Translation: from greek

Μιχαήλ Κριτοβούλος

  • 1 Κριτόβουλος

    Κριτόβουλος
    masc nom sg

    Morphologia Graeca > Κριτόβουλος

  • 2 Μιχαήλ

    {собств., 2}
    Михаил (кто подобен Богу?).
    Архангел, один из первых князей, покровитель избранного народа Божия (Иуд. 1:9; Откр. 12:7). См. евр. 4317 (לאֵָכימִ).*

    Греческо-русский лексикон Нового Завета с номерами Стронга и греческой Симфонией > Μιχαήλ

  • 3 Μιχαήλ

    {собств., 2}
    Михаил (кто подобен Богу?).
    Архангел, один из первых князей, покровитель избранного народа Божия (Иуд. 1:9; Откр. 12:7). См. евр. 4317 (לאֵָכימִ).*

    Греческо-русский лексикон Нового Завета с номерами Стронга и греческой Симфонией > Μιχαήλ

  • 4 Μιχαήλ

    Μιχαήλ, ὁ indecl. (מִיכָאֵל) Michael, archangel (Da 12:1; 10:13, 21; pseudepigr.; ISyriaW 2263; 2637b; ins fr. Asia Minor [CB I/2, 541 no. 404, p. 741 no. 678]; PGM 1, 301; 2, 158; 3, 148; 4, 1815 and 2356; 7, 257; 22b, 29 τῷ μεγάλῳ πατρὶ Ὀσίριδι Μιχαήλ) Jd 9; Rv 12:7 (Μ. as ἀρχιστρατηγός PGM 13, 928. On his fighting w. the dragon s. PGM 4, 2769ff); Hs 8, 3, 3. In Israelite tradition Μ. was the special patron and protector of Israel (Da 12:1).—Bousset, Rel.3 325ff; Dssm., LO 396ff [LAE 456f]; WLueken, Der Erzengel M. 1898; JRohland, Der Erzengel M. ’77; RAC V 243–51; BHHW II 1212f.—M-M.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > Μιχαήλ

  • 5 Μιχαήλ

    Михаил (архангел); см. евр. (מִיכָאל‎).

    Ελληνικά-Ρωσικά λεξικό στα κείμενα της Καινής Διαθήκης (Греческо-русский словарь к текстам Нового Завета) > Μιχαήλ

  • 6 Μιχαὴλ

    Ελληνικά-Ρωσικά λεξικό στα κείμενα της Καινής Διαθήκης (Греческо-русский словарь к текстам Нового Завета) > Μιχαὴλ

  • 7 Κριτοβούλου

    Κριτόβουλος
    masc gen sg

    Morphologia Graeca > Κριτοβούλου

  • 8 Κριτοβούλω

    Κριτόβουλος
    masc dat sg

    Morphologia Graeca > Κριτοβούλω

  • 9 Κριτόβουλε

    Κριτόβουλος
    masc voc sg

    Morphologia Graeca > Κριτόβουλε

  • 10 Κριτόβουλον

    Κριτόβουλος
    masc acc sg

    Morphologia Graeca > Κριτόβουλον

  • 11 3413

    {собств., 2}
    Михаил (кто подобен Богу?).
    Архангел, один из первых князей, покровитель избранного народа Божия (Иуд. 1:9; Откр. 12:7). См. евр. 4317 (לאֵָכימִ).*

    Греческо-русский лексикон Нового Завета с номерами Стронга и греческой Симфонией > 3413

