1 Th 2:4; ἐρευνᾶν Ro 8:27; Rv 2:23 (νεφροὺς κ. καρδίας as Ps 7:10; Jer 17:10; 20:12); κριτικὸς ἐνθυμήσεων καὶ ἐννοιῶν καρδίας Hb 4:12; τὰ κρυπτὰ τῆς κ. 1 Cor 14:25 (cp. TestReub 1:4). Generally, of human attitudes ὁ κρυπτὸς τῆς κ. ἄνθρωπος 1 Pt 3:4. ἐκ καρδίας from (the bottom of) the heart=sincerely (Aristoph., Nub. 86) Ro 6:17. Also ἀπὸ τῶν καρδιῶν (M. Ant. 2, 3, 3 ἀπὸ καρδίας εὐχάριστος τ. θεοῖς; Lucian, Jupp. Tr. 19; Is 59:13; La 3:33) Mt 18:35. ἐκ καθαρᾶς καρδίας 1 Ti 1:5; 2 Ti 2:22; 1 Pt 1:22. ἐξ ὅλης τ. καρδίας (TestLevi 13:1) Ac 8:37 v.l. Χριστὸν ἁγιάσατε ἐν ταῖς κ. ὑμῶν 1 Pt 3:15. Opp. κοιλία Mk 7:19. Opp. πρόσωπον and καρδία externals and inner attitude of heart (cp. 1 Km 16:7 ἄνθρωπος ὄψεται εἰς πρόσωπον, ὁ δὲ θεὸς ὄψεται εἰς καρδίαν) 2 Cor 5:12. The same contrast προσώπῳ οὐ καρδίᾳ outwardly, not inwardly 1 Th 2:17. As seat of inner life in contrast to mouth or lips, which either give expression to the inner life or deny it Mt 15:8; Mk 7:6 (both Is 29:13); Mt 15:18; Ro 10:8 (Dt 30:14); vs. 9f; 2 Cor 6:11. ψάλλοντες (+ ἐν v.l.) τῇ καρδίᾳ Eph 5:19. ᾂδειν ἐν ταῖς κ. Col 3:16.
    β. of inner awareness (see the ‘poet’ under 1b above; Aesop, Fab. 254P.=232H/134b H-H./184 Ch.; 3 Km 10:2; Job 12:3; 17:4): 2 Cor 4:6; Eph 1:18; 2 Pt 1:19. τῇ κ. συνιέναι understand Mt 13:15b; Ac 28:27b (both Is 6:10). νοεῖν τῇ κ. think J 12:40b. ἐν τῇ κ. λέγειν (Dt 8:17; 9:4; Ps 13:1. Also Aesop Fab. 62 H.=283b 5 H-H./179c Ch. βοῶν ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ alternating w. ταῦτα καθʼ ἑαυτὸν λέγοντος) say to oneself, i.e. think, reflect, without saying anything aloud Mt 24:48; Lk 12:45; Ro 10:6; Rv 18:7; διαλογίζεσθαι Mk 2:6, 8; Lk 3:15; 5:22; Hv 1, 1, 2; 3, 4, 3. The κ. as the source of διαλογισμοί Mt 15:19; Mk 7:21; Lk 2:35; 9:47. διαλογισμοὶ ἀναβαίνουσιν ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ Lk 24:38. ἀναβαίνει τι ἐπὶ τὴν καρδίαν τινός someth. enters someone’s mind=someone thinks of someth. (s. ἀναβαίνω 2) Ac 7:23; 1 Cor 2:9; Hv 3, 7, 2; m 12, 3, 5; Hs 5, 7, 2. Also of memory Hv 3, 7, 6; m 4, 2, 2; 6, 2, 8. θέσθαι ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ Lk 1:66. διατηρεῖν ἐν τ. καρδίᾳ Lk 2:51 (cp. TestLevi 6:2). συμβάλλειν vs. 19. ἐνθυμεῖσθαι Mt 9:4. διακρίνειν Hv 1, 2, 2. πάντα τὰ ῥήματά μου ἐν καρδίᾳ λαμβάνων taking all my words to heart AcPl Ha 1, 6.—Likew. of a lack of understanding: ἡ ἀσύνετος κ. the senseless mind Ro 1:21; βραδὺς τῇ κ. slow of comprehension Lk 24:25 (cp. Tetr. Iamb. 2, 31a, 6 the mocking words of the fox ὦ ἀνόητε κ. βραδὺ τῇ καρδίᾳ). ἐπαχύνθη ἡ κ. τοῦ λαοῦ Mt 13:15a; Ac 28:27a (both Is 6:10). πωροῦν τὴν κ. J 12:40a; κ. πεπωρωμένη Mk 6:52; 8:17; ἡ πώρωσις τῆς κ. 3:5; Eph 4:18. ἀπατᾶν καρδίαν αὐτοῦ Js 1:26; cp. Ro 16:18. κάλυμμα ἐπὶ τὴν κ. κεῖται 2 Cor 3:15 (cp. ἐστί τι ‘κάλλυμα’ ἀγνοίας ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ Orig., C. Cels. 4, 50, 5).—As the seat of thought, κ. is also the seat of doubt διακρίνεσθαι ἐν τῇ κ. Mk 11:23. διστάζειν Hm 9:5.—The gospel is sown in the heart Mt 13:19 v.l.; Mk 4:15 v.l.; Lk 8:12, 15. God opens the heart Ac 16:14 or the eyes of the heart Eph 1:18; 1 Cl 59:3 to Christian knowledge.
    γ. of the will and its decisions (Diod S 32, 20) ἕκαστος καθὼς προῄρηται τῇ κ. each of you must give as you have made up your mind 2 Cor 9:7 (NRSV) (cp. TestJos 17:3 ἐπὶ προαιρέσει καρδίας). θέτε ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ὑμῶν (s. 1 Km 21:13) make up your minds Lk 21:14; cp. Ac 5:4. πρόθεσις τ. καρδίας 11:23. βάλλειν εἰς τὴν κ. ἵνα put it into someone’s heart to J 13:2. Also διδόναι εἰς τ. κ. (2 Esdr 17:5) w. inf. foll. Rv 17:17, or πληροῦν τὴν κ. w. inf. foll. Ac 5:3. Cp. 1 Cor 4:5; 7:37; 2 Cor 8:16; in citation Hb 3:8, 15; 4:7 (each Ps 94:8) al. πλανᾶσθαι τῇ κ. 3:10. God’s law written in human hearts Ro 2:15; 2 Cor 3:2f. In citation Hb 8:10; 10:16 (both Jer 38:33). Stability in the face of dissident teaching Hb 13:9.
    δ. of moral decisions, the moral life, of vices and virtues: ἁγνίζειν τὰς κ. Js 4:8; καθαρίζειν τὰς κ. Ac 15:9; Hv 3, 9, 8; w. ἀπό τινος Hm 12, 6, 5; καθαρὸς τῇ κ. pure in heart (Ps 23:4) Mt 5:8; καθαρὰ κ. (Sextus 46b) Hv 4, 2, 5; 5:7; m 2:7 cj.; Hs 7:6. ῥεραντισμένοι τὰς κ. ἀπὸ συνειδήσεως πονηρᾶς with hearts sprinkled clean from a consciousness of guilt Hb 10:22. κ. ἄμεμπτος 1 Th 3:13. ἀμετανόητος Ro 2:5. κ. πονηρὰ ἀπιστίας Hb 3:12; λίθιναι κ. B 6:14 (Ezk 36:26). γεγυμνασμένη πλεονεξίας trained in greediness 2 Pt 2:14 (cp. κ. … ἐπὶ τὸ κακὸν ἔγκειται Did., Gen. 104, 14). Cp. Lk 21:34; Ac 8:21f. περιτομὴ καρδίας (cp. Jer 9:25; Ezk 44:7, 9) Ro 2:29.—B 9:1; 10:12. Cp. Ac 7:51.
    ε. of the emotions, wishes, desires (Theognis 1, 366; Bacchylides 17, 18): ἐπιθυμίαι τῶν κ. desires of the heart Ro 1:24. ἐπὶ τὴν κ. σου ἀνέβη ἡ ἐπιθυμία τ. πονηρίας Hv 1, 1, 8; cp. Hs 5, 1, 5. ἐνθύμησις m 4, 1, 2; 6, 2, 7. μὴ ἀναβαινέτω σου ἐπὶ τὴν κ. περὶ γυναικός m 4, 1, 1; cp. Hv 1, 2, 4; Mt 5:28.—6:21; 12:34f; Lk 6:45; 12:34; 24:32 (s. καίω 1b); Js 3:14; 5:8. Of joy: ηὐφράνθη ἡ κ. Ac 2:26 (Ps 15:9). χαρήσεται ἡ κ. J 16:22. Of sorrow: ἡ λύπη πεπλήρωκεν τὴν κ. 16:6; λύπη ἐγκάθηται εἰς τὴν κ. grief sits in the heart Hm 10, 3, 3. ἡ κ. ταράσσεται (Job 37:1; Ps 142:4) J 14:1, 27; ὀδύνη τῇ κ. Ro 9:2. συνοχὴ καρδίας anguish of heart 2 Cor 2:4; διαπρίεσθαι ταῖς κ. Ac 7:54; κατανυγῆναι τὴν κ. 2:37; συνθρύπτειν τὴν κ. 21:13. κ. συντετριμμένη a broken heart B 2:10; 1 Cl 18:17b (Ps 50:19). συντετριμμένοι τὴν κ. Lk 4:18 v.l. παρακαλεῖν τὰς κ. Eph 6:22; Col 2:2; 4:8; 2 Th 2:17. Of hope (Ps 111:7) Hm 12, 5, 2. Of repentance ἐξ ὅλης κ. Hv 3, 13, 4; m 5, 1, 7; 12, 6, 1. Of sensitivity about doing what is right (1 Km 24:6; 2 Km 24:10) 1J 3:19, 20, 21 (s. ASkrinjar, Verb. Dom. 20, ’40, 340–50). Of a wish εὐδοκία τῆς κ. (s. εὐδοκία 3) Ro 10:1. Of a longing for God τὴν κ. ἔχειν πρὸς κύριον Hm 10, 1, 6. ἐπιστρέφεσθαι πρὸς τὸν κύριον ἐξ ὅλης τῆς κ. 12, 6, 2 (cp. 3 Km 8:48). προσέρχεσθαι μετὰ ἀληθινῆς κ. with sincere desire (cp. Is 38:3; TestDan 5:3 ἀλ. κ.) Hb 10:22. Cp. the opposite Ac 7:39.—Also of the wish or desire of God ἀνὴρ κατὰ τὴν κ. (τοῦ θεοῦ) after God’s heart i.e. as God wishes him to be Ac 13:22 (cp. 1 Km 13:14).
    ζ. esp. also of love (Aristoph., Nub. 86 ἐκ τῆς κ. φιλεῖν; M. Ant. 7, 13, 3 ἀπὸ κ. φιλεῖν τ. ἀνθρώπους) ἀγαπᾶν τινα ἐξ ὅλης τ. καρδίας Mk 12:30, 33; Lk 10:27 (cp. Dt 6:5 and APF 5, 1913, 393 no. 312, 9 ἐκ ψυχῆς κ. καρδίας). ἐν ὅλῃ τ. καρδίᾳ Mt 22:37; ἐπιστρέψαι καρδίας πατέρων ἐπὶ τέκνα Lk 1:17 (Mal 3:23); εἶναι ἐν τῇ κ. have a place in the heart 2 Cor 7:3; ἔχειν τινὰ ἐν τῇ κ. Phil 1:7; Hm 12, 4, 3; Hs 5, 4, 3; cp. m 12, 4, 5; κατευθύνειν τὰς κ. εἰς τὴν ἀγάπην τοῦ θεοῦ 2 Th 3:5.—The opp. κατά τινος ἐν τῇ κ. ἔχειν have someth. against someone Hv 3, 6, 3.
    η. of disposition (TestJob 48:1 ἀνέλαβεν ἄλλην κ.) διάνοια καρδίας Lk 1:51; ἁπλότης (τ.) καρδίας (TestReub 4:1, Sim 4:5 al.) Eph 6:5; Col 3:22; ἀφελότης καρδίας Ac 2:46. κ. καὶ ψυχὴ μία Ac 4:32 (cp. Iren. 1, 10, 2 [Harv. I 92, 5]; combination of ψυχή and καρδία as PGM 7, 472; IDefixWünsch 3, 15; Dt 11:18; 1 Km 2:35; 4 Km 23:3 and oft. LXX—on such combinations s. Reader, Polemo p. 260 and cp. Demosth. 18, 220 ῥώμη καὶ τόλμη). πραῢς καὶ ταπεινὸς τῇ κ. Mt 11:29 (cp. TestReub 6:10). ἡ εἰρήνη τοῦ Χριστοῦ βραβευέτω ἐν ταῖς κ. ὑμῶν let the peace of Christ control you Col 3:15; cp. Phil 4:7.
    θ. The human καρδία as the dwelling-place of heavenly powers and beings (PGM 1, 21 ἔσται τι ἔνθεον ἐν τῇ σῇ κ.): of the Spirit Ro 5:5; 2 Cor 1:22; Gal 4:6; of the Lord Eph 3:17; of the angel of righteousness Hm 6, 2, 3; 5.
    interior, center, heart, fig. ext. of 1 (Ezk 27:4, 25; Jon 2:4; Ps 45:3; EpJer 19) τῆς γῆς Mt 12:40.—S., in addition to works on Bibl. anthropology and psychology (πνεῦμα end): HKornfeld, Herz u. Gehirn in altjüd. Auffassung: Jahrb. für jüd. Gesch. u. Lit. 12, 1909, 81–89; ASchlatter, Herz. u. Gehirn im 1. Jahrh.: THaering Festschr. 1918, 86–94; RBultmann, Theologie des NT ’48, 216–22 (Paul), tr., Theol. of the NT, KGrobel, ’51, I, 220–27; RJewett, Paul’s Anthropological Terms, ’71, 305–33. For OT viewpoints s. RNorth, BRev 11/3, ’95, 33 (lit.)—B. 251. EDNT. DELG. M-M. TW. Sv.

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  • 209 καυχάομαι

    καυχάομαι (s. two next entries; Pind., Hdt.+) mid. dep.; 2 sing. καυχᾶσαι Ro 2:17, 23; 1 Cor 4:7 (s. Mayser 328; JWackernagel, TLZ 33, 1908, 639; Thackeray 218; Mlt-H. 198); fut. καυχήσομαι; 1 aor. ἐκαυχησάμην; pf. κεκαύχημαι. In our lit. restricted to Paul, except for two pass. each in Js and Ign., and one in 1 Cl (a quot. fr. the OT).
    to take pride in someth., boast, glory, pride oneself, brag, intr. (Sappho, Fgm. 26, 10 D.2) ἔν τινι in or about a person or thing (schol. on Apollon. Rhod. 3, 976 οἱ καυχώμενοι ἐν ἑτέρων διαβολαῖς; LXX; TestJud 13:2; ἐν τοῖς θεοῖς Theoph. Ant. 1, 1 [p. 58, 6].—B-D-F §196; s. Rob. 532) ἐν θεῷ Ro 2:17. ἐν τῷ θεῷ 5:11. ἐν κυρίῳ 1 Cor 1:31b; 2 Cor 10:17b; 1 Cl 13:1 (cp. on the three Jer 9:23). ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ Phil 3:3. ἐν ἀνθρώποις 1 Cor 3:21.—ἐν νόμῳ (cp. Sir 39:8) Ro 2:23; in afflictions 5:3; in the work of others 2 Cor 10:15; in weaknesses 12:9; in high position Js 1:9; in wisdom, etc. 1 Cl 13:1 (Jer 9:22f). ἐν τῇ ὑμετέρᾳ σαρκί Gal 6:13. ἐν τῷ σταυρῷ vs. 14. ἐν τῷ προσώπῳ κ., opp. ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ pride oneself on externals … on the heart 2 Cor 5:12. ἐν ᾧ καυχῶνται 11:12. On 2 Th 1:4 v.l. see ἐγκαυχάομαι.—The ἐν is to be taken somewhat differently Js 4:16 (s. ἀλαζονεία).—εἴς τι boast with regard to someth. 2 Cor 10:16. Differently εἰς τὰ ἄμετρα κ. boast beyond limit (s. ἄμετρος) vss. 13, 15.—ἐπί τινι based on someth., in someth. (Cratinus Com. [V B.C.] 95; Diod S 15, 6, 2 ἐπὶ τοῖς ποιήμασιν; 16, 70, 2; iambic poet in Ps.-Callisth. 2, 20, 11 ἐπὶ τέκνοισι; SIG 1268, 23 ἐπὶ ῥώμῃ; Ps 48:7) Ro 5:2 (JBover, Biblica 22, ’41, 41–45). ὑπέρ τινος on behalf of someone 2 Cor 12:5ab. κατά τι in accordance with someth. 2 Cor 11:18a.—ἐνώπιον τ. θεοῦ before God 1 Cor 1:29.—W. ὅτι foll. (Strabo 13, 1, 27) IPhld 6:3. (W. inf. TestJob 41:3; Just., D. 101, 1.)—Abs. (TestReub 3:5) 1 Cor 1:31a; 4:7; 2 Cor 10:17a; 11:18b, 30a; 12:1, 6, 11 v.l.; Eph 2:9; IPol 5:2.—1 Cor 13:3, a variety of witnesses have καυχήσωμαι (read by N. and defended e.g. by Harnack, SBBerlAk 1911, 139ff; Goodsp., Probs. 162–65; KClark, Studia Paulina [deZwaan Festschr.] ’53, 61f) instead of the v.l. καυθήσομαι, which is preferred by others (e.g., EPreuschen, ZNW 16, 1915, 127ff; JKElliott, ZNW 62, ’71, 297f; et al.).—S. καίω 2.
    to make a boast about someth., boast about, mention in order to boast of, be proud of, trans. τὶ someth. (Philemon Com. [IV–III B.C.], Fgm. 141 p. 521; Diod S 20, 63, 4) τὰ τῆς ἀσθενείας μου boast about my weaknesses 2 Cor 11:30b (cp. Pr 27:1 κ. τὰ εἰς αὔριον). τὶ περί τινος 10:8. τί τινι ὑπέρ τινος say someth. boastingly (or in pride) to someone concerning someone 7:14; 9:2 (here a ὅτι-clause defines τὶ more closely). μικρόν τι 11:16.—For Gr-Rom. cultural background on Paul’s theme of boasting in 2 Cor s. Plut., Mor. 539–547 ‘On Inoffensive Self-Praise’; FDanker, Augsburg Comm. on the NT: II Cor ’89, esp. 147–214; idem, Paul’s Debt to Demosthenes’ ‘De Corona’, in Persuasive Artistry [GKennedy Festschr.], ed. DWatson, ’91, 262–80; JLambrecht, Dangerous Boasting, Paul’s Self-Commendation in 2 Cor 10–13, in RBieringer, ed., The Corinthian Correspondence ’96, 325–46.—JBosch, ‘Gloriarse’ según San Pablo, Sentido y teologia de καυχάομαι, ’70. BDowdy, The Meaning of καυχᾶσθαι in the NT, diss. Vanderbilt ’55.—B. 1281. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW. Spicq.