  • 12 διάβολος

    διάβολος, ον (s. διαβολή)
    pert. to engagement in slander, slanderous (since Aristoph.; Thuc. 6, 15, 2 as adv.; Herm. Wr. 13, 13b; 22b; Philo, Sacr. Abel. 32 p. 215, 6) Pol 5:2. γυναῖκες 1 Ti 3:11. πρεσβύτιδες Tit 2:3.—2 Ti 3:3.
    subst. ὁ δ. one who engages in slander (since X., Ages. 11, 5; Athen. 11, 508e; Esth 7:4; 8:1; pap first Christian; cp. PLond VI, 1923, 9 [IV A.D.] ‘the devil’; Tat. 22, 1), in our lit. as title of the principal transcendent evil being the adversary/devil, already current in the LXX as transl. of הַשָּׂטָן (Job 2:1, but here not ‘as an entity opposed to the divine will’, JGammie, HUCA 56, ’85, 1–19 [s. p. 13]; Zech 3:1f; 1 Ch 21:1; cp. Wsd 2:24; TestNapht 8:4, 6; TestSol, TestJob; JosAs 12:9; GrBar 4:8; ApcSed, ApcMos, AssMos; Just., Mel., P. 67, 477 al.; δ. ὁ ἄρχων τοῦ κόσμου τούτου Hippol., Ref. 6, 33) Mt 4:1, 5, 8, 11; 13:39; 25:41; Lk 4:2f, 6, 13; 8:12; J 13:2; Ac 10:38; Eph 4:27; 6:11; Hb 2:14; Js 4:7. κρίμα … τοῦ διαβόλου the judgment that befalls the devil 1 Ti 3:6; παγὶς τοῦ διαβόλου devil’s trap 3:7; 2 Ti 2:26 (s. IScheftelowitz, Das Schlingen-u. Netzmotiv 1912, 11). ὁ ἀντίδικος ὑμῶν διάβολος your adversary, the devil 1 Pt 5:8; Μιχαὴλ … τῷ δ. διακρινόμενος Jd 9. In Rv 12:9; 20:2 w. ὄφις and σατανᾶς; s. also 2:10; 12:12; 20:10. τοῦ δ. βοτάνη weed of the devil IEph 10:3; ἐνέδραι τοῦ δ. the devil’s ambuscades ITr 8:1; cp. MPol 3:1. Of tortures inflicted by the devil IRo 5:3. τῷ δ. λατρεύειν serve the devil ISm 9:1; ὄργανα τοῦ δ. tools of the devil (of non-Christians) 2 Cl 18:2; πολυπλοκία τοῦ δ. the devil’s cunning Hm 4, 3, 4; tempting to sin (cp. πειράζων τὸν σωτῆρα δ. Orig., C. Cels. 6, 43, 29) m 4, 3, 6; dwells in anger m 5, 1, 3; ἔργα τοῦ δ. m 7:3; doubt described as the devil’s daughter m 9:9; likew. evil desire m 12, 2, 2. The πνεῦμα or basic character of the devil is mentioned m 11:3; it is a πνεῦμα ἐπίγειον m 11:17 (Just., D. 82, 3 ἀκάθαρτον); ἐντολαὶ τοῦ δ. m 12, 4, 6; παλαίειν μετὰ τοῦ δ. Hs 8, 3, 6.—In imagery, those who oppose divine interests or purpose (s. πατήρ 3b) are υἱοὶ δ. Ac 13:10; τέκνα τοῦ δ. 1J 3:10; they are descended ἐκ τοῦ δ. vs. 8; the devil is their father J 8:44. (Cp. οἱ μὲν τοῦ θεοῦ, οἱ δὲ τοῦ διαβόλου Orig., C. Cels. 8, 25, 16.) On the designation of Judas as δ. 6:70 (sim. Peter as σατανᾶς Mk 8:33), cp. 13:2 (cp. εἰσῆλθεν εἰς ἐκεῖνον ὁ σατανᾶς 13:27).—Lit. under δαιμόνιον end, and ἄγγελος end. BNoack, Satanas u. Soteria ’48, 55f.—B. 1487. EDNT. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > διάβολος

  • 13 κατέχω

    κατέχω impf. κατεῖχον; fut. καθέξω LXX, 3 pl. κατασχήσουσι (JosAs 16 [p. 64, 18 Bat. and cod. A]); 2 aor. κατέσχον. Pass.: fut. 2 pl. κατασχεθήσεσθε Ruth 1:13; aor. 3 sg. κατεσχέθη LXX (s. ἔχω; Hom.+). Trans. in all mngs. below, except 7.
    to prevent the doing of someth. or cause to be ineffective, prevent, hinder, restrain
    to hold someone back from going away hold back, hinder, prevent from going away (Hom. et al.; BGU 1205, 27 [28 B.C.]; 37, 6 [50 A.D.]; PFay 109, 11; Gen 24:56; cp. Jos., Ant. 7, 76; Just., A I, 45, 1) Hs 9, 11, 6. ὸ̔ν ἐβουλόμην πρὸς ἐμαυτὸν κ. whom I wished to keep with me Phlm 13. Foll. by gen. of the inf. w. article (B-D-F §400, 4) οἱ ὄχλοι κατεῖχον αὐτὸν τοῦ μὴ πορεύεσθαι ἀπʼ αὐτῶν Lk 4:42.
    hold down, suppress τὶ someth. (γέλωτα X., Cyr. 2, 2, 1; Chariton 3, 7, 4 τ. λύπην; WCrum, Coptic Ostraca p. 4, 522=Dssm., LO 260 [LAE 306]=PGM II 233, no. O 1, 1–3 Κρόνος, ὁ κατέχων τὸν θυμὸν ὅλων τ. ἀνθρώπων, κάτεχε τ. θυμὸν Ὡρι; cp. II, 7, 935f, p 41; Jos., Vi. 233 τ. ὀργήν) τ. ἀλήθειαν ἐν ἀδικίᾳ stifle the truth by unrighteousness/ wickedness Ro 1:18 (cp. JFitzmyer, Ro [AB], ’93, 278; but s. 6 below).
    to prevent someone from exercising power, restrain, check (Thu. 6, 29, 3; Appian, Bell. Civ. 2, 149 §622 τοῦ δαίμονος κατέχοντος τὸ πέλαγος=divine power held the sea back until Alexander reached the other shore; PGiss 70, 3 [II A.D.] ἡ ἀναγραφὴ κατέσχεν ἡμᾶς μέχρι ὥρας ἕκτης) ἵνα μὴ κατέξω τ̣ὰ [προς]|τεταγμένα καὶ ἐπεικίμ̣[εν]α so that I might not delay (carrying out) the instructions and orders AcPl Ha 7, 14f. τὸ κατέχον (Themistocl., Ep. 13, 4) 2 Th 2:6 and ὁ κατέχων vs. 7 mean that which restrains and one who restrains, i.e. what prevents God’s adversary fr. coming out in open opposition to God, for the time being. In an effort to define κ. more specifically here, many interpreters have followed the exegesis of the ancient church (Tertullian) and taken τὸ κ. to be the Roman Empire and ὁ κ. the Emperor (OBetz, NTS 9, ’63, 276–91). An alternative view, as old as Theodore of Mops., but without sustained acceptance, would make τὸ κ. the preaching of Christian missionaries and ὁ κ. the apostle Paul (so OCullmann, Dodd Festschr. ’56, 409–21). These and other attempts to limit more precisely the mng. of these terms in 2 Th invite skepticism because of insufficient textual data (vs. 5 appears to imply in-house information). The concept of the temporary restraining of the forces of hell (cp. Rtzst., Poim. 27 late Egyptian prayer 6, 4 Horus as κατέχων δράκοντα=PGM 4, 994f; cp. 2770 Μιχαὴλ … κατέχων, ὸ̔ν καλέουσι δράκοντα μέγαν) does not appear to play any role here.—WBousset, D. Antichrist 1895; NFreese, StKr 93, 1921, 73–77; VHartl, ZKT 45, 1921, 455–75; WSchröder, D. 2. Thess. 1929, 8–15; DBuzy, RSR 24, ’34, 402–31; OCullmann, RThAM 1, ’38, 26–61; JSchmid, TQ 129, ’49, 323–43; OBetz, NTS 9, ’63, 276–91. Difft. CGiblin, Threat to Faith ’67, 167–242, a hostile power. S. also JTownsend, SBLSP 19, ’80, 233–46; RAus, JBL 96, ’77, 537–53; New Docs 3, 28.