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  • 210 μήν

    1
    μήν particle (Hom.+; UPZ 59, 27 [168 B.C.]; LXX; JosAs 1:9 cod. A [p. 40, 11 Bat.] οὐ μὴν ἀλλὰ καί; ApcSed 14, 10 p. 136, 18 Tdf. ἦ μήν; Philo, Joseph., Just., Ath.—Denniston 325–58.) used w. other particles for emphasis.
    εἰ μήν q.v.
    καὶ μήν (Hom., Pind. et al.; BGU 1024, 7; 24; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 257, Vi. 256) and indeed.
    in contrast to what precedes and yet (Just., D. 35, 1; Ath. 8, 4; Kühner-G. II 137; B-D-F §450, 4) 9:6.
    indeed Hm 4, 1, 8; 5, 1, 7. οὐ μήν to be sure … not, of course … not Dg 5:3 (Diod S 2, 18, 8; EpArist 158; Jos. Ant. 15, 42; Ath. 23, 1)
    ἀλλὰ μήν on the other hand (Jos., Ant. 19, 146; C. Ap. 1, 286; 2, 289; Just. D. 5, 3) Dg 4:1.
    μήτε μήν not even Ox 840, 15.—DELG 1 μήν. M-M.
    2
    μήν, μηνός, ὁ (Hom.+).
    month Lk 1:36; PtK 2 p. 14, 27. Acc. of time answering the question: how long? (B-D-F §161, 2; Rob. 469f) for five months Lk 1:24; cp. vs. 56; 4:25 v.l.; Ac 7:20; 18:11; 20:3; Js 5:17; Rv 9:5, 10; 11:2; 13:5. τρεῖς μῆνας GJs 12:3. W. prep.: εἰς μ. (w. hour, day, year) Rv 9:15. ἐν μ. Lk 1:26. ἐπὶ μῆνας τρεῖς for a period of three months (s. Jos., Bell. 2, 180) Ac 19:8; cp. Lk 4:25. κατὰ μῆνα ἕκαστον every month Rv 22:2 (PRev 16, 2 [258 B.C.] καθʼ ἕκαστον μῆνα; X., Oec. 9, 8 κατὰ μῆνα). μετὰ τρεῖς μῆνας after three months Ac 28:11. Of a woman giving birth GJs 5:2; 7:1; 13:1. In an exact date: μηνὸς Ξανθικοῦ δευτέρᾳ ἱσταμένου=February 22, MPol 21; on this s. ἵστημι, end and ESchwartz, Christl. u. jüd. Ostertafeln: AGG n.s. 8, 1905, 127ff.
    new moon (festival) Gal 4:10; Dg 4:5.—B. 1010. Heath, Aristarchus 284–87. DELG 2 μήν. M-M. TW.

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  • 211 Ξανθικός

    Ξανθικός, ου, ὁ (so Diod S 18, 56, 5 in an edict of remission from the Macedonians in the time of the Diadochi τοῦ Ξανθικοῦ μηνός; 2 Macc 11:30; Joseph., index. The correct form is Ξανδικός; s. OGI ind. V; Mayser 180) Xanthicus, a month in the Macedonian calendar. The date for the martyrdom of Polycarp μηνὸς Ξανθικοῦ δευτέρᾳ ἱσταμένου MPol 21 is equivalent to Feb. 22 or 23.—Lghtf., Apost. Fathers II2/1, 1889, 677ff; ESchwartz, Jüd. u. christl. Ostertafeln: AGG VIII 6, 1905, 125ff.—EBickerman, Chronology of the Ancient World 2 ’80, lists p. 20 and 48.

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  • 212 πλάσις

    πλάσις, εως, ἡ (πλάσσω; Theophr. et al.; pap; ApcEsdr 2:23 p. 26, 16 Tdf. τὴν σὴν πλάσιν; Ath. 25:4 τῇ κατὰ τὴν πλάσιν διαθέσει) the forming of someth. by shaping a soft substance, formation, molding, creation (w. gen. Polyb. 6, 53, 5; Plut., Cic. 862 [4, 4]; PSI 712, 5 πλάσις ὀπτῆς πλίνθου) ἡ πλ. τοῦ Ἀδάμ B 6:9. τὴν πλ. τὴν τῶν ἀνθρώπων AcPlCor 1:13. δευτέρα πλ. of the spiritual new creation through Christ B 6:13 (cp. Diod S 1, 16, 1).—DELG s.v. πλάσσω.

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  • 213 πρῶτος

    πρῶτος, η, ον (Hom.+; loanw. in rabb.).
    pert. to being first in a sequence, inclusive of time, set (number), or space, first of several, but also when only two persons or things are involved (=πρότερος; exx. in Hdb. on J 1:15; Rdm.2 71f; Thackeray 183; s. also Mlt. 79; 245; B-D-F §62; Rob. 516; 662; and s. Mt 21:31 v.l.).
    of time first, earliest, earlier
    α. as adj. ἀπὸ τῆς πρώτης ἡμέρας ἄχρι τοῦ νῦν Phil 1:5; cp. Ac 20:18 (on the absence of the art. [also Phil 1:5 v.l.] s. B-D-F §256; Rob. 793). ἡ πρώτη ἀπολογία 2 Ti 4:16 (MMeinertz, Worauf bezieht sich die πρώτη ἀπολογία 2 Ti 4:16?: Biblica 4, 1923, 390–94). ἡ πρ. διαθήκη Hb 9:15. τὰ πρῶτα ἔργα Rv 2:5. ἡ ἀνάστασις ἡ πρώτη 20:5f. ἡ πρώτη ὅρασις Hv 3, 10, 3; 3, 11, 2; 4. ἡ ἐκκλησία ἡ πρ. 2 Cl 14:1.—Subst. τὰ πρ. … τὰ ἔσχατα (Job 8:7): γίνεται τὰ ἔσχατα χείρονα τῶν πρώτων Mt 12:45; cp. Lk 11:26; 2 Pt 2:20; Hv 1, 4, 2. οἱ πρῶτοι (those who came earlier, as Artem. 2, 9 p. 93, 19 those who appeared earlier) Mt 20:10; cp. vs. 8. ἀπέστειλεν ἄλλους δούλους πλείονας τῶν πρώτων 21:36. Cp. 27:64. πρῶτος ἐξ ἀναστάσεως νεκρῶν the first to rise from the dead Ac 26:23. ὁ πρῶτος the first one J 5:4; 1 Cor 14:30. On the self-designation of the Risen Lord ὁ πρ. καὶ ὁ ἔσχατος Rv 1:17; 2:8; 22:13; s. ἔσχατος 2b (πρ. of God: Is 44:6; 48:12).—As a predicate adj., where an adv. can be used in English (ParJer 1:8 εἰ μὴ ἐγὼ πρῶτος ἀνοίξω τὰς πύλας; B-D-F §243; Rob. 657), as the first one = first ἦλθεν πρῶτος he was the first one to come = he came first J 20:4; cp. vs. 8. πρῶτος Μωϋσῆς λέγει Ro 10:19. Ἀβραὰμ πρῶτος περιτομὴν δούς Abraham was the first to practice circumcision B 9:7. οἱ ἄγγελοι οἱ πρῶτοι κτισθέντες the angels who were created first Hv 3, 4, 1; Hs 5, 5, 3.—1 Ti 2:13; 1J 4:19; AcPlCor 2:9.—ἐν ἐμοὶ πρώτῳ in me as the first 1 Ti 1:16.—Used w. a gen. of comparison (Ocelus Luc. 3 ἐκεῖνο πρῶτον τοῦ παντός ἐστιν=prior to the All; Manetho 1, 329; Athen. 14, 28 p. 630c codd.) πρῶτός μου ἦν he was earlier than I = before me J 1:15, 30 (PGM 13, 543 σοῦ πρῶτός εἰμι.—Also Ep. 12 of Apollonius of Tyana: Philostrat. I p. 348, 30 τὸ τῇ τάξει δεύτερον οὐδέποτε τῇ φύσει πρῶτον). So perh. also ἐμὲ πρῶτον ὑμῶν μεμίσηκεν 15:18 (s. β below) and πάντων πρώτη ἐκτίσθη Hv 2, 4, 1.—As a rule the later element is of the same general nature as the one that precedes it. But it can also be someth. quite different, even its exact opposite: τὴν πρώτην πίστιν ἠθέτησαν 1 Ti 5:12. τὴν ἀγάπην σου τὴν πρώτην ἀφῆκες Rv 2:4.—Used elliptically ἡ πρώτη (i.e. ἡμέρα sim. Polyb. 5, 19, 1; 18, 27, 2 τῇ πρώτῃ) τῶν ἀζύμων Mt 26:17. πρώτῃ σαββάτου on the first day of the week Mk 16:9. In some of the passages mentioned above the idea of sequence could be predom.
    β. the neuter πρῶτον as adv., of time first, in the first place, before, earlier, to begin with (Peripl. Eryth. 4; Chariton 8, 2, 4; ApcEsdr 3:11; Just., D. 2, 4) πρῶτον πάντων first of all Hv 5:5a. ἐπίτρεψόν μοι πρῶτον ἀπελθεῖν καὶ θάψαι let me first go and bury Mt 8:21. συλλέξατε πρῶτον τὰ ζιζάνια gather the weeds first 13:30. Cp. 17:10, 11 v.l.; Mk 7:27; 9:11f; 13:10; Lk 9:59, 61; 12:1 ( first Jesus speaks to his disciples, and only then [vs. 15] to the people. If one prefers to take πρ. w. what follows, as is poss., it has mng. 2a); 14:28, 31; J 7:51; 18:13; Ac 26:20; Ro 15:24 al. in NT; B 15:7; Hv 3, 1, 8; 3, 6, 7; 3, 8, 11; 5:5b. τότε πρῶτον then for the first time Ac 11:26 D. πρῶτον … καὶ τότε first … and then (Sir 11:7; Jos., Ant. 13, 187) Mt 5:24; 7:5; 12:29; Mk 3:27; Lk 6:42; IEph 7:2. τότε is correlative w. πρῶτον without καί J 2:10 v.l. Likew. πρῶτον … εἶτα (εἶτεν) first … then (Just., D. 33, 2 al.; s. εἶτα 1) Mk 4:28; 1 Ti 3:10; B 6:17. πρῶτον … ἔπειτα (ἔπειτα 2) 1 Cor 15:46; 1 Th 4:16. πρῶτον … μετὰ ταῦτα Mk 16:9, s. vs. 12. πρῶτον … εἶτα … μετὰ ταῦτα 1 Cl 23:4; 2 Cl 11:3 (in both cases the same prophetic saying of unknown origin). πρῶτον … ἐν τῷ δευτέρῳ Ac 7:12.—Pleonastically πρῶτον πρὸ τοῦ ἀρίστου Lk 11:38.—W. gen. (Chariton 5, 4, 9 cod. πρῶτον τ. λόγων=before it comes to words) ἐμὲ πρῶτον ὑμῶν μεμίσηκεν it hated me before ( it hated) you J 15:18 (but s. 1aα).—W. the art. τὸ πρῶτον (Hom. et al.; Jos., Ant. 8, 402; 14, 205) the first time J 10:40; 19:39; at first (Diod S 1, 85, 2; Jos., Ant. 2, 340) 12:16; 2 Cl 9:5. τὰ πρῶτα (Hom. et al.; Appian, Syr. 15 §64; Ps.-Phoc. 8) the first time, at first MPol 8:2.
    of number or sequence (the area within which this sense is valid cannot be marked off w. certainty from the area 1aα)
    α. as adj. Mt 21:28; 22:25; Mk 12:20; Lk 14:18; 16:5; 19:16; 20:29; J 19:32; Ac 12:10; 13:33 v.l.; Rv 4:7; 8:7; 21:19; Hs 9, 1, 5. τὸ πρῶτον … τὸ δεύτερον (Alex. Aphr., An. p. 28, 9 Br.) Hb 10:9. On πρώτης τῆς μερίδος Μακεδονίας πόλις Ac 16:12 s. μερίς 1 and RAscough, NTS 44, ’98, 93–103.—Since πρῶτος can stand for πρότερος (s. 1 at beg.; also Mlt-Turner 32), it by no means follows from τὸν μὲν πρῶτον λόγον Ac 1:1 that the writer of Luke and of Ac must have planned to write a third book (Zahn, NKZ 28, 1917, 373ff, Comm. 1919, 16ff holds that he planned to write a third volume; against this view s. EGoodspeed, Introd. to the NT ’37, 189; Haenchen, et al.—Athenaeus 15, 701c mentions the first of Clearchus’ two books on proverbs with the words ἐν τῷ προτέρῳ περὶ παροιμιῶν, but 10, 457c with ἐν τῷ πρώτῳ περὶ παροιμιῶν. Diod S 1, 42, 1 the first half of a two-part work is called ἡ πρώτη βίβλος and 3, 1, 1 mentions a division into πρώτη and δευτέρα βίβ. In 13, 103, 3 the designation for the first of two works varies between ἡ πρώτη σύνταξις and ἡ προτέρα ς. See Haenchen on Ac 1:1).—πρῶτος is also used without any thought that the series must continue: τὸν πρῶτον ἰχθύν the very first fish Mt 17:27. αὕτη ἀπογραφὴ πρώτη ἐγένετο Lk 2:2, likewise, does not look forward in the direction of additional censuses, but back to a time when there were none at all (Ael. Aristid. 13 p. 227 D. παράκλησις αὕτη [=challenge to a sea-fight] πρώτη ἐγένετο; for interpolation theory s. JWinandy, RB 104, ’97, 372–77; cp. BPearson, CBQ, ’99, 262--82).—τὰ τείχη τὰ πρῶτα Hs 8, 6, 6 does not contrast the ‘first walls’ w. other walls; rather it distinguishes the only walls in the picture (Hs 8, 7, 3; 8, 8, 3) as one edifice, from the tower as the other edifice.
    β. adv., the neuter πρῶτον of sequence in enumerations (not always clearly distinguished fr. sense 1aβ) first πρῶτον ἀποστόλους, δεύτερον προφήτας, τρίτον … 1 Cor 12:28 (Mitt-Wilck. I/2, 20 II, 10ff [II A.D.] τὸ πρ. … τὸ δεύτερον … τὸ τρίτον. Without the art. 480, 12ff [II A.D.]; Diod S 36, 7, 3; Tat. 40, 1). See Hb 7:2; Js 3:17.—Not infrequently Paul begins w. πρῶτον μέν without continuing the series, at least in form (B-D-F §447, 4; Rob. 1152. For πρ. without continuation s. Plat., Ep. 7, 337b, Plut., Mor. 87b; Jos., Ant. 1, 182; Ath. 27, 1 πρῶτα μέν) Ro 1:8; 3:2; 1 Cor 11:18. S. also 2 Cl 3:1.
    of space outer, anterior σκηνὴ ἡ πρώτη the outer tent, i.e. the holy place Hb 9:2; cp. vss. 6, 8.
    pert. to prominence, first, foremost, most important, most prominent
    adj.
    α. of things (Ocellus [II B.C.] 56 Harder [1926] πρώτη κ. μεγίστη φυλακή; Ael. Aristid. 23, 43 K.=42 p. 783 D.: πόλεις; Ezk 27:22; PsSol 17:43; χρυσίον τὸ πρῶτον τίμιον; JosAs 15:10) ἡ μεγάλη καὶ πρώτη ἐντολή Mt 22:38; cp. Mk 12:29. ἐντολὴ πρώτη πάντων vs. 28 (OLehmann, TU 73, ’59, 557–61 [rabb.]; CBurchard, ZNW 61, ’70, cites JosAs 15:10; 18:5). Without superl. force ἐντολὴ πρώτη ἐν ἐπαγγελίᾳ a commandment of great importance, with a promise attached Eph 6:2 (the usual transl. ‘first commandment w. a promise’ [NRSV, REB et al.] loses sight of the fact that Ex 20:4–6=Dt 5:8–10 has an implied promise of the same kind as the one in Ex 20:12=Dt 5:16. πρ. here is best taken in the same sense as in Mk 12:29 above). στολὴν τὴν πρώτην the special robe Lk 15:22 (JosAs 15:10).—ἐν πρώτοις among the first = most important things, i.e. as of first importance 1 Cor 15:3 (Pla., Pol. 522c ὸ̔ καὶ παντὶ ἐν πρώτοις ἀνάγκη μανθάνειν; Epict., Ench. 20; Mitt-Wilck I/2, 14 II, 9 ἐν πρώτοις ἐρωτῶ σε; Josh 9:2d).
    β. of persons (Dio Chrys. 19 [36], 35 πρ. καὶ μέγιστος θεός; TestAbr B 4 p. 108, 18 [Stone p. 64]; ApcSed 5:2; Jos., Ant. 15, 398; Just., A I, 60, 5 al. τὸν πρῶτον θεόν) ὸ̔ς ἂν θέλῃ ἐν ὑμῖν εἶναι πρῶτος whoever wishes to be the first among you Mt 20:27; Mk 10:44; cp. 9:35. πρῶτος Σίμων Mt 10:2 is not meant to indicate the position of Simon in the list, since no other numbers follow, but to single him out as the most prominent of the twelve. W. gen. ὧν (=τῶν ἁμαρτωλῶν) πρῶτός εἰμι 1 Ti 1:15. Pl. (οἱ) πρῶτοι in contrast to (οἱ) ἔσχατοι Mt 19:30; 20:16; Mk 9:35; 10:31; Lk 13:30; Ox 654, 25f (cp. GTh 4; sim. Sallust. 9 p. 16, 21f τοῖς ἐσχάτοις … τοῖς πρώτοις; s. ἔσχατος 2).—αἱ πρώται prominent women (in the phrase γυναικῶν τε τῶν πρώτων οὐκ ὀλίγαι) Ac 17:4 (s. New Docs 1, 72). οἱ πρῶτοι the most prominent men, the leading men w. gen. of place (Jos., Ant. 7, 230 τῆς χώρας) οἱ πρ. τῆς Γαλιλαίας Mk 6:21; cp. Ac 13:50 (in phrasing sim. to πολλὰς μὲν γυναῖκας εὐγενεῖς καὶ τῶν πρώτων ἀνδρῶν ἤισχυναν=‘they dishonored many well-born women as well as men of high station’ Theopomp.: 115 Fgm. 121 Jac. p. 563, 33f), or of a group (Strabo 13, 2, 3 οἱ πρ. τῶν φίλων; Jos., Ant. 20, 180) οἱ πρ. τοῦ λαοῦ (Jos., Ant. 11, 141) Lk 19:47; cp. Ac 25:2; 28:17. On ὁ πρῶτος τῆς νήσου vs. 7 (πρῶτος Μελιταίων IGR I, 512=IG XIV, 601; cp. CB I/2, 642 no. 535 ὁ πρῶτος ἐν τῇ πόλει; p. 660 no. 616; SEG XLI, 1345, 14f; cp. CIL X, 7495, 1; s. Hemer, Acts 153, n. 152; Warnecke, Romfahrt 119ff) s. Πόπλιος.
    adv. πρῶτον of degree in the first place, above all, especially (Jos., Ant. 10, 213) ζητεῖτε πρῶτον τὴν βασιλείαν Mt 6:33. Ἰουδαίῳ τε πρῶτον καὶ Ἕλληνι Ro 1:16; cp. 2:9f.—Ac 3:26; 2 Pt 1:20; 3:3. Of the Macedonian Christians ἑαυτοὺς ἔδωκαν πρῶτον τῷ κυρίῳ καὶ ἡμῖν they gave themselves first of all to the Lord, and (then) to us 2 Cor 8:5. παρακαλῶ πρῶτον πάντων first of all I urge 1 Ti 2:1.—B. 939. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > πρῶτος