    to hold back with design hold back τὶ someth. κ. ἐν μυστηρίῳ τὴν σοφὴν αὐτοῦ βουλήν hold back his wise plan as a secret Dg 8:10.
    to adhere firmly to traditions, convictions, or beliefs, hold to, hold fast (cp. the lit. sense λαμπάδας ἐν ταῖς χερσίν ParJer 3:2)
    keep in one’s memory (Theophr., Char. 26, 2, a word of Homer) εἰ κατέχετε if you hold it fast 1 Cor 15:2.
    hold fast, retain faithfully (X., Symp. 8, 26 τ. φιλίαν; TestJud 26:1 τ. ὁδούς) τὸν λόγον Lk 8:15. τὰς παραδόσεις guard the traditions 1 Cor 11:2. τὸ καλόν hold fast what is good 1 Th 5:21; Agr 11. τὴν παρρησίαν βεβαίαν κ. keep the confidence firm Hb 3:6; cp. vs. 14. κ. τὴν ὁμολογίαν ἀκλινῆ 10:23.
    to keep in one’s possession, possess (Ps.-Aristot., Mirabilia 159; 160; Polyb. 1, 2, 3; IMagnMai 105, 51 [II B.C.] ἵνα ἔχωσιν κατέχωσίν τε καρπίζωνταί τε; Ezk 33:24; Da 7:18, 22; Ath. 8:3) τὶ someth. Mt 21:38 v.l.; ὡς μηδὲν ἔχοντες καὶ πάντα κατέχοντες 2 Cor 6:10 (DMealand [ZNW 67, ’76, 277–79] cites Ps.-Crates Ep. 7 Hercher=p. 58 no. 7, 8 Malherbe: ἔχοντες μηδὲν πάντʼ ἔχομεν, ὑμεῖς δὲ πάντʼ ἔχοντες οὐδὲν ἔχετε). Abs. 1 Cor 7:30.
    to keep within limits in a confining manner, confine
    in prison keep, confine (PFlor 61, 60; BGU 372 I, 16; Gen 39:20; Philo, Leg. All. 3, 21) pass. Χριστιανοὶ κατέχονται ὡς ἐν φρουρᾷ τῷ κόσμῳ they are confined in the world as in a prison Dg 6:7.
    by law: ἀποθανόντες ἐν ᾧ κατειχόμεθα having died to that by which we were bound Ro 7:6 (cp. PAmh 97, 17 οὐ κατασχεθήσομαι τῇ ὑποσχέσει; PRyl 117, 13).
    by disease (Diod S 4, 14, 5; Philo, Op. M. 71, Congr. Erud. Grat. 138; PSI 299, 3 κατεσχέθην νόσῳ; act., Jer 13:21; Jos., Vi. 48) Lk 4:38 D; J 5:4 v.l.
    to have a place as one’s own, take into one’s possession, occupy (Hdt. 5, 72 et al.; PAmh 30, 26 [II B.C.] τὴν οἰκίαν) τὸν ἔσχατον τόπον Lk 14:9 (cp. Philosoph. Max. 491, 69 τὸν κάλλιστον κατέχουσι τόπον; Jos., Ant. 8, 104). Cp. GPt 5:15.—AcPl Ha 5, 28 [κατ]ε̣ῖ̣χεν αὐτὰς ἔκστασις perh. means astonishment overcame them.
    lay claim to, legal t.t. Ro 1:18 (the point is that a claim is made for truth, which is denied in practice, cp. vss. 22f; s. FDanker, in Gingrich Festschr. 93. For a difft. interpr. see 1b above).
    hold course, nautical t.t., intr. (Hdt. 7, 188 κατέσχε ἐς τὸν αἰγιαλόν; Dicaearchus, Fgm. 85 W. εἰς Δῆλον κατέσχε; Polyb. 1, 25, 7; Philostrat., Vi. Apoll. 4, 13 p. 133, 5; 5, 18 p. 178, 13; cp. Jos., Ant. 1, 204) κατεῖχον εἰς τὸν αἰγιαλόν they headed for the beach Ac 27:40.
    Perh. in the sense of determine (cp. προσέχω 2c) κατεχόντων εἰ ἄρα ἀληθῶς ἀπέθανεν AcPt Ox 849, 2f; s. ed.’s notes.—M-M. EDNT. TW. Spicq.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > κατέχω