  • 214 σάββατον

    σάββατον, ου, τό (שַׁבָּת) dat. pl. σάββασιν (Meleager : Anth. Pal. 5, 160; 1 Macc 2:38; Jos., Vi. 279, Ant. 16, 163; Just., D. 27, 5; 29, 3) always in NT except that a v.l. at Mt 12:1 and 12 acc. to codex B has σαββάτοις (so usu. LXX [Thackeray 35]; Jos., Bell. 1, 146, Ant. 3, 294. See W-S. §8, 12; B-D-F §52; Mlt-H. 128; MBlack, BRigaux Festschr. ’70, 60f.—The word is found Plut. et al.; pap, LXX; En 10:17; Philo, Joseph.)
    the seventh day of the week in Israel’s calendar, marked by rest fr. work and by special religious ceremonies, sabbath
    sing. (τὸ) σάββατον (Nepualius [I A.D.] ed. W Gemoll, Progr. Striegau 1884, 53; LXX; Philo, Cher. 87; Jos., Ant. 3, 143; 255; Just., D. 8, 4 al.) Mt 12:8; Mk 2:27f (Alex. Aphr., Eth. Probl. 10, II 2 p. 130, 34ff ὁ ἄνθρωπος τῶν ἀρετῶν χάριν, ἀλλʼ οὐκ ἔμπαλιν [=vice versa]); 6:2; 15:42 v.l.; 16:1; Lk 6:5; 23:54; J 5:9f; 9:14; B 15:1a, 3; GPt 2:5 al. ἁγιάζειν τὸ ς. B 15:1b (s. 2 Esdr 23:22). βεβηλοῦν τὸ ς. Mt 12:5b; λύειν τὸ ς. J 5:18 (s. λύω 4). τηρεῖν τὸ ς. 9:16 (cp. Just., D. 10, 3). σαββατίζειν τὸ ς. (cp. Lev 23:32) Ox 1, 9f (GTh 27) φυλάσσειν τὸ ς. (s. Ex 31:13f; Lev 19:3; Just., D. 8, 4) B 15:2, s. vs. 3. On the Sabbath (s. B-D-F §200, 3; Rob. 523): ἐν τῷ σαββάτῳ (2 Esdr 23:15a, 16) Lk 6:7; J 19:31a; ἐν σαββάτῳ (2 Esdr 20:32b) Mt 12:2; Lk 6:1; J 5:16; 7:22f; τῷ σαββάτῳ Lk 6:4 D (Unknown Sayings, 49–54); 6:9; 13:14a, 15; 14:3; τῷ σαββάτῳ ἐπερχομένης τῆς κυριακῆς AcPl Ha 3, 8. σαββάτῳ (Jos., Bell. 2, 456) Mt 24:20 (s. Boll 134, 1); Lk 14:1; J 6:59 v.l.; ἐν ἑτέρῳ ς. Lk 6:6; τῷ ἐρχομένῳ ς. Ac 13:44; ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τοῦ ς. (cp. Jer 17:21f) Lk 14:5 v.l.; ἐν ἡμέρᾳ τοῦ ς. (2 Esdr 20:32a; 23:15b; cp. Cyranides p. 79, 11 ἐν ἡμ. σαββάτου) Lk 14:5; τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τοῦ ς. Lk 13:14b, 16. In the acc. of duration of time (B-D-F §161, 2) τὸ σάββατον throughout the Sabbath Lk 23:56. κατὰ πᾶν ς. (on) every Sabbath Ac 13:27; 15:21; 18:4; εἰς τὸ μεταξὺ ς. on the following Sabbath 13:42. ἡ ἡμέρα πρὸ σαββάτου Lk 23:54 D.—σάββατον μέγα Great Sabbath MPol 8:1; 21:1; cp. J 19:31b (s. ESchwartz, Christl. u. jüd. Ostertafeln: AGG VIII/6, 1905, 127). ς. τὸ λεγόμενον πρῶτον the so-called first Sabbath PtK 2, p. 14, 28.—On σαββάτου ὁδός a Sabbath day’s journey Ac 1:12 s. ὁδός 2.
    pl.
    α. of more than one Sabbath (2 Ch 31:3; Ezk 46; 3; Jos., Ant. 13, 252; Just., D. 10, 3 al.) σάββατα τρία Ac 17:2. B 15:8a (Is 1:13), b.
    β. τὰ σάββατα for a single Sabbath day (PCairZen 762, 6 [III B.C.]; Plut., Mor. 169c; 671e τὴν τῶν σαββάτων ἑορτήν; 672a; Ex 20:10; Lev 23:32 al.; Philo, Abr. 28 τὴν ἑβδόμην, ἣν Ἑβραῖοι σάββατα καλοῦσιν; Jos., Ant. 1, 33; 3, 237; 12, 259; 276.—B-D-F §141, 3 ; Rob. 408; ESchwyzer, ZVS 62, ’35, 1–16; ASchlatter, Mt 1929, 393) ὀψὲ σαββάτων Mt 28:1a (s. ὀψέ 3). Also prob. Col 2:16. ἡ ἡμέρα τῶν σαββάτων (Ex 20:8; 35:3; Dt 5:12; Jer 17:21f; Jos., Ant. 12, 274; Just., 27, 5) Lk 4:16; Ac 13:14; 16:13; Dg 4:3. (ἐν) τοῖς σάββασιν on the Sabbath (Jos., Vi. 279 τοῖς σάββασιν, Ant. 13, 252 v.l. ἐν τοῖς σάββασιν) Mt 12:1, 5, 10–12; Mk 1:21; 2:23, 24; 3:2, 4; Lk 4:31; 6:2; 13:10. ἡ περὶ τὰ σάββατα δεισιδαιμονία fanatical veneration of the Sabbath Dg 4:1 (only extreme danger to human life can cause the Sabbath law to be suspended: Synes., Ep. 4 p. 162bc). τὰ σάββατα the Sabbath feasts B 2:5 (Is 1:13).—JMeinhold, Sabbat u. Woche im AT 1905, Sabbat u. Sonntag 1909; JHehn, Siebenzahl u. Sabbat bei den Babyloniern u. im AT 1907, Der israelit. Sabbat 1909, Zur Sabbatfrage: BZ 14, 1917, 198–213; EMahler, Der Sabbat: ZDMG 62, 1908, 33–79, Handbuch der jüd. Chronologie 1916; GBeer, Schabbath1908; WNowack, Schabbat 1924; MWolff, Het ordeel der helleensch-romeinsche schrijvers over … den Sabbath: TT 44, 1910, 162–72; ELohse, Jesu Worte über den Sabbat, Beih. ZNW 26, ’60, 79–89; Moore, Judaism s. ind.; Schürer II 424–27; 447–54; 467–75. S. also κυριακός, end.
    a period of seven days, week
    sing. δὶς τοῦ σαββάτου two days (in) a week Lk 18:12. πρώτῃ σαββάτου on the first day of the week (Sunday) Mk 16:9. κατὰ μίαν σαββάτου every Sunday 1 Cor 16:2. πρωὶ̈ μιᾶς σαββάτου early on Sunday morning Mk 16:2 D.
    pl. (ἡ) μία (τῶν) σαββάτων (i.e. ἡμέρα) the first day of the week Mt 28:1b (Just., D. 41, 4; s. Dalman, Gramm. 247; SKrauss, Talm. Archäologie II 1911, 428f; PGardner-Smith, JTS 27, 1926, 179–81); Mk 16:2; Lk 24:1; J 20:1, 19; Ac 20:7; 1 Cor 16:2 v.l. Judeans fast δευτέρᾳ σαββάτων καὶ πέμπτῃ on the second and fifth days of the week (Monday and Thursday) D 8:1 (s. νηστεύω and the lit. there).—ESchürer, Die siebentägige Woche im Gebr. der christl. Kirche der ersten Jahrhunderte: ZNW 6, 1905, 1–66; FColson, The Week 1926; FBoll, Hebdomas: Pauly-W. VII/2, 1912, 2547–48; RNorth, The Derivation of ‘Sabbath’, Biblica 36, ’55, 182–201; WRordorf, Sunday, tr. AGraham, ’68; BHHW III 1633–35; TRE III 608.—B. 1005. DELG s.v. σάββατα. M-M. EDNT. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > σάββατον

  • 215 σκηνή

    σκηνή, ῆς, ἡ (Trag., X., Pla.+; ins, pap, LXX, TestAbr A; TestJud 25:2; ApcMos, Philo, Joseph., Just.; Tat. 22, 2; Orig., C. Cels. 7, 6, 16)
    a place of shelter, freq. of temporary quarters in contrast to fixed abodes of solid construction, tent, hut
    gener. lodging, dwelling, of the tents of nomads (Gen 4:20; 12:8; TestAbr A 1 p. 77, 4 [Stone p. 2].—Dalman, Arbeit VI ’39) Hb 11:9. Of a soldier’s tent σκηνὴν πηγνύναι pitch a tent (πήγνυμι 2) GPt 8:33. Of Joseph in the desert ἔπηξεν τὴν σκηνὴν αὐτοῦ ἐκεῖ GJs 1:4. δίαιτα τῆς σκηνῆς (s. δίαιτα 2) 1 Cl 56:13 (Job 5:24). τρεῖς σκηναί three huts (of temporary structures made from brush) in the account of the Transfiguration (w. ποιεῖν as Jos., Ant. 3, 79= pitch tents) Mt 17:4; Mk 9:5 (RStein, JBL 95, ’76, 79–86); Lk 9:33 (s. σκηνοπηγία and lit. s.v. μεταμορφόω 1; esp. ELohmeyer, ZNW 21, 1922, 191ff; HRiesenfeld, Jésus transfiguré ’47, 146–205; HBaltensweiler, Die Verklärung Jesu ’59; WSchmithals, ZTK 69, ’72, 379–411).—Metaph. ἡ σκηνὴ Δαυὶδ ἡ πεπτωκυῖα David’s fallen dwelling of his ruined kingdom Ac 15:16 (Am 9:11). Here σκηνή may perh. mean king’s tent (Diod S 17, 36, 4. More precisely 5 ἡ τοῦ Δαρείου σκηνή; 17, 76, 6 ἡ βασιλικὴ σκηνή): David’s fallen royal tent.
    of a movable cultic tent
    α. Yahweh’s tabernacle ἡ σκηνὴ τοῦ μαρτυρίου the Tabernacle or Tent of Testimony (Ex 27:21; 29:4; Lev 1:1; Num 1:1 and oft.; ViHab 13 [p. 87, 4 Sch.]; Just., D. 36, 2 al.) Ac 7:44; 1 Cl 43:2, 5. Also simply ἡ σκηνή (LXX; Jos., Ant. 20, 228; Just., D. 127, 3; s. Iren. 1, 18, 2 [Harv. I 171, 15]) Hb 8:5; 9:21; 1 Cl 43:3. οἱ τῇ σκ. λατρεύοντες Hb 13:10 (s. θυσιαστήριον 1dγ and OHoltzmann, ZNW 10, 1909, 251–60). σκηνὴ ἡ πρώτη the outer tent, i.e. the Holy Place 9:2; cp. vss. 6, 8 (πρῶτος 1c; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 12 has ἡ πρώτη σκηνή of the tabernacle in contrast to Solomon’s temple). Hence σκηνὴ ἡ λεγομένη Ἅγια Ἁγίων the Tabernacle or Tent that is called the Holy of Holies vs. 3, ἡ δευτέρα (σκηνή) vs. 7.
    β. Moloch’s tabernacle ἡ σκηνὴ τοῦ Μολόχ of this deity’s portable sanctuary (cp. ἡ ἱερὰ σκηνή of the Carthaginians in Diod S 20, 65, 1) Ac 7:43 (Am 5:26), s. Μόλοχ.
    transcendent celestial tent, tent, dwelling metaph. ext. of 1. The earthly Tabernacle (s. RKittel, RE XIX 33–42 and GBarton, JBL 57, ’38, 197–201) corresponds in Hb to another σκηνή: Christ as High Priest, taking his own blood (rather than that of goats and calves), goes διὰ τῆς μείζονος καὶ τελειοτέρας σκηνῆς ἐφάπαξ εἰς τὰ ἅγια 9:11f. He is τῶν ἁγίων λειτουργὸς καὶ τῆς σκηνῆς τῆς ἀληθινῆς 8:2. Rv 15:5 speaks of a ναὸς τῆς σκηνῆς τοῦ μαρτυρίου ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ. God’s σκ.= dwelling is in heaven 13:6, and will some time be among humans 21:3. αἱ αἰώνιοι σκηναί the eternal dwellings of the life to come Lk 16:9 (TestAbr A 20 p. 104, 2 [Stone p. 56] αἱ σκηναὶ τῶν δικαίων; s. RPautrel, ‘Aeterna tabernacula’ [Lk 16:9]: RSR 30, ’40, 307–27; LEby, JBL 58, ’39, p. xi).—OScherling, De Vocis σκηνή Significatione et Usu, diss. Marburg 1908; HBornhäuser, Sukka ’35, 126–28: Σκηνή u. verwandte Worte im NT.—B. 461. DELG. OEANE V 179–81. M-M. EDNT. TW.

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  • 216 φυλακή

    φυλακή, ῆς, ἡ (φύλαξ, cp. φυλάσσω; Hom.+; ins, pap, LXX, En, TestSol, TestJos; JosAs 4:14; AscIs 2:13; EpArist, Philo, Joseph., Just., D. 131, 6 φ. ἀπὸ κρούους; Ath., R. 18 p. 70, 9 ἁπάντων φυλακήν τε καὶ πρόνοιαν; loanw. in rabb.) ‘watch, guard’.
    the act of guarding, guarding, in the expr. φυλάσσειν φυλακάς keep watch, do guard duty (X., An. 2, 6, 10; Pla., Leg. 6, 758d; Demosth. 7, 14; Plut., Mor. 198a; LXX.—B-D-F §153, 3) φυλ. φυλακὰς τῆς νυκτὸς ἐπὶ τὴν ποίμνην keep watch over the flock at night (s. φυλ. τῆς νυκτός 4 below) Lk 2:8.
    the act of guarding embodied in a pers., guard, sentinel (Hom. et al.; OGI 229, 96; 99; PGiss 19, 16; Jos., Bell. 6, 131) Ac 12:10 (the πρώτη and δευτέρα φ. as first and second sentinel, as Arrian, Anab. 3, 18, 6).
    the place where guarding is done, prison (in sg. and pl. Hdt., Thu. et al.; OGI 90, 13; 669, 17; pap, LXX; Jos., Vi. 178) οἶκος φυλακῆς B 14:7 (Is 42:7). Also simply φυλακή (TestJos 1:6) Mt 14:10; 25:36, 39, 43f; Mk 6:27; Lk 22:33; Ac 5:19, 22 (on prison escapes s. the lit. cited RPervo, Profit w. Delight ’87, 147 n. 15; s. also ἀνοίγω 1); 12:6, 17; 16:27, 39 D, 40; Hb 11:36. The pl. of several prisons (Appian, Bell. Civ. 4, 17 §65) Lk 21:12; Ac 22:4; 26:10; 2 Cor 6:5; 11:23; Hv 3, 2, 1. βάλλειν τινὰ εἰς φυλακήν (βάλλω 2; cp. JosAs 4:14 ἐνέβαλεν αὐτὸν εἰς τὴν φ.) throw someone into prison Mt 18:30 (s. PSchmidt, Die Gesch. Jesu II 1904, 326f); Lk 12:58; Ac 16:23f, 37; Rv 2:10. Pass. Mt 5:25; Lk 23:25; J 3:24; cp. Lk 23:19. παραδιδόναι εἰς φ. (Diod S 11, 40, 3 παρέδωκαν εἰς φ.; 12, 31, 2; 17, 32, 2; OGI 669, 15) Ac 8:3; cp. Lk 21:12. τίθεσθαι εἰς φ. (cp. PEleph 12, 2 [III B.C.]) Ac 12:4. ἐν (τῇ) φυλακῇ τίθεσθαι Mt 14:3 v.l.; Ac 5:25; ἀποτίθεσθαι Mt 14:3; δῆσαι Mk 6:17; κατακλείειν Lk 3:20; Ac 26:10. τηρεῖν pass. 12:5. Of the nether world or its place of punishment (πνεῦμα 2 and 4c) 1 Pt 3:19 (BReicke, The Disobedient Spirits and Christian Baptism ’46, 116f). It is in a φ. in the latter sense that Satan will be rendered harmless during the millennium Rv 20:7. The fallen city of Babylon becomes a φυλακή haunt for all kinds of unclean spirits and birds 18:2ab.
    one of the periods of time into which the night was divided, a watch of the night (Hdt. 9, 51 al.; Diod S 14, 24, 4 δευτέρα φ.; Arrian, Anab. 6, 25, 5 φυλακὴ τῆς νυκτός; PPetr II, 45 II, 18 [246 B.C.] πρώτης φυλακῆς ἀρχομένης; LXX; Joseph.). Our lit. reflects the Rom. custom of dividing the time betw. 6 P.M. and 6 A.M. into four equal periods or watches (assigned pers. were responsible for security during each period) Mt 14:25; Mk 6:48 (Diod S 19, 26, 1 περὶ δευτέραν φυλακήν; Jos., Ant. 18, 356 περὶ τετάρτην φυλακήν; for περί s. also the Freiburg pap 76, 7 [II B.C.]: UWilcken, Deissmann Festschr. 1927, 10ff ln. 9f περὶ πρώτην φυλακὴν τ. νυκτός). Cp. Mt 24:43; Lk 12:38 (here perh. we are to think of only three night-watches, as among the Hebrews and Greeks [s. Jülicher, Gleichn. 168]: thus Diod, S. 19, 38, 3; Polyaenus 4, 8, 4; Jos., Bell. 5, 510). (Mk 13:35 uses the popular designations ὀψέ 2, μεσονύκτιον, ἀλεκτοροφωνία, πρωί̈; s. these entries.)—B. 1451. DELG s.v. φύλαξ. M-M. TW.

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  • 217 χάρις

    χάρις, ιτος, ἡ (Hom.+) acc. quite predom. χάριν, but χάριτα Ac 24:27; 25:9 v.l.; Jd 4 and pl. χάριτας Ac 24:27 v.l.; 1 Cl 23:1 (Eur., Hel. 1378; Hdt. 6, 41; X., Hell. 3, 5, 16; ins, pap; Zech 4:7; 6:14; EpArist 272, pl. 230.—B-D-F §47, 3; W-S. §9, 7; Mayser 271f; Thackeray 150; Helbing 40f; Mlt-H. 132.—It seems that χάρις is not always clearly differentiated in mng. fr. χαρά; Apollodorus [II B.C.]: 244 Fgm. 90 Jac. says in the second book περὶ θεῶν: κληθῆναι δὲ αὐτὰς ἀπὸ μὲν τ. χαρᾶς Χάριτας• καὶ γὰρ πολλάκις … οἱ ποιηταὶ τ. χάριν χαρὰν καλοῦσιν ‘the [deities] Charites are so called from χαρά [joy], for poets freq. equate χάρις with χαρά’. Cp. the wordplay AcPl Ha 8, 7 χαρᾶς καὶ χάριτος the house was filled with gaiety and gratitude.).
    a winning quality or attractiveness that invites a favorable reaction, graciousness, attractiveness, charm, winsomeness (Hom.+; Jos., Ant. 2, 231) of human form and appearance παῖς λίαν εὐειδής ἐν χάριτι an exceptionally fine-looking and winsome youth AcPl Ha 3, 13. Of speech (Demosth. 51, 9; Ps.-Demetr. [I A.D.], Eloc. §127; 133; 135 al.; Eccl 10:12; Sir 21:16; Jos., Ant. 18, 208) οἱ λόγοι τῆς χάριτος (gen. of quality) the gracious words Lk 4:22. ὁ λόγος ὑμῶν πάντοτε ἐν χάριτι let your conversation always be winsome Col 4:6 (cp. Plut., Mor. 514f; s. also HAlmqvist, Plut. u. das NT ’46, 121f; Epict. 3, 22, 90). τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ χάριτος ἐπληροῦτο MPol 12:1 can also be placed here in case χάρις means nothing more than graciousness (s. 4 below); prob. also GJs 7:3 (s. 3b).
    a beneficent disposition toward someone, favor, grace, gracious care/help, goodwill (almost a t.t. in the reciprocity-oriented world dominated by Hellenic influence [cp. e.g. OGI 669, 29] as well as by the Semitic sense of social obligation expressed in the term חֶסֶד [NGlueck, Das Wort ḥesed in alttestamentlichen Sprachgebrauche etc. 1927]. Of a different order and spirit is the subset of reciprocity known as Roman patronage, in which superiority of the donor over the client is clearly maintained)
    act., that which one grants to another, the action of one who volunteers to do someth. not otherwise obligatory χάρις θεοῦ ἦν ἐπʼ αὐτό Lk 2:40. ἡ χάρις τοῦ θεοῦ (cp. τῇ τοῦ θεοῦ Κλαυδίου χάριτι OGI 669, 29) Ac 11:2 D; 14:26. τοῦ κυρίου 15:40.—Esp. of the beneficent intention of God (cp. χ. in reference to God: Apollon. Rhod. 3, 1005 σοὶ θεόθεν χάρις ἔσσεται; Dio Chrys. 80 [30], 40 χ. τῶν θεῶν; Ael. Aristid. 13 p. 320 D.; 53 p. 620; Sextus 436b; likew. in LXX, Philo, Joseph.; SibOr 4, 46=189; 5, 330; Ezk. Trag. 162 [Eus., PE 9, 29, 12].—χ. to denote beneficent dispensations of the emperor: OGI 669, 44 [I A.D.]; BGU 19 I, 21 [II A.D.] χάρ. τοῦ θεοῦ Αὐτοκράτορος; 1085 II, 4) and of Christ, who give (undeserved) gifts to people; God: δικαιούμενοι δωρεὰν τῇ αὐτοῦ χάριτι Ro 3:24. Cp. 5:15a, 20f; 6:1; 11:5 (ἐκλογή 1), 6abc; Gal 1:15 (διά A 3e); Eph 1:6f (KKuhn, NTS 7, ’61, 337 [reff. to Qumran lit.]); 2:5, 7, 8; cp. Pol 1:3; 2 Th 1:12; 2:16; 2 Ti 1:9; Tit 2:11 (ἡ χάρ. τοῦ θεοῦ σωτήριος; s. Dibelius, Hdb. exc. after Tit 2:14); 3:7; Hb 2:9 (χωρίς 2aα); 4:16a (DdeSilva, JBL 115, ’96, 100–103); 1 Cl 50:3; ISm 9:2; IPol 7:3. ἐν χάρ[ιτι θεοῦ] AcPl Ha 7, 23 (restoration uncertain). κατὰ χάριν as a favor, out of goodwill (cp. Pla., Leg. 740c; schol. on Soph., Oed. Col. 1751 p. 468 Papag.) Ro 4:4 (opp. κατὰ ὀφείλημα), 16.—The beneficence or favor of Christ: διὰ τῆς χάριτος τοῦ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ πιστεύομεν σωθῆναι Ac 15:11. Cp. Ro 5:15b; 2 Cor 8:9; 1 Ti 1:14; IPhld 8:1. On Ac 2:47 in this sense s. TAnderson, NTS 34, ’88, 604–10.
    pass., that which one experiences fr. another (Arrian, Anab. Alex. 3, 26, 4) χάριν ἔχειν have favor 3J 4 v.l. πρός τινα with someone=win his respect Ac 2:47 (cp. 2a end; cp. Pind., O. 7, 89f χάριν καὶ ποτʼ ἀστῶν καὶ ποτὶ ξείνων grant him respect in the presence of his townfolk as well as strangers); παρά τινι (Appian, Bell. Civ. 2, 89 §376) Hm 10, 3, 1, cp. 5, 1, 5. εὑρεῖν χάριν παρά τινι (Philo, Leg. All. 3, 77, end) Lk 1:30; Hs 5, 2, 10; ἐνώπιόν τινος Ac 7:46; GJs 11:2 (JosAs 15:14). ἐν τοῖς μέλλουσι μετανοεῖν among those who are about to repent Hm 12, 3, 3. Ἰησοῦς προέκοπτεν χάριτι παρὰ θεῷ καὶ ἀνθρώποις Lk 2:52 (an indication of exceptional ἀρετή, cp. Pind. above). Cp. Ac 4:33; 7:10 (ἐναντίον Φαραώ); Hb 4:16b.—ποία ὑμῖν χάρις ἐστίν; what credit is that to you? Lk 6:32–34; s. D 1:3; 2 Cl 13:4. Cp. 1 Cor 9:16 v.l. In these passages the mng. comes close to reward (s. Wetter [5 below] 209ff w. reff.).—Also by metonymy that which brings someone (God’s) favor or wins a favorable response fr. God 1 Pt 2:19, 20.
    In Christian epistolary lit. fr. the time of Paul χάρις is found w. the sense (divine) favor in fixed formulas at the beginning and end of letters (Zahn on Gal 1:3; vDobschütz on 1 Th 1:1; ELohmeyer, ZNW 26, 1927, 158ff; APujol, De Salutat. Apost. ‘Gratia vobis et pax’: Verb. Dom. 12, ’32, 38–40; 76–82; WFoerster, TW II ’34, 409ff; Goodsp., Probs. 141f. S. also the lit. s.v. χαίρω 2b). At the beginning of a letter χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη (sc. εἴη; New Docs 8, 127f) Ro 1:7; 1 Cor 1:3; 2 Cor 1:2; Gal 1:3; Eph 1:2; Phil 1:2; Col 1:2; 1 Th 1:1; 2 Th 1:2; Phlm 3; Rv 1:4; without ὑμῖν Tit 1:4. χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη πληθυνθείη 1 Pt 1:2; 2 Pt 1:2; 1 Cl ins. χάρις, ἔλεος, εἰρήνη 1 Ti 1:2; 2 Ti 1:2; 2J 3 (on the triplet cp. En 5:7 φῶς καὶ χάρις καὶ εἰρήνη).—At the end ἡ χάρις (τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ etc.) μεθʼ ὑμῶν (or μετὰ πάντων ὑμῶν etc.) Ro 16:20, 23 (24) v.l.; 1 Cor 16:23; 2 Cor 13:13; Gal 6:18; Eph 6:24; Phil 4:23; Col 4:18; 1 Th 5:28; 2 Th 3:18; 1 Ti 6:21; 2 Ti 4:22; Tit 3:15; Phlm 25; Hb 13:25; Rv 22:21; 1 Cl 65:2. ἔσται ἡ χάρις μετὰ πάντων τῶν φοβουμένων τὸν Κύριον GJs 25:2. ὁ κύριος τῆς δόξης καὶ πάσης χάριτος μετὰ τοῦ πνεύματος ὑμῶν B 21:9. χάρις ὑμῖν, ἔλεος, εἰρήνη, ὑπομονὴ διὰ παντός ISm 12:2. ἔρρωσθε ἐν χάριτι θεοῦ 13:2.
    practical application of goodwill, (a sign of) favor, gracious deed/gift, benefaction
    on the part of humans (X., Symp. 8, 36, Ages. 4, 3; Appian, Bell. Civ. 1, 49 §213; Dionys. Hal. 2, 15, 4) χάριν (-ιτα) καταθέσθαι τινί (κατατίθημι 2) Ac 24:27; 25:9. αἰτεῖσθαι χάριν 25:3 (in these passages from Ac χ. suggests [political] favor, someth. one does for another within a reciprocity system. Cp. Appian, Bell. Civ. 1, 108 §506 ἐς χάριν Σύλλα=as a favor to Sulla; ApcSed 8:1 οὐκ ἐποίησάς μοι χάριν=you did me no favor). ἵνα δευτέραν χάριν σχῆτε that you might have a second proof of my goodwill 2 Cor 1:15 (unless χάρις here means delight [so in poetry, Pind. et al., but also Pla., Isocr.; L-S-J-M s.v. χάρις IV; cp. also the quot. fr. Apollodorus at the beg. of the present entry, and the fact that χαρά is v.l. in 2 Cor 1:15]; in that case δευτέρα means double; but s. comm.). Of the collection for Jerusalem (cp. Appian, Bell. Civ. 3, 42 §173 χάριτας λαμβάνειν=receive gifts) 1 Cor 16:3; 2 Cor 8:4, 6f, 19 (DdeSilva, JBL 115, ’96, 101). Cp. B 21:7.—Eph 4:29 may suggest a demonstration of human favor (cp. Plut., Mor. 514e χάριν παρασκευάζοντες ἀλλήλοις), but a ref. to the means by which divine grace is mediated is not to be ruled out (s. b below).
    on the part of God and Christ; the context will show whether the emphasis is upon the possession of divine favor as a source of blessings for the believer, or upon a store of favor that is dispensed, or a favored status (i.e. standing in God’s favor) that is brought about, or a gracious deed wrought by God in Christ, or a gracious work that grows fr. more to more (so in contrast to the old covenant Mel., P. 3, 16 al.). God is called ὁ θεὸς πάσης χάριτος 1 Pt 5:10, i.e. God, who is noted for any conceivable benefit or favor; cp. B 21:9.—χάριν διδόναι τινί show favor to someone (Anacr. 110 Diehl; Appian, Ital. 5 §10): τὸν δόντα αὐτῷ τὴν χάριν GJs 14:2. ταπεινοῖς δίδωσι χάριν (Pr 3:34) Js 4:6b; 1 Pt 5:5; 1 Cl 30:2; without a dat. Js 4:6a (Menand., Epitr. 231 S. [55 Kö.]). Perh. καὶ ἔβαλλε κύριος … χάριν ἐπʼ αὐτήν GJs 7:3 (but s. 1 above). The Logos is πλήρης χάριτος J 1:14. Those who belong to him receive of the fullness of his grace, χάριν ἀντὶ χάριτος vs. 16 (ἀντί 2). Cp. vs. 17. τὴν χάριν ταύτην ἐν ᾗ ἑστήκαμεν this favor (of God) we now enjoy Ro 5:2 (Goodsp.).—5:17; 1 Cor 1:4; 2 Cor 4:15 (divine beneficence in conversion); cp. Ac 11:23; 6:1; Gal 1:6 (by Christ’s gracious deed); 2:21; 5:4; Col 1:6; 2 Ti 2:1; Hb 12:15; 13:9; 1 Pt 1:10, 13; 3:7 (συνκληρονόμοι χάριτος ζωῆς fellow-heirs of the gift that spells life; s. ζωή 2bα); 5:12; 2 Pt 3:18; Jd 4; IPhld 11:1; ISm 6:2. Christians stand ὑπὸ χάριν under God’s gracious will as expressed in their release from legal constraint Ro 6:14f, or they come ὑπὸ τὸν ζυγὸν τῆς χάριτος αὐτοῦ 1 Cl 16:17 (ζυγός 1). The proclamation of salvation is the message of divine beneficence τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τῆς χάριτος τοῦ θεοῦ Ac 20:24 or ὁ λόγος τῆς χάριτος αὐτοῦ (=τοῦ κυρίου) 14:3; 20:32. Even the gospel message can be called ἡ χάρις τοῦ θεοῦ 13:43; cp. 18:27; MPol 2:3. τὸ πνεῦμα τῆς χάριτος the Spirit from or through whom (God’s) favor is shown Hb 10:29 (AArgyle, Grace and the Covenant: ET 60, ’48/49, 26f).—Pl. benefits, favors (Diod S 3, 2, 4; 3, 73, 6; Sb 8139, 4 [ins of I B.C.] of Isis; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 190) 1 Cl 23:1.—Nelson Glueck, Das Wort ḥesed etc. 1927, but s. FAndersen, ‘Yahweh, the Kind and Sensitive God’: God Who is Rich in Mercy, ed. PO’Brien/DPeterson ’86.
    exceptional effect produced by generosity, favor. Of effects produced by divine beneficence which go beyond those associated with a specific Christian’s status (ins μεγάλαι χάριτες τοῦ θεου: FCumont, Syria 7, 1926, 347ff), in the congregations of Macedonia 2 Cor 8:1 and Corinth 9:14; cp. vs. 8; in Rome AcPl Ha 7, 8. The Christian confessor is in full possession of divine grace ISm 11:1. Paul knows that through the χάρις of God he has been called to be an apostle, and that he has been fitted out w. the powers and capabilities requisite for this office fr. the same source: Ro 1:5; 12:3; 15:15; 1 Cor 3:10; 15:10ab (for the subject matter cp. Polyb. 12, 12b, 3 αὐτὸν [Alex. the Great] ὑπὸ τοῦ δαιμονίου τετευχέναι τούτων ὧν ἔτυχεν=whatever he has received he has received from what is divine. [For this reason he does not deserve any divine honors.]); 2 Cor 12:9; Gal 2:9; Eph 3:2, 7f; Phil 1:7.—The χάρις of God manifests itself in various χαρίσματα: Ro 12:6; Eph 4:7; 1 Pt 4:10. This brings into view a number of passages in which χάρις is evidently to be understood in a very concrete sense. It is hardly to be differentiated fr. δύναμις (θεοῦ) or fr. γνῶσις or δόξα (q.v. 1b. On this subj. s. Wetter [5 below] p. 94ff; esp. 130ff; pap in the GLumbroso Festschr. 1925, 212ff: χάρις, δύναμις, πνεῦμα w. essentially the same mng.; PGM 4, 2438; 3165; Herm. Wr. 1, 32; Just., D. 87, 5 ἀπὸ χάριτος τῆς δυνάμεως τοῦ πνεύματος). οὐκ ἐν σοφίᾳ σαρκικῇ ἀλλʼ ἐν χάριτι θεοῦ 2 Cor 1:12. οὐκ ἐγὼ δὲ ἀλλὰ ἡ χάρις τοῦ θεοῦ σὺν ἐμοί 1 Cor 15:10c. αὐξάνετε ἐν χάριτι καὶ γνώσει τοῦ κυρίου 2 Pt 3:18; cp. 1 Cl 55:3; B 1:2 (τῆς δωρεᾶς πνευματικῆς χάρις). Stephen is said to be πλήρης χάριτος καὶ δυνάμεως Ac 6:8. Divine power fills the Christian confessor or martyr w. a radiant glow MPol 12:1 (but s. 1 above). As the typical quality of the age to come, contrasted w. the κόσμος D 10:6.
    response to generosity or beneficence, thanks, gratitude (a fundamental component in the Gr-Rom. reciprocity system; exx. fr. later times: Diod S 11, 71, 4 [χάριτες=proofs of gratitude]; Appian, Syr. 3, 12; 13. Cp. Wetter [below] p. 206f) χάριν ἔχειν τινί be grateful to someone (Eur., Hec. 767; X., An. 2, 5, 14; Pla., Phlb. 54d; Ath. 2, 1; PLips 104, 14 [I B.C.] χάριν σοι ἔχω) foll. by ὅτι (Epict. 3, 5, 10; Jos., C. Ap. 1, 270; 2, 49) Lk 17:9 (ERiggenbach, NKZ 34, 1923, 439–43); mostly of gratitude to God or Christ; χάρις in our lit. as a whole, in the sense gratitude, refers to appropriate respone to the Deity for benefits conferred (Hom., Pind., Thu. et al.; ins, pap, LXX; Jos., Ant. 7, 208) χάριν ἔχω τῷ θεῷ (POxy 113, 13 [II A.D.] χάριν ἔχω θεοῖς πᾶσιν.—Epict. 4, 7, 9) 2 Ti 1:3; foll. by ὅτι because 1 Ti 1:12 (Herm. Wr. 6, 4 κἀγὼ χάριν ἔχω τῷ θεῷ …, ὅτι; Jos., Ant. 4, 316); χάριν ἔχειν ἐπί τινι be grateful for someth. Phlm 7 v.l. (to humans). ἔχωμεν χάριν let us be thankful (to God) Hb 12:28 (the reason for it is given by the preceding ptc. παραλαμβάνοντες). Elliptically (B-D-F §128, 6; cp. Rob. 1201f) χάρις (ἔστω) τῷ θεῷ (X., Oec. 8, 16 πολλὴ χάρις τοῖς θεοῖς; Epict. 4, 4, 7 χάρις τῷ θεῳ; BGU 843, 6 [I/II A.D.] χάρις τοῖς θεοῖς al. in pap since III B.C..—Philo, Rer. Div. Her. 309) Ro 7:25; MPol 3:1. Foll. by ὅτι (X., An. 3, 3, 14 τοῖς θεοῖς χάρις ὅτι; PFay 124, 16 τοῖς θεοῖς ἐστιν χάρις ὅτι; Epict. 4, 5, 9) Ro 6:17. Foll. by ἐπί τινι for someth. (UPZ 108, 30 [99 B.C.]) 2 Cor 9:15. The reason for the thanks is given in the ptc. agreeing w. τῷ θεῷ 2:14; 8:16; 1 Cor 15:57 (cp. Jos., Ant. 6, 145; Philo, Somn. 2, 213). Thankfulness (Appian, Bell. Civ. 3, 15 §51 πρός τινα=toward someone) χάριτι in thankfulness 10:30. So prob. also ἐν τῇ χάριτι in a thankful spirit Col 3:16 (Dibelius, Hdb. ad loc.). πλησθῆναι χαρᾶς καὶ χάριτος AcPl Ha 8, 7. S. εὐχαριστέω, end. Also PSchubert, Form and Function of the Pauline Thanksgivings ’39.—OLoew, Χάρις, diss., Marburg 1908; GWetter, Charis 1913; AvHarnack, Sanftmut, Huld u. Demut in der alten Kirche: JKaftan Festschr. 1920, 113ff; NBonwetsch, Zur Geschichte des Begriffs Gnade in der alten Kirche: Harnack Festgabe 1921, 93–101; EBurton, Gal ICC 1921, 423f; WWhitley, The Doctrine of Grace ’32; JMoffatt, Grace in the NT ’31; RWinkler, D. Gnade im NT: ZST 10, ’33, 642–80; RHomann, D. Gnade in d. Syn. Ev.: ibid. 328–48; JWobbe, D. Charisgedanke b. Pls ’32; RBultmann, Theologie des NT ’48, 283–310 (Paul); HBoers, Ἀγάπη and Χάρις in Paul’s Thought: CBQ 59, ’97, 693–713; on 2 Cor 8: FDanker, Augsburg Comm. 2 Cor, 116–34; PRousselot, La Grâce d’après St. Jean et d’après St. Paul: SR 18, 1928, 87–108, Christent. u. Wissensch. 8, ’32, 402–30; JMontgomery, Hebrew Hesed and Gk. Charis: HTR 32, ’39, 97–102; Dodd 61f; TTorrance, The Doctrine of Grace in the Apost. Fathers, ’48; JRenié, Studia Anselmiana 27f, ’51, 340–50; CRSmith, The Bible Doctrine of Grace, ’56; EFlack, The Concept of Grace in Bibl. Thought: Bibl. Studies in Memory of HAlleman, ed. Myers, ’60, 137–54; DDoughty, NTS 19, ’73, 163–80.—B. 1166. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW. Spicq. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > χάρις