  • 14 ἀρχάγγελος

    ἀρχάγγελος, ου, ὁ (s. ἀρχή, ἄγγελος; En 20:8; TestSol; TestAbr A B; TestLevi 3:5 v.l.; ParJer 9:5; GrBar; ApcEsdr 1:3 p. 24, 7 Tdf.; ApcSed 14:1 p. 135, 33 Ja.; ApcMos; AssMos Fgm. k; Philo, Confus. Lingu. 146, Rer. Div. Her. 205, Somn. 1, 157; Porphyr., Ep. ad Anebonem [GParthey, Iambl. De Myst. Lib. 1857 p. xxix–xlv] c. 10; cp. Iambl., Myst. 2, 3 p. 70, 10; Theologumena Arithmetica ed. VdeFalco 1922, p. 57, 7; Agathias: Anth. Pal. 1, 36, 1; ins in CB I/2 557 no. 434 ὁ θεὸς τῶν ἀρχαγγέλων; Gnost. ins, CIG 2895; PGM 1, 208; 3, 339; 4, 1203; 2357; 3052; 7, 257 τῷ κυρίῳ μου τῷ ἀρχαγγέλῳ Μιχαήλ; 13, 257; 328; 744) a member of the higher ranks in the celestial hierarchy, chief angel, archangel PtK 2 p. 14, 27. Michael (En 20:5; 8; ParJer 9:5) is one of them Jd 9. He is also prob. the archangel who will appear at the last judgment 1 Th 4:16 (the anonymous sing. as PGM 4, 483, where the archangel appears as a helper of Helios Mithras).—See WLueken, D. Erzengel Michael 1898; Rtzst., Mysterienrel.3 171, 2; UHolzmeister, Verb. Dom. 23, ’43, 176–86; s. on ἄγγελος.—149–53. M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἀρχάγγελος

  • 15 ἄγγελος

    ἄγγελος, ου, ὁ (Hom.+) ‘messenger’.
    a human messenger serving as an envoy, an envoy, one who is sent
    by humans (Hom.+; ins, pap; Gen 32:4, 7; Jdth 1:11; 3:1; 1 Macc 1:44; 7:10; Jos., Ant. 14, 451, Vi. 89): in his earthly ministry Jesus ἀπέστειλεν ἀγγέλους (Diod S 2,18,1 the king of India to Semiramis; 4, 65, 4) Lk 9:52; of John the Baptist’s disciples 7:24; of Joshua’s scouts Js 2:25 (cp. Josh 7:22).
    by God (prophets Hg 1:13; Mal subscr.; a priest Mal 2:7.—1 Esdr 1:48f. S. also Theognis 1, 769, where the poet is Μουσέων ἄγγελος; Epict. 3, 22, 23; 38; Ael. Aristid. 37 K.=1 p. 15 D.; Maximus Tyr. 11, 9c Plato, as the one who brings us information about God, is called ὁ ἐξ Ἀκαδημίας ἄγγ.; Oenomaus in Eus., PE 5, 20, 3; 5 Carnus the soothsayer is ἄγγ. of the gods) of John the Baptist as forerunner Mt 11:10; Mk 1:2; Lk 7:27 (all Mal 3:1; cp. Ex 23:20).
    a transcendent power who carries out various missions or tasks, messenger, angel (ἄ. as a spirit-being, oft. connected w. the nether world in Gr-Rom. sources [EZiebarth, Neue attische Fluchtafeln: NGG 1899, 127ff no. 24; IG XII/3, 933–74. Other material in Dibelius, Geisterwelt 209ff. S. also the oracles: Theosophien 13 p. 169, 31; Ps.-Callisth. 1, 1, 3 ἐπεκαλεῖτο τοὺς ἀγγέλους καὶ θεὸν Ἄμμωνα; 2, 25, 1; Porphyr., Ad Marcellam 21 ἄγγελοι θεῖοί τε κ. ἀγαθοὶ δαίμονες; Hierocles 3, 424; 23, 468.—ἄ. w. θεοί and δαίμονες Damascius (V/VI A.D.) 183 Ruelle; ἄ. w. δαίμονες and ἥρωες Proclus, Rep. II 243 Kroll, Tim. III 109 Diehl.—FCumont, RHR 72, 1915, 159–82; FAndres, D. Engellehre d. griech. Apologeten 1914 and in Pauly-W. Suppl. III 1918, 101ff; Rtzst., Myst. 171, 2; Bousset, ARW 18, 1915, 170ff] and as a transcendent power in Judaism [LXX; En 10:7; 20:1; 99:3 al.; Essenes in Jos., Bell. 2, 142; Philo, cp. Schürer III 881–85 (on Philo) w. lit.; Joseph.; Test12Patr; prayers for vengeance fr. Rheneia (I B.C.) 9f κύριε ὁ πάντα ἐφορῶν καὶ οἱ ἄνγελοι θεοῦ; on this Dssm. LO 353f; 357=LAE 414; 418f; SIG 1181 w. note 2; PFouad 203, 3f (I A.D.); on this PBenoit, RB 58, ’51, 549–65; PKatz, TZ 10, ’54, 228–31. Loanw. in rabb.—Bousset, Rel. 320ff; J-BFrey, L’Angélologie juive au temps de J-Chr.: RSPT 5, 1911, 75–110; HKuhn, JBL 67, ’48, 217–32 Jewish apocalypses], likewise in the magical pap, w. their mixture of gentile and Jewish infl. [PGM 1, 76 an ἄ. as a star fr. heaven; 4, 570ff; 998; 1112; 13, 329; 585; 609; 744]. Cp. the ins APF 3, 1906, 445 no. 67; 451 no. 94. The more common term in polytheistic lit. for beings intermediate between gods and humans is δαίμων [q.v.], which monotheistic writers reserved for reference to a realm hostile to God’s interests, while retaining the term ἄ. for intermediate beings, either those loyal to God or those in rebellion [s. c].)
    as messengers of God, angels (LXX; Philo, Somn. 1, 190; transcendent messengers of the gods in Hom. are not intermediate beings. Yet the description of Hermes, the κῆρυξ τῶν θεῶν, as their ἄγγελος ἄριστος [Diod S 5, 75, 2] may have made it easier for Gr-Romans in general to understand ἄ. as God’s heavenly messenger; cp. the messenger of the god Men: EA 18, ’91 p. 92f, no. 2, 5f [lit.]) mostly w. gen.: κυρίου (Gen 16:10f al.) Mt 1:20; 2:13, 19; Lk 1:11; 2:9; Ac 5:19; 12:7, 23. τοῦ θεοῦ (Gen 31:11; 32:2 al.; Philo, Deus Imm. 1; Jos., Bell. 5, 388) Lk 12:8f; 15:10; J 1:51 (HWindisch, ZNW 30, ’31, 215–33; also s. below on Lk. 2:15). ἄ. θεοῦ (Gen 21:17 A; Judg 13:6 B; Jos., Ant. 1, 73; Orig., C. Cels. 8, 31, 18) Gal 4:14; Hb 1:6 (Ps 96:7; Dt 