  • 218 χώρα

    χώρα, ας, ἡ (Hom.+) country, land.
    (dry) land in contrast to the sea, land (Isocr. 7, 1; Diod S 3, 40, 2; 20, 61, 4 [opp. θάλασσα]) Ac 27:27.
    a portion of land area, district, region, place
    gener. Mk 6:55; Lk 2:8; 15:14f; Ac 13:49. χώρα μακρά Lk 15:13; 19:12. ἡ χώρα ἐγγὺς τῆς ἐρήμου J 11:54. ἔξω τῆς χώρας out of that region Mk 5:10.
    The district is more definitely described ὁ κύριος τῆς χώρας ταύτης the lord of this country Hs 1:4a (TestJob 3:7). Sharper definiteness is brought about by a gen. of the ruler 1:4b; of the inhabitants αὐτῶν (Jos., Ant. 5, 318; Just., A I, 53, 9) Mt 2:12; GJs 21:4 (cp. TestJob 41:2 ἐαυτῶν) Ac 12:20; 1 Cl 12:2, mentioned by name (Josh 5:12; 1 Ch 20:1; Is 7:18; EpArist 107; Just., A I, 34, 2) τῶν Γαδαρηνῶν Mt 8:28; cp. Mk 5:1; Lk 8:26; Ac 10:39; of the provincial name (1 Macc 8:3) ἡ χώρα τῆς Ἰουδαίας Ac 26:20; cp. ἐν χώρᾳ Βηθλεέμ GJs 18:1 (AscIs 3:1, 5); also by a geograph. adj. (Just., D. 79, 2 τῇ Ἀιγυπτίᾳ χώρᾳ) ἡ Γαλατικὴ χώρα Ac 16:6; 18:23; cp. Lk 3:1; 1 Cl 25:3 and Mk 1:5 (here we have ἡ Ἰουδαία χώρα [Jos., Ant. 11, 4] by metonymy for the inhabitants).
    the open country in contrast to the city, country (Isocr. et al.; Diod S 18, 18, 9 πόλιν κ. χώραν; Appian, Iber. 10 §39; PTebt 416, 11; EpArist 108f; SibOr 3, 707) εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα ἐκ τῆς χώρας J 11:55. κατὰ χώρας καὶ πόλεις κηρύσσοντες 1 Cl 42:4 (cp. TestLevi 13:7). Those who were dispersed by the persecution at Jerusalem διεσπάρησαν κατὰ τὰς χώρας τῆς Ἰουδαίας κ. Σαμαρείας Ac 8:1. Cp. 11:2 D.
    land used for farming, field, cultivated land (X. et al.; Sir 43:3; TestAbr A 2 p. 78, 13 [Stone p. 4]; p. 79, 1 [St. p. 6]; Jos., Ant. 7, 191; prob. also Cat. Cod. Astr. IX/2 p. 135, 1) pl. Lk 21:21; J 4:35; Js 5:4. Sing. land, farm (Jos., Ant. 11, 249; 16, 250) Lk 12:16.—ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ B 7:8 refers to land which, though uncultivated, grows fruit-bearing bushes.
    a place or position in which an entity is located, place (Ps.-Tyrtaeus 9, 42 D.3 πάντες … εἴκουσʼ ἐκ χώρης=they all withdraw from the place [that the seasoned soldier claims for himself]; Just., A I, 13, 3 ἐν δευτέρᾳ χώρᾳ of Jesus Christ, ‘in second place’, i.e. after God the Father; idem, D. 127, 2 ἐν τῇ αὐτοῦ χώρᾳ of God, who remains stationary ‘in his place’, i.e. God need not ‘come down’ to see someth.; Ath., R. 20 p. 73, 18; s. χωρέω 2) ἐν χώρᾳ καὶ σκιᾷ θανάτου = ἐν χώρᾳ σκιᾶς θανάτου in the land of the shadow of death Mt 4:16 (Is 9:1).—For the history of the word s. KDieterich, RhM n.s. 59, 1904, 226ff.—B. 1302; 1304f.—DELG. M-M.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > χώρα

  • 219 ἀνέρχομαι

    ἀνέρχομαι pres. 2 sg. ἀνέρχεσαι (ApcSed 11:16 p. 134, 35 Ja.); fut. ἀνελεύσεται (Just., A I, 54, 7f); 2 aor. ἀνῆλθον; pf. ἀνελήλυθα (Just., Tat.) (s. ἔρχομαι; Hom.+) to move from a lower to a higher place, go up, come up (X., Hell. 2, 4, 39 εἰς τ. ἀκρόπολιν; 3 Km 13:12; Jos., Ant. 6, 314; Just., A I, 21, 3) εἰς τὸ ὄρος J 6:3 (on the journey to Jerusalem s. ἀναβαίνω 1aα) ἀ. εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα Gal 1:17f (of journey to the capital Epict. 1, 11, 32 νῦν ἐν Ῥώμῃ ἀνέρχῃ; PTebt 412, 3 ἄνελθε εἰς μητρόπολιν; 411, 5; Jos., Ant. 16, 91 εἰς τ. Ῥώμην). Of coming up out of a river ἀ. ἀπὸ ὕδατος GEb 18, 36.—M-M.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἀνέρχομαι

  • 220 ἐπί

    ἐπί prep. w. gen., dat., or acc.; s. the lit. on ἀνά, beg. (Hom.+). The basic idea is ‘upon’ (opp. ὑπό) Kühner-G. I 495; s. also Rob 600–605. (In the foll. classifications case use is presented seriatim; in earlier editions of this lexicon all sections, except 13, 17, and 18 [of time], were included under the general rubric ‘Place’.)
    marker of location or surface, answering the question ‘where?’ on, upon, near
    w. gen., marking a position on a surface ἐ. (τῆς) γῆς on (the) earth (cp. En 9:1; 98:1; ἐ. γῆς 25:6; PsSol 17:2) Mt 6:10, 19; 9:6; 23:9; Mk 6:47 al. (Ar. 12, 1; Just., A I, 54, 7 al.). ἐ. τῆς θαλάσσης on the sea (cp. Job 9:8; Dio Chrys. 10 [11], 129 βαδίζειν ἐ. τῆς θαλ.; Lucian, Philops. 13 βαδίζειν ἐφʼ ὕδατος, VH 2, 4; Artem. 3, 16 ἐ. τ. θαλάσσης περιπατεῖν; schol. on Nicander, Ther. 15 p. 5, 26ff relying on the testimony of Hesiod: Orion was given a gift [δωρεά] by the gods καὶ ἐ. κυμάτων πορεύεσθαι καὶ ἐ. τῆς γῆς) Mt 14:26; Mk 6:48f; J 6:19 (w. acc. P75; s. 4bβ below). ἐ. τῶν νεφελῶν on the clouds Mt 24:30; 26:64 (Da 7:13; cp. Philo, Praem. 8). ἐ. κλίνης 9:2; Lk 17:34. ἐ. τοῦ δώματος on the roof vs. 31; Mt 24:17; 10:27 foll. by pl. W. verbs: κάθημαι ἐ. τινος sit on someth. (Job 2:8; ἐ. τοῦ ἅρματος GrBar 6:2; cp. JosAs 27:1 ἐ. τοῦ ὀχήματος καθεζόμενος; Just., D. 90, 5 ἐ. λίθου καθεζόμενος) Mt 24:3; 27:19; Ac 8:28; Rv 6:16; 9:17 (the same prep. used in Rv w. κάθημαι and dat. s. bα below, and w. acc. cα). ἑστηκέναι ἐ. τινος stand on someth. Ac 21:40; Rv 10:5, 8 (Just., D. 86, 2 ἐστηρίχθαι). With parts of the body: ἐ. χειρῶν αἴρειν carry on (i.e. in/with) their hands Mt 4:6; Lk 4:11 (both Ps 90:12). ἐ. κεφαλῆς on the head (Hdt. 5, 12, 4) J 20:7; 1 Cor 11:10; Rv 12:1. ἐ. τοῦ μετώπου Rv 7:3; 9:4. ἐ. γυμνοῦ on the naked body Mk 14:51. Cp. use of ἐπί w. καθίζω and gen., and ἐπί w. κάθημαι and acc. Mt 19:28.—In a gener. and fig. sense Ac 21:23.
    w. dat., gener. suggesting contiguity on, in, above.
    α. answering the question ‘where?’ (Hom. et al.; ins, pap, LXX; Just., D. 105, 5 ἐ. τῷ σταυρῷ; Tat., 9:1 ἐ. τοῖς ὄρεσι; Ath. 20, 1 ἐ. τῷ μετώπῳ; Mel., P. 19, 131 ἐ. σάκκῳ καὶ σποδῷ) ἐ. πίνακι on a platter Mt 14:8, 11; Mk 6:25, 28. ἀνακλῖναι ἐ. τῷ χλωρῷ χόρτῳ on the green grass 6:39. ἐ. τοῖς κραβάττοις vs. 55. ἐπέκειτο ἐπʼ αὐτῷ lay on it (or before it) J 11:38. καθήμενος ἐ. τῷ θρόνῳ Rv 4:9 (cp. gen. w. καθ. 1a above, and acc. cα below) 5:13; 7:10 and oft. ἐφʼ ἵπποις λευκοῖς on white horses 19:14. ἐ. σανίσιν on planks Ac 27:44. ἐ. τῇ στοᾷ in the colonnade 3:11. τὰ ἐ. τοῖς οὐρανοῖς what is above (or in) the heavens Eph 1:10. ἐπʼ αὐτῷ above him, at his head Lk 23:38 (=Mt 27:37 ἐπάνω τ. κεφαλῆς αὐτοῦ).
    β. answering the question ‘whither?’ on, upon (Hom. et al.) w. verbs that indicate a direction: οἰκοδομεῖν ἐ. τινι build upon someth. Mt 16:18. ἐποικοδομεῖν Eph 2:20. ἐπιβάλλειν ἐπίβλημα ἐ. ἱματίῳ παλαιῷ put a patch on an old garment Mt 9:16. ἐπιπίπτειν ἐ. τινι Ac 8:16. ἐκάθισεν ἐ. τῷ θρόνῳ he sat down on the throne GJs 11:1. λίθον ἐπʼ αὐτῇ βαλέτω J 8:7 v.l. (cp. 12a below).
    w. acc., answering the question ‘where?’ (Hom. et al.; LXX; JosAs 29:2 φορῶν ἐ. τὸν μηρὸν αὐτοῦ ῥομφαίαν; Just., D. 53, 1 ζυγὸν ἐ. αὐχένα μὴ ἔχων)
    α. on, over someth. καθεύδειν ἐ. τι sleep on someth. Mk 4:38. καθῆσθαι ἐ. τι sit on someth. Mt 19:28 (in the same vs. καθίζω w. gen., s. a above) J 12:15; Rv 4:4; 6:2; 11:16 al.; cp. Lk 21:35b; κεῖσθαι ἐ. τι lie upon someth. 2 Cor 3:15. κατακεῖσθαι Lk 5:25. ἑστηκέναι ἐ. τὸν αἰγιαλόν stand on the shore Mt 13:2; cp. Rv 14:1. ἑστῶτας ἐ. τὴν θάλασσαν standing beside the sea 15:2. ἔστη ἐ. τὴν κεφαλὴν τοῦ παιδίου (the star) remained stationary over the head of the child GJs 21:3. σκηνοῦν ἐ. τινα spread a tent over someone Rv 7:15. ἐ. τὴν δεξιάν at the right hand 5:1. λίθος ἐ. λίθον stone upon stone Mt 24:2.
    β. ἐ. τὸ αὐτό at the same place, together (Ps.-X., Respublica Athen. [The Old Oligarch] 2, 2; Pla., Rep. 329a; SIG 736, 66 [92 B.C.]. In pap=‘in all’: PTebt 14, 20 [114 B.C.]; PFay 102, 6.—2 Km 2:13; En 100:2) εἶναι ἐ. τὸ αὐτό be together Lk 17:35; Ac 1:15; 2:1, 44. In 1 Cor 7:5 it is a euphemistic expr. for sexual union. κατοικεῖν ἐ. τὸ αὐτό live in the same place (Dt 25:5) Hm 5, 1, 4. Also w. verbs of motion (Sus 14 Theod.) συνέρχεσθαι ἐ. τὸ αὐτό come together to the same place 1 Cor 11:20; 14:23; cp. B 4:10 (Just., A I, 67, 3 συνέλευσις γίνεται). συνάγεσθαι (Phlegon of Tralles [Hadr.]: 257 Fgm. 36 III 9 Jac.; PsSol 2:2; TestJob 28:5 Jos., Bell. 2, 346) Mt 22:34; Ac 4:26 (Ps 2:2); 1 Cl 34:7. ἐ. τὸ αὐτὸ μίγνυσθαι be mixed together Hm 10, 3, 3. προσετίθει ἐ. τὸ αὐτό added to their number Ac 2:47.
    γ. at, by, near someone or someth. καθῆσθαι ἐ. τὸ τελώνιον sit at the tax-office Mt 9:9 (ἐ. τὰς ὡραίας πύλας GrBar prol. 2); Mk 2:14. ἑστηκέναι ἐ. τὴν θύραν stand at the door Rv 3:20. σὺ ἔστης ἐ. τὸ θυσιαστήριον you are standing (ἕστηκας deStrycker) as priest at the altar GJs 8:2. ἐφʼ ὑμᾶς among you 2 Th 1:10; cp. Ac 1:21.—Of pers., over whom someth. is done ὀνομάζειν τὸ ὄνομα Ἰησοῦ ἐ. τινα speak the name of Jesus over someone Ac 19:13. ἐπικαλεῖν τὸ ὄνομά τινος ἐ. τινα=to claim someone for one’s own (Jer 14:9; 2 Ch 7:14; 2 Macc 8:15) Ac 15:17 (Am 9:12); Js 2:7; Hs 8, 6, 4. προσεύχεσθαι ἐ. τινα pray over someone Js 5:14.
    marker of presence or occurrence near an object or area, at, near
    w. gen., of immediate proximity to things at, near (Hdt. 7, 115; X., An. 4, 3, 28 al.; LXX, Just.) ἐ. τ. θυρῶν at the gates (Plut., C. Gracch. 841 [14, 3]; PRyl 127, 8f [29 A.D.] κοιμωμένου μου ἐ. τῆς θύρας; 1 Macc 1:55; Just., D. 111, 4) Ac 5:23 (s. b below for dat. in 5:9). ἐ. τῆς θαλάσσης near the sea (Polyb. 1, 44, 4; Ex 14:2; Dt 1:40; 1 Macc 14:34) J 21:1. ἐ. τῆς ὁδοῦ by the road Mt 21:19. ἐσθίειν ἐ. τῆς πραπέζης τινός eat at someone’s table Lk 22:30 (cp. POxy 99, 14 [55 A.D.] τράπεζα, ἐφʼ ἧς Σαραπίων καὶ μέτοχοι; Da 11:27 LXX ἐ. μιᾶς τραπέζης). ἐ. τοῦ (τῆς) βάτου at the thornbush = in the passage about the thornbush (i.e. Ex 3:1ff) Mk 12:26; Lk 20:37.
    with dat., of immediate proximity at, near by (Hom.+) ἦν ἔτι ἐ. τῷ τόπῳ ὅπου was still at the place, where J 11:30 v.l. (for ἐν; cp. Just., D. 402). ἐ. τῇ θύρᾳ (ἐ. θύραις) at the door (Hom. et al.; Wsd 19:17; Jos., Ant. 17, 90; Just., D. 32, 3) Mt 24:33; Mk 13:29; Ac 5:9 (s. a above). ἐ. τοῖς πυλῶσιν Rv 21:12. ἐ. τῇ πηγῇ J 4:6 (Jos., Ant. 5, 58 ἐ. τινι πηγῇ; Just., A I, 64, 1 ἐ. ταῖς … πηγαῖς). ἐ. τῇ προβατικῇ (sc. πύλῃ) near the sheepgate 5:2; cp. Ac 3:10. ἐ. τῷ ποταμῷ near the river (since Il. 7, 133; Jos., Ant. 4, 176 ἐ. τ. Ἰορδάνῳ) Rv 9:14.—Of pers. (Diod S 14, 113, 6; Just., A I, 40, 7) ἐφʼ ὑμῖν among you 2 Cor 7:7; cp. Ac 28:14 v.l.
    marker of involvement in an official proceeding, before, w. gen., of pers., esp. in the language of lawsuits (Pla., Leg. 12, 943d; Isaeus 5, 1 al.; UPZ 71, 15; 16 [152 B.C.]; POxy 38, 11; Mitt-Wilck. I/2, 382, 23=BGU 909, 23; Jos., Vi. 258; Just., A II, 1, 1 ἐ. Οὐρβίκου). ἐ. τοῦ ἡγεμόνος in the governor’s presence Mt 28:14. ἐ. ἡγεμόνων καὶ βασιλέων Mk 13:9. ἐ. σου before you (the procurator) Ac 23:30. ἐ. Τερτούλλου Phlm subscr. v.l.; στάντος μου ἐ. τοῦ συνεδρίου Ac 24:20 (cp. Diod S 11, 55, 4 ἐ. τοῦ κοινοῦ συνεδρίου τ. Ἑλλήνων). γυναικὸς … διαβληθείσης ἐ. τοῦ κυρίου Papias (2:17). κρίνεσθαι ἐ. τῶν ἀδίκων go to law before the unrighteous 1 Cor 6:1. κριθήσεται ἐφʼ ὑμῶν before your tribunal D 11:11. μαρτυρεῖν ἐ. Ποντίου Πιλάτου testify before Pontius Pilate 1 Ti 6:13 (s. μαρτυρέω 1c). ἐ. τοῦ βήματος (POxy 37 I, 3 [49 A.D.]) ἑστὼς ἐ. τοῦ βήματος Καίσαρός εἰμι I am standing before Caesar’s tribunal Ac 25:10 (Appian says Prooem. c. 15 §62 of himself: δίκαις ἐν Ῥώμῃ συναγορεύσας ἐ. τῶν βασιλέων=I acted as attorney in lawsuits in Rome before the emperors).—Gener. in someone’s presence (Appian, Syr. 61 §324 ἐφʼ ὑμῶν=in your presence) ἐ. Τίτου before Titus 2 Cor 7:14. Cp.10 below.
    marker of movement to or contact w. a goal, toward, in direction of, on
    w. gen., marking contact with the goal that is reached, answering the question ‘whither?’ toward, on, at w. verbs of motion (Appian, Iber. 98 §427 ἀπέπλευσεν ἐπʼ οἴκου=he sailed [toward] home; PGM 4, 2468f ἀναβὰς ἐ. δώματος; JosAs 27:1 ἀνέδραμε … ἐ. πέτρας; Jos., Ant. 4, 91 ἔφευγον ἐ. τ. πόλεων; Tat. 33:3 Εὐρώπην ἐ. τοῦ ταύρου καθιδρύσαντος) βάλλειν τὸν σπόρον ἐ. τῆς γῆς Mk 4:26; also σπείρειν vs. 31. πίπτειν (Wsd 18:23; TestAbr A 3 p. 80, 11 [Stone p. 8]; JosAs 9:1) 9:20; 14:35. καθιέναι Ac 10:11. τιθέναι (Sir 17:4) Lk 8:16; J 19:19; Ac 5:15. ἔρχεσθαι Hb 6:7; Rv 3:10; γίνεσθαι ἐ. reach, be at J 6:21. γενόμενος ἐ. τοῦ τόπου when he reached the place Lk 22:40. καθίζειν take one’s seat ἐ. θρόνου (JosAs 7:1 al.) Mt 19:28 (s. 1a end); 23:2; 25:31; J 19:13 (ἐ. βήματος of Pilate as Jos., Bell. 2, 172; of Jesus Just., A I, 35, 6). κρεμαννύναι ἐ. ξύλου hang on a tree (i.e. cross) (Gen 40:19; cp. Just., D. 86, 6 σταυρωθῆναι ἐ. τοῦ ξύλου) Ac 5:30; 10:39; cp. Gal 3:13 (Dt 21:23).
    w. acc.
    α. specifying direction (En 24:2 ἐ. νότον ‘southward’ of position of the mountain) of motion that takes a particular direction, to, toward ἐκτείνας τ. χεῖρα ἐ. τοὺς μαθητάς Mt 12:49; cp. Lk 22:53 (JosAs 12:8). πορεύεσθαι ἐ. τὸ ἀπολωλός go after the one that is lost 15:4. ἐ. τὴν ῏Ασσον in the direction of Assos Ac 20:13. ἐπιστρέφειν ἐ. τι turn to someth. 2 Pt 2:22 (cp. Pr 26:11; En 99:5). ὡς ἐ. λῃστήν as if against a robber Mt 26:55; Mk 14:48; Lk 22:52.
    β. from one point to another across, over w. motion implied (Hom.+; LXX) περιπατεῖν, ἐλθεῖν ἐ. τ. θάλασσαν or ἐ. τ. ὕδατα Mt 14:25, 28f; J 6:19 P75. Of spreading across the land (PsSol 17:10): famine Ac 7:11; 11:28; darkness Mt 27:45; Lk 23:44. ἐ. σταδίους δώδεκα χιλιάδων across twelve thousand stades Rv 21:16 v.l. (Polyaenus 5, 44, 4 ἐ. στάδια δέκα); ἐ. πλεῖον further (1 Esdr 2:24; 2 Macc 10:27) Ac 4:17.
    γ. of goal attained (Hom. et al.; LXX) on, upon someone or someth. πέσατε ἐφʼ ἡμᾶς Lk 23:30 (Hos 10:8). ἔπεσεν ἐ. τὰ πετρώδη Mt 13:5; cp. Lk 13:4. ἔρχεσθαι ἐ. τινα come upon someone Mt 3:16; also καταβαίνειν fr. above J 1:33; cp. Rv 16:21. ἀναβαίνειν (Jos., Ant. 13, 138; Just., A II, 12, 7) Lk 5:19. ἐπιβαίνειν Mt 21:5 (Zech 9:9).—Ac 2:3; 9:4 al.; διασωθῆναι ἐ. τ. γῆν be brought safely to the land 27:44; cp. vs. 43; Lk 8:27. ἐ. τὸ πλοῖον to the ship Ac 20:13. ἀναπεσεῖν ἐ. τὴν γῆν lie down or sit down on the ground Mt 15:35. ἔρριψεν αὐτὸν χαμαὶ ἐ. τὸν σάκκον he threw himself down on the sackcloth GJs 13:1. τιθέναι τι ἐ. τι put someth. on someth. (JosAs 16:11) Mt 5:15; Lk 11:33; Mk 8:25 v.l.; likew. ἐπιτιθέναι (JosAs 29:5) Mt 23:4; Mk 8:25; Lk 15:5; J 9:6, 15; Ac 15:10. ἐπιβάλλειν τ. χεῖρας ἐ. τινα (Gen 22:12 al.) Mt 26:50; Lk 21:12; Ac 5:18. Mainly after verbs of placing, laying, putting, bringing, etc. on, to: ἀναβιβάζω, ἀναφέρω, βάλλω, γράφω, δίδωμι, ἐγγίζω, ἐπιβιβάζω, ἐπιγράφω, ἐποικοδομέω, ἐπιρ(ρ)ίπτω, θεμελιόω, ἵστημι, κατάγω, οἰκοδομέω, σωρεύω; s. these entries. Sim. βρέχειν ἐ. τινα cause rain to fall upon someone Mt 5:45 (cp. PsSol 17:18); also τ. ἥλιον ἀνατέλλειν ἐ. τινα cause the sun to rise so that its rays fall upon someone *ibid. τύπτειν τινὰ ἐ. τὴν σιαγόνα strike on the cheek Lk 6:29. πίπτειν ἐ. (τὸ) πρόσωπον (Jdth 14:6) on the face Mt 17:6; 26:39; Lk 5:12; 17:16; 1 Cor 14:25; Rv 7:11.To, upon w. acc. of thing πορεύεσθαι ἐ. τὴν ὁδόν go to the road Ac 8:26; cp. 9:11. ἐ. τὰς διεξόδους Mt 22:9. ἵνα μὴ πνέῃ ἄνεμος ἐ. πᾶν δένδρον so that no wind should blow upon any tree Rv 7:1.