32:43); 1 Cl 29:2 (Dt 32:8). Abs. (Num 20:16; Judg 13:11; Tob 6:4ff al.) Lk 1:13, 18, 38; 2:10, 13, 15, 21; J 20:12; Ac 7:53; 1 Ti 3:16; 1 Pt 1:12 (in wordplay on the superiority of human beings to angels s. Sextus 32; on their status and classification s. also Orig., C. Cels. 4, 29, 16) al. ἅγιοι ἄ. (PGM 4, 1934, 1938) Mk 8:38; Lk 9:26; Ac 10:22; Rv 14:10; 1 Cl 39:7 (Job 5:1); Hv 2, 2, 7; ἐκλεκτοὶ ἄ. 1 Ti 5:21 (ἄ. as witnesses so TestLevi 19:3 and SIG 1181, 10=Dssm. LO 351–62 [LAE 413–24]; cp. Jos., Bell. 2, 401); ἄ. ἰσχυρός (cp. Da 4:13; Ps 102:20) Rv 5:2; 18:21. Their abode is heaven, and so they are ἄ. τῶν οὐρανῶν Mt 24:36 (unless οὐρ.=θεοῦ); ἄ. ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς Mk 12:25; ἄ. ἐν οὐρανῷ 13:32; ἄ. ἐξ οὐρανοῦ Gal 1:8, cp. Mt 22:30; 28:2; Lk 22:43. They return to heaven when they have fulfilled their mission on earth 2:15. Hence ἄ. φωτός (cp. SJCh 78, 17) 2 Cor 11:14; ἄ. φωταγωγοί B 18:1. There the good are united w. them after death Hv 2, 2, 7; Hs 9, 27, 3. They appear in dazzling light Lk 2:9; Ac 7:30 (Ex 3:2); ISm 6:1; cp. the ‘shining face’ of Ac 6:15; or in white garments J 20:12; cp. Mt 28:3; Lk 24:4. Called πνεύματα Hb 1:7; 1 Cl 36:3 (both after Ps 103:4). πνεύματα λειτουργικά serving spirits Hb 1:14. Their voice is like thunder J 12:29; γλῶσσαι τῶν ἀ. language of angels 1 Cor 13:1 (after the analogy of the languages of the gods, Plato in Clem. Al., Strom. 1, 143; cp. 2 Cor 12:4; Rv 14:2f; TestJob 48–50; GSteindorff, Apk. d. Elias: TU 17, 3a, 1899, 153). They bring messages fr. God to men Lk 1:11f; Mt 28:2ff, and were also active in the giving of the law νόμος διαταγεὶς διʼ ἀγγέλων Gal 3:19; cp. Ac 7:38, 53; Hb 2:2 (Jos., Ant. 15, 136 τῶν ἐν τοῖς νόμοις διʼ ἀγγέλων παρὰ τ. θεοῦ μαθόντων; cp. Did., Gen. 110, 15 κἂν γὰρ διὰ ὑπουργῶν ἀγγέλων ποιῇ ἃ βούλεται θεός). As guardian angels of individuals (Tob 5:6, 22; cp. PGM 1, 172ff; Ael. Aristid. 50, 57 K.=26 p. 519 D.: ὁ σὸς Ἑρμῆς ἐστιν, to whom Aristid. has been entrusted since his birth) Mt 18:10 (PBarry, ET 23, 1912, 182); Ac 12:15 (JMoulton, JTS 3, 1902, 514–27, ET 14, 1903, 5ff); Lk 4:10 (Ps 90:11); Hv 5:1f. They conduct the blessed dead into heaven Lk 16:22 (Hermes does this acc. to Pythag. [Diog. L. 8, 31]); instruct humans to do good Hv 3, 5, 4; δικαιοσύνης m 6, 2, 1 (ParJer 8:12); rejoice at the repentance of a sinner Lk 15:10; cp. the ἄ. τῆς μετανοίας Hm 12, 4, 7; 12, 6, 1 al. They preside over various realms ἄ. ὁ ἔχων ἐξουσίαν ἐπὶ τοῦ πυρός Rv 14:18; ἄ. τῶν ὑδάτων 16:5; the four winds 7:1. God assigns them διακόσμησις γῆς Pa (4) (cp. ἄγγελοι ἐπὶ τῶν ἐξουσιῶν GrBar 12:3). An angel, Thegri, rules the animal world Hv 4, 2, 4 (Synes., Ep. 57 p. 192b δαίμονες as leaders of the grasshoppers). ἄ. τοῦ πνεύματος τοῦ προφητικοῦ m 11:9; τὸν ἄ. τὸν τιμωρητήν Hs 7:6; cp. ὁ ἄ. ὁ μέγας Hs 8, 4, 1.—As creator of the world AcPlCor 1:15. On ἄ. τῶν ἐκκλησιῶν Rv 1:20, cp. 2:1, 8, 12, 18; 3:1, 7, 14 (on the textual problems associated w. these vss. s. RCharles, ICC Comm. 1920, I, clvii; clxf; II 244; RBorger, TRu 52, ’87, 42f) and s. on ἀστήρ.—Subordinate to Christ Mt 4:11; 13:41; 16:27; Hb 1:4ff (Ps 96:7; B-D-F §254, 2); 1 Pt 3:22; Rv 5:11f; glorify him J 1:51 (JFritsch “… videbitis … angelos Dei ascendentes …,” VD 37, ’59, 1–11). δώδεκα λεγιῶνας ἀ. Mt 26:53; μυριάσιν ἀ. Hb 12:22; cp. Rv 5:11. Seven principal angels (Tob 12:15) Rv 8:2, 6; 15:1, 6; 16:1; 17:1; 21:9 (GDix, The Seven Archangels and the Seven Spirits: JTS 28, 1927, 233–50). Six angels, created first, to whom the management of all creation is entrusted Hv 3, 4, 1. Angels at the Parousia Mt 24:31; 2 Th 1:7. Μιχαὴλ καὶ οἱ ἄ. αὐτοῦ Rv 12:7. Revered by people (Celsus 1, 26 Ἰουδαίους σέβειν ἀγγέλους; 5, 6) θρησκείᾳ τῶν ἀ. worship of angels Col 2:18; λατρεύειν ἀγγέλοις as a sign of Jewish piety PtK 2 p. 14, 26=Clem. Al., Strom. 