    δ. of closeness to someth. or someone to, up to, in the neighborhood of, on ἐ. τὸ μνημεῖον up to the tomb Mk 16:2; Lk 24:1 v.l., 22, 24; cp. ἐ. τὸ μνῆμα Mk 16:2 v.l.; Lk 24:1. ἔρχεσθαι ἐ. τι ὕδωρ come to some water Ac 8:36. ἐ. τὴν πύλην τὴν σιδηρᾶν to the iron gate 12:10. καταβαίνειν ἐ. τὴν θάλασσαν go down to the sea J 6:16. ἐ. τὸν Ἰορδάνην Mt 3:13 (Just., D. 88, 3 al.). ἀναπίπτειν ἐ. τὸ στῆθος he leaned back on (Jesus’) breast J 13:25; 21:20. πίπτειν ἐ. τοὺς πόδας fall at (someone’s) feet Ac 10:25 (JosAs 14:10 ἔπεσεν ἐ πρόσωπον ἐ. τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ). ἐ. τ. ἀκάνθας among the thorns Mt 13:7.—W. acc. of pers. to someone ἐ. τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἐλθόντες they came to Jesus J 19:33; cp. Mt 27:27; Mk 5:21.
    ε. in imagery of goal or objective to, toward (Just., A II, 7, 6 ἐπʼ ἀμφότερα τρέπεσθαι) ἐπιστρέφειν, ἐπιστρέφεσθαι ἐ. τινα turn to (Dt 30:10; 31:20 al.; Ar. 2, 1 ἔλθωμεν καὶ ἐ. τὸ ἀνθρώπινον γένος ‘let us now turn to …’; Just., D. 56, 11 ἐ. τὰς γραφὰς ἐπανελθών) Lk 1:17; Ac 9:35; 11:21; 14:15; 26:20; Gal 4:9; 1 Pt 2:25.
    marker of manner, corresponding to an adv., w. dat. (Aeschyl., Suppl. 628 ἐπʼ ἀληθείᾳ; UPZ 162 VI, 3 [117 B.C.] κακοτρόπως καὶ ἐ. ῥαδιουργίᾳ; POxy 237 VI, 21 ἐ. τῇ τῶν ἀνθρ. σωτηρίᾳ; ἐφʼ ὁράσει En 14:8; Just., A I, 9, 3 ἐφʼ ὕβρει; 55, 7 ἐ. τούτῳ τῷ σχήματι ‘in this form’; Tat. 17, 1 ἐπʼ ἀκριβείᾳ; Ath. 33, 2 ἐφʼ ἑνὶ γάμῳ) ὁ σπείρων ἐπʼ εὐλογίαις (in contrast to ὁ σπείρων φειδομένως one who sows sparingly) one who sows in blessing (i.e. generously) 2 Cor 9:6. ἐπʼ εὐλογίαις θερίζειν reap generously ibid.
    marker of basis for a state of being, action, or result, on, w. dat. (Hom. et al.)
    ἐπʼ ἄρτῳ ζῆν live on bread Mt 4:4; Lk 4:4 (both Dt 8:3. cp. Ps.-Pla., Alcib. 1, 105c; Plut., Mor. 526d; Alciphron 3, 7, 5; SibOr 4, 154). ἐ. τῷ ῥήματί σου depending on your word Lk 5:5. οὐ συνῆκαν ἐ. τοῖς ἄρτοις they did not arrive at an understanding (of it) (by reflecting) on (the miracle of) the loaves Mk 6:52 (cp. Demosth. 18, 121 τί σαυτὸν οὐκ ἐλλεβορίζεις ἐ. τούτοις [sc. λόγοις];=why do you not come to an understanding concerning these words?). ἐ. τῇ πίστει on the basis of faith Ac 3:16; Phil 3:9. ἐπʼ ἐλπίδι on the basis of hope, supporting itself on hope Ac 2:26 (? s. ἐλπίς 1bα); Ro 4:18; 8:20; 1 Cor 9:10; Tit 1:2.—Ac 26:6 ἐπʼ ἐλπίδι gives the basis of the trial at law, as does ἐ. εὐεργεσίᾳ 4:9. ἀπολύειν τ. γυναῖκα ἐ. πορνείᾳ Mt 19:9 (cp. Dio Chrys. 26 [43], 10 ἀπολύειν ἐπʼ ἀργυρίῳ; Ath. 2, 3 κρίνεσθαι … μὴ ἐ. τῷ ὀνόματι, ἐ. δὲ τῷ ἀδικήματι). γυναικὸς ἐ. πόλλαις ἁμαρτίαις διαβληθείσης Papias (2:17). On the basis of the testimony of two witnesses (cp. Appian, Iber. 79 §343 ἤλεγχον ἐ. μάρτυσι) Hb 10:28 (Dt 17:6); sim. use of ἐ. τινί on the basis of someth.: 8:6; 9:10, 15 (here it may also be taken in the temporal sense; s. 18 below), 17. ἁμαρτάνειν ἐ. τῷ ὁμοιώματι τ. παραβάσεως Ἀδάμ Ro 5:14 (ὁμοίωμα 1). δαπανᾶν ἐ. τινι pay the expenses for someone Ac 21:24. ἀρκεῖσθαι ἐ. τινι be content w. someth. 3J 10.
    w. verbs of believing, hoping, trusting: πεποιθέναι (Wsd 3:9; Sus 35; 1 Macc 10:71; 2 Macc 7:40 and oft.) Lk 11:22; 18:9; 2 Cor 1:9; Hb 2:13 (2 Km 22:3). πιστεύειν Lk 24:25; Ro 9:33; 10:11; 1 Pt 2:6 (the last three Is 28:16). ἐλπίζειν (2 Macc 2:18; Sir 34:7) Ro 15:12 (Is 11:10); 1 Ti 4:10; 6:17; cp. 1J 3:3. παρρησιάζεσθαι Ac 14:3.
    after verbs which express feelings, opinions, etc.: at, because of, from, with (Hom. et al.) διαταράσσεσθαι Lk 1:29. ἐκθαυμάζειν Mk 12:17. ἐκπλήσσεσθαι Mt 7:28; Mk 1:22; Lk 4:32; Ac 13:12. ἐξίστασθαι (Jdth 11:16; Wsd 5:2 al.) Lk 2:47. ἐπαισχύνεσθαι (Is 1:29) Ro 6:21. εὐφραίνεσθαι (Sir 16:1; 18:32; 1 Macc 11:44) Rv 18:20. θαμβεῖσθαι Mk 10:24; cp. Lk 5:9; Ac 3:10. θαυμάζειν (Lev 26:32; Jdth 10:7 al.; Jos., Ant. 10, 277) Mk 12:17 v.l. μακροθυμεῖν (Sir 18:11; 29:8; 35:19) Mt 18:26, 29; Lk 18:7; Js 5:7. μετανοεῖν (Plut., Ag. 803 [19, 5]; Ps.-Lucian, Salt. 84; Prayer of Manasseh [=Odes 12] 7; Just., A I, 61, 10; D. 95, 3 al.) 2 Cor 12:21. ὀδυνᾶσθαι (cp. Tob 6:15) Ac 20:38. ὀργίζεσθαι Rv 12:17. σπλαγχνίζεσθαι Mt 14:14; Lk 7:13. συλλυπεῖσθαι Mk 3:5. στυγνάζειν 10:22. χαίρειν (PEleph 13, 3; Jos., Ant. 1, 294; Tob 13:15; Bar 4:33; JosAs 4:2; Ar. 15, 7) Mt 18:13; Lk 1:14; 13:17; Ro 16:19 al. χαρὰν καὶ παράκλησιν ἔχειν Phlm 7. χαρὰ ἔσται Lk 15:7; cp. vs. 10 (Jos., Ant. 6, 116 ἡ ἐ. τῇ νίκῃ χαρά). Also w. verbs that denote aroused feelings παραζηλοῦν and παροργίζειν make jealous and angry at Ro 10:19 (Dt 32:21). παρακαλεῖν 1 Th 3:7a (cp. Just., D. 78:8 παράκλησιν ἐχουσῶν ἐ.), as well as those verbs that denote an expression of the emotions ἀγαλλιᾶσθαι (cp. Tob 13:15; Ps 69:5) Lk 1:47; Hs 8, 1, 18; 9, 24, 2. καυχᾶσθαι (Diod S 16, 70; Sir 30:2) Ro 5:2. κοπετὸν ποιεῖν (cp. 3 Macc 4:3) Ac 8:2. ὀλολύζειν Js 5:1. αἰνεῖν (cp. X., An. 3, 1, 45 al.) Lk 2:20. δοξάζειν (Polyb. 6, 53, 10; cp. Diod S 17, 21, 4 δόξα ἐ. ἀνδρείᾳ=fame because of bravery) Ac 4:21; 2 Cor 9:13. εὐχαριστεῖν give thanks for someth. (s. εὐχαριστέω 2; UPZ 59, 10 [168 B.C.] ἐ. τῷ ἐρρῶσθαί σε τ. θεοῖς εὐχαρίστουν) 1 Cor 1:4; cp. 2 Cor 9:15; 1 Th 3:9.—ἐφʼ ᾧ = ἐπὶ τούτῳ ὅτι for this reason that, because (Diod S 19, 98; Appian, Bell. Civ. 1, 112 §520; Ael. Aristid. 53 p. 640 D.; Synes., Ep. 73 p. 221c; Damasc., Vi. Isid. 154; Syntipas p. 12, 9; 127, 8; Thomas Mag. ἐφʼ ᾧ ἀντὶ τοῦ διότι; cp. W-S. §24, 5b and 12f. S. WKümmel, D. Bild des Menschen im NT ’48, 36–40) Ro 5:12 (SLyonnet, Biblica 36, ’55, 436–56 [denies a causal sense here]. On the probability of commercial idiom s. FDanker, FGingrich Festschr. ’72, 104f, also Ro 5:12, Sin under Law: NTS 14, ’68, 424–39; against him SPorter, TynBull 41, ’90, 3–30, also NTS 39, ’93, 321–33; difft. JFitzmyer, Anchor Bible Comm.: Romans, ad loc. ‘w. the result that all have sinned’); 2 Cor 5:4; Phil 3:12; for, indeed 4:10.
    marker of addition to what is already in existence, to, in addition to. W. dat. (Hom. et al.; PEleph 5, 17 [284/283 B.C.] μηνὸς Τῦβι τρίτῃ ἐπʼ εἰκάδι; Tob 2:14; Sir 3:27; 5:5) προσέθηκεν τοῦτο ἐ. πᾶσιν he added this to everything else Lk 3:20 (cp. Lucian, Luct. [On Funerals], 24). ἐ. τ. παρακλήσει ἡμῶν in addition to our comfort 2 Cor 7:13. λύπη ἐ. λύπῃ grief upon grief Phil 2:27 v.l. (cp. Soph., Oed. C. 544, also Polyb. 1, 57, 1 πληγὴ ἐ. πληγῇ; Plut., Mor. 123f; Polyaenus 5, 52 ἐ. φόνῳ φόνον; Quint. Smyrn. 5, 602 ἐ. πένθει πένθος=sorrow upon sorrow; Sir 26:15). ἐ. τῇ σῇ εὐχαριστίᾳ to your prayer of thanks 1 Cor 14:16. So perh. also Hb 8:1. ἐ. πᾶσι τούτοις to all these Col 3:14; Lk 16:26 v.l. (X., Mem. 1, 2, 25 al.; Sir 37:15; cp. 1 Macc 10:42; Just., D. 133, 1 ἐ. τούτοις πᾶσι).—W. acc.: addition to someth. of the same kind Mt 6:27; Lk 12:25; Rv 22:18a. λύπην ἐ. λύπην sorrow upon sorrow Phil 2:27 (cp. Is 28:10, 13; Ezk 7:26; Ps 68:28).
    marker of perspective, in consideration of, in regard to, on the basis of, concerning, about, w. gen. (Antig. Car. 164 ἐ. τῶν οἴνων ἀλλοιοῦσθαι; 4 Macc. 2:9 ἐ. τῶν ἑτέρων … ἔστιν ἐπιγνῶναι τοῦτο, ὅτι …; Ath. 29, 2 τὰ ἐ. τῆς μανίας πάθη) ἐ. δύο ἢ τριῶν μαρτύρων on the evidence of two or three witnesses 1 Ti 5:19 (cp. TestAbr A 13 p. 92, 22ff. [Stone p. 32]). Sim. in the expr. ἐ. στόματος δύο μαρτύρων (Dt 19:15) Mt 18:16; 2 Cor 13:1. ἐπʼ αὐτῆς on the basis of it Hb 7:11. ἐπʼ ἀληθείας based on truth = in accordance w. truth, truly (Demosth. 18, 17 ἐπʼ ἀληθείας οὐδεμιᾶς εἰρημένα; POxy 255, 16 [48 A.D.]; Da 2:8; Tob 8:7; En 104:11) Mk 12:14, 32; Lk 4:25; 20:21; Ac 4:27. ἐφʼ ἑαυτοῦ based on himself = to or by himself (X., An. 2, 4, 10; Demosth. 18, 224 ἐκρίνετο ἐφʼ ἑαυτοῦ; Dionys. Hal., Comp. Verb. 16 ἐ. σεαυτοῦ. Cp. Kühner-G. I 498e) 2 Cor 10:7.—To introduce the object which is to be discussed or acted upon λέγειν ἐ. τινος speak of, about someth. (Pla., Charm., 155d, Leg. 2, 662d; Isocr. 6, 41; Aelian, VH 1, 30; Jer 35:8; EpArist 162; 170; Ath. 5:1 ἐ. τοῦ νοητοῦ … δογματίζειν) Gal 3:16. Do someth. on, in the case of (cp. 1 Esdr 1:22) σημεῖα ποιεῖν ἐ. τῶν ἀσθενούντων work miracles on the sick J 6:2.—On B 13:6 s. τίθημι 1bζ.—In ref. to someth. (Aristot., Pol. 1280a, 17; 4 Macc 12:5 τῶν ἐ. τῆς βασιλείας … πραγμάτων; Just., A I, 5, 1 ἐφʼ ἡμῶν ‘in our case’, D. 131, 4; Ath. 15, 3 ἐ. τῆς ὕλης καὶ τοῦ θεοῦ ‘as respects God and matter, so …’) ἐ. τινων δεῖ ἐγκρατεύεσθαι in certain matters one must practice self-control Hm 8:1. οὔτε … οἴδασι τὸν ἐ. τοῦ πυροῦ σπόρον nor do they comprehend (the figurative sense of) the sowing of wheat AcPlCor 2:26 (cp. 1 Cor 15:36f).
    marker of power, authority, control of or over someone or someth., over
    w. gen. (Hdt. 5, 109 al.; Mitt-Wilck. I/1, 124, 1=BGU 1120, 1 [5 B.C.] πρωτάρχῳ ἐ. τοῦ κριτηρίου; 287, 1; LXX; AscIs 2:5 τοῦ ἐ. τῶν πραγματε[ι] ῶν=Denis p. 109) βασιλεύειν ἐ. τινος (Judg 9:8, 10; 1 Km 8:7) Rv 5:10. ἔχειν βασιλείαν ἐ. τῶν βασιλέων 17:18. ἐξουσίαν ἔχειν ἐ. τινος have power over someone 20:6. διδόναι ἐξουσίαν ἐ. τινος 2:26. καθιστάναι τινὰ ἐ. τινος set someone over, put someone in charge, of someth. or someone (Pla., Rep. 5, 460b; Demosth. 18, 118; Gen 39:4f; 1 Macc 6:14; 10:37; 2 Macc 12:20 al.; EpArist 281; τεταγμένος En 20:5) Mt 24:45; Lk 12:42; Ac 6:3. εἶναι ἐ. τινος (Synes., Ep. 79 p. 224d; Tob 1:22; Jdth 14:13; 1 Macc 10:69) ὸ̔ς ἦν ἐ. πάσης τῆς γάζης αὐτῆς who was in charge of all her treasure 8:27. Of God ὁ ὢν ἐ. πάντων (Apollonius of Tyana [I A.D.] in Eus., PE 4, 13) Ro 9:5; cp. Eph 4:6. ὁ ἐ. τινος w. ὤν to be supplied (Demosth. 18, 247 al.; Diod S 13, 47, 6; Plut., Pyrrh. 385 [5, 7], Aemil. Paul. 267 [23, 6]; PTebt 5, 88 [118 B.C.] ὁ ἐ. τ. προσόδων; 1 Macc 6:28; 2 Macc 3:7; 3 Macc 6:30 al.; EpArist 110; 174) ὁ ἐ. τοῦ κοιτῶνος the chamberlain Ac 12:20.
    w dat. (X., Cyr. 1, 2, 5; 2, 4, 25 al., An. 4, 1, 13; Demosth. 19, 113; Aeschines 2, 73; Esth 8:12e; Just., A II, 5, 2 ἀγγέλοις οὓς ἐ. τούτοις ἔταξε; cp. Ath. 24, 3; Ath. 6, 4 τὸν ἐ. τῇ κινήσει τοῦ σώματος λόγον) Mt 24:47; Lk 12:44.
    w. acc. (X., Hell. 3, 4, 20 al.; Dionys. Byz. §56 θεῷ ἐ. πάντα δύναμις; LXX; PsSol 17:3, 32) βασιλεύειν ἐ. τινα rule over someone (Gen 37:8; Judg 9:15 B al.) Lk 1:33; 19:14, 27; Ro 5:14. καθιστάναι τινὰ ἐ. τινα set someone over someone (X., Cyr. 4, 5, 58) κριτὴν ἐφʼ ὑμᾶς as judge over you Lk 12:14; ἡγούμενον ἐπʼ Αἴγυπτον Ac 7:10; cp. Hb 2:7 v.l. (Ps 8:7); 3:6; 10:21. ἐξουσίαν ἔχειν ἐ. τι Rv 16:9. ἐξουσίαν διδόναι ἐ. τι (Sir 33:20) Lk 9:1; 10:19; Rv 6:8; cp. 22:14. φυλάσσειν φυλακὰς ἐ. τι Lk 2:8 (cp. En 100:5). ὑπεραίρεσθαι ἐ. τινα exalt oneself above someone 2 Th 2:4 (cp. Da 11:36); but here the mng. against is also poss. (s. 12b below). πιστὸς ἐ. τι faithful over someth. Mt 25:21, 23.
    marker of legal proceeding, before, w. acc. in the lang. of the law-courts ἐ. ἡγεμόνας καὶ βασιλεῖς ἄγεσθαι be brought before governors and kings Mt 10:18; cp. Lk 21:12 (cp. BGU 22, 36 [114 A.D.] ἀξιῶ ἀκθῆναι [=ἀχθῆναι] τ. ἐνκαλουμένους ἐ. σὲ πρὸς δέουσαν ἐπέξοδον; Just., A II, 2, 12 ἐ. Οὔρβικον). ὑπάγεις ἐπʼ ἄρχοντα you are going before the magistrate Lk 12:58; cp. Ac 16:19. ἤγαγον αὐτὸν ἐ. τὸν Πιλᾶτον Lk 23:1. ἐ. τοὺς ἀρχιερεῖς Ac 9:21. ἐ. Καίσαρα πορεύεσθαι come before the emperor 25:12. ἐ. τὰς συναγωγάς Lk 12:11. ἐ. τὸ βῆμα Ac 18:12. Cp. 3 above. Here the focus is on transfer to the judiciary.
    marker of purpose, goal, result, to, for, w. acc. (Demetr.: 722 Fgm. 2, 3 Jac. ἐ. κατοικίαν) ἐ. τὸ βάπτισμα for baptism=to have themselves baptized Mt 3:7 (cp. Just., A I, 61, 10 ἐ. τὸ λουτρόν; D. 56, 1 ἐ. τὴν … κρίσιν πεμφθεῖσι). ἐ. τὴν θεωρίαν ταύτην for (i.e. to see) this sight Lk 23:48 (sim. Hom. et al.; POxy 294, 18 [22 A.D.]; LXX; Tat. 23, 2 ἐ. τὴν θέαν). ἐ. τὸ συμφέρον to (our) advantage Hb 12:10 (cp. Tat. 6, 1; 34, 2 οὐκ ἐ. τι χρήσιμον ‘to no purpose’). ἐ. σφαγήν Ac 8:32 (Is 53:7); cp. Mt 22:5; ἐ. τ. τελειότητα Hb 6:1. ἐ. τοῦτο for this (X., An. 2, 5, 22; Jos., Ant. 12, 23) Lk 4:43. ἐφʼ ὅ; for what (reason)? Mt 26:50 v.l. (s. ὅς 1bα and 1iβ). Cp. 16.