6, 41 p. 452, 9. Christ as σεμνότατος ἄ. Hv 5:2; m 5, 1, 7; cp. ὁ ἅγιος ἄ. Hs 5, 4, 4 v.l.; ὁ ἔνδοξος ἄ. Hs 5, 4, 4; 7:1ff; 8, 1, 2. ὁ ἄ. κυρίου Hs 7:5; 8, 1, 2ff; called Michael in Hs 8, 3, 3, where it is to be noted that Michael was the guardian angel of God’s people (WLueken, D. Erzengel Michael 1900; MDibelius, Hdb. exc. on Hs 5, 6, 8 p. 575f).
    intermediate beings gener., w. no ref. to their relation to God (opp. ἄνθρωποι; s. 2 above immediately before a) 1 Cor 4:9 (cp. TestJos 19:9 ἔχαιρον ἐπʼ αὐτῷ οἱ ἄγγελοι κ. οἱ ἄνθρωποι κ. πᾶσα ἡ γῆ).—Ro 8:38 ἄ. as serving spirit-powers seem to be differentiated fr. the ἀρχαί, who rule.
    evil spirits (Lactant., Inst. 2, 15, 8 daemonas Trismegistus ἀγγέλους πονηρούς appellat. Cp. also Job 1:6; 2:1; Philo, Gig. 16; TestAsh 6:4; PGM 4, 2701; αἱ πονηραὶ δυνάμεις, διάβολος καὶ οἱ ἄγγελοι αὐτοῦ Did., Gen. 45, 5; ADieterich, Nekyia 1893, 60f) τῷ διαβόλῳ καὶ τοῖς ἀγγέλοις αὐτοῦ Mt 25:41; cp. Rv 12:9. ὁ δράκων καὶ οἱ ἄ. αὐτοῦ vs. 7; ἄ. τῆς ἀβύσσου 9:11 (s. Ἀβαδδών); ἄ. πονηρός B 9:4; ἄ. τῆς πονηρίας in contrast to guardian angels Hm 6, 2, 1; ἄ. Σατανᾶ, which causes physical pain 2 Cor 12:7; esp. called ἄ. τρυφῆς καὶ ἀπάτης Hs 6, 2, 1f; leading men into evil B 18:1. Of the angels’ fall and their punishment (cp., in the opinion of many, Gen 6:2; En 6ff; 54; Book of Jubilees 5; SyrBar 56:13; LJung, Fallen Angels in Jewish, Christian, and Mohammedan Lit. 1926; ALods, Congr. d’Hist. du Christ. I 29–54) ὁ θεὸς ἀγγέλων ἁμαρτησάντων οὐκ ἐφείσατο 2 Pt 2:4; ἀ. τοὺς μὴ τηρήσαντας τὴν ἑαυτῶν ἀρχήν who did not keep to their proper domain (s. ἀρχή 7) Jd 6. From the pass. already quoted above w. Gen. 6:2 (cp. also TestReub 5:3; Jos., Ant. 1, 73 ἄγγελοι θεοῦ γυναιξὶ συνιόντες; and polytheists’ concept of erotic desires of transcendent beings: HUsener, Weihnachtsfest2 1911, 74f; Rtzst., Poim. 228ff. Herr der Grösse 14f; and GJs 14:1) some conclude that the angels were subject to erotic desires; this is held to explain the regulation that women are to wear a veil in church services, since angels are present (cp. Origen, Orat. 31 and Ps 137:1 ἐναντίον ἀγγέλων ψαλῶ σοι) 1 Cor 11:10 (for another view and for the lit. s. ἐξουσία 7; s. also JFitzmyer, [Qumran angelology] NTS 4, ’57/58, 48–58; LJervis, JBL 112, ’93, 243–45: angels mediate God’s presence). In 6:3 οὐκ οἴδατε, ὅτι ἀγγέλους κρινοῦμεν; it is not certain whether only fallen angels are meant; θρησκείᾳ τῶν ἀ. worship of angels Col 2:18 polemicizes against what appears to be a type of gnostic reverence for angels. (On Qumran angelology s. Fitzmyer, cited above.)—OEverling, D. paulinische Angelologie u. Dämonologie 1888; Dibelius, Geisterwelt 1909; GKurze, D. Engels-u. Teufels-glaube d. Ap. Pls 1915; MJones, St Paul and the Angels: Exp. 8th ser., 16, 1921, 356–70; 412–25; EPeterson, D. Buch von den Engeln ’35; JMichl, D. Engelvorstellungen in Apk I ’37; ELangton, The Angel Teaching of the NT ’37; JBernardin, JBL 57, ’38, 273–79; ESchick, D. Botschaft der Engel im NT ’40; WMichaelis, Z. Engelchristol. im Urchristent. ’42; GHatzidakis, Ἄγγελος u. Verwandtes: SBWienAk 173, 1914.—B. 1486. DELG. DDD 81–96 (lit.). M-M. New Docs 5, 72f. TW. Sv.

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