    marker of hostile opposition, against
    w. dat. (Hom. et al.; 2 Macc 13:19; Sir 28:23 v.l.; fig. Ath. 22, 7 τοὺς ἐπʼ αὐτοῖς λόγους ‘counter-evidence’) Lk 12:52f (s. use of acc. b below); Ac 11:19. Cp. J 8:7 v.l. (1bβ above).
    w. acc. (Hdt. 1, 71; X., Hell. 3, 4, 20 al.; Jos., Ant. 13, 331; LXX; En; TestJud 3:1 al.; JosAs 19:2; Just., D. 103, 7; Tat. 36, 2) ὥρμησαν ἐ. αὐτόν Ac 7:57. ἔρχεσθαι Lk 14:31. ἐπαναστήσονται τέκνα ἐ. γονεῖς Mt 10:21; Mk 13:12; cp. ἔθνος ἐ. ἔθνος Mt 24:7; Mk 13:8. ἐφʼ ἑαυτόν divided against himself Mt 12:26; Mk 3:24f, 26; Lk 11:17f; cp. J 13:18 (s. Ps 40:10); Ac 4:27; 13:50 al.—Lk 12:53 (4 times; the first and third occurrences w. the acc. are prob. influenced by usage in Mic 7:6; the use of the dat. Lk 12:52f [s. a above] w. a verb expressing a circumstance is in accord with older Gk. [Il. et al.], which prefers the acc. with verbs of motion in ref. to hostility). Cp. 15.
    marker of number or measure, w. acc. (Hdt. et. al.; LXX; GrBar 3:6) ἐ. τρίς (CIG 1122, 9; PHolm α18) three times Ac 10:16; 11:10. So also ἐ. πολύ more than once Hm 4, 1, 8. ἐ. πολύ (also written ἐπιπολύ) in a different sense to a great extent, carefully (Hdt., Thu. et al.; Lucian, D. Deor. 6, 2; 25, 2; 3 Macc 5:17; Jos., Ant. 17, 107) B 4:1. ἐ. πλεῖον to a greater extent, further (Hdt., Thu. et al.; Diod S 11, 60, 5 al.; prob. 2 Macc 12:36; TestGad 7:2; Ar. 4, 3; Ath. 7, 1 ἐ. το πλεῖστον) 2 Ti 3:9; 1 Cl 18:3 (Ps 50:4). ἐ. τὸ χεῖρον 2 Ti 3:13. ἐφʼ ὅσον to the degree that, in so far as (Diod S 1, 93, 2; Maximus Tyr. 11, 3c ἐφʼ ὅσον δύναται; Hierocles 14 p. 451) Mt 25:40, 45; B 4:11; 17:1; Ro 11:13.
    marker indicating the one to whom, for whom, or about whom someth. is done, to, on, about
    w. dat. πράσσειν τι ἐ. τινι do someth. to someone Ac 5:35 (thus Appian, Bell. Civ. 3, 15 §51; cp. δρᾶν τι ἐ. τινι Hdt. 3, 14; Aelian, NA 11, 11); about γεγραμμένα ἐπʼ αὐτῷ J 12:16 (cp. Hdt. 1, 66). προφητεύειν ἐ. τινι Rv 10:11. μαρτυρεῖν bear witness about Hb 11:4; Rv 22:16. ἐ. σοὶ … φανερώσει κύριος τὸ λύτρον the Lord will reveal the salvation to you GJs 7:2.
    w. acc.
    α. ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἐφʼ ὸ̔ν γεγόνει τὸ σημεῖον the man on whom the miracle had been performed Ac 4:22 (cp. Just., D. 128, 1 κρίσεως γεγενημένης ἐ. Σόδομα). ἐφʼ ὸ̔ν λέγεται ταῦτα the one about whom this was said Hb 7:13 (cp. ἐ. πόρρω οὖσαν [γενεὰν] ἐγὼ λαλῶ En 1:2). γέγραπται ἐπʼ αὐτόν Mk 9:12f; cp. Ro 4:9; 1 Ti 1:18; βάλλειν κλῆρον ἐ. τι for someth. Mk 15:24; J 19:24 (Ps 21:19). ἀνέβη ὁ κλῆρος ἐ. Συμεών the lot came up in favor of Simeon GJs 24:4.
    β. of powers, conditions, etc., which come upon someone or under whose influence someone is: on, upon, to, over ἐγένετο ῥῆμα θεοῦ ἐ. Ἰωάννην the word of God came to John Lk 3:2 (cp. Jer 1:1). Of divine blessings (cp. En 1:8; ParJer 5:28) Mt 10:13; 12:28; Lk 10:6; 11:20; cp. 10:9; Ac 10:10. ἵνα ἐπισκηνώσῃ ἐπʼ ἐμὲ ἡ δύναμις τ. Χριστοῦ that the power of Christ may rest upon me 2 Cor 12:9. χάρις θεοῦ ἦν ἐπʼ αὐτό Lk 2:40. Various verbs are used in ref. to the Holy Spirit, either in pass. or act. role, in connection w. ἐ. τινα: ἐκχεῖν Ac 2:17f (Jo 3:1f); cp. 10:45; Tit 3:6. ἀποστέλλειν (ἐξαποστέλλειν v.l.) Lk 24:49. ἐπέρχεσθαι 1:35; Ac 1:8 (Just., D. 87, 3; cp. ἔρχεσθαι A I, 33, 6; D. 49, 7 ἀπὸ τοῦ Ἠλίου ἐ. τὸν Ἰωάννην ἐλθεῖν). ἐπιπίπτειν 10:44. καταβαίνειν Lk 3:22; J 1:33. τίθεσθαι Mt 12:18 (cp. Is 42:1). Also εἶναι Lk 2:25. μένειν J 1:32f. ἀναπαύεσθαι 1 Pt 4:14. Of unpleasant or startling experiences Lk 1:12, 65; 4:36; Ac 13:11; 19:17; Rv 11:11.—Lk 19:43; 21:35, cp. vs. 34; J 18:4; Eph 5:6; cp. Rv 3:3.—Ro 2:2, 9; 15:3 (Ps 68:10). Of the blood of the righteous, that comes over or upon the murderers Mt 23:35; 27:25; Ac 5:28. Of care, which one casts on someone else 1 Pt 5:7 (Ps 54:23).
    marker of feelings directed toward someone, in, on, for, toward, w. acc., after words that express belief, trust, hope: πιστεύειν ἐ. τινα, w. acc. (Wsd 12:2; Just., D. 16:4 al.) Ac 9:42; 11:17; 16:31; 22:19; Ro 4:24. πίστις Hb 6:1. πεποιθέναι (Is 58:14) Mt 27:43; 2 Th 3:4; 2 Cor 2:3. ἐλπίζειν (1 Ch 5:20; 2 Ch 13:18 al.; PsSol 9:10; 17:3; Just., D. 16:4 al.) 1 Pt 1:13; 1 Ti 5:5. After words that characterize an emotion or its expression: for κόπτεσθαι (Zech 12:10) Rv 1:7; 18:9. κλαίειν Lk 23:28; Rv 18:9 (cp. JosAs 15:9 χαρήσεται ἐ. σέ). σπλαγχνίζεσθαι Mt 15:32; Mk 8:2; 9:22; Hm 4, 3, 5; Hs 9, 24, 2. χρηστός toward Lk 6:35. χρηστότης Ro 11:22; Eph 2:7; cp. Ro 9:23. Esp. also if the feelings or their expressions are of a hostile nature: toward, against (cp. λοιδορεῖν Just., D. 137, 2) ἀποτομία Ro 11:22. μαρτύριον Lk 9:5. μάρτυς ἐ. τ. ἐμὴν ψυχήν a witness against my soul (cp. Dssm., LO 258; 355 [LAE 304; 417]) 2 Cor 1:23. ἀσχημονεῖν 1 Cor 7:36. μοιχᾶσθαι Mk 10:11. τολμᾶν 2 Cor 10:2 (En 7:4). βρύχειν τ. ὀδόντας Ac 7:54. Cp. 12.
    marker of object or purpose, with dat. in ref. to someth. (Hom., Thu. et al.; SIG 888, 5 ἐ. τῇ τῶν ἀνθρ. σωτηρίᾳ; PTebt 44, 6 [114 B.C.] ὄντος μου ἐ. θεραπείᾳ ἐν τῷ Ἰσιείω; LXX; TestJob 3:5 ὁ ἐ. τῇ σωτηρίᾳ τῆς ἐμῆς ψυχῆς ἐλθών; Jos., Ant. 5, 101; Just., A I, 29, 1 ἐ. παίδων ἀναστροφῇ; D. 91, 4 ἐ. σωτηρίᾳ τῶν πιστευόντων) καλείν τινα ἐ. τινι call someone for someth. Gal 5:13 (on ἐπʼ ἐλευθερίᾳ cp. Demosth. 23, 124; [59], 32); ἐ. ἀκαθαρσίᾳ for impurity, i.e. so that we should be impure 1 Th 4:7. κτισθέντες ἐ. ἔργοις ἀγαθοῖς for good deeds Eph 2:10. λογομαχεῖν ἐ. καταστροφῇ τῶν ἀκουόντων for the ruin of those who hear 2 Ti 2:14 (cp. Eur., Hipp. 511; X., Mem. 2, 3, 19 ἐ. βλάβη; Hdt. 1, 68 ἐ. κακῷ ἀνθρώπου; Polyb. 27, 7, 13 and PGM 4, 2440 ἐπʼ ἀγαθῷ=‘for good’). Cp. 11.
    marker in idiom of authorization, w. dat.: the formula ἐ. τῷ ὀνοματί τινος, in the name of someone, used w. many verbs (Just., D. 39, 6 w. γίνεσθαι, otherw. ἐ. ὀνόματος, e.g. A I, 61, 13; w. διὰ τοῦ ὀ. and in oaths κατὰ τοῦ ὀ. A II, 6, 6, D. 30, 3; 85, 2.—Ath. 23, 1 ἐ. ὀνόματι εἰδώλων.—ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι LXX; JosAs 9:1), focuses on the authorizing function of the one named in the gen. (cp. WHeitmüller [‘Im Namen Jesu’ 1903, 13ff], ‘in connection with, or by the use of, i.e. naming, or calling out, or calling upon the name’ [88]): βαπτίζειν Ac 2:38. δέχεσθαί τινα Mt 18:5; Mk 9:37; Lk 9:48. διδάσκειν Ac 4:18; 5:28. δύναμιν ποιεῖν Mk 9:39. ἐκβάλλειν δαιμόνια Lk 9:49 v.l. ἔρχεσθαι Mt 24:5; Mk 13:6; Lk 21:8. κηρύσσειν 24:47. λαλεῖν Ac 4:17; 5:40. Semantically divergent from the preceding, but formulaically analogous, is καλεῖν τινα ἐ. τῷ ὀν. τινος name someone after someone (2 Esdr 17:63) Lk 1:59.—ὄνομα 1dγג.—M-M.
    marker of temporal associations, in the time of, at, on, for
    w. gen., time within which an event or condition takes place (Hom.+) in the time of, under (kings or other rulers): in the time of Elisha Lk 4:27 (cp. Just., D. 46, 6 ἐ. Ἠλίου). ἐ. τῆς μετοικεσίας at the time of the exile Mt 1:11. Under=during the rule or administration of (Hes., Op. 111; Hdt. 6, 98 al.; OGI 90, 15; PAmh 43, 2 [173 B.C.]; UPZ 162 V, 5 [117 B.C.]; 1 Esdr 2:12; 1 Macc 13:42; 2 Macc 15:22; Jos., Ant. 12, 156 ἐ. ἀρχιερέως Ὀ.) ἐ. Ἀβιαθὰρ ἀρχιερέως under, in the time of, Abiathar the high priest Mk 2:26. ἐ. ἀρχιερέως Ἅννα καὶ Καιάφα Lk 3:2. ἐ. Κλαυδίου Ac 11:28 (Just., A I, 26, 2). ἐ. τῶν πατέρων in the time of the fathers 1 Cl 23:3. ἐπʼ ἐσχάτων τῶν ἡμερῶν in the last days (Gen 49:1; Num 24:14; Mi 4:1; Jer 37:24; Da 10:14) 2 Pt 3:3; Hs 9, 12, 3; cp. Hb 1:2. ἐπʼ ἐσχάτου τοῦ χρόνου in the last time Jd 18. ἐπʼ ἐσχάτου τῶν χρόνων at the end of the times/ages 1 Pt 1:20. ἐ. τῶν προσευχῶν μου when I pray, in my prayers (cp. PTebt 58, 31 [111 B.C.] ἐ. τ. διαλόγου, ‘in the discussion’; 4 Macc 15:19 ἐ. τ. βασάνων ‘during the tortures’; Sir 37:29; 3 Macc 5:40; Demetr.: 722, Fgm. 1, 14 Jac. ἐ. τοῦ ἀρίστου; Synes., Ep. 121 p. 258c ἐ. τῶν κοινῶν ἱερῶν) Ro 1:10; Eph 1:16; 1 Th 1:2; Phlm 4.
    w. dat., time at or during which (Hom. et al.; PTebt 5, 66 [118 B.C.]; PAmh 157; LXX; Just., A I, 13, 3 ἐ. χρόνοις Τίερίου) at, in, at the time of, during: ἐ. τοῖς νῦν χρόνοις in these present times 2 Cl 19:4. ἐ. τῇ πρώτῃ διαθήκῃ at the time of the first covenant Hb 9:15. ἐ. συντελείᾳ τ. αἰώνων at the close of the age 9:26 (Tat. 13, 1 ἐ. ς. τοῦ κόσμου; cp. Sir 22:10 and PLond III, 954, 18 p. 154 [260 A.D.] ἐ. τέλει τ. χρόνου; POxy 275, 20 [66 A.D.] ἐ. συνκλεισμῷ τ. χρόνου; En 27:3 ἐπʼ ἐσχάτοις αἰώσιν). ἐ. τῇ θυσίᾳ at the time of, together with, the sacrifice Phil 2:17. ἐ. πάσῃ τῇ μνείᾳ ὑμῶν at every remembrance of you Phil 1:3. ἐ. παροργισμῷ ὑμῶν during your wrath, i.e. while you are angry Eph 4:26. ἐ. πάσῃ τῇ ἀνάγκῃ in all (our) distress 1 Th 3:7b. ἐ. πάσῃ τῇ θλίψει 2 Cor 1:4. ἐ. τούτῳ in the meanwhile J 4:27 (Lucian, Dial. Deor. 17, 2, cp. Philops. 14 p. 41; Syntipas p. 76, 2 ἐφʼ ἡμέραις ἑπτα; 74, 6).
    w. acc.
    α. answering the question ‘when?’ on: ἐ. τὴν αὔριον (Sb 6011, 14 [I B.C.]; PRyl 441 ἐ. τὴν ἐπαύριον) (on) the next day Lk 10:35; Ac 4:5. ἐ. τὴν ὥραν τ. προσευχῆς at the hour of prayer 3:1 (Polyaenus 8, 17 ἐ. ὥραν ὡρισμένην).
    β. answering the qu. ‘how long?’ for, over a period of (Hom. et al.; Mitt-Wilck. II/2, 170, 8=BGU 1058, 9 [13 B.C.]; POxy 275, 9; 15 ἐ. τὸν ὅλον χρόνον; PTebt 381, 19 ἐφʼ ὸ̔ν χρόνον περίεστιν ἡ μήτηρ; LXX; En 106:15; TestJob 30:2 ἐ. ὥρας τρεῖς; TestJud 3:4; TestGad 5:11; Jos., Ant. 11, 2; Just., D. 142, 1 ἐ. ποσόν ‘for awhile’) ἐ. ἔτη τρία for three years (Phlegon: 257 Fgm. 36, 2, 1 Jac.) Lk 4:25. ἐ. τρεῖς ἡμέρας for three days (Diod S 13, 19, 2; Arrian, Anab. 4, 9, 4; GDI 4706, 119 [Thera] ἐπʼ ἀμέρας τρεῖς) GPt 8:30 al. ἐ. ἡμέρας πλείους over a period of many days (Jos., Ant. 4, 277) Ac 13:31.—16:18 (ἐ. πολλὰς ἡμέρας as Appian, Liby. 29 §124; cp. Diod S 3, 16, 4); 17:2; 19:8, 10, 34; 27:20; Hb 11:30. ἐ. χρόνον for a while (cp. Il. 2, 299; Hdt. 9, 22, 1; Apollon. Rhod. 4, 1257; Jos., Vi. 2) Lk 18:4. ἐ. πλείονα χρόνον (Diod S 3, 16, 6; Hero Alex. I p. 344, 17) Ac 18:20. ἐφʼ ὅσον χρόνον as long as Ro 7:1; 1 Cor 7:39; Gal 4:1. Also ἐφʼ ὅσον as long as Mt 9:15; 2 Pt 1:13 (for other mngs. of ἐφʼ ὅσον s. above under 13). ἐφʼ ἱκανόν (sc. χρόνον) for a considerable time (EpArist 109) Ac 20:11. ἐ. χρόνον ἱκανόν Qua. ἐ. πολύ for a long time, throughout a long period of time (Thu. 1, 7; 1, 18, 1; 2, 16, 1 al.; Appian, Liby. 5 §21; Arrian, Cyneg. 23, 1; Lucian, Toxar. 20; Wsd 18:20; Sir 49:13; JosAs 19:3; Jos., Vi. 66: Just., A I, 65, 3) Ac 28:6. ἐ. πλεῖον the same (schol. on Pind., N. 7, 56b; PLille 3, 16 [III B.C.]; Jdth 13:1; Sir prol. l. 7; Jos., Ant. 18, 150) Ac 20:9; any longer (Lucian, D. Deor. 5, 3; Appian, Hann. 54 §227; 3 Macc 5:8; Wsd 8:12; Ath. 12, 3) Ac 24:4; 1 Cl 55:1.

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  • Απόκρυφα — Θρησκευτικά κείμενα που συνδέονται άμεσα με την Παλαιά και την Καινή Διαθήκη. Είναι γραμμένα κατά μίμηση των κανονικών βιβλίων της Αγίας Γραφής, δεν θεωρούνται όμως κανονικά. Ο όρος σήμαινε βιβλία μυστικά, κρυμμένα, γιατί θεωρούνταν τα ιερά… …   Dictionary of Greek

  • αρχέτυπα — Βιβλία που τυπώθηκαν στα πρώτα χρόνια της τυπογραφίας έως και το 1501. Τα α. είναιδύο ειδών: ξυλογραφικά και τυπογραφικά. Τα πρώτα τυπώνονταν από ξύλινες πλάκες, πάνω στις οποίες χάραζαν τις λέξεις. Τα δεύτερα είχαν τυπογραφικά κινητά στοιχεία,… …   Dictionary of Greek

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